ls - list directory contents


   ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


   List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).
   Sort  entries  alphabetically  if  none  of  -cftuvSUX  nor  --sort  is

   Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options

   -a, --all
          do not ignore entries starting with .

   -A, --almost-all
          do not list implied . and ..

          with -l, print the author of each file

   -b, --escape
          print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

          scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M'
          prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below

   -B, --ignore-backups
          do not list implied entries ending with ~

   -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
          file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by  name;
          otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

   -C     list entries by columns

          colorize  the output; WHEN can be 'always' (default if omitted),
          'auto', or 'never'; more info below

   -d, --directory
          list directories themselves, not their contents

   -D, --dired
          generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

   -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

   -F, --classify
          append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

          likewise, except do not append '*'

          across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column  -1,
          verbose -l, vertical -C

          like -l --time-style=full-iso

   -g     like -l, but do not list owner

          group directories before files;

          can   be  augmented  with  a  --sort  option,  but  any  use  of
          --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

   -G, --no-group
          in a long listing, don't print group names

   -h, --human-readable
          with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

   --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

   -H, --dereference-command-line
          follow symbolic links listed on the command line

          follow each command line symbolic link

          that points to a directory

          do not list implied entries matching shell  PATTERN  (overridden
          by -a or -A)

          append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default),
          slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

   -i, --inode
          print the index number of each file

   -I, --ignore=PATTERN
          do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

   -k, --kibibytes
          default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

   -l     use a long listing format

   -L, --dereference
          when  showing  file  information  for  a  symbolic  link,   show
          information for the file the link references rather than for the
          link itself

   -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

   -n, --numeric-uid-gid
          like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

   -N, --literal
          print raw entry  names  (don't  treat  e.g.  control  characters

   -o     like -l, but do not list group information

   -p, --indicator-style=slash
          append / indicator to directories

   -q, --hide-control-chars
          print ? instead of nongraphic characters

          show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is
          'ls' and output is a terminal)

   -Q, --quote-name
          enclose entry names in double quotes

          use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale,  shell,
          shell-always, shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape

   -r, --reverse
          reverse order while sorting

   -R, --recursive
          list subdirectories recursively

   -s, --size
          print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

   -S     sort by file size, largest first

          sort  by  WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t),
          version (-v), extension (-X)

          with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time:
          atime  or  access  or  use  (-u); ctime or status (-c); also use
          specified time as sort key if --sort=time (newest first)

          with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso,  iso,
          locale,  or  +FORMAT;  FORMAT  is interpreted like in 'date'; if
          FORMAT  is  FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,  then  FORMAT1  applies  to
          non-recent  files  and  FORMAT2  to  recent  files;  if STYLE is
          prefixed with 'posix-', STYLE  takes  effect  only  outside  the
          POSIX locale

   -t     sort by modification time, newest first

   -T, --tabsize=COLS
          assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

   -u     with  -lt:  sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access
          time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by  access  time,  newest

   -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

   -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

   -w, --width=COLS
          set output width to COLS.  0 means no limit

   -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

   -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

   -Z, --context
          print any security context of each file

   -1     list one file per line.  Avoid '\n' with -q or -b

   --help display this help and exit

          output version information and exit

   The  SIZE  argument  is  an  integer and optional unit (example: 10K is
   10*1024).  Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y  (powers  of  1024)  or  KB,MB,...
   (powers of 1000).

   Using  color  to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
   with --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only  when
   standard  output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment
   variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

   Exit status:
   0      if OK,

   1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

   2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).


   Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.


   GNU coreutils online help: <>
   Report ls translation bugs to <>


   Copyright  2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.   License  GPLv3+:  GNU
   GPL version 3 or later <>.
   This  is  free  software:  you  are free to change and redistribute it.
   There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


   Full documentation at: <>
   or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ls invocation'


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