getlogin, getlogin_r, cuserid - get username


   #include <unistd.h>

   char *getlogin(void);
   int getlogin_r(char *buf, size_t bufsize);

   #include <stdio.h>

   char *cuserid(char *string);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

   getlogin_r(): _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 199506L

       Since glibc 2.24:
           (_XOPEN_SOURCE && ! (_POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L)
           || __GNU_SOURCE
       Up to and including glibc 2.23:


   getlogin()  returns  a  pointer  to a string containing the name of the
   user logged in on the controlling terminal of the process,  or  a  null
   pointer  if  this  information  cannot  be  determined.   The string is
   statically allocated and might be overwritten on  subsequent  calls  to
   this function or to cuserid().

   getlogin_r()  returns  this  same  username  in  the  array buf of size

   cuserid()  returns  a  pointer  to  a  string  containing  a   username
   associated with the effective user ID of the process.  If string is not
   a null pointer, it should be an array that can hold at least  L_cuserid
   characters; the string is returned in this array.  Otherwise, a pointer
   to a string in a static area is returned.  This  string  is  statically
   allocated and might be overwritten on subsequent calls to this function
   or to getlogin().

   The macro L_cuserid is an integer constant that indicates how  long  an
   array  you  might  need  to store a username.  L_cuserid is declared in

   These functions let your program identify positively the  user  who  is
   running   (cuserid())   or   the   user  who  logged  in  this  session
   (getlogin()).   (These  can  differ  when  set-user-ID   programs   are

   For  most  purposes,  it is more useful to use the environment variable
   LOGNAME to find out who the user is.  This is more  flexible  precisely
   because the user can set LOGNAME arbitrarily.


   getlogin()  returns a pointer to the username when successful, and NULL
   on failure, with  errno  set  to  indicate  the  cause  of  the  error.
   getlogin_r() returns 0 when successful, and nonzero on failure.


   POSIX specifies

   EMFILE The per-process limit on the number of open file descriptors has
          been reached.

   ENFILE The system-wide limit on the total number of open files has been

   ENXIO  The calling process has no controlling terminal.

   ERANGE (getlogin_r)   The   length   of  the  username,  including  the
          terminating null byte ('\0'), is larger than bufsize.

   Linux/glibc also has

   ENOENT There was no corresponding entry in the utmp-file.

   ENOMEM Insufficient memory to allocate passwd structure.

   ENOTTY Standard input didn't refer to a terminal.  (See BUGS.)


          password database file

          (traditionally /etc/utmp; some libc versions used /var/adm/utmp)


   For  an  explanation  of  the  terms  used   in   this   section,   see

   Interface     Attribute      Value                                 
   getlogin()    Thread safety  MT-Unsafe race:getlogin race:utent    
                                sig:ALRM timer locale                 
   getlogin_r()  Thread safety  MT-Unsafe race:utent sig:ALRM timer   
   cuserid()     Thread safety  MT-Unsafe race:cuserid/!string locale 
   In  the  above  table, utent in race:utent signifies that if any of the
   functions setutent(3), getutent(3), or endutent(3) are used in parallel
   in  different  threads  of  a  program,  then  data  races could occur.
   getlogin() and getlogin_r() call those functions, so we use  race:utent
   to remind users.


   getlogin() and getlogin_r(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.

   System  V  has  a cuserid() function which uses the real user ID rather
   than the effective user ID.  The cuserid() function was included in the
   1988  version  of  POSIX,  but  removed  from the 1990 version.  It was
   present in SUSv2, but removed in POSIX.1-2001.

   OpenBSD has getlogin() and setlogin(), and a username associated with a
   session, even if it has no controlling terminal.


   Unfortunately,  it  is often rather easy to fool getlogin().  Sometimes
   it does not work at all, because some program messed up the utmp  file.
   Often,  it  gives  only  the first 8 characters of the login name.  The
   user currently logged in on the controlling  terminal  of  our  program
   need  not  be  the user who started it.  Avoid getlogin() for security-
   related purposes.

   Note that glibc does not follow the POSIX specification and uses  stdin
   instead of /dev/tty.  A bug.  (Other recent systems, like SunOS 5.8 and
   HP-UX 11.11 and FreeBSD 4.8 all return the login name also  when  stdin
   is redirected.)

   Nobody  knows  precisely  what  cuserid()  does;  avoid  it in portable
   programs.  Or avoid it altogether: use getpwuid(geteuid()) instead,  if
   that is what you meant.  Do not use cuserid().


   logname(1), geteuid(2), getuid(2), utmp(5)


   This  page  is  part of release 4.09 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
   description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
   latest     version     of     this    page,    can    be    found    at


Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.

Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.

Free Software

Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.

Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.

Free Books

The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.

Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.


Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.

Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.