git-bundle - Move objects and refs by archive


   git bundle create <file> <git-rev-list-args>
   git bundle verify <file>
   git bundle list-heads <file> [<refname>...]
   git bundle unbundle <file> [<refname>...]


   Some workflows require that one or more branches of development on one
   machine be replicated on another machine, but the two machines cannot
   be directly connected, and therefore the interactive Git protocols
   (git, ssh, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for git
   fetch and git pull to operate by packaging objects and references in an
   archive at the originating machine, then importing those into another
   repository using git fetch and git pull after moving the archive by
   some means (e.g., by sneakernet). As no direct connection between the
   repositories exists, the user must specify a basis for the bundle that
   is held by the destination repository: the bundle assumes that all
   objects in the basis are already in the destination repository.


   create <file>
       Used to create a bundle named file. This requires the
       git-rev-list-args arguments to define the bundle contents.

   verify <file>
       Used to check that a bundle file is valid and will apply cleanly to
       the current repository. This includes checks on the bundle format
       itself as well as checking that the prerequisite commits exist and
       are fully linked in the current repository.  git bundle prints a
       list of missing commits, if any, and exits with a non-zero status.

   list-heads <file>
       Lists the references defined in the bundle. If followed by a list
       of references, only references matching those given are printed

   unbundle <file>
       Passes the objects in the bundle to git index-pack for storage in
       the repository, then prints the names of all defined references. If
       a list of references is given, only references matching those in
       the list are printed. This command is really plumbing, intended to
       be called only by git fetch.

       A list of arguments, acceptable to git rev-parse and git rev-list
       (and containing a named ref, see SPECIFYING REFERENCES below), that
       specifies the specific objects and references to transport. For
       example, master~10..master causes the current master reference to
       be packaged along with all objects added since its 10th ancestor
       commit. There is no explicit limit to the number of references and
       objects that may be packaged.

       A list of references used to limit the references reported as
       available. This is principally of use to git fetch, which expects
       to receive only those references asked for and not necessarily
       everything in the pack (in this case, git bundle acts like git


   git bundle will only package references that are shown by git show-ref:
   this includes heads, tags, and remote heads. References such as
   master~1 cannot be packaged, but are perfectly suitable for defining
   the basis. More than one reference may be packaged, and more than one
   basis can be specified. The objects packaged are those not contained in
   the union of the given bases. Each basis can be specified explicitly
   (e.g. ^master~10), or implicitly (e.g. master~10..master,
   --since=10.days.ago master).

   It is very important that the basis used be held by the destination. It
   is okay to err on the side of caution, causing the bundle file to
   contain objects already in the destination, as these are ignored when
   unpacking at the destination.


   Assume you want to transfer the history from a repository R1 on machine
   A to another repository R2 on machine B. For whatever reason, direct
   connection between A and B is not allowed, but we can move data from A
   to B via some mechanism (CD, email, etc.). We want to update R2 with
   development made on the branch master in R1.

   To bootstrap the process, you can first create a bundle that does not
   have any basis. You can use a tag to remember up to what commit you
   last processed, in order to make it easy to later update the other
   repository with an incremental bundle:

       machineA$ cd R1
       machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle master
       machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master

   Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. Because this
   bundle does not require any existing object to be extracted, you can
   create a new repository on machine B by cloning from it:

       machineB$ git clone -b master /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2

   This will define a remote called "origin" in the resulting repository
   that lets you fetch and pull from the bundle. The $GIT_DIR/config file
   in R2 will have an entry like this:

       [remote "origin"]
           url = /home/me/tmp/file.bundle
           fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*

   To update the resulting mine.git repository, you can fetch or pull
   after replacing the bundle stored at /home/me/tmp/file.bundle with
   incremental updates.

   After working some more in the original repository, you can create an
   incremental bundle to update the other repository:

       machineA$ cd R1
       machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle lastR2bundle..master
       machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master

   You then transfer the bundle to the other machine to replace
   /home/me/tmp/file.bundle, and pull from it.

       machineB$ cd R2
       machineB$ git pull

   If you know up to what commit the intended recipient repository should
   have the necessary objects, you can use that knowledge to specify the
   basis, giving a cut-off point to limit the revisions and objects that
   go in the resulting bundle. The previous example used the lastR2bundle
   tag for this purpose, but you can use any other options that you would
   give to the git-log(1) command. Here are more examples:

   You can use a tag that is present in both:

       $ git bundle create mybundle v1.0.0..master

   You can use a basis based on time:

       $ git bundle create mybundle --since=10.days master

   You can use the number of commits:

       $ git bundle create mybundle -10 master

   You can run git-bundle verify to see if you can extract from a bundle
   that was created with a basis:

       $ git bundle verify mybundle

   This will list what commits you must have in order to extract from the
   bundle and will error out if you do not have them.

   A bundle from a recipient repository's point of view is just like a
   regular repository which it fetches or pulls from. You can, for
   example, map references when fetching:

       $ git fetch mybundle master:localRef

   You can also see what references it offers:

       $ git ls-remote mybundle


   Part of the git(1) suite


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