dcraw - command-line decoder for raw digital photos


   dcraw [OPTION]... [FILE]...


   dcraw decodes raw photos, displays metadata, and extracts thumbnails.


   -v     Print verbose messages, not just warnings and errors.

   -c     Write decoded images or thumbnails to standard output.

   -e     Extract  the  camera-generated  thumbnail,  not  the  raw image.
          You'll get either a JPEG or a PPM file, depending on the camera.

   -z     Change the access and modification times of an AVI,  JPEG,  TIFF
          or  raw  file  to  when  the  photo was taken, assuming that the
          camera clock was set to Universal Time.

   -i     Identify files but don't decode them.  Exit status is 0 if dcraw
          can decode the last file, 1 if it can't.  -i -v shows metadata.

          dcraw cannot decode JPEG files!!


   -I     Read  the  raw pixels from standard input in CPU byte order with
          no header.  Use dcraw -E -4 to get the raw pixel values.

   -P deadpixels.txt
          Read the dead pixel list from this file instead of ".badpixels".
          See FILES for a description of the format.

   -K darkframe.pgm
          Subtract  a  dark  frame  from the raw data.  To generate a dark
          frame,   shoot   a   raw   photo   with   no   light   and    do
          dcraw -D -4 -j -t 0.

   -k darkness
          When shadows appear foggy, you need to raise the darkness level.
          To measure this, apply pamsumm -mean to the dark frame generated

   -S saturation
          When  highlights  appear  pink, you need to lower the saturation
          level.  To measure this, take a picture of something  shiny  and
          do dcraw -D -4 -j -c photo.raw | pamsumm -max

          The default darkness and saturation are usually correct.

   -n noise_threshold
          Use  wavelets  to erase noise while preserving real detail.  The
          best threshold should be somewhere between 100 and 1000.

   -C red_mag blue_mag
          Enlarge the raw red  and  blue  layers  by  the  given  factors,
          typically 0.999 to 1.001, to correct chromatic aberration.

   -H 0   Clip all highlights to solid white (default).

   -H 1   Leave highlights unclipped in various shades of pink.

   -H 2   Blend  clipped  and unclipped values together for a gradual fade
          to white.

   -H 3+  Reconstruct highlights.  Low numbers favor whites; high  numbers
          favor  colors.   Try  -H  5 as a compromise.  If that's not good
          enough, do -H 9, cut out the  non-white  highlights,  and  paste
          them into an image generated with -H 3.


   By  default,  dcraw  uses  a fixed white balance based on a color chart
   illuminated with a standard D65 lamp.

   -w     Use the white balance specified by the camera.  If this  is  not
          found, print a warning and use another method.

   -a     Calculate the white balance by averaging the entire image.

   -A left top width height
          Calculate  the  white  balance  by averaging a rectangular area.
          First do dcraw -j -t 0 and select an area of neutral grey color.

   -r mul0 mul1 mul2 mul3
          Specify your own raw white balance.  These  multipliers  can  be
          cut and pasted from the output of dcraw -v.

   +M or -M
          Use  (or  don't  use) any color matrix from the camera metadata.
          The default is +M if -w is set or the photo is in DNG format, -M
          otherwise.  Besides DNG, this option only affects Olympus, Leaf,
          and Phase One cameras.

   -o [0-6]
          Select the output colorspace when the -p option is not used:

               0   Raw color (unique to each camera)
               1   sRGB D65 (default)
               2   Adobe RGB (1998) D65
               3   Wide Gamut RGB D65
               4   Kodak ProPhoto RGB D65
               5   XYZ
               6   ACES

   -p camera.icm [ -o output.icm ]
          Use ICC profiles to define the camera's raw colorspace  and  the
          desired output colorspace (sRGB by default).

   -p embed
          Use the ICC profile embedded in the raw photo.


   -d     Show  the  raw  data as a grayscale image with no interpolation.
          Good for photographing black-and-white documents.

   -D     Same as -d, but with the original unscaled pixel values.

   -E     Same as -D, but masked pixels are not cropped.

   -h     Output a half-size color image.  Twice as fast as -q 0.

   -q 0   Use high-speed, low-quality bilinear interpolation.

   -q 1   Use Variable Number of Gradients (VNG) interpolation.

   -q 2   Use Patterned Pixel Grouping (PPG) interpolation.

   -q 3   Use Adaptive Homogeneity-Directed (AHD) interpolation.

   -f     Interpolate RGB as four colors.  Use this if  the  output  shows
          false 2x2 meshes with VNG or mazes with AHD.

   -m number_of_passes
          After  interpolation,  clean  up  color  artifacts by repeatedly
          applying a 3x3 median filter to the R-G and B-G channels.


   By default, dcraw writes PGM/PPM/PAM with 8-bit samples, a BT.709 gamma
   curve, a histogram-based white level, and no metadata.

   -W     Use a fixed white level, ignoring the image histogram.

   -b brightness
          Divide the white level by this number, 1.0 by default.

   -g power toe_slope
          Set  the  gamma curve, by default BT.709 (-g 2.222 4.5).  If you
          prefer sRGB gamma, use -g 2.4 12.92.  For a simple power  curve,
          set the toe slope to zero.

   -6     Write sixteen bits per sample instead of eight.

   -4     Linear 16-bit, same as -6 -W -g 1 1.

   -T     Write TIFF with metadata instead of PGM/PPM/PAM.

   -t [0-7,90,180,270]
          Flip  the  output  image.   By  default,  dcraw applies the flip
          specified by the camera.  -t 0 disables all flipping.

   -j     For Fuji Super CCD cameras, show the image  tilted  45  degrees.
          For  cameras with non-square pixels, do not stretch the image to
          its correct aspect ratio.  In any case, this  option  guarantees
          that each output pixel corresponds to one raw pixel.

   -s [0..N-1] or -s all
          If  a file contains N raw images, choose one or "all" to decode.
          For example, Fuji Super CCD SR cameras generate a  second  image
          underexposed four stops to show detail in the highlights.


   ./.badpixels, ../.badpixels, ../../.badpixels, ...
          List of your camera's dead pixels, so that dcraw can interpolate
          around them.  Each line specifies the column, row, and UNIX time
          of death for one pixel.  For example:

           962   91 1028350000  # died between August 1 and 4, 2002
          1285 1067 0           # don't know when this pixel died

          These  coordinates are before any stretching or rotation, so use
          dcraw -j -t 0 to locate dead pixels.


   pgm(5),  ppm(5),   pam(5),   pamsumm(1),   pnmgamma(1),   pnmtotiff(1),
   pnmtopng(1), gphoto2(1), cjpeg(1), djpeg(1)


   Written by David Coffin, dcoffin a cybercom o net

                             March 3, 2015                        dcraw(1)

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