links - lynx-like alternative character mode WWW browser


   links [options] URL


   links  is  a  text  mode WWW browser with ncurses interface, supporting
   colors, correct table rendering, background  downloading,  menu  driven
   configuration interface and slim code.

   Frames  are  supported.  You can have different file formats associated
   with external viewers. mailto: and telnet: are supported  via  external

   links can handle local (file://) or remote (http:// or ftp://) URLs.


   Most  options  can  be  set  in  the  user interface or config file, so
   usually you do not need to care about them.

   -help  Print a help screen

          Prints the links version number and exit.

   -lookup <hostname>
          Does name lookup, like command "host".

          Treat files with unknown type as html rather than text.  (can be
          toggled with '\' key)

   -source <url>
          Write unformatted data stream to stdout.

   -dump <url>
          Write formatted document to stdout.

   -width <number>
          For  dump,  document will be formatted to this screen width (but
          it can still exceed it if lines can't be broken).

   -codepage <codepage>
          For dump, convert output  to  specified  character  set  --  for
          example iso-8859-2, windows-1250.

          Restrict  links  so that it can run on an anonymous account.  No
          local file browsing.  No  downloads.  Executing  of  viewers  is
          allowed,  but  user  can't  add or modify entries in association

          Runs links as a separate instance -  instead  of  connecting  to
          existing instance.

   -download-dir <path>
          Default download directory.  (default: actual dir)

   -language <language>
          Set user interface language.

   -max-connections <max>
          Maximum number of concurrent connections.  (default: 10)

   -max-connections-to-host <max>
          Maximum  number  of  concurrent  connection  to  a  given  host.
          (default: 2)

   -retries <retry>
          Number of retries.  (default: 3)

   -receive-timeout <sec>
          Timeout on receive.  (default: 120)

   -unrestartable-receive-timeout <sec>
          Timeout on non restartable connections.  (default: 600)

   -bind-address <ip address>
          Use a specific local IP address.

   -bind-address-ipv6 <ipv6 address>
          Use a specific local IPv6 address.

          Don't use libevent library.

          Don't use OpenMP.

   -async-dns <0>/<1>
          Asynchronous DNS resolver on(1)/off(0).

   -download-utime <0>/<1>
          Set time of downloaded files to last modification time  reported
          by server.

   -format-cache-size <num>
          Number of formatted document pages cached.  (default: 5)

   -memory-cache-size <bytes>
          Cache memory in bytes.  (default: 1048576)

   -image-cache-size <bytes>
          Cache memory in bytes.  (default: 1048576)

   -font-cache-size <bytes>
          Cache memory in bytes.  (default: 2097152)

   -aggressive-cache <0>/<1>
          Always   cache   everything   regardless   of  server's  caching
          recomendations.  Many servers deny caching even if their content
          is not changing just to get more hits and more money from ads.

   -address-preference <0>/<1>/<2>/<3>/<4>
          (default  0)  0  -  use  system  default.  1 - prefer IPv4.  2 -
          prefer IPv6.  3 - use only IPv4.  4 - use only IPv6.

   -http-proxy <host:port>
          Host and port number of the HTTP  proxy,  or  blank.   (default:

   -ftp-proxy <host:port>
          Host  and  port  number  of  the FTP proxy, or blank.  (default:

   -https-proxy <host:port>
          Host and port number of the HTTPS proxy,  or  blank.   (default:

   -socks-proxy <user@host:port>
          Userid, host and port of Socks4a, or blank.  (default: blank)

   -append-text-to-dns-lookups <text>
          Append  text  to  dns lookups. It is useful for specifying fixed
          tor exit node.  (default: blank)

   -only-proxies <0>/<1>
          "1" causes that Links won't initiate any  non-proxy  connection.
          It is useful for anonymization with tor or similar networks.

   -ssl.certificates <0>/<1>/<2>
          (default 1) 0 - ignore invalid certificate.  1 - warn on invalid
          certificate.  2 - reject invalid certificate.

   -ssl.client-cert-key <filename>
          Name of the PEM encoded file  with  the  user  private  key  for
          client certificate authentication.

   -ssl.client-cert-crt <filename>
          Name  of  the  PEM  encoded  file  with the user certificate for
          client certificate authentication.

   -ssl.client-cert-password <text>
          Password for the user private key.

   -http-bugs.http10 <0>/<1>
          (default 0) "1" forces using only HTTP/1.0 protocol. (useful for
          buggy  servers  that claim to be HTTP/1.1 compliant but are not)
          "0" enables using both HTTP/1.0 and HTTP/1.1.

   -http-bugs.allow-blacklist <0>/<1>
          (default 1) "1" defaults to using  list  of  servers  that  have
          broken  HTTP/1.1 support.  When links finds such server, it will
          retry the request with HTTP/1.0.

   -http-bugs.bug-302-redirect <0>/<1>
          (default 1) Process 302 redirect in a way that  is  incompatible
          with  RFC1945  and  RFC2068,  but the same as Netscape and MSIE.
          Many pages depend on it.

   -http-bugs.bug-post-no-keepalive <0>/<1>
          (default 0) No keepalive connection  after  post  requests.  For
          some buggy servers.

   -http-bugs.bug-no-accept-charset <0>/<1>
          (default  0)  Do  not  send Accept-Charset field of HTTP header.
          Because it is too long some servers will deny the request. Other
          servers  will convert content to plain ascii when Accept-Charset
          is missing. <0>/<1>
          (default  0)  "1"  causes  that  links  won't   advertise   HTTP
          compression  support (but it will still accept compressed data).
          Use  it  when  you  communicate  with  server  that  has  broken
          compression support.

   -http-bugs.retry-internal-errors <0>/<1>
          (default 0) Retry on internal server errors (50x).

   -http.fake-firefox <0>/<1>
          (default 0) Fake that the browser is Firefox in the HTTP header. <0>/<1>
          (default 0) Send "do not track" request in the HTTP header.

   -http.referer <0>/<1>/<2>/<3>/<4>
          (default 0) 0 - do not send referer.  1 - send the requested URL
          as referer.  2 - send fake referer.  3 - send real referer.  4 -
          send real referer only to the same server.

   -http.fake-referer <string>
          Fake referer value.

   -http.fake-user-agent <string>
          Fake user agent value.

   -http.extra-header <string>
          Extra string added to HTTP header.

   -ftp.anonymous-password <string>
          Password for anonymous ftp access.

   -ftp.use-passive <0>/<1>
          Use ftp PASV command to bypass firewalls.

   -ftp.use-erpt-epsv <0>/<1>
          Use EPRT and EPSV commands instead of PORT and PASV. <0>/<1>
          Send  more  ftp  commands  simultaneously.  Faster response when
          browsing ftp directories, but it is incompatible  with  RFC  and
          some servers don't like it.

   -ftp.set-iptos <0>/<1>
          Set IP Type-of-service to high throughput on ftp connections.

   -smb.allow-hyperlinks-to-smb <0>/<1>
          Allow  hyperlinks  to  SMB  protocol.   Disabling  this improves
          security, because internet sites cannot exploit possible bugs in
          the SMB client.

   -menu-font-size <size>
          Size of font in menu.

   -menu-background-color 0xRRGGBB
          Set menu background color in graphics mode. RRGGBB are hex.

   -menu-foreground-color 0xRRGGBB
          Set menu foreground color in graphics mode. RRGGBB are hex.

   -scroll-bar-area-color 0xRRGGBB
          Set color of scroll bar area. RRGGBB are hex.

   -scroll-bar-bar-color 0xRRGGBB
          Set color of scroll bar. RRGGBB are hex.

   -scroll-bar-frame-color 0xRRGGBB
          Set color of scroll bar frame. RRGGBB are hex.

   -bookmarks-file <file>
          File to store bookmarks.

   -bookmarks-codepage <codepage>
          Character set of bookmarks file.

   -save-url-history <0>/<1>
          Save URL history on exit.

   -display-red-gamma <fp-value>
          Red gamma of display. (default 2.2)

   -display-green-gamma <fp-value>
          Green gamma of display. (default 2.2)

   -display-blue-gamma <fp-value>
          Blue gamma of display. (default 2.2)

   -user-gamma <fp-value>
          Additional gamma. (default 1)

   -bfu-aspect <fp-value>
          Display aspect ration.

   -dither-letters <0>/<1>
          Do letter dithering.

   -dither-images <0>/<1>
          Do image dithering.

   -display-optimize <0>/<1>/<2>
          Optimize for CRT (0), LCD RGB (1), LCD BGR (2).

   -gamma-correction <0>/<1>/<2>
          Type  of  gamma  correction:  (default 2) 0 - 8-bit (fast).  1 -
          16-bit (slow).  2 - automatically detect according to  speed  of

   -overwrite-instead-of-scroll <0>/<1>
          Overwrite  the screen instead of scrolling it (valid for svgalib
          and  framebuffer).   Overwriting  may  or  may  not  be  faster,
          depending on hardware.

   -html-assume-codepage <codepage>
          Use  the  given  codepage  when  the webpage did not specify its
          codepage. (default: ISO 8859-1)

   -html-hard-assume <0>/<1>
          Use always character set from "-html-assume-codepage" no  matter
          what server sent.

   -html-tables <0>/<1>
          Render tables. (0) causes tables being rendered like in lynx.

   -html-frames <0>/<1>
          Render frames. (0) causes frames  rendered like in lynx.

   -html-break-long-lines <0>/<1>
          Break long lines in <pre> sections.

   -html-images <0>/<1>
          Display links to unnamed images as [IMG]

   -html-image-names <0>/<1>
          Display filename of an image instead of [IMG].

   -html-display-images <0>/<1>
          Display images in graphics mode.

   -html-image-scale <percent>
          Scale images in graphics mode.

   -html-bare-image-autoscale <0>/<1>
          Autoscale images displayed in full screen.

   -html-numbered-links <0>/<1>
          Number  links in text mode. Allow quick link selection by typing
          link number and enter.

   -html-table-order <0>/<1>
          In text mode, walk through table by rows (0) or columns (1).

   -html-auto-refresh <0>/<1>
          Process refresh to other page (1), or display link to that  page

   -html-target-in-new-window <0>/<1>
          Allow opening new windows from html.

   -html-margin <number of spaces>
          Margin in text mode.

   -html-user-font-size <size>
          Size of font on pages in graphics mode.

   -html-t-text-color <0>-<15>
          Text color in text mode.

   -html-t-link-color <0>-<15>
          Link color in text mode.

   -html-t-background-color <0>-<7>
          Background color in text mode.

   -html-t-ignore-document-color <0>/<1>
          Ignore colors specified in html document in text mode.

   -html-g-text-color 0xRRGGBB
          Text color in graphics mode.

   -html-g-link-color 0xRRGGBB
          Link color in graphics mode.

   -html-g-background-color 0xRRGGBB
          Background color in graphics mode.

   -html-g-ignore-document-color <0>/<1>
          Ignore colors specified in html document in graphics mode.

   More options can be seen with links -h


   The keys you may use while navigating are

   ESC    menu/escape

   F9     menu

   F10    file menu

   TAB    next frame

   PGDN   page down

   Space  page down

   PGUP   page up

   b      page up

          next link/down

          prev link/up

   INS    scroll up

   ^P     scroll up

   DEL    scroll down

   ^N     scroll down

   [      scroll left

   ]      scroll right

   HOME   home

   END    end of page

          enter link/press button

   ENTER  enter link/press button

          go back

   d      download link

   /      search in the page

   ?      search back in the page

   n      find next match

   N      find next match backwards

   f      zoom actual frame

   ^R     reload page

   g      go to URL

   G      edit the current URL and goto the result

   ^G     edit the current link and goto the result

   s      bookmark manager

   q      quit, close window if more windows are open

   Q      quit without asking

   =      document information

   \      toggle HTML source/rendered view


   The following keys can be used while editing a line/jumping to a URL:

          move right

          move left

   HOME   jump at the beginning

   ^A     jump at the beginning

   END    jump at the end

   ^E     jump at the end

   ^X     cut to clipboard (text mode only)

   ^B     copy to clipboard

   ^INS   copy to clipboard

   ^V     paste from clipboard (text mode only)

   ENTER  enter line

          delete back character

   ^H     delete back character

   DEL    delete character

   ^D     delete character

   ^U     delete from beginning of the line

   ^K     delete to the end of the line

   ^W     auto complete line


          Peruser configfile, automatically created by links.


   links  is  known to work on Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, IRIX, HPUX,
   Digital Unix, AIX, OS/2, BeOS and Win32.


   Can't connect to some FTP servers (Novell, NT). Connection stays
   in "Request sent" state.

   Frames  don't  work  if there's more frames with same name. Turn
   them off in such case.

   You can't upload large files; it takes _lots_ of memory.

   You shouldn't press '^Z' when you are in a viewer

   Please report  any  other  bugs  you  find  to  Mikulas  Patocka


   links is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   under the terms of the GNU General Public License  as  published
   by  the  Free  Software  Foundation;  either  version  2  of the
   License, or (at your option) any later version.


   links was written by Mikulas  Patocka,  Karel  'Clock'  Kulhavy,
   Petr  'Brain'  Kulhavy,  and  Martin  'PerM'  Pergel.   See file
   AUTHORS for a list of people contributing to this project.

   The    homepage     of     links     can     be     found     at

   This  manual  page was written by Peter Gervai <>,
   using excerpts from a (yet?) unknown links fan  for  the  Debian
   GNU/Linux  system  (but may be used by others). Updated by Karel


   lynx(1), w3m(1)

                               Aug, 2006                          LINKS(1)

More Linux Commands

glRectf(3gl) - draw a rectangle (Library - Linux man page)
glRect supports efficient specification of rectangles as two corner points. Each rectangle command takes four arguments, organized either as two consecutive pai

freshclam(1) - update virus databases - Linux manual page...
freshclam is a virus database update tool for ClamAV. OPTIONS Freshclam reads its configuration from freshclam.conf. The settings can be overwritten with comman

ferror(3) - check and reset stream status - Linux man page
The function clearerr() clears the end-of-file and error indicators for the stream pointed to by stream. The function feof() tests the end-of-file indicator for

sepermit.conf(5) - configuration file for the pam_sepermit m
The lines of the configuration file have the following syntax: &lt;user&gt;[:&lt;option&gt;:&lt;option&gt;...] The user can be specified in the following manner: * a username * a

fputws(3) - write a wide-character string to a FILE stream
The fputws() function is the wide-character equivalent of the fputs(3) function. It writes the wide-character string starting at ws, up to but not including the

gnutls_global_set_log_function(3) - API function (Man Page)
This is the function where you set the logging function gnutls is going to use. This function only accepts a character array. Normally you may not use this func

XDGASetViewport(3) - Client library for the XFree86-DGA exte
The XFree86-DGA extension is an X server extension for allowing client programs direct access to the video frame buffer. This is a brief description of the prog

sntp(1) - standard SNTP program (Commands - Linux man page)
This manual page briefly documents the sntp command. sntp can be used as a SNTP client to query a NTP or SNTP server and either display the time or set the loca

lreplace(n) - Replace elements in a list with new elements
lreplace returns a new list formed by replacing one or more elements of list with the element arguments. first and last are index values specifying the first an

getlist(1) - Get a list from an NNTP server - Linux man page
getlist obtains a list from an NNTP server and sends it to standard output. list may be one of active (which is the default value), active.times, distrib.pats,

ts(1ssl) Time Stamping Authority tool (client server).......
The ts command is a basic Time Stamping Authority ( TSA ) client and server application as specified in RFC 3161 (Time-Stamp Protocol, TSP ). A TSA can be part

krb.equiv(5) - Kerberos equivalences - Linux manual page....
krb.equiv contains zero or more lines, each of which describes a mapping of a kerberos principal (userid@host) to a local user (userid or alias). Each line of t

We can't live, work or learn in freedom unless the software we use is free.