git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects


   git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
              [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
              [-u | --set-upstream] [--push-option=<string>]
              [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]


   Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary
   to complete the given refs.

   You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you
   push into it, by setting up hooks there. See documentation for git-

   When the command line does not specify where to push with the
   <repository> argument, branch.*.remote configuration for the current
   branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the configuration is
   missing, it defaults to origin.

   When the command line does not specify what to push with <refspec>...
   arguments or --all, --mirror, --tags options, the command finds the
   default <refspec> by consulting remote.*.push configuration, and if it
   is not found, honors push.default configuration to decide what to push
   (See git-config(1) for the meaning of push.default).

   When neither the command-line nor the configuration specify what to
   push, the default behavior is used, which corresponds to the simple
   value for push.default: the current branch is pushed to the
   corresponding upstream branch, but as a safety measure, the push is
   aborted if the upstream branch does not have the same name as the local


       The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation.
       This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below)
       or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).

       Specify what destination ref to update with what source object. The
       format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by
       the source object <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the
       destination ref <dst>.

       The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push,
       but it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as master~4 or
       HEAD (see gitrevisions(7)).

       The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
       push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
       be named. If git push [<repository>] without any <refspec> argument
       is set to update some ref at the destination with <src> with
       remote.<repository>.push configuration variable, :<dst> part can be
       omitted---such a push will update a ref that <src> normally updates
       without any <refspec> on the command line. Otherwise, missing
       :<dst> means to update the same ref as the <src>.

       The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst>
       reference on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if
       <dst> is not a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it
       can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading +, you can
       tell Git to update the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by
       default (e.g., it is not a fast-forward.) This does not attempt to
       merge <src> into <dst>. See EXAMPLES below for details.

       tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.

       Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the
       remote repository.

       The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward updates)
       directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that
       exists on the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of
       the same name already exists on the remote side.

       Push all branches (i.e. refs under refs/heads/); cannot be used
       with other <refspec>.

       Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For
       example a remote branch tmp will be removed if a local branch with
       the same name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs,
       e.g.  git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/* would make
       sure that remote refs/tmp/foo will be removed if refs/heads/foo
       doesn't exist.

       Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under
       refs/ (which includes but is not limited to refs/heads/,
       refs/remotes/, and refs/tags/) be mirrored to the remote
       repository. Newly created local refs will be pushed to the remote
       end, locally updated refs will be force updated on the remote end,
       and deleted refs will be removed from the remote end. This is the
       default if the configuration option remote.<remote>.mirror is set.

   -n, --dry-run
       Do everything except actually send the updates.

       Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each
       ref will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The
       full symbolic names of the refs will be given.

       All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is the
       same as prefixing all refs with a colon.

       All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs
       explicitly listed on the command line.

       Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option, and
       also push annotated tags in refs/tags that are missing from the
       remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are reachable from the
       refs being pushed. This can also be specified with configuration
       variable push.followTags. For more information, see push.followTags
       in git-config(1).

   --[no-]signed, --sign=(true|false|if-asked)
       GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving side, to
       allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be logged. If false or
       --no-signed, no signing will be attempted. If true or --signed, the
       push will fail if the server does not support signed pushes. If set
       to if-asked, sign if and only if the server supports signed pushes.
       The push will also fail if the actual call to gpg --sign fails. See
       git-receive-pack(1) for the details on the receiving end.

       Use an atomic transaction on the remote side if available. Either
       all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated. If the
       server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.

   -o, --push-option
       Transmit the given string to the server, which passes them to the
       pre-receive as well as the post-receive hook. The given string must
       not contain a NUL or LF character.

   --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>, --exec=<git-receive-pack>
       Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes
       useful when pushing to a remote repository over ssh, and you do not
       have the program in a directory on the default $PATH.

   --[no-]force-with-lease, --force-with-lease=<refname>,
       Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
       ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.

       This option overrides this restriction if the current value of the
       remote ref is the expected value. "git push" fails otherwise.

       Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
       You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
       replace the history you originally published with the rebased
       history. If somebody else built on top of your original history
       while you are rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may
       advance with her commit, and blindly pushing with --force will lose
       her work.

       This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
       updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
       still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
       other people did anything to the ref. It is like taking a "lease"
       on the ref without explicitly locking it, and the remote ref is
       updated only if the "lease" is still valid.

       --force-with-lease alone, without specifying the details, will
       protect all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring
       their current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we
       have for them.

       --force-with-lease=<refname>, without specifying the expected
       value, will protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be
       updated, by requiring its current value to be the same as the
       remote-tracking branch we have for it.

       --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> will protect the named ref
       (alone), if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current
       value to be the same as the specified value <expect> (which is
       allowed to be different from the remote-tracking branch we have for
       the refname, or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking
       branch when this form is used). If <expect> is the empty string,
       then the named ref must not already exist.

       Note that all forms other than
       --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> that specifies the expected
       current value of the ref explicitly are still experimental and
       their semantics may change as we gain experience with this feature.

       "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous
       --force-with-lease on the command line.

   -f, --force
       Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
       ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it. Also, when
       --force-with-lease option is used, the command refuses to update a
       remote ref whose current value does not match what is expected.

       This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote
       repository to lose commits; use it with care.

       Note that --force applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
       using it with push.default set to matching or with multiple push
       destinations configured with remote.*.push may overwrite refs other
       than the current branch (including local refs that are strictly
       behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only one
       branch, use a + in front of the refspec to push (e.g git push
       origin +master to force a push to the master branch). See the
       <refspec>...  section above for details.

       This option is equivalent to the <repository> argument. If both are
       specified, the command-line argument takes precedence.

   -u, --set-upstream
       For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
       upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1)
       and other commands. For more information, see branch.<name>.merge
       in git-config(1).

       These options are passed to git-send-pack(1). A thin transfer
       significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
       receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is

   -q, --quiet
       Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs, unless
       an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard error

   -v, --verbose
       Run verbosely.

       Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
       when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This
       flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is
       not directed to a terminal.

   --no-recurse-submodules, --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|no
       May be used to make sure all submodule commits used by the
       revisions to be pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch.
       If check is used Git will verify that all submodule commits that
       changed in the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one
       remote of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will
       be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If on-demand is used all
       submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will be
       pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary revisions
       it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status. A value of
       no or using --no-recurse-submodules can be used to override the
       push.recurseSubmodules configuration variable when no submodule
       recursion is required.

       Toggle the pre-push hook (see githooks(5)). The default is
       --verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the push. With
       --no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.

   -4, --ipv4
       Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.

   -6, --ipv6
       Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.


   In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the
   address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
   on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.

   Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and
   ftps can be used for fetching, but this is inefficient and deprecated;
   do not use it).

   The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
   should be used with caution on unsecured networks.

   The following syntaxes may be used with them:

   *   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

   *   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

   *   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

   *   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

   An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

   *   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

   This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first
   colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For
   example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute path
   or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.

   The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

   *   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

   *   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

   *   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

   For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
   syntaxes may be used:

   *   /path/to/repo.git/

   *   file:///path/to/repo.git/

   These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the
   former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

   When Git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
   attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To
   explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:

   *   <transport>::<address>

   where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
   URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked.
   See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.

   If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
   you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
   will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
   section of the form:

               [url "<actual url base>"]
                       insteadOf = <other url base>

   For example, with this:

               [url "git://"]
                       insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                       insteadOf = work:

   a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
   rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be

   If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
   configuration section of the form:

               [url "<actual url base>"]
                       pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

   For example, with this:

               [url "ssh://"]
                       pushInsteadOf = git://

   a URL like "git://" will be rewritten to
   "ssh://" for pushes, but pulls will still
   use the original URL.


   The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
   <repository> argument:

   *   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

   *   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

   *   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

   All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
   because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
   You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
   configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
   to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
   access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
   default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
   entry in the config file would appear like this:

               [remote "<name>"]
                       url = <url>
                       pushurl = <pushurl>
                       push = <refspec>
                       fetch = <refspec>

   The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
   You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
   URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
   this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
   the command line. This file should have the following format:

               URL: one of the above URL format
               Push: <refspec>
               Pull: <refspec>

   Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
   and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
   additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
   You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
   URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
   should have the following format:


   <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

   Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
   if you don't provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
   this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.

   git fetch uses:


   git push uses:



   The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
   section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
   locally or via ssh).

   The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
   representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:

        <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)

   If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:

        <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)

   The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
   option is used.

       A single character indicating the status of the ref:

           for a successfully pushed fast-forward;

           for a successful forced update;

           for a successfully deleted ref;

           for a successfully pushed new ref;

           for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and

           for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.

       For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
       values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
       git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new> for
       forced non-fast-forward updates).

       For a failed update, more details are given:

           Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it is
           not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.

       remote rejected
           The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook on
           the remote side, or because the remote repository has one of
           the following safety options in effect:
           receive.denyCurrentBranch (for pushes to the checked out
           branch), receive.denyNonFastForwards (for forced
           non-fast-forward updates), receive.denyDeletes or
           receive.denyDeleteCurrent. See git-config(1).

       remote failure
           The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
           perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
           break in the network connection, or other transient error.

       The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/
       prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the local ref is

       The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/

       A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
       refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
       failure is described.


   When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used
   to point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
   fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.

   In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the
   original commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new
   commit B builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.

   In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
   suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you
   built a history leading to commit B while the other person built a
   history leading to commit A. The history looks like this:


   Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to
   A back to the original repository from which you two obtained the
   original commit X.

   The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point
   at commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.

   But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that now
   points at A) with commit B. This does not fast-forward. If you did so,
   the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody will
   now start building on top of B.

   The command by default does not allow an update that is not a
   fast-forward to prevent such loss of history.

   If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) or the work
   by the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first
   fetch the history from the repository, create a history that contains
   changes done by both parties, and push the result back.

   You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
   the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
   and B.

            /   /

   Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
   push will be accepted.

   Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
   with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
   create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of

             B   D
            /   /

   Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will
   be accepted.

   There is another common situation where you may encounter
   non-fast-forward rejection when you try to push, and it is possible
   even when you are pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into.
   After you push commit A yourself (in the first picture in this
   section), replace it with "git commit --amend" to produce commit B, and
   you try to push it out, because forgot that you have pushed A out
   already. In such a case, and only if you are certain that nobody in the
   meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building on top of
   it), you can run "git push --force" to overwrite it. In other words,
   "git push --force" is a method reserved for a case where you do mean to
   lose history.


   git push
       Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the current
       branch's remote (or origin, if no remote is configured for the
       current branch).

   git push origin
       Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to the
       configured upstream (remote.origin.merge configuration variable) if
       it has the same name as the current branch, and errors out without
       pushing otherwise.

       The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can
       be configured by setting the push option of the remote, or the
       push.default configuration variable.

       For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to
       origin use git config remote.origin.push HEAD. Any valid <refspec>
       (like the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the
       default for git push origin.

   git push origin :
       Push "matching" branches to origin. See <refspec> in the OPTIONS
       section above for a description of "matching" branches.

   git push origin master
       Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most
       likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and update the same ref
       (e.g.  refs/heads/master) in origin repository with it. If master
       did not exist remotely, it would be created.

   git push origin HEAD
       A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the

   git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev
       Use the source ref that matches master (e.g.  refs/heads/master) to
       update the ref that matches satellite/master (most probably
       refs/remotes/satellite/master) in the mothership repository; do the
       same for dev and satellite/dev.

       This is to emulate git fetch run on the mothership using git push
       that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate the
       work done on satellite, and is often necessary when you can only
       make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into mothership
       but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite because the
       latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).

       After running this git push on the satellite machine, you would ssh
       into the mothership and run git merge there to complete the
       emulation of git pull that were run on mothership to pull changes
       made on satellite.

   git push origin HEAD:master
       Push the current branch to the remote ref matching master in the
       origin repository. This form is convenient to push the current
       branch without thinking about its local name.

   git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
       Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by copying
       the current master branch. This form is only needed to create a new
       branch or tag in the remote repository when the local name and the
       remote name are different; otherwise, the ref name on its own will

   git push origin :experimental
       Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository (e.g.
       refs/heads/experimental), and delete it.

   git push origin +dev:master
       Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
       allowing non-fast-forward updates.  This can leave unreferenced
       commits dangling in the origin repository.  Consider the following
       situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:

                       o---o---o---A---B  origin/master
                                 X---Y---Z  dev

       The above command would change the origin repository to

                                 A---B  (unnamed branch)
                       o---o---o---X---Y---Z  master

       Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic
       name, and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be
       removed by a git gc command on the origin repository.


   Part of the git(1) suite


Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.

Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.

Free Software

Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.

Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.

Free Books

The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.

Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.


Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.

Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.