mbrtowc - convert a multibyte sequence to a wide character


   #include <wchar.h>

   size_t mbrtowc(wchar_t *pwc, const char *s, size_t n, mbstate_t *ps);


   The  main  case  for this function is when s is not NULL and pwc is not
   NULL.  In this case, the mbrtowc() function inspects at most n bytes of
   the  multibyte  string  starting  at  s,  extracts  the  next  complete
   multibyte character, converts it to a wide character and stores  it  at
   *pwc.  It updates the shift state *ps.  If the converted wide character
   is not L'\0' (the null wide character), it returns the number of  bytes
   that  were  consumed from s.  If the converted wide character is L'\0',
   it resets the shift state *ps to the initial state and returns 0.

   If the n bytes starting at  s  do  not  contain  a  complete  multibyte
   character, mbrtowc() returns (size_t) -2.  This can happen even if n >=
   MB_CUR_MAX, if the multibyte string contains redundant shift sequences.

   If the multibyte string starting at s  contains  an  invalid  multibyte
   sequence   before   the  next  complete  character,  mbrtowc()  returns
   (size_t) -1 and sets errno to EILSEQ.  In this case, the effects on *ps
   are undefined.

   A  different case is when s is not NULL but pwc is NULL.  In this case,
   the mbrtowc() function behaves as above, except that it does not  store
   the converted wide character in memory.

   A  third  case is when s is NULL.  In this case, pwc and n are ignored.
   If the conversion  state  represented  by  *ps  denotes  an  incomplete
   multibyte   character   conversion,   the  mbrtowc()  function  returns
   (size_t) -1, sets errno to EILSEQ,  and  leaves  *ps  in  an  undefined
   state.  Otherwise, the mbrtowc() function puts *ps in the initial state
   and returns 0.

   In all of the above cases, if ps is  NULL,  a  static  anonymous  state
   known  only  to the mbrtowc() function is used instead.  Otherwise, *ps
   must be a valid  mbstate_t  object.   An  mbstate_t  object  a  can  be
   initialized to the initial state by zeroing it, for example using

       memset(&a, 0, sizeof(a));


   The  mbrtowc()  function  returns  the  number of bytes parsed from the
   multibyte sequence starting at s, if a  non-L'\0'  wide  character  was
   recognized.   It  returns  0, if a L'\0' wide character was recognized.
   It returns  (size_t) -1  and  sets  errno  to  EILSEQ,  if  an  invalid
   multibyte  sequence  was  encountered.   It  returns  (size_t) -2 if it
   couldn't parse a complete multibyte character, meaning that n should be


   For   an   explanation   of   the  terms  used  in  this  section,  see

   Interface  Attribute      Value                      
   mbrtowc()  Thread safety  MT-Unsafe race:mbrtowc/!ps 


   POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, C99.


   The behavior of mbrtowc() depends  on  the  LC_CTYPE  category  of  the
   current locale.


   mbsinit(3), mbsrtowcs(3)


   This  page  is  part of release 4.09 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
   description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
   latest     version     of     this    page,    can    be    found    at


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