iconv - convert text from one character encoding to another


   iconv [options] [-f from-encoding] [-t to-encoding] [inputfile]...


   The iconv program reads in text in one encoding and outputs the text in
   another encoding.  If no input files are given, or if it is given as  a
   dash (-), iconv reads from standard input.  If no output file is given,
   iconv writes to standard output.

   If no from-encoding is given, the default is derived from  the  current
   locale's  character  encoding.  If no to-encoding is given, the default
   is derived from the current locale's character encoding.


   -f from-encoding, --from-code=from-encoding
          Use from-encoding for input characters.

   -t to-encoding, --to-code=to-encoding
          Use to-encoding for output characters.

          If the string //IGNORE is appended  to  to-encoding,  characters
          that  cannot  be converted are discarded and an error is printed
          after conversion.

          If the string //TRANSLIT is appended to to-encoding,  characters
          being  converted  are  transliterated  when needed and possible.
          This means that when a character cannot be  represented  in  the
          target  character  set,  it  can  be approximated through one or
          several similar looking characters.  Characters that are outside
          of  the  target  character  set and cannot be transliterated are
          replaced with a question mark (?) in the output.

   -l, --list
          List all known character set encodings.

   -c     Silently discard characters that cannot be converted instead  of
          terminating when encountering such characters.

   -o outputfile, --output=outputfile
          Use outputfile for output.

   -s, --silent
          This option is ignored; it is provided only for compatibility.

          Print  progress  information  on  standard error when processing
          multiple files.

   -?, --help
          Print a usage summary and exit.

          Print a short usage summary and exit.

   -V, --version
          Print the version number, license, and  disclaimer  of  warranty
          for iconv.


   Zero on success, non-zero on errors.


   Internally,  the iconv program uses the iconv(3) function which in turn
   uses gconv modules (dynamically loaded shared libraries) to convert  to
   and  from  a character set.  Before calling iconv(3), the iconv program
   must first allocate a conversion descriptor using  iconv_open(3).   The
   operation  of  the  latter function is influenced by the setting of the
   GCONV_PATH environment variable:

   *  If GCONV_PATH is not  set,  iconv_open(3)  loads  the  system  gconv
      module  configuration cache file created by iconvconfig(8) and then,
      based on the  configuration,  loads  the  gconv  modules  needed  to
      perform  the  conversion.   If the system gconv module configuration
      cache  file  is  not  available  then  the   system   gconv   module
      configuration file is used.

   *  If  GCONV_PATH  is defined (as a colon-separated list of pathnames),
      the system gconv module configuration cache is not  used.   Instead,
      iconv_open(3)  first  tries  to  load  the  configuration  files  by
      searching the directories in GCONV_PATH in order,  followed  by  the
      system default gconv module configuration file.  If a directory does
      not contain a gconv module configuration  file,  any  gconv  modules
      that  it  may  contain are ignored.  If a directory contains a gconv
      module configuration file and it is determined that a module  needed
      for  this  conversion is available in the directory, then the needed
      module is loaded from that directory, the order being such that  the
      first  suitable  module  found  in  GCONV_PATH is used.  This allows
      users to use custom modules and even replace system-provided modules
      by providing such modules in GCONV_PATH directories.


          Usual default gconv module path.

          Usual system default gconv module configuration file.

          Usual system gconv module configuration cache.




   Convert text from the ISO 8859-15 character encoding to UTF-8:

       $ iconv -f ISO-8859-15 -t UTF-8 < input.txt > output.txt

   The  next  example  converts  from UTF-8 to ASCII, transliterating when

       $ echo abc     | iconv -f UTF-8 -t ASCII//TRANSLIT
       abc ss ? EUR abc


   locale(1), iconv(3), nl_langinfo(3), charsets(7), iconvconfig(8)


   This page is part of release 4.09 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
   description  of  the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
   latest    version    of    this    page,    can     be     found     at

More Linux Commands

clrunimap(8) - Clear the current console unicode map........
The command clrunimap clears the unicode map (also called Screen Font Map) for the current console. NOTES If you are not the maintainer of the kbd package, it i

gnutls_x509_crq_get_extension_data(3) - API function........
gnutls_x509_crq_get_extension_data.3 - This function will return the requested extension data in the certificate. The extension data will be stored as a string

DefaultVisualOfScreen(3) - screen information functions and
The BlackPixelOfScreen macro returns the black pixel value of the specified screen. The WhitePixelOfScreen macro returns the white pixel value of the specified

XtCallbackPopdown(3) - unmap a pop-up - Linux manual page...
The XtPopdown function performs the following: * Calls XtCheckSubclass to ensure popup_shell is a subclass of Shell. * Checks that popup_shell is currently popp

aliases(5) - Postfix local alias database format (Man Page)
The aliases(5) table provides a system-wide mechanism to redirect mail for local recipients. The redirections are processed by the Postfix local(8) delivery age

mitem_current(3menu) - set and get current_menu_item........
The function set_current_item sets the current item (the item on which the menu cursor is positioned). current_item returns a pointer to the current item in the

capabilities(7) - overview of Linux capabilities (Man Page)
For the purpose of performing permission checks, traditional UNIX implementations distinguish two categories of processes: privileged processes (whose effective

sudoers(5) - default sudo security policy module (Man Page)
The sudoers policy module determines a users sudo privileges. It is the default sudo policy plugin. The policy is driven by the /etc/sudoers file or, optionally

gnutls_openpgp_keyring_import(3) - API function (Man Page)
This function will convert the given RAW or Base64 encoded keyring to the native gnutls_openpgp_keyring_t format. The output will be stored in keyring. RETURNS

restartterm_sp(3ncurses) - curses screen-pointer extension
This implementation can be configured to provide a set of functions which improve the ability to manage multiple screens. This feature can be added to any of th

MIME::Field::ContDisp(3pm) - a "Content-disposition" field
MIME::Field::ContDisp.3pm - A subclass of Mail::Field. Dont use this class directly... its name may change in the future! Instead, ask Mail::Field for new insta

ncsa_auth(8) - NCSA httpd-style password file authentication
ncsa_auth allows Squid to read and authenticate user and password information from an NCSA/Apache httpd-style password file when using basic HTTP authentication

We can't live, work or learn in freedom unless the software we use is free.