xmlwf - Determines if an XML document is well-formed


   xmlwf [-s] [-n] [-p] [-x] [-e encoding] [-w] [-d output-dir] [-c] [-m]
         [-r] [-t] [-v] [file ...]


   xmlwf uses the Expat library to determine if an XML document  is  well-
   formed. It is non-validating.

   If  you  do  not  specify any files on the command-line, and you have a
   recent version of xmlwf, the input file  will  be  read  from  standard


   A well-formed document must adhere to the following rules:

   * The  file  begins  with  an  XML  declaration.  For  instance,  <?xml
     version="1.0" standalone="yes"?>.  NOTE:  xmlwf  does  not  currently
     check for a valid XML declaration.

   * Every  start  tag is either empty (<tag/>) or has a corresponding end

   * There is exactly one root element.  This  element  must  contain  all
     other  elements  in  the  document.  Only  comments, white space, and
     processing instructions may come after the close of the root element.

   * All elements nest properly.

   * All attribute  values  are  enclosed  in  quotes  (either  single  or

   If the document has a DTD, and it strictly complies with that DTD, then
   the document is also  considered  valid.   xmlwf  is  a  non-validating
   parser  -- it does not check the DTD. However, it does support external
   entities (see the -x option).


   When an option includes an  argument,  you  may  specify  the  argument
   either  separately  ("-d  output")  or  concatenated  with  the  option
   ("-doutput"). xmlwf supports both.

   -c     If the input file is well-formed and xmlwf doesn't encounter any
          errors,  the input file is simply copied to the output directory
          unchanged.  This  implies  no  namespaces  (turns  off  -n)  and
          requires -d to specify an output file.

   -d output-dir
          Specifies  a directory to contain transformed representations of
          the  input  files.   By  default,   -d   outputs   a   canonical
          representation  (described  below).   You  can  select different
          output formats using -c and -m.

          The output filenames will be  exactly  the  same  as  the  input
          filenames or "STDIN" if the input is coming from standard input.
          Therefore, you must be careful that the output file does not  go
          into the same directory as the input file. Otherwise, xmlwf will
          delete the input file before it generates the output file  (just
          like running cat < file > file in most shells).

          Two  structurally  equivalent XML documents have a byte-for-byte
          identical canonical XML  representation.   Note  that  ignorable
          white   space   is   considered   significant   and  is  treated
          equivalently to data.  More on canonical XML  can  be  found  at
          http://www.jclark.com/xml/canonxml.html .

   -e encoding
          Specifies  the  character  encoding for the document, overriding
          any document encoding declaration. xmlwf supports four  built-in
          encodings:  US-ASCII,  UTF-8,  UTF-16, and ISO-8859-1.  Also see
          the -w option.

   -m     Outputs some strange sort of XML file that completely  describes
          the  input  file, including character positions.  Requires -d to
          specify an output file.

   -n     Turns on namespace processing. (describe namespaces) -c disables

   -p     Tells xmlwf to process external DTDs and parameter entities.

          Normally  xmlwf  never parses parameter entities. -p tells it to
          always parse them.  -p implies -x.

   -r     Normally xmlwf memory-maps the XML file before parsing; this can
          result  in  faster  parsing  on  many  platforms.   -r turns off
          memory-mapping and  uses  normal  file  IO  calls  instead.   Of
          course,  memory-mapping is automatically turned off when reading
          from standard input.

          Use  of  memory-mapping  can  cause  some  platforms  to  report
          substantially higher memory usage for xmlwf, but this appears to
          be a matter of  the  operating  system  reporting  memory  in  a
          strange way; there is not a leak in xmlwf.

   -s     Prints  an  error if the document is not standalone.  A document
          is standalone if it has no external subset and no references  to
          parameter entities.

   -t     Turns on timings. This tells Expat to parse the entire file, but
          not perform any processing.  This gives a fairly  accurate  idea
          of  the  raw  speed of Expat itself without client overhead.  -t
          turns off most of the output options (-d, -m, -c, ...).

   -v     Prints the version of the Expat library  being  used,  including
          some  information  on  the  compile-time  configuration  of  the
          library, and then exits.

   -w     Enables support for Windows code pages.   Normally,  xmlwf  will
          throw  an  error  if  it  runs across an encoding that it is not
          equipped to handle itself. With -w, xmlwf  will  try  to  use  a
          Windows code page. See also -e.

   -x     Turns on parsing external entities.

          Non-validating  parsers  are  not  required  to resolve external
          entities, or even expand entities at all.  Expat always  expands
          internal  entities  (?),  but  external  entity  parsing must be
          enabled explicitly.

          External entities are simply entities  that  obtain  their  data
          from outside the XML file currently being parsed.

          This is an example of an internal entity:

          <!ENTITY vers '1.0.2'>

          And here are some examples of external entities:

          <!ENTITY header SYSTEM "header-&vers;.xml">  (parsed)
          <!ENTITY logo SYSTEM "logo.png" PNG>         (unparsed)

   --     (Two  hyphens.)   Terminates  the  list of options. This is only
          needed if a filename starts with a hyphen. For example:

          xmlwf -- -myfile.xml

          will run xmlwf on the file -myfile.xml.

   Older versions of xmlwf do not support reading from standard input.


   If an input file  is  not  well-formed,  xmlwf  prints  a  single  line
   describing  the  problem  to standard output. If a file is well formed,
   xmlwf outputs nothing.  Note that the result code is not set.


   xmlwf returns a 0 - noerr result, even if the file is not  well-formed.
   There is no good way for a program to use xmlwf to quickly check a file
   -- it must parse xmlwf's standard output.

   The errors should go to standard error, not standard output.

   There should be a way to get -d to send its output to  standard  output
   rather than forcing the user to send it to a file.

   I have no idea why anyone would want to use the -d, -c, and -m options.
   If someone could explain it to me, I'd like to add this information  to
   this manpage.


   Here are some XML validators on the web:



   The Expat home page:        http://www.libexpat.org/
   The W3 XML specification:   http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml


   This manual page was written by Scott Bronson <bronson@rinspin.com> for
   the Debian GNU/Linux system (but may be used by others). Permission  is
   granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms
   of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1.

                            March 11, 2016                        XMLWF(1)


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