mrtg-unix-guide - The MRTG 2.17.4 Linux/Unix Installation Guide


   MRTG comes to you in Source Code. This means that you have to compile
   parts of it before you can use it on a Unix machine. These instructions
   help you to do so.


   In order to compile and use mrtg you need a C compiler and a copy of
   perl installed on your machine. In most cases this will already be
   available.  In case it is not, here are some starting points. Below
   I'll give you a detailed run through the whole compilation process.

   GCC The GNU C compiler comes preinstalled on most of the free Unicies
       out there.  For commercial derivatives you may have to download and
       compile it first. If you have no compiler at all there is a chicken
       and egg problem, but there are also precompiled versions of gcc
       available for most operating systems.

       Large parts of the MRTG system are written in the Perl scripting
       language.  Make sure there is a recent copy of perl on your machine
       (try perl -v). At least version 5.005 is required for mrtg to work
       well. If you use SNMPV3 and other new features you should use at
       least 5.8.

       You can get the latest perl from

   MRTG generates traffic graphs in the PNG format. To be able to do this
   it needs several 3rd party libraries. When compiling these libraries I
   urge you to make sure you compile them as static libraries. There is
   just much less trouble ahead if you are doing it like this. See the
   Instructions in the next section for inspiration. Note that many free
   unices have all the required libraries already in place so there is no
   need to install another copy. To check it is best to skip all the
   library instructions below and go straight into the mrtg compile.

   If the first attempt fails and you do not get a working version of
   mrtg, try compiling new copies of all libraries as explained below. Do
   this BEFORE you send email to me about problems compiling mrtg.

   gd  This is a basic graph drawing library created by Thomas Boutell.
       Note that all releases after Version 1.3 only create PNG images.
       This is because a) Thomas got into trouble because the GIF format
       which it used to produce uses a compression technology patented by
       Unisys. b) PNG is more efficient and patent free. MRTG can work
       with old and new version of the GD library. You can get a recent
       copy of GD from:

       Is required by gd in order to produce PNG graphics files. Get it

       Is needed by libpng to compress the graphics files you create.  Get
       a copy from

   And last but not least you also need mrtg itself. In case you have not
   yet downloaded it, you can find a copy on my website:


   In this section I will give you step by step instructions on how to
   compile the various libraries required for the compilation of mrtg.
   Note that these libraries may already be installed if you have a *BSD
   or Linux system so you can skip recompiling them. The wget program used
   below is a simple web downloader. You can also enter the address into
   your netscape if you don't have wget available.

   First let's create a directory for the compilation. Note that this may
   already exist on your system. No problem, just use it.

    mkdir -p /usr/local/src
    cd /usr/local/src

   If you do not have zlib installed:

    gunzip -c zlib-*.tar.gz | tar xf -
    rm zlib-*.tar.gz
    mv zlib-* zlib
    cd zlib
    cd ..

   If you don't have libpng installed

    gunzip -c libpng-1.2.34.tar.gz | tar xf -
    mv libpng-* libpng
    cd libpng
    env CFLAGS="-O3 -fPIC" ./configure --prefix=$INSTALL_DIR
    rm *.so.* *.so
    cd ..

   And now you can compile gd

   For versions up to 1.8.4, try:

    gunzip -c gd-*.tar.gz |tar xf -
    rm gd-*.tar.gz
    mv gd-* gd
    cd gd

   The \ characters at the end of the following lines mean that all the
   following material should actually be written on a single line.

    perl -i~ -p -e s/gd_jpeg.o//g Makefile
    make INCLUDEDIRS="-I. -I../zlib -I../libpng" \
         LIBDIRS="-L../zlib -L. -L../libpng" \
         LIBS="-lgd -lpng -lz -lm" \
    cd ..

   For versions starting around 2.0.11, try:

    gunzip -c gd-2.0.33.tar.gz |tar xf -
    mv gd-2.0.33 gd
    cd gd
    env CPPFLAGS="-I../zlib -I../libpng" LDFLAGS="-L../zlib -L../libpng" \
        ./configure --disable-shared --without-freetype --without-jpeg
    cp .libs/* .


   Ok, now everything is ready for the mrtg compilation.

    cd /usr/local/src
    gunzip -c mrtg-2.17.4.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    cd mrtg-2.17.4

   If all the libraries have been preinstalled on your system you can
   configure mrtg by doing a simple:

    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mrtg-2

   Otherwise you may have to give some hints on where to find the various
   libraries required to compile mrtg:

    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mrtg-2       \
                --with-gd=/usr/local/src/gd      \
                --with-z=/usr/local/src/zlib     \

   If you have RRDtool available you might want to tell mrtg about it so
   that you can opt to use rrdtool with mrtg. Check mrtg-rrd.

   Configure will make sure your environment is fit for building mrtg.  If
   it finds a problem, it will tell you so and it will also tell you what
   to do about it. If everything is OK, you will end up with a custom
   Makefile for your system. Now type:


   This builds the rateup binary and edits all the perl pathnames in the
   scripts. You can now install mrtg by typing

    make install   (requires gnu install)

   All the software required by MRTG is now installed under the
   /usr/local/mrtg-2 subdirectory.

   You can now safely delete the libraries we compiled above. Then again,
   you might want to keep them around so that you have them available when
   compiling the next version of mrtg.


   The next step is to configure mrtg for monitoring a network device.
   This is done by creating an mrtg.cfg file which defines what you want
   to monitor. Luckily, you don't have to dive straight in and start
   writing your own configuration file all by yourself. Together with mrtg
   you also got a copy of cfgmaker. This is a script you can point at a
   router of your choice; it will create a mrtg configuration file for
   you. You can find the script in the bin subdirectory.

    cfgmaker --global 'WorkDir: /home/httpd/mrtg'  \
             --global 'Options[_]: bits,growright' \
             --output /home/mrtg/cfg/mrtg.cfg    \

   This example above will create an mrtg config file in /home/mrtg/cfg
   assuming this is a directory visible on your webserver. You can read
   all about cfgmaker in cfgmaker. One area you might want to look at is
   the possibility of using --ifref=ip to prevent interface renumbering
   troubles from catching you.

   If you want to start rolling your own mrtg configuration files, make
   sure you read mrtg-reference to learn all about the possible
   configuration options.


   Once you have created a configuration file, try the following:

    /usr/local/mrtg-2/bin/mrtg /home/mrtg/cfg/mrtg.cfg

   This will query your router and also create your first mrtg trafic
   graphs and webpages. When you run mrtg for the first time there will be
   a lot of complaints about missing log files. Don't worry, this is
   normal for the first 2 times you start mrtg. If it keeps complaining
   after this time you might want to look into the problem.

   Starting mrtg by hand is not ideal in the long run. So when you are
   satisfied with the results you can automate the process of running mrtg
   in regular intervals (this means every 5 minutes by default).

   You can either add mrtg to your crontab with a line like this:

    0,5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40,45,50,55 * * * * \
          <mrtg-bin>/mrtg <path to mrtg-cfg>/mrtg.cfg \
                   --logging /var/log/mrtg.log

   or if you live in Linux Land the line may look like this if you are
   using "crontab -e"

    */5 * * * *  <mrtg-bin>/mrtg <path to mrtg-cfg>/mrtg.cfg \
                          --logging /var/log/mrtg.log

   or like this if you use /etc/crontab

    */5 * * * *  mrtg-user  <mrtg-bin>/mrtg <path to mrtg-cfg>/mrtg.cfg \
                                    --logging /var/log/mrtg.log

   You can also run mrtg as a daemon process by adding the line

    RunAsDaemon: Yes

   to your mrtg configuration file and then creating a startup script in
   your system startup sequence. Unfortunately, adding startup scripts
   differs widely amongst different unix systems. The modern ones normally
   have a directory called /etc/init.d or /etc/rc.d/init.d where you put
   scripts which starts the process you want to run when the system boots.
   Further you must create a symbolic link in /etc/rc3.d or
   /etc/rc.d/rc?.d called S65mrtg (this is just a sample name ... it is
   just important that it starts with S followed by a two digit number).
   If you are not sure about this, make sure you consult the documentation
   of your system to make sure you get this right.

   A minimal script to put into init.d might look like this:

    #! /bin/sh
    cd /usr/local/mrtg-2.17.4/bin && ./mrtg --user=mrtg-user \
          /home/httpd/mrtg/mrtg.cfg  --logging /var/log/mrtg.log

   Note that this will only work with RunAsDaemon: Yes in your mrtg.cfg


   Tobias Oetiker <>


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