last, lastb - show a listing of last logged in users


   last [options] [username...] [tty...]
   lastb [options] [username...] [tty...]


   last  searches  back  through  the  /var/log/wtmp  file  (or  the  file
   designated by the -f option) and displays a list of all users logged in
   (and  out)  since  that file was created.  One or more usernames and/or
   ttys can be given, in which  case  last  will  show  only  the  entries
   matching  those arguments.  Names of ttys can be abbreviated, thus last
   0 is the same as last tty0.

   When catching a SIGINT signal (generated by the interrupt key,  usually
   control-C)  or a SIGQUIT signal, last will show how far it has searched
   through the file; in the case of  the  SIGINT  signal  last  will  then

   The  pseudo user reboot logs in each time the system is rebooted.  Thus
   last reboot will show a log of all the reboots since the log  file  was

   lastb is the same as last, except that by default it shows a log of the
   /var/log/btmp file, which contains all the bad login attempts.


   -a, --hostlast
          Display the hostname in the last column.  Useful in  combination
          with the --dns option.

   -d, --dns
          For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the
          remote host, but its IP number as well.  This option  translates
          the IP number back into a hostname.

   -f, --file file
          Tell  last to use a specific file instead of /var/log/wtmp.  The
          --file option can be  given  multiple  times,  and  all  of  the
          specified files will be processed.

   -F, --fulltimes
          Print full login and logout times and dates.

   -i, --ip
          Like  --dns  ,  but displays the host's IP number instead of the

   -n, --limit number
          Tell last how many lines to show.

   -p, --present time
          Display the users who were present at the specified time.   This
          is  like using the options --since and --until together with the
          same time.

   -R, --nohostname
          Suppresses the display of the hostname field.

   -s, --since time
          Display the state of logins since the specified time.   This  is
          useful,  e.g.,  to  easily  determine  who  was  logged  in at a
          particular time.  The option is often combined with --until.

   -t, --until time
          Display the state of logins until the specified time.

   --time-format format
          Define the output timestamp format to be one of  notime,  short,
          full,  or iso.  The notime variant will not print any timestamps
          at all, short is the default,  and  full  is  the  same  as  the
          --fulltimes  option.  The iso variant will display the timestamp
          in  ISO-8601  format.   The   ISO   format   contains   timezone
          information,   making   it   preferable   when   printouts   are
          investigated outside of the system.

   -w, --fullnames
          Display full user names and domain names in the output.

   -x, --system
          Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.


   The options that  take  the  time  argument  understand  the  following

   YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss
   YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm      (seconds will be set to 00)
   YYYY-MM-DD            (time will be set to 00:00:00)
   hh:mm:ss              (date will be set to today)
   hh:mm                 (date will be set to today, seconds to 00)
   yesterday             (time is set to 00:00:00)
   today                 (time is set to 00:00:00)
   tomorrow              (time is set to 00:00:00)


   The  files  wtmp  and  btmp  might  not be found.  The system only logs
   information in these files if  they  are  present.   This  is  a  local
   configuration  issue.   If  you  want the files to be used, they can be
   created  with  a  simple   touch(1)   command   (for   example,   touch




   Miquel van Smoorenburg


   The  last  command  is  part of the util-linux package and is available
   from Linux Kernel  Archive


   shutdown(8), login(1), init(8)


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