genpkey - generate a private key

opensslgenpkey[-outfilename] [-outformPEM|DER] [-passarg] [-cipher] [-engineid] [-paramfilefile] [-algorithmalg] [-pkeyoptopt:value] [-genparam] [-text]

Thegenpkeycommand generates a private key.

-outfilenamethe output filename. If this argument is not specified then standard output is used.-outformDER|PEMThis specifies the output format DER or PEM.-passargthe output file password source. For more information about the format ofargsee thePASSPHRASEARGUMENTSsection in(1).openssl-cipherThis option encrypts the private key with the supplied cipher. Any algorithm name accepted byEVP_get_cipherbyname()is acceptable such asdes3.-engineidspecifying an engine (by its uniqueidstring) will causegenpkeyto attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine, thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the default for all available algorithms. If used this option should precede all other options.-algorithmalgpublic key algorithm to use such as RSA, DSA or DH. If used this option must precede any-pkeyoptoptions. The options-paramfileand-algorithmare mutually exclusive.-pkeyoptopt:valueset the public key algorithm optionopttovalue. The precise set of options supported depends on the public key algorithm used and its implementation. SeeKEYGENERATIONOPTIONSbelow for more details.-genparamgenerate a set of parameters instead of a private key. If used this option must precede and-algorithm,-paramfileor-pkeyoptoptions.-paramfilefilenameSome public key algorithms generate a private key based on a set of parameters. They can be supplied using this option. If this option is used the public key algorithm used is determined by the parameters. If used this option must precede and-pkeyoptoptions. The options-paramfileand-algorithmare mutually exclusive.-textPrint an (unencrypted) text representation of private and public keys and parameters along with the PEM or DER structure.

The options supported by each algorith and indeed each implementation of an algorithm can vary. The options for the OpenSSL implementations are detailed below.

rsa_keygen_bits:numbitsThe number of bits in the generated key. If not specified 1024 is used.rsa_keygen_pubexp:valueThe RSA public exponent value. This can be a large decimal or hexadecimal value if preceded by0x. Default value is 65537.

dsa_paramgen_bits:numbitsThe number of bits in the generated parameters. If not specified 1024 is used.

dh_paramgen_prime_len:numbitsThe number of bits in the prime parameterp.dh_paramgen_generator:valueThe value to use for the generatorg.dh_rfc5114:numIf this option is set then the appropriate RFC5114 parameters are used instead of generating new parameters. The valuenumcan take the values 1, 2 or 3 corresponding to RFC5114 DH parameters consisting of 1024 bit group with 160 bit subgroup, 2048 bit group with 224 bit subgroup and 2048 bit group with 256 bit subgroup as mentioned in RFC5114 sections 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 respectively.

ec_paramgen_curve:curvethe EC curve to use.

Gost 2001 support is not enabled by default. To enable this algorithm, one should load the ccgost engine in the OpenSSL configuration file. See README.gost file in the engines/ccgost directiry of the source distribution for more details. Use of a parameter file for the GOST R 34.10 algorithm is optional. Parameters can be specified during key generation directly as well as during generation of parameter file.paramset:nameSpecifies GOST R 34.10-2001 parameter set according to RFC 4357. Parameter set can be specified using abbreviated name, object short name or numeric OID. Following parameter sets are supported: paramset OID Usage A 1.2.643.2.2.35.1 Signature B 1.2.643.2.2.35.2 Signature C 1.2.643.2.2.35.3 Signature XA 1.2.643.2.2.36.0 Key exchange XB 1.2.643.2.2.36.1 Key exchange test 1.2.643.2.2.35.0 Test purposes

The use of the genpkey program is encouraged over the algorithm specific utilities because additional algorithm options and ENGINE provided algorithms can be used.

Generate an RSA private key using default parameters: openssl genpkey -algorithm RSA -out key.pem Encrypt output private key using 128 bit AES and the passphrase "hello": openssl genpkey -algorithm RSA -out key.pem -aes-128-cbc -pass pass:hello Generate a 2048 bit RSA key using 3 as the public exponent: openssl genpkey -algorithm RSA -out key.pem -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:2048 \ -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_pubexp:3 Generate 1024 bit DSA parameters: openssl genpkey -genparam -algorithm DSA -out dsap.pem \ -pkeyopt dsa_paramgen_bits:1024 Generate DSA key from parameters: openssl genpkey -paramfile dsap.pem -out dsakey.pem Generate 1024 bit DH parameters: openssl genpkey -genparam -algorithm DH -out dhp.pem \ -pkeyopt dh_paramgen_prime_len:1024 Output RFC5114 2048 bit DH parameters with 224 bit subgroup: openssl genpkey -genparam -algorithm DH -out dhp.pem -pkeyopt dh_rfc5114:2 Generate DH key from parameters: openssl genpkey -paramfile dhp.pem -out dhkey.pem

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