xloadimage,  xsetbg, xview - load images into an X11 window or onto the
   root window


   xloadimage [global_options] {[image_options] image ...}
   xloadimage [global_options] [image_options] stdin < image


   Xloadimage displays images in an X11 window, loads them onto  the  root
   window,  or  writes them into a file.  Many image types are recognized;
   use the -supported option to list them.

   If the filename stdin is given, xloadimage will  read  the  image  from
   standard  input  if this capability is supported by the loader for that
   image type (most types do support reading from stdin).

   If the destination display cannot support the number of colors  in  the
   image,  the image will be dithered (monochrome destination) or have its
   colormap reduced (color destination) as appropriate.  This can also  be
   done forcibly with the -halftone, -dither, and -colors options.

   A  variety  of  image  manipulations  can be specified, including gamma
   correction,   brightening,   clipping,   dithering,    depthreduction,
   rotation,  and  zooming.   Most  of  these  manipulations  have  simple
   implementations; speed was opted for above accuracy.

   If you are viewing a large image in a window, the initial  window  will
   be  at  most  90%  of the size of the display unless the window manager
   does not correctly handle window size requests or if  you've  used  the
   -fullscreen  option.   You  may  move the image around in the window by
   dragging with the first mouse button.  The cursor will  indicate  which
   directions you may drag, if any.  You may exit the window by typing 'q'
   or '^C' when the keyboard focus is on the window.

   If more than one image file is specified  on  the  command  line,  each
   image  will  be  shown  in  order  (except if -merge or -goto are being

   A wide variety of common image manipulations can be done by mixing  and
   matching  the  available  options.   See the section entitled HINTS FOR
   GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS for some ideas.

   The -dump option causes an image to be written to a  file  rather  than
   displayed  after processing.  This allows you to read an image, perform
   a number of processing operations on it, and save the resultant  image.
   This  also  allows  translation  from any of the recognized image types
   into any of the formats that support dumping.

   Xsetbg  is  equivalent  to  xloadimage  -onroot  -quiet  and  xview  is
   equivalent to xloadimage -view -verbose.


   Xloadimage  uses the resource class name Xloadimage for window managers
   which need this resource set.  This name changed in  version  2.00  and
   2.01;  some  previous  versions  used  the  name  XLoadImage (which was
   difficult to predict) or xloadimage (which conflicted with class naming


   The  following options affect the global operation of xloadimage.  They
   may be specified  anywhere  on  the  command  line.   Additionally  the
   -global  option  can  be  used to force an image option to apply to all

   -border color
           This sets the background portion of the  window  which  is  not
           covered by any images to be color.

           Displays  the image path, image suffixes, and supported filters
           which will be used when looking for and reading images.   These
           are   loaded   from   ~/.xloadimagerc  and  optionally  from  a
           systemwide   file   (normally   /usr/lib/xloadimagerc).    This
           replaces the -path option.

           Use  the  default  root weave as the image.  This option forces
           -onroot.  If -default is used alone, it is the same as xsetroot
           with  no  arguments.   If  used  in conjunction with -tile this
           option can be used to place images on the  default  root  weave
           (see EXAMPLES below).

   -debug  Talk  to  the X server in synchronous mode.  This is useful for
           debugging.  If an X error is seen while in this  mode,  a  core
           will be dumped.

   -display display_name
           X11 display name to send the image(s) to.

   -dump image_type[,option[=value]] dump_file
           Rather  than displaying the loaded and processed image, dump it
           into an image file of the specified type.  For a list of  image
           types  that  can  be  dumped,  use the -supported option.  Some
           image types have options that affect the  format  of  the  file
           that's  created.   See  DUMP  OPTIONS  below.   An image can be
           dumped in any supported dump format regardless of the  original
           image  type,  so  image file type translation is possible using
           this option.

   -fit    Force image to use the default visual and  colormap.   This  is
           useful if you do not want technicolor effects when the colormap
           focus is inside the image window, but it may reduce the quality
           of  the  displayed  image.  This is on by default if -onroot or
           -windowid is specified.

   -fork   Fork xloadimage.  This causes xloadimage to disassociate itself
           from the shell.  This option automatically turns on -quiet.

           Use  the  entire  screen  to  display images.  If combined with
           -onroot,  the  image  will  be  zoomed  to  fill   the   entire

   -geometry WxH[{+-X}{+-}Y]
           This  sets  the  size  of  the window onto which the images are
           loaded to a different value than the size of the  image.   When
           viewing  an  image  in a window, this can be used to reduce the
           size of the destination window.  When loading an image onto the
           root  window, this option controls the size of the pixmap which
           will be loaded onto the root.  If the size is smaller than that
           of the display, the image will be replicated.

   -goto image_name
           Forces  the  next  image  to be displayed to be the image named
           image_name.  This is useful for generating  looped  slideshows.
           If more than one image of the same name as the target exists on
           the argument list, the first in the argument list is used.

   -help [option ...]
           Give information on an option or list of options.  If no option
           is given, a simple interactive help facility is invoked.

           Identify the supplied images rather than display them.

           Forcibly  install  the  image's  colormap  when  the  window is
           focused.  This violates ICCCM  standards  and  only  exists  to
           allow  operation  with  naive window managers.  Use this option
           only  if  your  window  manager  does  not  install   colormaps

   -list   List the images which are along the image path.

   -onroot Load  image(s)  onto  the  root  window instead of viewing in a
           window.  This option automatically sets the -fit option.   This
           is  the  opposite  of  -view.   XSetbg  has  this option set by

   -path   Displays   miscellaneous   information   about   the    program
           configuration.   This  option is obsolete and has been replaced
           by -configuration.

   -pixmap Force the use of a pixmap as backingstore.  This  is  provided
           for  servers  where  backingstore  is  broken  (such  as  some
           versions of the AIXWindows server).  It may  improve  scrolling
           performance on servers which provide backingstore.

           Force  the  use  of  a  private  colormap.  Normally colors are
           allocated shared unless there are not enough colors available.

   -quiet  Forces xloadimage and xview to be quiet.  This is  the  default
           for xsetbg, but the others like to whistle.

           List the supported image types.

   -type type_name
           Forces xloadimage to try to load the image as a particular file
           type rather than trying to guess.   This  often  improves  load
           performance noticeably.

           Causes  xloadimage  to  be  talkative, telling you what kind of
           image it's playing with and any special processing that it  has
           to do.  This is the default for xview and xloadimage.

           Print  the  version  number  and  patchlevel of this version of

   -view   View image(s) in a window.  This is the opposite of -onroot and
           the default for xview and xloadimage.

   -visual visual_name
           Force  the  use  of a specific visual type to display an image.
           Normally xloadimage tries to pick the best available image  for
           a  particular  image  type.   The  available  visual types are:
           DirectColor, TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  StaticColor,  GrayScale,
           and  StaticGray.   Nonconflicting  names may be abbreviated and
           case is ignored.

   -windowid hex_window_id
           Sets the background pixmap of  a  particular  window  ID.   The
           argument  must  be  in hexadecimal and must be preceded by "0x"
           (eg -windowid 0x40000b.   This  is  intended  for  setting  the
           background  pixmap  of  some servers which use untagged virtual
           roots (eg HP-VUE), but can have other interesting applications.


   The following options may precede each image.  These options are  local
   to the image they precede.

   -at X,Y
          Indicates  coordinates  to  load the image at on the base image.
          If this is an option to the first image, and the -onroot  option
          is  specified, the image will be loaded at the given location on
          the display background.

   -background color
          Use color  as  the  background  color  instead  of  the  default
          (usually  white  but  this depends on the image type) if you are
          transferring a monochrome image to a color display.

   -brighten percentage
          Specify a percentage multiplier for a color image's colormap.  A
          value  of more than 100 will brighten an image, one of less than
          100 will darken it.

          Center the image on the base image loaded.  If this is an option
          to  the  first  image,  and the -onroot option is specified, the
          image will be centered on the display background.

   -clip X,Y,W,H
          Clip the image before loading it.  X and Y define the upperleft
          corner  of  the clip area, and W and H define the extents of the
          area.  A zero value for W  or  H  will  be  interpreted  as  the
          remainder of the image.

   -colors n
          Specify  the maximum number of colors to use in the image.  This
          is a way to forcibly reduce the depth of an image.

   -delay secs
          Automatically advance to the next image after secs seconds.  You
          may want to use the -global switch with this command to create a
          slideshow with multiple images.

          Dither a color  image  to  monochrome  using  a  FloydSteinberg
          dithering algorithm.  This happens by default when viewing color
          images on a monochrome display.  This is slower  than  -halftone
          and affects the image accuracy but usually looks much better.

   -foreground color
          Use  color  as  the foreground color instead of black if you are
          transferring a monochrome image to a color  display.   This  can
          also be used to invert the foreground and background colors of a
          monochrome image.

   -gamma display_gamma
          Specify the gamma correction for the display.  The default value
          is 1.0, a typical display needs 2.0 to 2.5.

          Force  the  following  option to apply to all images rather than
          one  specific  image.   Local  image  options  will  temporarily
          override any option specified with -global.

   -gray  Convert  an  image  to  grayscale.   This  is  very  useful when
          displaying  colorful  images  on  servers  with  limited   color
          capability.   It can also be used to convert a bitmap image into
          a grayscale image, although the resulting image will be  smaller
          than  the  original.   The  optional  spelling -grey may also be

          Force halftone dithering of a color image when displaying  on  a
          monochrome  display.   This  option  is  ignored  on  monochrome
          images.  This dithering algorithm blows an image up  by  sixteen
          times;  if you don't like this, the -dither option will not blow
          the image up but will take longer to process and  will  be  less

   -idelay secs
          This  option  is  no  longer  supported  due  to the addition of
          -global.  The same functionality can be had with -delay.

          Inverts a monochrome image.  This is shorthand  for  -foreground
          white -background black.

   -merge Merge  this  image  onto  the base image after local processing.
          The base image is considered to be the first image specified  or
          the  last  image  that  was  not preceded by -merge.  If used in
          conjunction with -at and -clip, very complex images can be built
          up.   This option is on by default for all images if the -onroot
          or -windowid options are specified.

   -name image_name
          Force the next argument to be treated as an image name.  This is
          useful if the name of the image is -dither, for instance.

          Reset globally-specified options.

          Normalize a color image.

   -rotate degrees
          Rotate  the  image  by  degrees clockwise.  The number must be a
          multiple of 90.

          Shrink  an  image  down  to  fit  on  the  display.    This   is
          particularly  useful  with  servers  that  do not support window
          sizes larger than the physical screen (eg DECWINDOWS servers).

          Smooth a color image.  This reduces blockiness after zooming  an
          image up.  If used on a monochrome image, nothing happens.  This
          option can take awhile to perform, especially on  large  images.
          You  may specify more than one -smooth option per image, causing
          multiple iterations of the smoothing algorithm.

   -tile  Tile this image (after  any  necessary  merging  or  tiling)  to
          create  a  fullscreen  image.   This is usually used to create a
          large  background  image  on  which  to  merge   other   images.
          -geometry  can  be  used  to set the new image size to something
          other than -fullscreen.

   -title title
          Change the title of the image.  This sets the title bar title if
          displaying  in  a window or the NIFF file image title if dumping
          the image.

   -xzoom percentage
          Zoom the X axis of an image by  percentage.   A  number  greater
          than 100 will expand the image, one smaller will compress it.  A
          zero value will be ignored.  This option, and the related -yzoom
          are  useful  for  correcting  the  aspect  ratio of images to be

   -yzoom percentage
          Zoom the Y axis of an image by percentage.  See -xzoom for  more

   -zoom percentage
          Zoom  both  the X and Y axes by percentage.  See -xzoom for more
          information.  Technically the percentage actually zoomed is  the
          square  of  the  number supplied since the zoom is to both axes,
          but I opted for consistency instead of accuracy.


   To load the rasterfile "my.image" onto the background and replicate  it
   to fill the entire background:

        xloadimage -onroot my.image

   To center an image on the default root background:

        xloadimage -default -tile my.image

   If  using a monochrome display and a color image you will probably want
   to dither the image for a cleaner (and faster) display:

        xloadimage -default -tile -dither my.image

   To load a monochrome image "my.image" onto the background, using red as
   the  foreground color, replicate the image, and overlay "another.image"
   onto it at coordinate (10,10):

        xloadimage -foreground red my.image -at 10,10 another.image

   To center the rectangular region from 10 to 110 along the  X  axis  and
   from 10 to the height of the image along the Y axis:

        xloadimage -center -clip 10,10,100,0 my.image

   To double the size of an image:

        xloadimage -zoom 200 my.image

   To halve the size of an image:

        xloadimage -zoom 50 my.image

   To brighten a dark image:

        xloadimage -brighten 150 my.image

   To darken a bright image:

        xloadimage -brighten 50 my.image


   Since  images are likely to come from a variety of sources, they may be
   in a variety of aspect ratios  which  may  not  be  supported  by  your
   display.   The  -xzoom  and  -yzoom  options  can be used to change the
   aspect ratio of an image before display.  If you use these options,  it
   is  recommended  that  you  increase  the size of one of the dimensions
   instead of shrinking the other, since  shrinking  looses  detail.   For
   instance,  many  GIF  and G3 FAX images have an X:Y ratio of about 2:1.
   You can correct this for viewing on a 1:1 display with either -xzoom 50
   or  -yzoom  200  (reduce X axis to 50% of its size and expand Y axis to
   200% of its size, respectively) but the latter should  be  used  so  no
   detail is lost in the conversion.

   When  zooming  color  images up you can reduce blockiness with -smooth.
   For zooms of 300% or more, I recommend two smoothing  passes  (although
   this  can  take  awhile  to  do  on  slow  machines).   There will be a
   noticeable improvement in the image.

   You can perform image processing on a small  portion  of  an  image  by
   loading  the  image  more than once and using the -merge, -at and -clip
   options.  Load the image, then  merge  it  with  a  clipped,  processed
   version  of  itself.   To  brighten a 100x100 rectangular portion of an
   image located at (50,50), for instance, you could type:

        xloadimage my.image -merge -at 50,50 -clip 50,50,100,100 -brighten
   150 my.image

   If  you're  using  a  display with a small colormap to display colorful
   images, try using the -gray option to convert to grayscale.


   The file ~/.xloadimagerc (and optionally a system-wide file) defines  a
   number of configuration options that affect xloadimage.

   This  file is split into three section, the path section, the extension
   section, and the filter section.  The sections are identified by typing
   the section name followed by an equals sign, eg "path =".

   The path statement is used to provide a set of search paths to use when
   looking for an image of a specified name.  Separate each  path  in  the
   list  by  whitespace  (eg  one or more spaces, tabs, or newlines).  The
   path is searched in the order it is specified.  For example:

     path = ~/images /usr/local/images ~fred

   will first look for the image name you specified,  then  look  for  the
   name in ~/images (the tilde is expanded to the value of $HOME), then in
   /usr/local/images, then in user fred's  home  directory.   This  allows
   easy use of image repositories.

   The  extension statement is used to provide a set of default extensions
   to use when looking for an image of a specified  name.   Separate  each
   extension  in  the  list by whitespace.  The extensions are searched in
   the order in which they are specified.  For example:

     extension = .gif .jpg

   If you have a file named myimage.gif you could specify the name myimage
   and xloadimage would append the .gif extension automatically.

   The  filter  statement  is  used  to  describe filter programs, such as
   "uncompress", which are to be applied  to  image  files  automatically.
   You  specify one filter program and any number of recognized extensions
   following the filter keyword.  For example:

     filter = uncompress .Z

   specifies that the program  uncompress  should  be  used  as  a  filter
   whenever  an  image  file  has  a .Z extension.  By default filters are
   provided for compressed (.Z) files and GNU zip (.gz)  files.   See  the
   FILTERS section for more information on defining your own filters.

   Any text on a line following a hashmark (#) is ignored; if you wish to
   use a hashmark in a path, extension, or filter you can escape it using
   a backslash (\).

   If  you  wish to include white-space in a filter program name, path, or
   extension you can  enclose  the  entire  text  in  doublequotes.   For

     filter = "gzip -cd" .gz

   Use  backslash  (\) characters to allow inclusion of doublequote marks
   or newlines.

   The following is a sample ~/.xloadimagerc file:

     # paths to look for images in
     path = /usr/local/images        # system image repository
           ~/images                 # personal images
           /usr/include/X11/bitmaps # standard X bitmaps

     # default extensions for images
     extension = .csun .msun .sun .face .xbm .bm

     # invoke GNU zip if a .z or .zip extension is found
     filter = "gzip -cd" .z .zip


   Xloadimage currently supports  many  common  and  some  uncommon  image
   types,  and  can create images in several formats.  For a complete list
   use the -supported option.


   Several image dumpers are included that can be used  to  create  a  new
   image  after  loading  and  processing.   The  NIFF  (Native Image File
   Format) is the simplest and creates images that xloadimage can read the
   fastest; it is essentially a copy of the internal image format.

   Some  image  dumpers allow options that affect the image output.  These
   options are appended to the  image  type  following  a  comma  and  are
   separated  by  commas.   If  a  value  is  desired  it can be specified
   following an equalssign.  For example, to  create  a  monochrome  JPEG
   image  file  with  a  quality factor of 80, you would use the following
   command line:

     xloadimage image_name -dump jpeg,quality=80,grayscale new_image.jpg

   Option names can be abbreviated but if the abbreviation is too short to
   be unique the option which will be used is indeterminate.


   Xloadimage supports automatic filtering by recognizing file extensions.
   By default "compress" and "gzip" files are recognized and  their  names
   passed to appropriate commands to decompress them.

   The  xloadimage  distribution  includes  a  special  "smart" uudecoder,
   called uufilter that can be used to automatically  uudecode  files  for
   processing.   Uufilter  ignores  extraneous  lines in the file so it is
   particularly useful if the uuencoded file was created by  concatenating
   email  or  news  postings  that  had  headers  or linebreak indicators

   To make use of uufilter you can add the following to your .xloadimagerc

     filter = "uufilter -s" .uu .uue
   The filter will be automatically invoked on any file with a .uu or .uue

   For a list of filters automatically recognized by  xloadimage  use  the
   -configuration option.


   The JPEG image dumper supports the following options:

           Use arithmetic encoding.

           Force  a  monochrome  (grayscale)  image  to be created given a
           color image.

           Create a noninterleaved file.

           Enable entropy parameter optimization.

   quality Adjust the quality of the image to  be  created.   The  default
           quality factor is 75; lower values create poorer images.

   restart interval
           Set  the  restart  interval in MCU rows, or MCUs if 'b' follows
           the interval value.

   smooth smoothing_factor
           Set the smoothing factor.  Value should be between 0  and  100,

   If  you  are not familiar with the meaning of these options you can ask
   the Independent JPEG Group (IJG) via email at jpeg@cs.columbia.edu.

   The PBM image dumper supports the following options:

   normal  Dump a normal (ascii) PBM/PPM file.

   raw     Dump a RawBits format PBM/PPM file.  This is  the  default  and
           results  in  significantly  smaller image files than when using

   There is no way to dump a PGM format file or  a  "compact"  PBM  format
   file (sorry).

   The TIFF image dumper supports the following options:

           Image  data  compression  technique.   Can  be one of: none (no
           compression), rle (CCITT RLE compression), g3fax (CCITT Group 3
           FAX  compression),  g4fax  (CCITT Group 4 FAX compression), lzw
           (LimpelZivWelsh  compression,  the   default),   jpeg   (JPEG
           compression),  next  (NeXT runlength compression), rlew (CCITT
           RLEW  compression),  mac  (Macintosh   PackBits   compression),
           packbits (same as mac), thunderscan (ThunderScan compression).

   Xloadimage will save using the MINISBLACK, MINISWHITE, COLORMAP, or RGB
   photometrics as appropriate for its internal image format.  There is no
   way to specify a particular photometric or any other TIFF fields.


   Jim Frost
   CenterLine Software

   For a moreorless complete list of other contributors (there are a lot
   of them), please see the README file enclosed with the distribution.


        xloadimage              - the image loader and viewer
        xsetbg                  - pseudonym which quietly sets the background
        xview                   - pseudonym which views in a window
        /etc/X11/Xloadimage     - default system-wide configuration file
        ~/.xloadimagerc         - user's personal configuration file


   Copyright (c) 1989, 1993 Jim Frost and others.

   Xloadimage is copyrighted material with a very loose copyright allowing
   unlimited  modification  and  distribution if the copyright notices are
   left intact.  Various portions are copyrighted by various  people,  but
   all  use  a modification of the MIT copyright notice.  Please check the
   source for complete copyright information.  The intent is to  keep  the
   source  free,  not to stifle its distribution, so please write to me if
   you have any questions.


   Zooming dithered images, especially downwards, is UGLY.

   Images can come in a  variety  of  aspect  ratios.   Xloadimage  cannot
   detect what aspect ratio the particular image being loaded has, nor the
   aspect ratio of the  destination  display,  so  images  with  differing
   aspect  ratios from the destination display will appear distorted.  See
   HINTS FOR GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS for more information.

   The GIF format allows more than one image to be stored in a single  GIF
   file, but xloadimage will only display the first.

   Only GIF87a format is supported.

   One  of  the  pseudonyms for xloadimage, xview, is the same name as Sun
   uses for their SunViewunderX package.   This  will  be  confusing  if
   you're one of those poor souls who has to use Sun's XView.

   Some  window managers do not correctly handle window size requests.  In
   particular, many versions of the twm window  manager  use  the  MaxSize
   hint  instead  of  the PSize hint, causing images which are larger than
   the screen to display in a window larger  than  the  screen,  something
   which  is  normally  avoided.   Some  versions  of  twm also ignore the
   MaxSize argument's real function, to limit  the  maximum  size  of  the
   window,  and  allow the window to be resized larger than the image.  If
   this happens, xloadimage merely places  the  image  in  the  upperleft
   corner  of  the  window  and uses the zerovalue'ed pixel for any space
   which is not covered by the image.  This behavior is lessthangraceful
   but  so  are  window  managers  which  are  cruel enough to ignore such

                              8 May 1991                    XLOADIMAGE(1x)


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Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.


Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.

Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.