filesystems  -  Linux  filesystem  types:  ext, ext2, ext3, ext4, hpfs,
   iso9660, JFS, minix, msdos, ncpfs nfs, ntfs, proc, Reiserfs, smb, sysv,
   umsdos, vfat, XFS, xiafs,


   When, as is customary, the proc filesystem is mounted on /proc, you can
   find in  the  file  /proc/filesystems  which  filesystems  your  kernel
   currently  supports;  see  proc(5)  for  more  details.   If you need a
   currently unsupported filesystem, insert the  corresponding  module  or
   recompile the kernel.

   In order to use a filesystem, you have to mount it; see mount(8).

   Below  a  short  description of the available or historically available
   filesystems in the  Linux  kernel.   See  kernel  documentation  for  a
   comprehensive description of all options and limitations.

   ext       is  an  elaborate  extension of the minix filesystem.  It has
             been completely superseded  by  the  second  version  of  the
             extended  filesystem  (ext2)  and  has  been removed from the
             kernel (in 2.1.21).

   ext2      is the high performance disk filesystem  used  by  Linux  for
             fixed  disks as well as removable media.  The second extended
             filesystem was designed  as  an  extension  of  the  extended
             filesystem (ext).  See ext2 (5).

   ext3      is  a  journaling version of the ext2 filesystem.  It is easy
             to switch back and forth between ext2  and  ext3.   See  ext3

   ext4      is   a   set   of  upgrades  to  ext3  including  substantial
             performance  and   reliability   enhancements,   plus   large
             increases  in  volume,  file, and directory size limits.  See
             ext4 (5).

   hpfs      is the High  Performance  Filesystem,  used  in  OS/2.   This
             filesystem  is  read-only  under  Linux  due  to  the lack of
             available documentation.

   iso9660   is a CD-ROM  filesystem  type  conforming  to  the  ISO  9660

             High Sierra
                    Linux  supports  High Sierra, the precursor to the ISO
                    9660  standard  for   CD-ROM   filesystems.    It   is
                    automatically recognized within the iso9660 filesystem
                    support under Linux.

             Rock Ridge
                    Linux also supports the System  Use  Sharing  Protocol
                    records   specified  by  the  Rock  Ridge  Interchange
                    Protocol.  They are used to further describe the files
                    in  the iso9660 filesystem to a UNIX host, and provide
                    information such as  long  filenames,  UID/GID,  POSIX
                    permissions,   and   devices.    It  is  automatically
                    recognized within the iso9660 filesystem support under

   JFS       is  a  journaling  filesystem,  developed  by  IBM,  that was
             integrated into Linux in kernel 2.4.24.

   minix     is the filesystem used in the  Minix  operating  system,  the
             first  to  run under Linux.  It has a number of shortcomings,
             including a 64MB partition size limit, short filenames, and a
             single  timestamp.   It  remains  useful for floppies and RAM

   msdos     is the  filesystem  used  by  DOS,  Windows,  and  some  OS/2
             computers.    msdos   filenames  can  be  no  longer  than  8
             characters, followed by an optional period  and  3  character

   ncpfs     is  a network filesystem that supports the NCP protocol, used
             by Novell NetWare.

             To use ncpfs, you need special programs, which can  be  found

   nfs       is  the  network  filesystem  used to access disks located on
             remote computers.

   ntfs      replaces Microsoft Window's FAT  filesystems  (VFAT,  FAT32).
             It   has   reliability,  performance,  and  space-utilization
             enhancements plus features like ACLs, journaling, encryption,
             and so on.

   proc      is  a  pseudo  filesystem  which  is  used as an interface to
             kernel data structures rather than reading  and  interpreting
             /dev/kmem.   In particular, its files do not take disk space.
             See proc(5).

   Reiserfs  is a journaling filesystem, designed by Hans Reiser, that was
             integrated into Linux in kernel 2.4.1.

   smb       is  a network filesystem that supports the SMB protocol, used
             by Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT, and Lan Manager.

             To use smb fs, you need a special mount program, which can be
             found  in the ksmbfs package, found at

   sysv      is an implementation of the SystemV/Coherent  filesystem  for
             Linux.   It  implements  all of Xenix FS, SystemV/386 FS, and
             Coherent FS.

   umsdos    is an  extended  DOS  filesystem  used  by  Linux.   It  adds
             capability  for  long  filenames, UID/GID, POSIX permissions,
             and special files (devices, named pipes, etc.)  under the DOS
             filesystem, without sacrificing compatibility with DOS.

   vfat      is an extended DOS filesystem used by Microsoft Windows95 and
             Windows NT.  vfat adds the capability to use  long  filenames
             under the MSDOS filesystem.

   XFS       is  a  journaling  filesystem,  developed  by  SGI,  that was
             integrated into Linux in kernel 2.4.20.

   xiafs     was designed and implemented to be a stable, safe  filesystem
             by  extending  the  Minix  filesystem  code.  It provides the
             basic most requested features without undue complexity.   The
             xiafs   filesystem   is   no  longer  actively  developed  or
             maintained.  It was removed from the kernel in 2.1.21.


   fuse(4), ext2(5), ext3(5), ext4(5), proc(5), fsck(8), mkfs(8), mount(8)


   This page is part of release 4.09 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
   description  of  the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
   latest    version    of    this    page,    can     be     found     at


Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.

Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.

Free Software

Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.

Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.

Free Books

The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.

Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.


Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.

Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.