dd - convert and copy a file


   dd [OPERAND]...
   dd OPTION


   Copy a file, converting and formatting according to the operands.

          read and write up to BYTES bytes at a time

          convert BYTES bytes at a time

          convert the file as per the comma separated symbol list

          copy only N input blocks

          read up to BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)

          read from FILE instead of stdin

          read as per the comma separated symbol list

          write BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)

          write to FILE instead of stdout

          write as per the comma separated symbol list

   seek=N skip N obs-sized blocks at start of output

   skip=N skip N ibs-sized blocks at start of input

          The  LEVEL  of information to print to stderr; 'none' suppresses
          everything but error messages,  'noxfer'  suppresses  the  final
          transfer   statistics,   'progress'   shows   periodic  transfer

   N and BYTES may be followed by the following multiplicative suffixes: c
   =1, w =2, b =512, kB =1000, K =1024, MB =1000*1000, M =1024*1024, xM =M
   GB =1000*1000*1000, G =1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

   Each CONV symbol may be:

   ascii  from EBCDIC to ASCII

   ebcdic from ASCII to EBCDIC

   ibm    from ASCII to alternate EBCDIC

   block  pad newline-terminated records with spaces to cbs-size

          replace trailing spaces in cbs-size records with newline

   lcase  change upper case to lower case

   ucase  change lower case to upper case

   sparse try to seek rather than write the output for NUL input blocks

   swab   swap every pair of input bytes

   sync   pad every input block with NULs  to  ibs-size;  when  used  with
          block or unblock, pad with spaces rather than NULs

   excl   fail if the output file already exists

          do not create the output file

          do not truncate the output file

          continue after read errors

          physically write output file data before finishing

   fsync  likewise, but also write metadata

   Each FLAG symbol may be:

   append append   mode   (makes   sense  only  for  output;  conv=notrunc

   direct use direct I/O for data

          fail unless a directory

   dsync  use synchronized I/O for data

   sync   likewise, but also for metadata

          accumulate full blocks of input (iflag only)

          use non-blocking I/O

          do not update access time

          Request to drop cache.  See also oflag=sync

   noctty do not assign controlling terminal from file

          do not follow symlinks

          treat 'count=N' as a byte count (iflag only)

          treat 'skip=N' as a byte count (iflag only)

          treat 'seek=N' as a byte count (oflag only)

   Sending a USR1 signal to a running 'dd'  process  makes  it  print  I/O
   statistics to standard error and then resume copying.

   Options are:

   --help display this help and exit

          output version information and exit


   Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, and Stuart Kemp.


   GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
   Report dd translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>


   Copyright    2016  Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
   GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
   This is free software: you are free  to  change  and  redistribute  it.
   There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


   Full documentation at: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/dd>
   or available locally via: info '(coreutils) dd invocation'


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