cdrdao - reads and writes CDs in disc-at-once mode


   cdrdao   {show-toc|read-toc|read-cd|read-cddb|show-data|read-test|disk-
   info|msinfo|unlock|simulate|write|copy|blank}     [--device     device]
   [--source-device  device] [--driver driver-id] [--source-driver driver-
   id]   [--simulate]   [--speed   writing-speed]   [--blank-mode    mode]
   [--datafile file] [--read-raw] [--read-subchan [--no-mode2-mixed] mode]
   [--tao-source]    [--tao-source-adjust    link-blocks]     [--fast-toc]
   [--buffers  buffer-count]  [--multi]  [--overburn]  [--eject]  [--swap]
   [--session]   [--force]   [--reload]    [--keepimage]    [--on-the-fly]
   [--paranoia-mode   mode]   [--with-cddb]  [--cddb-servers  server-list]
   [--cddb-timeout   timeout]   [--cddb-directory   directory]   [--tmpdir
   directory] [--keep] [--save] [-n] [-v verbose-level] toc-file


   cdrdao  creates  audio and data CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO) mode driven
   by a description file called toc-file.  In DAO mode it is  possible  to
   create  non  standard  track  pre-gaps  that  have other lengths than 2
   seconds and contain nonzero audio data. This is for example  useful  to
   divide live recordings into tracks where 2 second gaps would be kind of

   Instead of a  toc-file  a  cue  file  (used  by  a  famous  DOS/Windows
   mastering  tool)  may  be  used.  See  the  CUE  FILES section for more


   The first argument must be one of the following commands:

          Print out a summary about what will be written to the CD-R.

          Analyze each track of the inserted CD and create a toc-file that
          can  be  used to make a more or less exact copy of the CD.  This
          command does not read out the audio or data tracks, use  read-cd
          for this purpose.

          You  can specify a filename for the data file via the --datafile

          Copies all tracks of the  inserted  CD  to  an  image  file  and
          creates  a  corresponding  toc-file.  The name of the image file
          defaults to "data.bin" if no --datafile option is given.

          Tries to retrieve title and artist data from a CDDB  server  for
          the  CD represented by the given toc-file. The retrieved data is
          added as CD-TEXT data for language 0 to the  toc-file.  Existing
          CD-TEXT data for language 0 will be overwritten.

          Print  out  all  samples that would be written to the CD-R. Each
          line contains the sample number (starting at 0) and the  decimal
          sample  value for the left and right channel. Useful to check if
          the byte order of audio files is correct.

          Check if all data can be read from  the  audio  files  that  are
          defined in the toc-file.  This will also check the communication
          with the slave process that is responsible for writing the audio
          data to the CD-recorder. Mainly used for testing.

          Shows  information  about  the inserted CD-R. If the CD-R has an
          open session it will also  print  the  start  of  the  last  and
          current  session which is used by mkisofs to create an image for
          a second or higher session.

   msinfo Shows information required for creating multi session disks with
          mkisofs. The output is meant for processing by scripts.

   unlock Tries  to  unlock  the  recorder  device after a failed write or
          simulation run. If you cannot eject the CD after  a  cdrdao  run
          try this command.

   blank  Blanks  a  CD-RW. The CD-RW is minimally blanked by default. Use
          option --blank-mode to select another blanking mode.   Sometimes
          the  blanking  speed  must  be manually reduced for a successful
          blanking  operation.  Use  option  --speed  to  select   another
          blanking speed.

          Like  write  but  laser  stays  cold. It is a shortcut for write

   write  Write the CD-R according to the specifications in the toc-file.

   copy   Performs all steps to copy  a  CD.  The  device  containing  the
          source  CD must be specified with option --source-device and the
          recorder device with option --device.  If only a  single  device
          is  available  the  option  --source-device  must be omitted and
          cdrdao will prompt to insert the CD-R  after  an  image  of  the
          source CD was created.

          The  image  file  with name "cddata<pid>.bin" will be created in
          the current working directory if no --datafile option is  given.
          The created image will be removed after it has been written.

          If option --on-the-fly is given no image file is created and the
          data will be directly piped from the reading device  to  the  CD


   --device [prot:]bus,id,lun
          Sets the SCSI address of the CD-recorder in form of a bus/id/lun
          triple, e.g. '0,2,0' for the logical unit 0 of SCSI device  with
          ID  2  on  bus  0.  ATAPI  devices can be specified by using the
          prefix 'ATAPI:', e.g. 'ATAPI:0,0,0'. On some  systems  a  device
          node  may  be  specified  directly,  e.g.  '/dev/sg0'  on  Linux
          systems. Linux 2.6 users may also try the newer ATAPI  interface
          with the 'ATA:' prefix.

   --source-device [prot:]bus,id,lun
          Like  above  but used for the copy command to specify the source

   --driver driver-id:option-flags
          Force usage of specified driver  instead  of  the  automatically
          determined driver. Available driver IDs:
          cdd2600,  plextor,  plextor-scan,  generic-mmc, generic-mmc-raw,
          ricoh-mp6200,  yamaha-cdr10x,  teac-cdr55,  sony-cdu920,   sony-
          cdu948, taiyo-yuden, toshiba.
          Specifying  an  illegal  driver ID will give a list of available
          drivers.  Option flags may be used to  modify  the  behavior  of
          some drivers. See README for details.

   --source-driver driver-id:option-flags
          Like  above  but  used  for  the  device  specified  with option

   --speed value
          Set the writing speed to value.  Default is the highest possible

   --blank-mode mode
          Sets  the  blanking  mode. Available modes are full and minimal.
          Please consider that the data of minimally blanked disks may  be
          easily  recovered.  Use  the  full  blanking mode for completely
          erasing all data. The default blanking mode is minimal.

   --datafile file
          Used for read-toc, read-cd and copy.  Set the default data  file
          placed  in the toc-file by read-toc.  Use "-" to indicate STDIN.
          For commands read-cd and copy  it  specifies  the  name  of  the
          created image file.

          Only  used  for commands read-cd and read-toc.  All data sectors
          will be written as 2352 byte blocks including the sector  header
          and  L-EC  data to the image file. The track mode will be set to
          MODE1_RAW or MODE2_RAW in the created toc-file.

   --read-subchan mode
          Used by commands read-cd, read-toc and copy.  Specifies the type
          of  sub-channel  data  that  is extracted from the source CD and
          written to the track image or  copied  to  the  destination  CD.
          Mode  may  be  rw  for  reading packed R-W sub-channel data (de-
          interleaved and error corrected) and rw_raw for reading raw  R-W
          sub-channel  data (not de-interleaved, not error corrected, L-EC
          data included in the  track  image).   If  this  option  is  not
          specified no sub-channel data will be extracted.

          Only  used  for  commands  read-cd  and  read-toc.   If  we have
          MODE2_FORM1 or MODE2_FORM2, don't extract it as  MODE2_FORM_MIX.

          This  option indicates to the commands read-toc and read-cd that
          the source CD was written in TAO mode. It will be  assumed  that
          the  pre-gap length between all tracks (except between two audio
          tracks) is the standard 150  blocks  plus  the  number  of  link
          blocks  (usually 2). The number of link blocks can be controlled
          with option --tao-source-adjust.

          Use this option only if read-toc or read-cd give error  messages
          in  the  transition  areas  between  two tracks. If you use this
          option with pressed CDs or CDs written in DAO mode you will  get
          wrong results.

   --tao-source-adjust link-blocks
          Specifies  the  number  of link blocks for tracks written in TAO
          mode. This option has only an effect if option  --tao-source  is

          Only used for command read-toc.  This option suppresses the pre-
          gap length and index mark extraction which speeds up  the  read-
          toc  process.  Standard 2 second pre-gaps (but no silence!) will
          be placed into the toc-file. The resulting CD  will  sound  like
          the source CD. Only the CD player's display will behave slightly
          different in the transition area between two tracks.

          This option might help, too, if read-toc fails with  your  drive

   --buffers buffer-count
          Specifies  the  number  of  buffers  that are allocated to avoid
          buffer under runs.  The minimal buffer count  is  fixed  to  10,
          default is 32 except on FreeBSD systems, on which default is 20.
          Each buffer holds 1  second  of  audio  data  so  that  dividing
          buffer-count  by  the  writing  speed gives the maximum time for
          which reading of audio data may be stalled.

          If this option is given the session will not be closed after the
          audio  data  is  successfully  written. It is possible to append
          another session on such disks, e.g. to create a CD-EXTRA.

          By default cdrdao will not allow to write more data on a  medium
          than  specified by the current medium. This option allows one to
          ignore this condition.

          Eject the CD-R after writing or write simulation.

   --swap Swap the byte order of all samples that  are  send  to  the  CD-

   --session session-nr
          Used  for  read-toc  and  read-cd  to  specify the session which
          should be processed on multi session CDs.

          Indicates that the tray may be  opened  before  writing  without
          prompting  the  user to reset the disk status after a simulation

          Forces the execution of an operation that otherwise would not be

   --paranoia-mode mode
          Sets  the  correction  mode  for digital audio extraction. 0: No
          checking, data is copied directly from  the  drive.  1:  Perform
          overlapped   reading  to  avoid  jitter.  2:  Like  1  but  with
          additional checks of the read audio data. 3:  Like  2  but  with
          additional scratch detection and repair.

          The extraction speed reduces from 0 to 3.

          Default is the full paranoia mode (3).

          If  a CD is copied with command copy this option will cause that
          the created image is not removed  after  the  copy  process  has

          Perform CD copy on the fly without creating an image file.

          Enables  the  automatic fetching of CDDB data for use as CD-TEXT
          data for commands copy, read-toc and read-cd.

   --cddb-servers server-list
          Sets space or ','  separated  list  of  CDDB  servers  used  for
          command  read-cddb  or for commands where the --with-cddb option
          is active.  A server entry may have the following forms:

          Connect  to  <server>,  default  cddbp  port  (888),  use  cddbp

          Connect to <server>, port <port>, use cddbp protocol.

          Connect  to <server>, default http port (80), use http protocol,
          url: <cgi-bin-path>.

          Connect to <server>, port <port>, use http protocol, url:  <cgi-

          Connect  to  <proxy-server>,  default  http  port (80), use http
          protocol, url: http://<server>:<port>/<cgi-bin-path>.

          Connect to <proxy-server>, port <proxy-port>, use http protocol,
          url: http://<server>:<port>/<cgi-bin-path>.

          The <cgi-bin-path> is usually "/~cddb/cddb.cgi".

          All  servers of the server list will be tried in the given order
          until a successful connection can be established. For http proxy
          servers the first successful connected http proxy server will be
          used independent of the ability to connect to  the  target  http


   --cddb-timeout timeout
          Sets  the  timeout  in  seconds  used  for  connections  to CDDB

   --cddb-directory directory
          Specifies the local CDDB database directory where  fetched  CDDB
          records  will  be  stored. If this option is not given a fetched
          CDDB record will not be stored locally.

   --tmpdir directory
          Specifies the directory in which to store temporary  data  files
          created  from  decoding  MP3  and  Ogg Vorbis files. By default,
          "/tmp" is used.

   --keep Upon exit from cdrdao, do not delete temporary WAV files created
          from MP3 and Ogg Vorbis files.

   --save Saves   some  of  the  current  options  to  the  settings  file
          "$HOME/.cdrdao"  and  exit.  See  section  SETTINGS  for  more

   -n     Suppresses the 10 second pause before writing or simulating.

   -v verbose-level
          Sets  verbose level. Levels > 2 are debug levels which produce a
          lot of output.


   The toc-file describes what data is written  to  the  CD-R  and  allows
   control   over   track/index   positions,   pre-gaps   and  sub-channel
   information. It is a simple text file, use your favorite text editor to
   create it.

   A  toc-file  contains  an  optional  header  and  a  sequence  of track
   specifications. Comments starting with '//' reaching until end of  line
   can be placed anywhere.

   CATALOG "ddddddddddddd"
          Specifies the optional catalog number of the CD. The string must
          contain exactly 13 digits.

   The following flags specify the type of session that will  be  created.
   It  is  used  to  create  the  correct  CD-TOC  format and to check the
   consistency of the  track  modes  for  the  desired  session  type.  If
   multiple flags are given the last one will take effect.

   CD_DA  The disc contains only audio tracks.

   CD_ROM The  disc contains just mode 1 tracks or mode 1 and audio tracks
          (mixed mode CD).

          The disc contains mode 2 form 1 or mode 2 form 2  tracks.  Audio
          tracks are allowed, too. This type must be used if multi session
          disks are created (option --multi).

   CD_TEXT { ... }
          Defines global CD-TEXT data like the album title  and  the  used
          languages.   See the CD-TEXT section below for the syntax of the
          CD-TEXT block contents.

   Track Specification
   TRACK <track-mode> [<sub-channel-mode>]
          Starts a new track, the track number is incremented  by  1.  The
          length  of  a track must be at least 4 seconds. The block length
          of the input data depends on the <track-mode>: AUDIO: 2352 bytes
          (588  samples), MODE1: 2048 bytes, MODE1_RAW: 2352 bytes, MODE2:
          2336 bytes, MODE2_FORM1: 2048 bytes,  MODE2_FORM2:  2324  bytes,
          MODE2_FORM_MIX:  2336 bytes including the sub-header, MODE2_RAW:
          2352 bytes.  The <sub-channel-mode> is  optional.  If  given  it
          specifies  the  type  of  sub-channel  data for each sector. RW:
          packed R-W  sub-channel  data  (96  bytes,  L-EC  data  will  be
          generated   if  required),  RW_RAW:  raw  R-W  sub-channel  data
          (interleaved and L-EC data already calculated,  96  bytes).  The
          block  length  is  increased by the sub-channel data length if a
          <sub-channel-mode> is specified.  If the input  data  length  is
          not  a  multiple  of  the  block  length  it will be padded with

   The following flags may follow the track start statement. They are used
   to  set  sub-channel  information  for  the current track. Each flag is
   optional. If not given  the  following  defaults  are  used:  copy  not
   permitted, no pre emphasis, two channel audio, no ISRC code.

   [ NO ] COPY
          Sets or clears the copy permitted flag.

          Sets or clears the pre emphasis flag (only for audio tracks).

          Indicates  that  track contains two channel audio data (only for
          audio tracks).

          Indicates that track contains four channel audio data (only  for
          audio tracks).

          Sets ISRC code of track (only for audio tracks).
          C: country code (upper case letters or digits)
          O: owner code (upper case letters or digits)
          Y: year (digits)
          S: serial number (digits)

   An  optional CD-TEXT block that defines the CD-TEXT data for this track
   may follow. See the CD-TEXT section below for the syntax of the CD-TEXT
   block contents.

   CD_TEXT { ... }

   At  least  one  of  the following statements must appear to specify the
   data for  the  current  track.  Lengths  and  start  positions  may  be
   expressed in samples (1/44100 seconds) for audio tracks or in bytes for
   data tracks. It is also possible to give the length in blocks with  the
   MSF format 'MM:SS:FF' specifying minutes, seconds and frames (0 <= 'FF'
   < 75) . A frame equals one block.

   If more than one statement is  used  the  track  will  be  composed  by
   concatenating the data in the specified order.

   SILENCE <length>
          Adds  zero  audio  data of specified length to the current audio
          track.  Useful to create silent pre-gaps.

   ZERO <length>
          Adds zero data to data tracks. Must be used to  define  pre-  or
          post-gaps between tracks of different mode.

   [ FILE | AUDIOFILE ] "<filename>" <start> [ <length> ]
          Adds  the  audio  data  of  specified  file to the current audio
          track. It is possible to select a portion of an audio file  with
          <start>  and  <length> which allows non destructive cutting. The
          first sample of an audio file is addressed with <start> = 0.  If
          <length>  is  omitted  or  set  to 0 all audio data from <start>
          until the end of file is used.

          Audio files may have raw or WAVE format with 16 bits per sample,
          44.1  kHz  sampling rate, stereo. Raw files must have the layout
          'MSBLeft LSBLeft MSBRight LSBRight ...' (big endian byte order).
          WAVE  files  are  expected to have little endian byte order. The
          option --swap reverses the expected byte order for all  raw  and
          WAVE  files.  Only filenames with a ".wav" ending are treated as
          WAVE files, all other names are assumed to be raw  audio  files.
          Use tools like sox(1) to convert other file formats to supported

          Specifying a "-" as filename causes data to be read from  STDIN.
          Currently only raw files are supported from STDIN.

          If  you  are unsure about the byte order of your audio files try
          the command 'show-data'. If the byte order is correct  you  will
          see  a  sequence  of  increasing  or decreasing numbers for both
          channels. Otherwise numbers are jumping between  very  high  and
          low values - high volume static.

   DATAFILE "<filename>" [ <length> ]
          Adds data from given file to the current data track. If <length>
          is omitted the actual file length will be used.

   FIFO "<fifo path>" <length>
          Adds data from specified FIFO path to the current audio or  data
          track.   <length>  must  specify the amount of data that will be
          read from the FIFO. The  value  is  always  in  terms  of  bytes
          (scalar value) or in terms of the block length (MSF value).

          Defines the length of the pre-gap (position where index switches
          from 0 to 1). If the MSF value  is  omitted  the  current  track
          length is used. If the current track length is not a multiple of
          the block length the pre-gap length will be rounded up  to  next
          block boundary.

          If  no  START  statement is given the track will not have a pre-

          This is an alternate way to specify a pre-gap  with  zero  audio
          data.  It  may  appear  before  the  first SILENCE, ZERO or FILE
          statement. Either PREGAP or START can be  used  within  a  track
          specification. It is equivalent to the sequence
            SILENCE MM:SS:FF
          for audio tracks or
            ZERO MM:SS:FF
          for data tracks.

   Nothing  prevents  mixing  'DATAFILE'/'ZERO'  and 'AUDIOFILE'/'SILENCE'
   statements within the same track. The results, however, are undefined.

   The end of a  track  specification  may  contain  zero  or  more  index
   increment statements:

          Increments  the index number at given position within the track.
          The first statement will increment from 1 to 2. The position  is
          relative  to the real track start, not counting an existing pre-

   CD-TEXT Blocks
   A CD-TEXT block may be placed in the  global  section  to  define  data
   valid  for  the whole CD and in each track specification of a toc-file.
   The global section must define a language map that is  used  to  map  a
   language-number  to  country  codes. Up to 8 different languages can be

   LANGUAGE_MAP { 0 : c1  1 : c2  ...  7 : c7 }
          The country code may be an integer value in the range 0..255  or
          one  of the following countries (the corresponding integer value
          is placed in braces behind the token): EN(9, English)
          It is just necessary to define a mapping for the used languages.

   If no mapping exists for a language-number the data for  this  language
   will be ignored.

   For  each  language a language block must exist that defines the actual
   data for a certain language.

   LANGUAGE language-number { cd-text-item cd-text-data  cd-text-item  cd-
   text-data ... }
          Defines  the  CD-TEXT items for given language-number which must
          be defined in the language map.

   The cd-text-data may be either a string enclosed by "  or  binary  data
        { 0, 10, 255, ... }
   where each integer number must be in the range 0..255.
   The cd-text-item may be one of the following:

   TITLE  String data: Title of CD or track.

          String data.

          String data.

          String data.

          String data.

          String data. Message to the user.

          String data: Should only appear in the global CD-TEXT block. The
          format is usually: XY12345

   GENRE  Mixture of binary data (genre code) and string data. Should only
          appear  in  the  global  CD-TEXT  block.  Useful entries will be
          created by gcdmaster.

          Binary data: Optional table of contents 1. Should only appear in
          the global CD-TEXT block.

          Binary data: Optional table of contents 2. Should only appear in
          the global CD-TEXT block.

          String data: This item should only appear in the global  CD-TEXT
          block.  Was  always  an  empty  string  on the CD-TEXT CDs I had
          access to.

   ISRC   String data: ISRC code of track. The format is usually:  CC-OOO-

          Binary  data: Contains summary about all CD-TEXT data and should
          only appear in the  global  CD-TEXT  block.  The  data  will  be
          automatically (re)created when the CD-TEXT data is written.

          If  one  of  the  CD-TEXT  items  TITLE,  PERFORMER, SONGWRITER,
          COMPOSER, ARRANGER, ISRC is defined for at least on track or  in
          the  global section it must be defined for all tracks and in the
          global section. If a DISC_ID  item  is  defined  in  the  global
          section, an ISRC entry must be defined for each track.

   Simple  track  without  pre-gap  with  all  audio  data  from WAVE file
        FILE "data.wav" 0

   Standard track with two second pre-gap, ISRC code and CD-TEXT:
        CD_TEXT {
          LANGUAGE_MAP {
            0 : EN

          LANGUAGE 0 {
            TITLE "CD Title"
            PERFORMER "Performer"
            DISC_ID "XY12345"
            UPC_EAN ""

        ISRC "DEXXX9800001"
        CD_TEXT {
          LANGUAGE 0 {
            TITLE "Track Title"
            PERFORMER "Performer"
            ISRC "DE-XXX-98-00001"
        PREGAP 0:2:0
        FILE "data.wav" 0

   Track with 10 second  pre-gap  containing  audio  data  from  raw  file
        FILE "data.cdr" 0
        START 0:10:0

   Composed  track with data from different files. Pre-gap data and length
   is taken from "pregapdata.wav". The  first  minute  of  "track.cdr"  is
   omitted  and two seconds silence are inserted at '2:0:0'. Index will be
   incremented after 2 and 4 minutes past track start:
        FILE "pregapdata.wav" 0
        FILE "track.cdr" 1:0:0 1:0:0
        SILENCE 0:2:0
        FILE "track.cdr" 2:0:0
        INDEX 2:0:0
        INDEX 4:0:0

   Mixed mode CD with a data track as first track followed  by  two  audio
        TRACK MODE1
        DATAFILE "data_1"
        ZERO 00:02:00 // post-gap

        SILENCE 00:02:00 // pre-gap
        FILE "data_2.wav" 0

        FILE "data_3.wav" 0


   Cue   files   may   be  used  wherever  a  toc-file  is  expected.  The
   corresponding bin file is not taken from the FILE statement  of  a  cue
   file  but  constructed  from  the  cue file name by replacing ".cue" by
   ".bin". The cue file must have exactly one FILE statement.

   Currently, following track modes are supported: MODE1/2048, MODE1/2352,
   MODE2/2336,  MODE2/2352.  The  CATALOG, ISRC and POSTGAP statements are
   parsed but not evaluated, yet.


   Some of the command line options can be stored as settings at following
   locations. The files will be read on startup of cdrdao in that order:

   1. /etc/cdrdao.conf

   2. /etc/defaults/cdrdao

   3. /etc/default/cdrdao

   4. $HOME/.cdrdao

   Command  line options will overwrite the loaded settings.  The settings
   file contains name - value pairs separated by a  colon.  String  values
   must be enclosed by ". The file is automatically written if the command
   line option --save is used  but  it  is  also  possible  to  modify  it
   manually. Following values are defined:

          Device  used  for operations simulate, write, copy, blank, disk-
          info and unlock.  Corresponding option: --device

          Driver (including driver options) that is  used  for  operations
          simulate,    write,   copy,   blank,   disk-info   and   unlock.
          Corresponding option: --driver

          Specifies writing speed. Corresponding option: --speed

          Specifies fifo buffers used for recording. Corresponding option:

          Device   used   for   operations  read-toc,  read-cd  and  copy.
          Corresponding option: --device or --source-device

          Driver (including driver options) used for operations  read-toc,
          read-cd  and  copy.  Corresponding option: --driver or --source-

          Paranoia  mode   used   for   operations   read-cd   and   copy.
          Corresponding option: --paranoia-mode

          CDDB  server  list for read-cddb.  Corresponding option: --cddb-

          CDDB  connection  timeout  in   seconds   used   by   read-cddb.
          Corresponding option: --cddb-timeout

          Local  directory where fetched CDDB records will be stored, used
          by read-cddb.  Corresponding option: --cddb-directory

          Directory  where  temporary  WAV  files  will  be  created  from
          decoding   MP3  and  Ogg  Vorbis  files.  Corresponding  option:


   If the program is terminated during the write/simulation  process  used
   IPC  resources  may not be released. Use ipcs(8) and ipcrm(8) to delete


   Andreas Mueller [DEFUNCT]
   Denis Leroy <>
   Manuel Clos <>


   gcdmaster(1), cdrecord(1), cdda2wav(1), cdparanoia(1), sox(1), ipcs(8),

                             Jan 18, 2006                        CDRDAO(1)


Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.

Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.

Free Software

Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.

Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.

Free Books

The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.

Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.


Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.

Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.