What is Linux

Linux is a computer operating system (OS) that is developed, assembled and distributed under the model of free and open-source software.

The computer operating system is the computer program called the kernel. The kernel executes and manages the execution of other software programs, interfaces with the physical machine and manages I/O (input/output) requests from software.

How is Linux Used

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system.

The Android system that is used for smartphones is built on top of the Linux kernel and has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems.

Linux is also the leading operating system on servers and large scale systems such as mainframe computers and supercomputers. Linux also works on some devices whose operating system is implemented in firmware. Examples of this include routers, video games, watches, television controllers, etc.

"The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source software collaboration. The underlying source code may be used, modified, distributed-commercially or non-commercially by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License."

What is a Distribution

The Linux kernel is packaged with libraries, supporting utilities, applications and other programs to form a distribution. The programs that make up a distribution may be focused on providing either a desktop or server environment. They may also focus on some specific aspect or capabilities for either desktop or servers.

Anyone can create a distribution or a collection of Linux software for any use. Some of the most widely used Linux distributions are described below:


Debian GNU/Linux is a distribution that supports many hardware platforms. Debian and distributions based on it use the .deb package format and the dpkg package manager and its frontends. Debian is known for being well-tested and bug-free. Many consider Debian as a distro for experienced users. The version release cycle is slow with stable releases coming out every one to three years. Debian provides more than a pure OS: it comes with over 43000 packages, precompiled software bundled up in a nice format for easy installation on your machine. Debian


Ubuntu is a distribution based on Debian, designed to have regular releases, a consistent user experience and commercial support on both desktop and server. It has a predictable, six-month release schedule and is also notable for its ease of use and its inclusion of a migration assistant for Windows users. It is also know for its support of new technology. Ubuntu


Fedora is the community supported distribution based on Red Hat Linux. Fedora is particularly strong on enterprise features and has a standard a six-month release schedule. It uses the RPM format for software distribution and updates. Fedora


Linux Mint is an Ubuntu-based distro. It differs from Ubuntu with custom themes, different applications, graphical tools for enhanced usability, such as mintDesktop for configuring the desktop environment, mintInstall for easier software installation and mintMenu for easier navigation. Mint is one of the most user friendly distributions. Mint


Puppy Linux is a compact distro that's ideal for older hardware and situations where computing resources are minimal. The live-CD typically being 85MB, yet there is a complete set of GUI applications. The whole OS is small enough to run directly from system RAM. The system is extremely responsive and applications start quickly and respond instantly. Puppy


Arch Linux is a simple, lightweight and flexible Linux. A good deal of the configuration has to be done by the user. It is generally consider as a distribution for experts. Arch


There are more than 100 current Linux distributions. Check distrowatch if you are interested in investigating more.

Financial Opportunity

Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.

Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.

U.S. Government - On January 20 2009, President Obama's first day in office, the Open Government initiative was issued to provide transparency and access to Government data. Learn how our Government is using open source and the opportunities this provides for you. Leverage Use open Government data or

Free Books

The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.

The Library of History by Diodorus the Sicilian is one of the most highly regarded universal histories in antiquities. His work includes the history of Egypt, Asia, Africa, Greece and Europe. His book is a must read for research of ancient history.

The Histories of Herodotus written in 440 BC is considered to be the founding work of history in Western literature. His history included stories and fables but he claimed to have traveled extensively and learned about many countries through direct observation.


The thesis of Stolen Legacy is that the Egyptians created what is wrongly called Greek philosophy. Dr. James argues that the African origin of Greek Philosophy is well known but rarely discussed. Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus the Sicilian wrote in significant detail about the contributions of Egypt. Egyptian technology and libraries were unmatched and Greek philosophers such as Pythagoras and Plato studied there. The contribution of Africa to the intellectual foundation of modern knowledge is tremendous but unacknowledged.

Bible Study The King James Bible (kjv), World English Bible (web) and Bible in Basic English (bbe) are all examples of public domain books. The King James Bible (kjv) online uses the content from these books and open source software to enhance Bible study capabilities. The site includes the verse of the day, search tools, christian literature and links to related content. It demonstrates the use of open source to create a valuable service.

Free Software

Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.

Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.


Linux is an open source computer operating system (OS) used on laptops, games, watches and super computers. The software and the source code used for Linux are both available to you at no cost. Use this powerful resource to your advantage.

Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.

Educational Materials

Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.

Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.