The Histories

Book 4 Notes


Notes To Book Iv.

1 (return)
[ Some enterprises had been entrusted to others, e.g. the attack on Samos; but this had not been the case with the capture of Babylon, therefore some Editors have proposed corrections, e.g. {au tou} (Schweighäuser), and {autika} (Stein).]

2 (return)
[ See i. 106.]

3 (return)
[ {tes ano 'Asies}: this means Eastern Asia as distinguished from the coasts of Asia Minor; see i. 103 and 177.]

4 (return)
[ {katapausantes}: the expression is awkward if meant to be equivalent to {kai katepausan}, but it is hardly improved by the alteration to {katapausontes}. Perhaps the clause is out of place.]

5 (return)
[ {ponos}.]

6 (return)
[ {peristixantes}: so the two best MSS.; others have {peristesantes} or {peristexantes}. The word {peristixantes} would be from {peristikho}, equivalent to {peristikhizo}, and is acknowledged in this sense by Hesychius.]

7 (return)
[ The connexion is not clear either at the beginning of the chapter or here. This clause would seem to be a repetition of that at the beginning of the chapter, and that which comes between should be an explanation of the reason why the slaves are blinded. As it stands, however, we can only refer it to the clause which follows, {ou gar arotai eisi alla nomades}, and even so there is no real solution of the difficulty, for it is not explained why nomads should have blinded slaves. Perhaps the best resource is to suppose that some part of the explanation, in connexion with the manner of dealing with the milk, has been lost.]

8 (return)
[ {te per}: a conjectural emendation for {e per}, "which is a very great lake".]

9 (return)
[ {epi touton arkhonton}: the word {arkhonton} is omitted in some MSS. and by some Editors.]

10 (return)
[ {sagarin}.]

11 (return)
[ {tous basileious}: so Wesseling. The MSS. have {tous basileas}, "the kings," which may perhaps be used here as equivalent to {tous basileious}: some Editors, including Stein, adopt the conjecture {tou basileos}, "from the youngest of them who, was king, those who," etc.]

12 (return)
[ {tou basileos}: some Editors read by conjecture {Skolotou basileos}, "after their king Scolotos".]

1201 (return)
[ {katazonnumenon}: or {kata tade zonnumenon}, "girded in this manner".]

13 (return)
[ {mekhanesasthai ten metera Skuthe}: the better MSS. read {mekhanasthai} and {Skuthen}: the meaning seems doubtful, and some Editors would omit the clause as an interpolation.]

14 (return)
[ {pros pollous deomenon}: the better MSS. read {pro pollou deomena}. The passage has been emended in various ways, e.g. {pros pollous deoi menontas} (Buttmann), {pros pollous menontas} (Bredow), {pro spodou deomenon} (Stein).]

15 (return)
[ {poiesas}: some authorities have {eipas}.]

16 (return)
[ Italy means for Herodotus only the Southern part of the peninsula.]

17 (return)
[ {diekosioisi}: so the best authorities; others have {priekosioisi}.]

18 (return)
[ {'Italioteon}, i.e. Hellenic settlers in Italy.]

19 (return)
[ {to agalmati to 'Apollonos}: {agalma} is used for anything dedicated to a god, most commonly the sacred image.]

20 (return)
[ {katuperthe}: "above," i.e. beyond them towards the North. Similarly when dealing with Libya the writer uses the same word of those further from the coast towards the South; see ch. 174.]

21 (return)
[ {en autoisi toisi epesi poieon}: "even in the verses which he composed," in which he might be expected as a poet to go somewhat beyond the literal truth.]

22 (return)
[ Or, "Alizonians".]

23 (return)
[ {'Olbiopolitas}.]

24 (return)
[ See ch. 101, where the day's journey is reckoned at 200 stades (23 English miles).]

25 (return)
[ The meaning of {eremos} here is not waste and barren land, but land without settled inhabitants.]

26 (return)
[ i.e. "Man-eaters".]

27 (return)
[ This is the reading of the MSS., but it is not consistent with the distance given in ch. 101, nor with the actual facts: some Editors therefore read "four" instead of "fourteen".]

28 (return)
[ i.e. "Cliffs".]

29 (return)
[ i.e. "Black-cloaks".]

30 (return)
[ {'Argippaioi}: it is not certain that this is the form which ought to be read here: Latin writers make the name "Arimphaei," and in some MSS. it is given here as {'Orgempaioi}.]

31 (return)
[ {agalmati}.]

32 (return)
[ {ta genesia}.]

33 (return)
[ Or, "violent".]

34 (return)
[ Od. iv. 85.]

35 (return)
[ {e phuonta phuein mogis}.]

36 (return)
[ {prosthekas}, "additions".]

37 (return)
[ i.e. of Apollo and Artemis.]

3701 (return)
[ Omitting {legon}.]

38 (return)
[ The word "Asia" is not contained in the MSS. and need not be inserted in the text, but it is implied, if not expressed; see chap. 41.]

39 (return)
[ {aktai}.]

40 (return)
[ {ou legousa ei me nomo}.]

41 (return)
[ i.e. 100,000 fathoms, equivalent to 1000 stades; see ii. 6, note 10.]

42 (return)
[ {oude sumballein axie}.]

43 (return)
[ ii. 158.]

4301 (return)
[ {brota}: some MSS. have {probata} "cattle".]

44 (return)
[ {omoia parekhomene}: the construction is confused, but the meaning is that all but the Eastern parts are known to be surrounded by sea.]

45 (return)
[ {logion}: some MSS. have {logimon}, "of reputation".]

46 (return)
[ Stein reads {eisi de} for {eisi de}, and punctuates so that the meaning is, "it has become the greatest of all rivers in the following manner:—besides other rivers which flow into it, those which especially make it great are as follows".]

47 (return)
[ {pente men oi}: this perhaps requires emendation, but the corrections proposed are hardly satisfactory, e.g. {pente megaloi} or {pente monoi}.]

48 (return)
[ Or "Skios": called by Thucydides "Oskios" (ii. 96).]

49 (return)
[ {eti}: most of the MSS. give {esti}, which is adopted by some Editors.]

50 (return)
[ "Sacred Ways".]

51 (return)
[ {Gerreon}: in some MSS. {Gerrou}, "the region called Gerros".]

52 (return)
[ {tesserakonta}: some Editors have altered this number, but without authority or sufficient reason.]

53 (return)
[ {di eremou}: see note 25 on ch. 18. The region here spoken of is that between the Gerrians and the agricultural Scythians.]

5301 (return)
[ {es touto elos}: i.e. the Dneiper-Liman. (The Medicean and Florentine MSS. read {es to elos}, not {es to telos}, as hitherto reported.)]

54 (return)
[ {eon embolon tes khores}.]

55 (return)
[ {Metros}: i.e. the Mother of the gods, Kybele, cp. ch. 76; some less good authorities have {Demetros}.]

56 (return)
[ {reei de}: most MSS. have {reei men gar}.]

57 (return)
[ Or, "Apia".]

58 (return)
[ Or, "Goitosyros".]

59 (return)
[ The MSS. have also "Arippasa" and "Artimpasa".]

60 (return)
[ The authorities have also "Thagimasa" and "Thamimasidas".]

61 (return)
[ {ton arkheion}: some read by conjecture {en to arkheio}, "at the seat of government," or "in the public place".]

62 (return)
[ {eson t' epi stadious treis}.]

63 (return)
[ {upo ton kheimonon}.]

64 (return)
[ {akinakes}.]

65 (return)
[ {agalma}: see note 19 on ch. 15.]

66 (return)
[ {kata per baitas}.]

67 (return)
[ Or, "and put them together in one bundle".]

68 (return)
[ See i. 105.]

69 (return)
[ {kuperou}: it is not clear what plant is meant.]

70 (return)
[ i.e. for this purpose. The general use of bronze is attested by ch. 81.]

71 (return)
[ {ode anabibazontes, epean k.t.l}: the reference of {ode} is directly to the clause {epean——trakhelou}, though in sense it refers equally to the following, {katothen de k.t.l}. Some Editors punctuate thus, {ode anabibazontes epean} and omit {de} after {katothen}, making the reference of {ode} to the latter clause alone.]

72 (return)
[ {oruontai}, as in iii. 117, but here they howl for pleasure.]

73 (return)
[ Like the Egyptians for example, cp. ii. 91.]

74 (return)
[ {mete ge on allelon}: the MSS. have {me ti ge on allelon}. Most Editors read {allon} for {allelon} and alter the other words in various ways ({me toi ge on, me toigaron} etc.), taking {me} as in {me oti} (ne dicam aliorum). The reading which I have adopted is based on that of Stein, who reads {mete teon allon} and quotes vii. 142, {oute ge alloisi 'Ellenon oudamoisi, umin de de kai dia panton ekista}. With {allon} the meaning is, "rejecting those of other nations and especially those of the Hellenes". For the use of {me} after {pheugein} cp. ii. 91.]

75 (return)
[ Or, according to some MSS., "as they proved in the case of Anacharsis and afterwards of Skyles".]

76 (return)
[ {gen pollen}.]

77 (return)
[ {epitropou}.]

78 (return)
[ {peplastai}: some authorities give {pepaistai}, "has been invented as a jest".]

79 (return)
[ {es kheiras agesthai}.]

7901 (return)
[ {o theos}.]

80 (return)
[ {diepresteuse}: this or {epresteuse} is the reading of most of the MSS. The meaning is uncertain, since the word does not occur elsewhere. Stein suggests that it may mean "scoffed (at the Scythians)". Various conjectures have been tried, e.g. {diedresteuse}, {diedrepeteuse}, etc.]

81 (return)
[ {os Skuthas einai}: cp. ii. 8. Some (e.g. Dindorf and Bähr) translate "considering that they are Scythians," i.e. for a nation so famous and so widely extended.]

82 (return)
[ i.e. about 5300 gallons.]

83 (return)
[ {epi to iro}: the MSS. mostly have {epi iro}, and Stein adopts the conjecture {epi rio}, "on a projecting point". The temple would be that of {Zeus ourios} mentioned in ch. 87. (In the Medicean MS. the omitted {i} is inserted above the line beforethe {r}, not directly over it, as represented by Stein, and the accent is not omitted.)]

84 (return)
[ {stadioi}, and so throughout.]

85 (return)
[ i.e. 1,110,000.]

86 (return)
[ i.e. 330,000.]

8601 (return)
[ {stelas}, i.e. "square blocks"; so also in ch. 91.]

87 (return)
[ i.e. 700,000.]

8701 (return)
[ {os emoi dokeei sumballomeno}, "putting the evidence together".]

88 (return)
[ {pasi deka}: probably a loose expression like {ta panta muria}, iii. 74.]

89 (return)
[ {psoren}, "mange".]

90 (return)
[ Or (less probably) "Skyrmiadai".]

91 (return)
[ {Salmoxin}: some inferior MSS. have {Zalmoxin}, or {Zamolxin}, and the spelling in other writers varies between these forms.]

92 (return)
[ {daimona}, sometimes used for deified men as distinguished from gods, cp. ch. 103.]

93 (return)
[ {dia penteteridos}.]

94 (return)
[ {bathutera}.]

95 (return)
[ {ou to asthenestato sophiste}. No depreciation seems to be intended here.]

96 (return)
[ {andreona}.]

97 (return)
[ i.e. the Mediterranean: or the passage may mean simply, "Thrace runs out further into the sea than Scythia".]

98 (return)
[ {gounon}.]

99 (return)
[ More literally, "I say this, so far as it is allowed to compare, etc. Such is the form of the Tauric land".]

100 (return)
[ {ede}. The Agathyrsians however have not been mentioned before in this connection.]

101 (return)
[ {stadia}.]

102 (return)
[ {tes Skuthikes ta epikarsia}, i.e. the lines running from West to East.]

103 (return)
[ {epanakhthentes}: so the Medicean MS. and another: the rest have {epanakhthentas}. Some Editors read by conjecture {apeneikhthentas}, "cast away on their coast".]

104 (return)
[ {neoisi}.]

105 (return)
[ {trieteridas}.]

106 (return)
[ Or, "were driven out".]

107 (return)
[ {phtheirotrageousi}.]

108 (return)
[ Or, "Aiorpata," and "aior" below.]

109 (return)
[ i.e. the Royal Scythians: see ch. 20.]

110 (return)
[ {epi touto}, the reading of the Aldine edition. The MSS. have {epi touto}. Stein suggests {dia touto}.]

111 (return)
[ {ou peisometha}: some MSS. read {ouk oisometha}. Editors have emended by conjecture in various ways, e.g. {ou periopsometha}, "we shall not allow it"; {oi epoisometha} or {oi epeisometha}, "we shall go out to attack him"; {aposometha}, "we shall repel him".]

112 (return)
[ {paras}, or {pasai}, belonging to {gunaikes}.]

113 (return)
[ {khersou}, "dry".]

114 (return)
[ Perhaps the same as the "Hyrgis" mentioned in ch. 57. Some Editors read "Hyrgis" in this passage.]

115 (return)
[ See ch. 119.]

116 (return)
[ {klaiein lego}.]

117 (return)
[ {touto esti e apo Skutheon resis}: this refers to the last words, {klaiein lego}. Most Editors have doubts about the genuineness of the sentence, regarding it a marginal gloss which has crept into the text; but perhaps without sufficient reason.]

118 (return)
[ Or, "with some slight effect on the course of the war".]

119 (return)
[ See i. 216.]

120 (return)
[ {eremothentes tou omilou}.]

121 (return)
[ {iesan tes phones}.]

122 (return)
[ {e mia kai Sauromatai}: some Editors read {e meta Sauromateon}. The MSS. give {e mia Sauromatai} (some {Sauromateon}). Stein inserts {kai}.]

123 (return)
[ {khairontes eleutheroi}.]

124 (return)
[ The list includes only those who voted in favour of the proposal of Histiaios (i.e. Miltiades is not included in it): hence perhaps Stein is right in suggesting some change in the text, e.g. {oi diapherontes te ten psephon basileos kai eontes logou pleistou}. The absence of the name of Coës is remarked by several commentators, who forget that he had accompanied Dareios: see ch. 97.]

125 (return)
[ Or, "and even so they found the passage of the river with difficulty".]

126 (return)
[ {en Persesi}.]

127 (return)
[ i.e. 80,000.]

128 (return)
[ {gar}: some MSS. read {de}; so Stein and other Editors.]

129 (return)
[ i.e. Castor and Polydeukes the sons of Tyndareus, who were among the Argonauts.]

130 (return)
[ {Phera} (genitive).]

131 (return)
[ From {ois} "sheep" and {lukos} "wolf" ({oin en lukoisi}).]

132 (return)
[ {phule}, the word being here apparently used loosely.]

133 (return)
[ {'Erinuon}.]

134 (return)
[ {meta touto upemeine touto touto}: some Editors mark a lacuna after {upemeine}, or supply some words like {sunebe de}: "after this the children survived, and the same thing happened also in Thera, etc".]

135 (return)
[ Or, "Grinos".]

136 (return)
[ {Euphemides}: the MSS. have {Euthumides}: the correction is from Pindar, Pyth. iv. 455.]

137 (return)
[ {onax}, the usual form of address to Apollo; so in ch. 155.]

138 (return)
[ Or, "Axos".]

139 (return)
[ i.e. Aristoteles, Pind. Pyth. v. 87.]

140 (return)
[ {metaxu apolipon}.]

141 (return)
[ Or, "it happened both to himself and to the other men of Thera according to their former evil fortune"; but this would presuppose the truth of the story told in ch. 151, and {paligkotos} may mean simply "adverse" or "hostile".]

142 (return)
[ {eontes tosoutoi osoi k.t.l.} They could hardly have failed to increase in number, but no new settlers had been added.]

143 (return)
[ {usteron elthe gas anadaiomenes}, "too late for the division of land".]

144 (return)
[ Or, "Thestis".]

145 (return)
[ The MSS. give also "Aliarchos" and "Learchos".]

146 (return)
[ {mathon ekasta}.]

147 (return)
[ {ton terioikon}: i.e. conquered Libyans.]

148 (return)
[ {nesioteon panton}: i.e. the natives of the Cyclades, cp. vi. 99.]

149 (return)
[ {amphirruton ten Kurenen einai}: some Editors read by conjecture {ten amphirruton Kurenen einai} (or {Kurenen ten amph, einai}), "that Kyrene was the place flowed round by water".]

150 (return)
[ {pselion}.]

151 (return)
[ Or, "Giligammai".]

152 (return)
[ i.e. the plant so called, figured on the coins of Kyrene and Barca.]

153 (return)
[ Or, "Asbytai".]

154 (return)
[ i.e. further from the coast, so {katuperthe}, ch. 174 etc., cp. ch. 16.]

155 (return)
[ Or "Cabales".]

156 (return)
[ See i. 216.]

157 (return)
[ Distinct from the people of the same name mentioned in ch. 183: those here mentioned are called "Gamphasantes" by Pliny.]

158 (return)
[ {glukuteta}, "sweetness".]

159 (return)
[ {allen te ekatomben kai de kai}.]

160 (return)
[ {epithespisanta to tripodi}, which can hardly mean "prophesied sitting upon the tripod".]

161 (return)
[ Lit. "the men come together regularly to one place within three months," which seems to mean that meetings are held every three months, before one of which the child is brought.]

162 (return)
[ See ii. 42.]

163 (return)
[ i.e. in the middle of the morning.]

164 (return)
[ {tripsin}: the "feel" to the touch: hence it might mean either hardness or softness according to the context.]

165 (return)
[ {troglodutas}: "Troglodytes".]

166 (return)
[ {uperballonti}: "when his heat is greatest".]

167 (return)
[ {ede}.]

168 (return)
[ Or "red".]

169 (return)
[ {domon}: Reiske reads {omon} by conjecture, "over his shoulder".]

170 (return)
[ Or (according to some MSS.), "practise this much and do it well".]

171 (return)
[ {akatapseusta}. Several Editors have adopted the conjecture {katapseusta}, "other fabulous beasts".]

172 (return)
[ {orues}: perhaps for {oruges} from {orux}, a kind of antelope.]

173 (return)
[ {diktues}: the meaning is uncertain.]

174 (return)
[ {ekhinees}, "urchins".]

175 (return)
[ Or "Zabykes".]

176 (return)
[ Or "Zygantes".]

177 (return)
[ {eie d' an pan}: cp. v. 9. Some translate, "and this might well be so".]

178 (return)
[ {oud' areten einai tis e Libue spoudaie}.]

179 (return)
[ i.e. corn; cp. i. 193.]

180 (return)
[ {bounous}.]

181 (return)
[ See ch. 167.]

182 (return)
[ {meden allo neokhmoun kata Barkaious}: cp. v. 19.]

183 (return)
[ {paralabontes}.]

184 (return)
[ {epiphthonoi}.]

The Histories of Herodotus