pdfroff - create PDF documents using groff


   pdfroff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir]
           [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn]
           [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name] [--emit-ps] [--no-toc-relocation]
           [--no-kill-null-pages] [--stylesheet=name] [--no-pdf-output]
           [--pdf-output=name] [--no-reference-dictionary]
           [--reference-dictionary=name] [--report-progress]
           [--keep-temporary-files] file ...
   pdfroff -h | --help
   pdfroff -v | --version [option ...]


   pdfroff is a wrapper program for the GNU text processing system, groff.
   It  transparently  handles  the  mechanics  of  multiple   pass   groff
   processing, when applied to suitably marked up groff source files, such
   that tables of contents and body text are formatted separately, and are
   subsequently  combined in the correct order, for final publication as a
   single PDF document.  A further optional "style  sheet"  capability  is
   provided;  this  allows for the definition of content which is required
   to precede the table of contents, in the published document.

   For each invocation of pdfroff, the ultimate  groff  output  stream  is
   post-processed  by  the  GhostScript interpreter, to produce a finished
   PDF document.

   pdfroff makes no assumptions about, and imposes no restrictions on, the
   use of any groff macro packages which the user may choose to employ, in
   order to achieve a desired document format; however,  it  does  include
   specific  built  in  support  for the pdfmark macro package, should the
   user choose to employ it.  Specifically, if the pdfhref macro,  defined
   in  the pdfmark.tmac package, is used to define public reference marks,
   or dynamic links to such reference marks, then pdfroff performs as many
   preformatting  groff passes as required, up to a maximum limit of four,
   in order  to  compile  a  document  reference  dictionary,  to  resolve
   references, and to expand the dynamically defined content of links.


   The  command  line is parsed in accordance with normal GNU conventions,
   but with one exception --- when specifying any short form option (i.e., a
   single  character  option  introduced  by a single hyphen), and if that
   option expects an argument, then it  must  be  specified  independently
   (i.e.,  it  may  not be appended to any group of other single character
   short form options).

   Long form option names (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen)  may
   be abbreviated to their minimum length unambiguous initial substring.

   Otherwise, pdfroff usage closely mirrors that of groff itself.  Indeed,
   with the exception of the -h, -v, and -T dev short  form  options,  and
   all  long  form  options,  which  are parsed internally by pdfroff, all
   options and file name arguments  specified  on  the  command  line  are
   passed  on  to  groff,  to  control the formatting of the PDF document.
   Consequently, pdfroff accepts all options and arguments,  as  specified
   in  groff(1),  which may also be considered as the definitive reference
   for all standard pdfroff options and argument usage.


   pdfroff accepts all of the short form options (i.e.,  those  introduced
   by  a  single  hyphen), which are available with groff itself.  In most
   cases, these are simply passed transparently to groff;  the  following,
   however, are handled specially by pdfroff.

   -h     Same as --help; see below.

   -i     Process  standard  input, after all other specified input files.
          This is passed transparently to  groff,  but,  if  grouped  with
          other  options,  it  must  be the first in the group.  Hiding it
          within a group breaks standard input processing, in the multiple
          pass groff processing context of pdfroff.

   -T dev Only  -T ps  is supported by pdfroff.  Attempting to specify any
          other device causes pdfroff to abort.

   -v     Same as --version; see below.

   See groff(1) for a description of all other short form  options,  which
   are transparently passed through pdfroff to groff.

   All  long  form options (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen) are
   interpreted locally by pdfroff; they are not passed on to groff, unless
   otherwise stated below.

   --help Causes pdfroff to display a summary of the its usage syntax, and
          supported options, and then exit.

          Suppresses the final output conversion step, causing pdfroff  to
          emit  PostScript  output instead of PDF.  This may be useful, to
          capture intermediate PostScript output, when using a specialised
          postprocessor,  such  as  gpresent  for example, in place of the
          default GhostScript PDF writer.

          Suppresses the  deletion  of  temporary  files,  which  normally
          occurs after pdfroff has completed PDF document formatting; this
          may be useful, when debugging formatting problems.

          See section FILES, for a description of the temporary files used
          by pdfroff.

          May   be   used   with  the  --reference-dictionary=name  option
          (described below) to eliminate the overhead of  PDF  formatting,
          when  running  pdfroff to create a reference dictionary, for use
          in a different document.

          May be used to eliminate the overhead of  creating  a  reference
          dictionary,  when  it  is  known  that  the  target PDF document
          contains no public references, created by the pdfhref macro.

          May be used to eliminate the extra groff processing pass,  which
          is  required to generate a table of contents, and relocate it to
          the start of the PDF  document,  when  processing  any  document
          which lacks an automatically generated table of contents.

          While  preparing  for  simulation  of the manual collation step,
          which is traditionally  required  to  relocate  of  a  table  of
          contents  to  the  start  of  a  document, pdfroff accumulates a
          number  of  empty  page  descriptions  into   the   intermediate
          PostScript  output  stream.   During  the  final collation step,
          these empty pages  are  normally  discarded  from  the  finished
          document; this option forces pdfroff to leave them in place.

          Specifies the name to be used for the resultant PDF document; if
          unspecified, the PDF output is written to  standard  output.   A
          future  version  of  pdfroff  may use this option, to encode the
          document name in a generated reference dictionary.

          Specifies the name  to  be  used  for  the  generated  reference
          dictionary  file;  if  unspecified,  the reference dictionary is
          created in a temporary  file,  which  is  deleted  when  pdfroff
          completes  processing of the current document.  This option must
          be specified, if it is desired to save the reference dictionary,
          for use in references placed in other PDF documents.

          Causes  pdfroff  to display an informational message on standard
          error, at the start of each groff processing pass.

          Specifies the name of an input file, to be used as a style sheet
          for  formatting  of  content,  which  is to be placed before the
          table of contents, in the formatted PDF document.

          Causes pdfroff to display a version identification message.  The
          entire  command line is then passed transparently to groff, in a
          one pass operation only, in  order  to  display  the  associated
          groff version information, before exiting.


   The following environment variables may be set, and exported, to modify
   the behaviour of pdfroff.

          Specifies the program to be used for collation of  the  finished
          PDF document.

          This  collation  step may be required to move tables of contents
          to the start of the finished PDF document, when formatting  with
          traditional  macro  packages,  which  print  them  at  the  end.
          However,   users   should   not   normally   need   to   specify
          PDFROFF_COLLATE,  (and indeed, are not encouraged to do so).  If
          unspecified, pdfroff uses  sed(1)  by  default,  which  normally

          If  PDFROFF_COLLATE  is specified, then it must act as a filter,
          accepting a list of file name arguments, and write its output to
          the    stdout    stream,    whence    it   is   piped   to   the
          PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND,  to  produce  the  finished   PDF

          When  specifying  PDFROFF_COLLATE,  it  is normally necessary to
          also specify PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.

          PDFROFF_COLLATE is ignored,  if  pdfroff  is  invoked  with  the
          --no-kill-null-pages option.

          Specifies options to be passed to the PDFROFF_COLLATE program.

          It    should    not    normally    be   necessary   to   specify
          PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.   The  internal  default  is  a  sed(1)
          script,  which is intended to remove completely blank pages from
          the collated output stream, and which should be  appropriate  in
          most  applications  of  pdfroff.  However, if any alternative to
          sed(1) is specified for PDFROFF_COLLATE, then it is likely  that
          a      corresponding      alternative      specification     for
          PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES is required.

          As in the case of  PDFROFF_COLLATE,  PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES  is
          ignored,  if  pdfroff  is  invoked with the --no-kill-null-pages

          Specifies  the  command  to  be  used  for  the  final  document
          conversion  from PostScript intermediate output to PDF.  It must
          behave as a filter, writing its output to the stdout stream, and
          must accept an arbitrary number of files ... arguments, with the
          special case of - representing the stdin stream.

          If unspecified, PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND defaults to

            gs -dBATCH -dQUIET -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sDEVICE=pdfwrite

          Identifies   the   directory  in  which  pdfroff  should  create
          temporary files.  If GROFF_TMPDIR is  not  specified,  then  the
          variables  TMPDIR,  TMP  and  TEMP  are  considered  in turn, as
          possible temporary file repositories.  If none of these are set,
          then temporary files are created in the current directory.

          Specifies the program to be invoked, when pdfroff converts groff
          PostScript output to PDF.  If  PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND  is
          specified,  then  the  command  name  it specifies is implicitly
          assigned  to   GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER,   overriding   any
          explicit    setting    specified   in   the   environment.    If
          GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER is  not  specified,  then  pdfroff
          searches the process PATH, looking for a program with any of the
          well  known  names  for  the  GhostScript  interpreter;  if   no
          GhostScript interpreter can be found, pdfroff aborts.

          Specifies  the program to be invoked, when pdfroff is extracting
          reference dictionary entries from a groff  intermediate  message
          stream.  If GROFF_AWK_INTERPRETER is not specified, then pdfroff
          searches the process PATH, looking  for  any  of  the  preferred
          programs,  'gawk',  'mawk',  'nawk', and awk', in this order; if
          none of these are found, pdfroff issues a warning  message,  and
          continue   processing;  however,  in  this  case,  no  reference
          dictionary is created.

   OSTYPE Typically defined automatically by the operating system,  OSTYPE
          is  used  on Microsoft Win32/MS-DOS platforms only, to infer the
          default PATH_SEPARATOR character, which is used when parsing the
          process PATH to search for external helper programs.

          If   set,   PATH_SEPARATOR   overrides   the  default  separator
          character, (':' on POSIX/UNIX systems, inferred from  OSTYPE  on
          Microsoft  Win32/MS-DOS), which is used when parsing the process
          PATH to search for external helper programs.

          If this is set to a non-empty value, then pdfroff always behaves
          as  if the --report-progress option is specified, on the command


   Input and output files for  pdfroff  may  be  named  according  to  any
   convention  of  the user's choice.  Typically, input files may be named
   according to the choice of  the  principal  formatting  macro  package,
   e.g., file.ms might be an input file for formatting using the ms macros
   (s.tmac); normally, the final output file should be named file.pdf.

   Temporary files, created by pdfroff, are  placed  in  the  file  system
   hierarchy, in or below the directory specified by environment variables
   (see section ENVIRONMENT).  If mktemp(1) is available, it is invoked to
   create   a  private  subdirectory  of  the  nominated  temporary  files
   directory, (with subdirectory name derived from the  template  pdfroff-
   XXXXXXXXXX);   if   this  subdirectory  is  successfully  created,  the
   temporary files will be placed within it, otherwise they will be placed
   directly in the directory nominated in the environment.

   All  temporary  files  themselves are named according to the convention
   pdf$$.*, where $$ is  the  standard  shell  variable  representing  the
   process  ID  of the pdfroff process itself, and * represents any of the
   extensions used by pdfroff to  identify  the  following  temporary  and
   intermediate files.

          A  scratch  pad  file, used to capture reference data emitted by
          groff, during the reference dictionary compilation phase.

          The reference dictionary, as compiled in the last but  one  pass
          of  the reference dictionary compilation phase; (at the start of
          the first pass,  this  file  is  created  empty;  in  successive
          passes,   it  contains  the  reference  dictionary  entries,  as
          collected in the preceding pass).

          If the --reference-dictionary=name  option  is  specified,  this
          intermediate  file  becomes permanent, and is named name, rather
          than pdf$$.ref.

          Used to collect reference dictionary entries during  the  active
          pass  of the reference dictionary compilation phase.  At the end
          of any pass, when the content of pdf$$.cmp compares as identical
          to   pdf$$.ref,   (or   the  corresponding  file  named  by  the
          --reference-dictionary=name option), then  reference  dictionary
          compilation  is  terminated,  and  the document reference map is
          appended to this intermediate file, for inclusion in  the  final
          formatting passes.

          An  intermediate  PostScript  file, in which "Table of Contents"
          entries are collected, to facilitate relocation before the  body
          text, on ultimate output to the GhostScript postprocessor.

          An  intermediate  PostScript  file,  in  which  the body text is
          collected  prior  to  ultimate   output   to   the   GhostScript
          postprocessor, in the proper sequence, after pdf$$.tc.


   See  groff(1)  for the definitive reference to document formatting with
   groff.  Since pdfroff provides a superset of  all  groff  capabilities,
   groff(1)  may  also be considered to be the definitive reference to all
   standard capabilities of pdfroff,  with  this  document  providing  the
   reference to pdfroff's extended features.

   While  pdfroff  imposes neither any restriction on, nor any requirement
   for, the use of any specific groff macro package, a number of  supplied
   macro  packages,  and  in  particular those associated with the package
   pdfmark.tmac, are best suited for use with  pdfroff  as  the  preferred
   formatter.   Detailed documentation on the use of these packages may be
   found, in PDF format, in the reference guide "Portable Document  Format
   Publishing with GNU Troff", included in the installed documentation set
   as /usr/share/doc/groff-base/pdf/pdfmark.pdf.gz.


   Copyright  2005-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

   This file is part of groff, the free GNU roff type-setting system.

   Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify  this  document
   under  the  terms  of the GNU Free Documentation License (FDL), Version
   1.3 or any later version published by  the  Free  Software  Foundation;
   with  no  Front-Cover  Texts,  no  Back-Cover  Texts, and the following
   Invariant Sections:--

       a)  This "Legal Matters" section, extending from the definition of
           .co to the end of the enclosing .au definition.

       b) The entire sections bearing the heading "COPYING" and

   A copy of the Free Documentation License is included as a  file  called
   FDL  in  the  main  directory  of  the groff source package, it is also
   available in the internet at the GNU copyleft site http://www.gnu.org/


   It   was   originally  written  by  Keith  Marshall  keith.d.marshall@
   ntlworld.com,  who  also  wrote  the  implementation  of  the  pdfroff
   program, to which it relates.

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