inews - send a Usenet article to the local news server for distribution


   inews [ -h ] [ -D ] [ -O ] [ -R ] [ -S ] [ header_flags ] [ input ]


   Inews reads a Usenet news article (perhaps with headers) from the named
   file or standard input if no file is given.  It adds some  headers  and
   performs  some  consistency checks.  If the article does not meet these
   checks (for example, too much quoting of old articles,  or  posting  to
   non-existent  newsgroups)  then  the article is rejected.  If it passes
   the checks, inews sends  the  article  to  the  local  news  server  as
   specified in the inn.conf(5) file for distribution.


   -h     In  the  standard  mode  of operation, the input consists of the
          article headers, a  blank  line,  and  the  message  body.   For
          compatibility with older software, the ``-h'' flag must be used.
          If there are no headers in the message, then this  flag  may  be

   -O     The  default  Organization  header  will  be provided if none is
          present in the article or if the ``-o'' flag is  not  used.   To
          prevent adding the default, use the ``-O'' flag.

   -D     As a debugging aide, if the ``-D'' flag is used, the consistency
          checks will be performed, and the article will be  sent  to  the
          standard output, rather then sent to the server.

   -A -V -W
          For  compatibility  with C News, inews accepts, but ignores, the
          ``-A'', ``-V'' and ``-W'' flags.

   -N     The C News ``-N'' flag is treated as the ``-D'' flag.

   -S     If a file named .signature exists in the user's home  directory,
          inews  will  try to append it to the end of the article.  If the
          file cannot be read, or if it is too  long  (for  example,  more
          than  four  lines  or one standard I/O buffer), or if some other
          problem occurs,  then  the  article  will  not  be  posted.   To
          suppress this action use the ``-S'' flag.

   -R     If  the  ``-R'' flag is used then inews will reject any attempts
          to post control messages.

          Several headers may be specified on the command line,  shown  in
          the synopsis above as header_flags.  Each of these flags takes a
          single parameter; if the  value  is  more  than  one  word  (for
          example,  almost  all Subject lines) then quotes must be used to
          prevent the shell from splitting it into  multiple  words.   The
          options, and their equivalent header, are as follows:

              a       Approved
              c       Control
              d       Distribution
              e       Expires
              f       From
              w       Followup-To
              n       Newsgroups
              r       Reply-To
              t       Subject
              F       References
              o       Organization
              x       Path prefix

          If  the ``-x'' flag is used, then its value will be the start of
          the header.  Any other host will see the site in the header, and
          therefore  not  offer  the  article to that site.  The Path will
          always end not-for-mail.


   If an unapproved posting is made to a moderated newsgroup,  inews  will
   try  to  mail  the article to the moderator for posting.  It will query
   the remote news server  for  a  moderators  listing.  If  that  doesn't
   succeed,  it  will  fallback  to  using the local moderators(5) file to
   determine the mailing address.  If no address is found, it will use the
   inn.conf file to determine a ``last-chance'' host to try.

   If the NNTP server needs to authenticate the client, inews will use the
   NNTPsendpassword(3) routine to authenticate itself.   In  order  to  do
   this,  the  program  will  need read access to the passwd.nntp(5) file.
   This is typically done by having the  file  group-readable  and  making
   inews run setgid to that group.

   Inews exits with a zero status if the article was succesfully posted or
   mailed, or  with  a  non-zero  status  if  the  article  could  not  be

   Since  inews  will  spool its input if the server is unavailable, it is
   usually necessary to run rnews(1) with the ``-U''  flag  on  a  regular
   basis, usually out of cron(8).


   Written  by  Rich  $alz <> for InterNetNews.  This is
   revision 1.27, dated 1996/10/29.


   moderators(5), inn.conf(5).  rnews(1).



Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.

Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.

Free Software

Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.

Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.

Free Books

The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.

Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.


Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.

Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.