pam_filter − PAM filter module
pam_filter.so [debug] [new_term] [non_term] run1|run2 filter [...]
This module is intended to be a platform for providing access to all of the input/output that passes between the user and the application. It is only suitable for tty−based and (stdin/stdout) applications.
To function this module requires filters to be installed on the system. The single filter provided with the module simply transposes upper and lower case letters in the input and output streams. (This can be very annoying and is not kind to termcap based editors).
Each component of the module has the potential to invoke the desired filter. The filter is always execv(2) with the privilege of the calling application and not that of the user. For this reason it cannot usually be killed by the user without closing their session.
Print debug information.
The default action of the filter is to set the PAM_TTY item to indicate the terminal that the user is using to connect to the application. This argument indicates that the filter should set PAM_TTY to the filtered pseudo−terminal.
don´t try to set the PAM_TTY item.
In order that the module can invoke a filter it should know when to invoke it. This argument is required to tell the filter when to do this.
Permitted values for X are 1 and 2. These indicate the precise time that the filter is to be run. To understand this concept it will be useful to have read the pam(3) manual page. Basically, for each management group there are up to two ways of calling the module´s functions. In the case of the authentication and session components there are actually two separate functions. For the case of authentication, these functions are pam_authenticate(3) and pam_setcred(3), here run1 means run the filter from the pam_authenticate function and run2 means run the filter from pam_setcred. In the case of the session modules, run1 implies that the filter is invoked at the pam_open_session(3) stage, and run2 for pam_close_session(3).
For the case of the account component. Either run1 or run2 may be used.
For the case of the password component, run1 is used to indicate that the filter is run on the first occasion of pam_chauthtok(3) (the PAM_PRELIM_CHECK phase) and run2 is used to indicate that the filter is run on the second occasion (the PAM_UPDATE_AUTHTOK phase).
The full pathname of the filter to be run and any command line arguments that the filter might expect.
All module types (auth, account, password and session) are provided.
The new filter was set successfully.
Critical error, immediate abort.
Add the following line to /etc/pam.d/login to see how to configure login to transpose upper and lower case letters once the user has logged in:
session required pam_filter.so run1 /lib/security/pam_filter/upperLOWER
pam_filter was written by Andrew G. Morgan <email@example.com>.
Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.
Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.
Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.
Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.
The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.
Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.
Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.
Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.