git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state


   git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
   git reset (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
   git reset [--soft | --mixed [-N] | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]


   In the first and second form, copy entries from <tree-ish> to the
   index. In the third form, set the current branch head (HEAD) to
   <commit>, optionally modifying index and working tree to match. The
   <tree-ish>/<commit> defaults to HEAD in all forms.

   git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
       This form resets the index entries for all <paths> to their state
       at <tree-ish>. (It does not affect the working tree or the current

       This means that git reset <paths> is the opposite of git add

       After running git reset <paths> to update the index entry, you can
       use git-checkout(1) to check the contents out of the index to the
       working tree. Alternatively, using git-checkout(1) and specifying a
       commit, you can copy the contents of a path out of a commit to the
       index and to the working tree in one go.

   git reset (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
       Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index and
       <tree-ish> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied in
       reverse to the index.

       This means that git reset -p is the opposite of git add -p, i.e.
       you can use it to selectively reset hunks. See the "Interactive
       Mode" section of git-add(1) to learn how to operate the --patch

   git reset [<mode>] [<commit>]
       This form resets the current branch head to <commit> and possibly
       updates the index (resetting it to the tree of <commit>) and the
       working tree depending on <mode>. If <mode> is omitted, defaults to
       "--mixed". The <mode> must be one of the following:

           Does not touch the index file or the working tree at all (but
           resets the head to <commit>, just like all modes do). This
           leaves all your changed files "Changes to be committed", as git
           status would put it.

           Resets the index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed
           files are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what
           has not been updated. This is the default action.

           If -N is specified, removed paths are marked as intent-to-add
           (see git-add(1)).

           Resets the index and working tree. Any changes to tracked files
           in the working tree since <commit> are discarded.

           Resets the index and updates the files in the working tree that
           are different between <commit> and HEAD, but keeps those which
           are different between the index and working tree (i.e. which
           have changes which have not been added). If a file that is
           different between <commit> and the index has unstaged changes,
           reset is aborted.

           In other words, --merge does something like a git read-tree -u
           -m <commit>, but carries forward unmerged index entries.

           Resets index entries and updates files in the working tree that
           are different between <commit> and HEAD. If a file that is
           different between <commit> and HEAD has local changes, reset is

   If you want to undo a commit other than the latest on a branch, git-
   revert(1) is your friend.


   -q, --quiet
       Be quiet, only report errors.


   Undo add

           $ edit                                     (1)
           $ git add frotz.c filfre.c
           $ mailx                                    (2)
           $ git reset                                (3)
           $ git pull git:// nitfol  (4)

       1. You are happily working on something, and find the changes in
       these files are in good order. You do not want to see them when you
       run "git diff", because you plan to work on other files and changes
       with these files are distracting.
       2. Somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sounds worthy of
       3. However, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your index does not
       match the HEAD commit). But you know the pull you are going to make
       does not affect frotz.c or filfre.c, so you revert the index
       changes for these two files. Your changes in working tree remain
       4. Then you can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c
       changes still in the working tree.

   Undo a commit and redo

           $ git commit ...
           $ git reset --soft HEAD^      (1)
           $ edit                        (2)
           $ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD  (3)

       1. This is most often done when you remembered what you just
       committed is incomplete, or you misspelled your commit message, or
       both. Leaves working tree as it was before "reset".
       2. Make corrections to working tree files.
       3. "reset" copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; redo the commit
       by starting with its log message. If you do not need to edit the
       message further, you can give -C option instead.

       See also the --amend option to git-commit(1).

   Undo a commit, making it a topic branch

           $ git branch topic/wip     (1)
           $ git reset --hard HEAD~3  (2)
           $ git checkout topic/wip   (3)

       1. You have made some commits, but realize they were premature to
       be in the "master" branch. You want to continue polishing them in a
       topic branch, so create "topic/wip" branch off of the current HEAD.
       2. Rewind the master branch to get rid of those three commits.
       3. Switch to "topic/wip" branch and keep working.

   Undo commits permanently

           $ git commit ...
           $ git reset --hard HEAD~3   (1)

       1. The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad and
       you do not want to ever see them again. Do not do this if you have
       already given these commits to somebody else. (See the "RECOVERING
       FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1) for the implications
       of doing so.)

   Undo a merge or pull

           $ git pull                         (1)
           Auto-merging nitfol
           CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol
           Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
           $ git reset --hard                 (2)
           $ git pull . topic/branch          (3)
           Updating from 41223... to 13134...
           $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD       (4)

       1. Try to update from the upstream resulted in a lot of conflicts;
       you were not ready to spend a lot of time merging right now, so you
       decide to do that later.
       2. "pull" has not made merge commit, so "git reset --hard" which is
       a synonym for "git reset --hard HEAD" clears the mess from the
       index file and the working tree.
       3. Merge a topic branch into the current branch, which resulted in
       a fast-forward.
       4. But you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public
       consumption yet. "pull" or "merge" always leaves the original tip
       of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it brings
       your index file and the working tree back to that state, and resets
       the tip of the branch to that commit.

   Undo a merge or pull inside a dirty working tree

           $ git pull                         (1)
           Auto-merging nitfol
           Merge made by recursive.
            nitfol                |   20 +++++----
           $ git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD      (2)

       1. Even if you may have local modifications in your working tree,
       you can safely say "git pull" when you know that the change in the
       other branch does not overlap with them.
       2. After inspecting the result of the merge, you may find that the
       change in the other branch is unsatisfactory. Running "git reset
       --hard ORIG_HEAD" will let you go back to where you were, but it
       will discard your local changes, which you do not want. "git reset
       --merge" keeps your local changes.

   Interrupted workflow
       Suppose you are interrupted by an urgent fix request while you are
       in the middle of a large change. The files in your working tree are
       not in any shape to be committed yet, but you need to get to the
       other branch for a quick bugfix.

           $ git checkout feature ;# you were working in "feature" branch and
           $ work work work       ;# got interrupted
           $ git commit -a -m "snapshot WIP"                 (1)
           $ git checkout master
           $ fix fix fix
           $ git commit ;# commit with real log
           $ git checkout feature
           $ git reset --soft HEAD^ ;# go back to WIP state  (2)
           $ git reset                                       (3)

       1. This commit will get blown away so a throw-away log message is
       2. This removes the WIP commit from the commit history, and sets
       your working tree to the state just before you made that snapshot.
       3. At this point the index file still has all the WIP changes you
       committed as snapshot WIP. This updates the index to show your WIP
       files as uncommitted.

       See also git-stash(1).

   Reset a single file in the index
       Suppose you have added a file to your index, but later decide you
       do not want to add it to your commit. You can remove the file from
       the index while keeping your changes with git reset.

           $ git reset -- frotz.c                      (1)
           $ git commit -m "Commit files in index"     (2)
           $ git add frotz.c                           (3)

       1. This removes the file from the index while keeping it in the
       working directory.
       2. This commits all other changes in the index.
       3. Adds the file to the index again.

   Keep changes in working tree while discarding some previous commits
       Suppose you are working on something and you commit it, and then
       you continue working a bit more, but now you think that what you
       have in your working tree should be in another branch that has
       nothing to do with what you committed previously. You can start a
       new branch and reset it while keeping the changes in your working

           $ git tag start
           $ git checkout -b branch1
           $ edit
           $ git commit ...                            (1)
           $ edit
           $ git checkout -b branch2                   (2)
           $ git reset --keep start                    (3)

       1. This commits your first edits in branch1.
       2. In the ideal world, you could have realized that the earlier
       commit did not belong to the new topic when you created and
       switched to branch2 (i.e. "git checkout -b branch2 start"), but
       nobody is perfect.
       3. But you can use "reset --keep" to remove the unwanted commit
       after you switched to "branch2".


   The tables below show what happens when running:

       git reset --option target

   to reset the HEAD to another commit (target) with the different reset
   options depending on the state of the files.

   In these tables, A, B, C and D are some different states of a file. For
   example, the first line of the first table means that if a file is in
   state A in the working tree, in state B in the index, in state C in
   HEAD and in state D in the target, then "git reset --soft target" will
   leave the file in the working tree in state A and in the index in state
   B. It resets (i.e. moves) the HEAD (i.e. the tip of the current branch,
   if you are on one) to "target" (which has the file in state D).

       working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
        A       B     C    D     --soft   A       B     D
                                 --mixed  A       D     D
                                 --hard   D       D     D
                                 --merge (disallowed)
                                 --keep  (disallowed)

       working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
        A       B     C    C     --soft   A       B     C
                                 --mixed  A       C     C
                                 --hard   C       C     C
                                 --merge (disallowed)
                                 --keep   A       C     C

       working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
        B       B     C    D     --soft   B       B     D
                                 --mixed  B       D     D
                                 --hard   D       D     D
                                 --merge  D       D     D
                                 --keep  (disallowed)

       working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
        B       B     C    C     --soft   B       B     C
                                 --mixed  B       C     C
                                 --hard   C       C     C
                                 --merge  C       C     C
                                 --keep   B       C     C

       working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
        B       C     C    D     --soft   B       C     D
                                 --mixed  B       D     D
                                 --hard   D       D     D
                                 --merge (disallowed)
                                 --keep  (disallowed)

       working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
        B       C     C    C     --soft   B       C     C
                                 --mixed  B       C     C
                                 --hard   C       C     C
                                 --merge  B       C     C
                                 --keep   B       C     C

   "reset --merge" is meant to be used when resetting out of a conflicted
   merge. Any mergy operation guarantees that the working tree file that
   is involved in the merge does not have local change wrt the index
   before it starts, and that it writes the result out to the working
   tree. So if we see some difference between the index and the target and
   also between the index and the working tree, then it means that we are
   not resetting out from a state that a mergy operation left after
   failing with a conflict. That is why we disallow --merge option in this

   "reset --keep" is meant to be used when removing some of the last
   commits in the current branch while keeping changes in the working
   tree. If there could be conflicts between the changes in the commit we
   want to remove and the changes in the working tree we want to keep, the
   reset is disallowed. That's why it is disallowed if there are both
   changes between the working tree and HEAD, and between HEAD and the
   target. To be safe, it is also disallowed when there are unmerged

   The following tables show what happens when there are unmerged entries:

       working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
        X       U     A    B     --soft  (disallowed)
                                 --mixed  X       B     B
                                 --hard   B       B     B
                                 --merge  B       B     B
                                 --keep  (disallowed)

       working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
        X       U     A    A     --soft  (disallowed)
                                 --mixed  X       A     A
                                 --hard   A       A     A
                                 --merge  A       A     A
                                 --keep  (disallowed)

   X means any state and U means an unmerged index.


   Part of the git(1) suite


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