ruby − Interpreted object-oriented scripting language


ruby [−-copyright] [−-version] [−SUacdlnpswvy] [−0[octal]] [−C directory] [−E external[]]:internal [−F pattern] [−I directory] [−K c] [−T[level]] [−W[level]] [−e command] [−i[extension]] [−r library] [−x[directory]] [-Bro enable|disable Brc-FEATURE] [−-dump=target] [−-verbose] [−-] [program_file] [argument ...]


Ruby is an interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming. It has many features to process text files and to do system management tasks (like in Perl). It is simple, straight-forward, and extensible.

If you want a language for easy object-oriented programming, or you don’t like the Perl ugliness, or you do like the concept of LISP, but don’t like too many parentheses, Ruby might be your language of choice.


Ruby’s features are as follows:

Ruby is an interpreted language, so you don’t have to recompile programs written in Ruby to execute them.

Variables have no type (dynamic typing)

Variables in Ruby can contain data of any type. You don’t have to worry about variable typing. Consequently, it has a weaker compile time check.

No declaration needed

You can use variables in your Ruby programs without any declarations. Variable names denote their scope - global, class, instance, or local.

Simple syntax

Ruby has a simple syntax influenced slightly from Eiffel.

No user-level memory management

Ruby has automatic memory management. Objects no longer referenced from anywhere are automatically collected by the garbage collector built into the interpreter.

Everything is an object

Ruby is a purely object-oriented language, and was so since its creation. Even such basic data as integers are seen as objects.

Class, inheritance, and methods

Being an object-oriented language, Ruby naturally has basic features like classes, inheritance, and methods.

Singleton methods

Ruby has the ability to define methods for certain objects. For example, you can define a press-button action for certain widget by defining a singleton method for the button. Or, you can make up your own prototype based object system using singleton methods, if you want to.

Mix-in by modules

Ruby intentionally does not have the multiple inheritance as it is a source of confusion. Instead, Ruby has the ability to share implementations across the inheritance tree. This is often called a ‘Mix-in’.


Ruby has iterators for loop abstraction.


In Ruby, you can objectify the procedure.

Text processing and regular expressions

Ruby has a bunch of text processing features like in Perl.

M17N, character set independent

Ruby supports multilingualized programming. Easy to process texts written in many different natural languages and encoded in many different character encodings, without dependence on Unicode.


With built-in bignums, you can for example calculate factorial(400).

Reflection and domain specific languages

Class is also an instance of the Class class. Definition of classes and methods is an expression just as 1+1 is. So your programs can even write and modify programs. Thus you can write your application in your own programming language on top of Ruby.

Exception handling

As in Java(tm).

Direct access to the OS

Ruby can use most UNIX system calls, often used in system programming.

Dynamic loading

On most UNIX systems, you can load object files into the Ruby interpreter on-the-fly.

Rich libraries

Libraries called "builtin libraries" and "standard libraries" are bundled with Ruby. And you can obtain more libraries via the package management system called ‘RubyGems’.

Moreover there are thousands of Ruby projects on GitHub <>


Ruby interpreter accepts following command-line options (switches). They are quite similar to those of perl(1).

Prints the copyright notice.


Prints the version of Ruby interpreter.


(The digit ‘‘zero’’.) Specifies the input record separator ("$/") as an octal number. If no digit is given, the null character is taken as the separator. Other switches may follow the digits. −00 turns Ruby into paragraph mode. −0777 makes Ruby read whole file at once as a single string since there is no legal character with that value.

−C directory

Causes Ruby to switch to the directory.

−E external[]:internal

Specifies the default value(s) for external encodings and internal encoding. Values should be separated with colon (:).

You can omit the one for internal encodings, then the value ("Encoding.default_internal") will be nil.


Specify the default external or internal character encoding

−F pattern

Specifies input field separator ("$;").

−I directory

Used to tell Ruby where to load the library scripts. Directory path will be added to the load-path variable ("$:").

−K kcode

Specifies KANJI (Japanese) encoding. The default value for script encodings ("__ENCODING__") and external encodings ("Encoding.default_external") will be the specified one. kcode can be one of




Windows-31J (CP932)






Makes Ruby use the PATH environment variable to search for script, unless its name begins with a slash. This is used to emulate #! on machines that don’t support it, in the following manner:

#! /usr/local/bin/ruby
# This line makes the next one a comment in Ruby \
exec /usr/local/bin/ruby -S $0 $*


Turns on taint checks at the specified level (default 1).


Sets the default value for internal encodings ("Encoding.default_internal") to UTF-8.


Turns on verbose mode at the specified level without printing the version message at the beginning. The level can be;


Verbose mode is "silence". It sets the "$VERBOSE" to nil.


Verbose mode is "medium". It sets the "$VERBOSE" to false.

2 (default)

Verbose mode is "verbose". It sets the "$VERBOSE" to true. −W 2 is same as −w


Turns on auto-split mode when used with −n or −p. In auto-split mode, Ruby executes

$F = $_.split
at beginning of each loop.


Causes Ruby to check the syntax of the script and exit without executing. If there are no syntax errors, Ruby will print ‘‘Syntax OK’’ to the standard output.



Turns on debug mode. "$DEBUG" will be set to true.

−e command

Specifies script from command-line while telling Ruby not to search the rest of the arguments for a script file name.



Prints a summary of the options.

−i extension

Specifies in-place-edit mode. The extension, if specified, is added to old file name to make a backup copy. For example:

% echo matz > /tmp/junk
% cat /tmp/junk
% ruby -p -i.bak -e ’$_.upcase!’ /tmp/junk
% cat /tmp/junk
% cat /tmp/junk.bak


(The lowercase letter ‘‘ell’’.) Enables automatic line-ending processing, which means to firstly set "$\" to the value of "$/", and secondly chops every line read using chop!.


Causes Ruby to assume the following loop around your script, which makes it iterate over file name arguments somewhat like sed −n or awk.

while gets


Acts mostly same as -n switch, but print the value of variable "$_" at the each end of the loop. For example:

% echo matz | ruby -p -e ’$! "a-z", "A-Z"’

−r library

Causes Ruby to load the library using require. It is useful when using −n or −p.


Enables some switch parsing for switches after script name but before any file name arguments (or before a −-). Any switches found there are removed from ARGV and set the corresponding variable in the script. For example:

#! /usr/local/bin/ruby -s
# prints "true" if invoked with ‘-xyz’ switch.
print "true\n" if $xyz

On some systems "$0" does not always contain the full pathname, so you need the −S switch to tell Ruby to search for the script if necessary (to handle embedded spaces and such). A better construct than "$*" would be ${1+"$@"}, but it does not work if the script is being interpreted by csh(1).


Enables verbose mode. Ruby will print its version at the beginning and set the variable "$VERBOSE" to true. Some methods print extra messages if this variable is true. If this switch is given, and no other switches are present, Ruby quits after printing its version.


Enables verbose mode without printing version message at the beginning. It sets the "$VERBOSE" variable to true.


Tells Ruby that the script is embedded in a message. Leading garbage will be discarded until the first line that starts with ‘‘#!’’ and contains the string, ‘‘ruby’’. Any meaningful switches on that line will be applied. The end of the script must be specified with either EOF, "^D" ("control-D"), "^Z" ("control-Z"), or the reserved word __END__. If the directory name is specified, Ruby will switch to that directory before executing script.




Turns on compiler debug mode. Ruby will print a bunch of internal state messages during compilation. Only specify this switch you are going to debug the Ruby interpreter.


Disables (or enables) the specified FEATURE .


Disables (or enables) RubyGems libraries. By default, Ruby will load the latest version of each installed gem. The Gem constant is true if RubyGems is enabled, false if otherwise.


Ignores (or considers) the RUBYOPT environment variable. By default, Ruby considers the variable.


Disables (or enables) all features.



Prints the specified target. target can be one of;


disassembled instructions

Only specify this switch if you are going to debug the Ruby interpreter.


Enables verbose mode without printing version message at the beginning. It sets the "$VERBOSE" variable to true. If this switch is given, and no other switches are present, Ruby quits after printing its version.



A colon-separated list of directories that are added to Ruby’s library load path ("$:"). Directories from this environment variable are searched before the standard load path is searched.



Additional Ruby options.

RUBYOPT="-w -Ke"

Note that RUBYOPT can contain only −d,−E,−I,−K,−r,−T,−U,−v,−w,−W, −-debug, −-disable-FEATURE and −-enable-FEATURE.


A colon-separated list of directories that Ruby searches for Ruby programs when the −S flag is specified. This variable precedes the PATH environment variable.


The path to the system shell command. This environment variable is enabled for only mswin32, mingw32, and OS/2 platforms. If this variable is not defined, Ruby refers to COMSPEC.


Ruby refers to the PATH environment variable on calling Kernel#system.


This variable is obsolete.

And Ruby depends on some RubyGems related environment variables unless RubyGems is disabled. See the help of gem(1) as bellow.

% gem help


The official web site.

hosting many open source ruby projects.

Comprehensive catalog of Ruby libraries.


Security vulnerabilities should be reported via an email to <> Reported problems will be published after they’ve been fixed.

And you can report other bugs and feature requests via the Ruby Issue Tracking System ( Do not report security vulnerabilities via the system because it publishes the vulnerabilities immediately.


Ruby is designed and implemented by Yukihiro Matsumoto <>.

See <> for contributors to Ruby.

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