setkey --- manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database


     setkey [-knrv] file ...
     setkey [-knrv] -c
     setkey [-krv] -f filename
     setkey [-aklPrv] -D
     setkey [-Pvp] -F
     setkey [-H] -x
     setkey [-?V]


     setkey adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association Database
     (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries in the

     setkey takes a series of operations from standard input (if invoked with
     -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f filename).

     (no flag)
         Dump the SAD entries or SPD entries contained in the specified

     -?      Print short help.

     -a      setkey usually does not display dead SAD entries with -D.  If -a
         is also specified, the dead SAD entries will be displayed as
         well.  A dead SAD entry is one that has expired but remains in
         the system because it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -D      Dump the SAD entries.  If -P is also specified, the SPD entries
         are dumped.  If -p is specified, the ports are displayed.

     -F      Flush the SAD entries.  If -P is also specified, the SPD entries
         are flushed.

     -H      Add hexadecimal dump in -x mode.

     -h      On NetBSD, synonym for -H.  On other systems, synonym for -?.

     -k      Use semantics used in kernel.  Available only in Linux.  See also

     -l      Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -n      No action.  The program will check validity of the input, but no
         changes to the SPD will be made.

     -r      Use semantics described in IPsec RFCs.  This mode is default.
         For details see section RFC vs Linux kernel semantics.  Available
         only in Linux.  See also -k.

     -x      Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to the PF_KEY
         socket.  -xx prints the unformatted timestamps.

     -V      Print version string.

     -v      Be verbose.  The program will dump messages exchanged on the
         PF_KEY socket, including messages sent from other processes to
         the kernel.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or -f on the command line, setkey accepts the following
     configuration syntax.  Lines starting with hash signs ('#') are treated
     as comment lines.

     add [-46n] src dst protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ... ;
         Add an SAD entry.  add can fail for multiple reasons, including
         when the key length does not match the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
         Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
         Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
         Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
         Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
         line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
         Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
         line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec label policy ;
         Add an SPD entry.

     spdadd tagged tag policy ;
         Add an SPD entry based on a PF tag.  tag must be a string
         surrounded by double quotes.

     spdupdate [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec label policy ;
         Updates an SPD entry.

     spdupdate tagged tag policy ;
         Update an SPD entry based on a PF tag.  tag must be a string
         surrounded by double quotes.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
         Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
         Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same

     spddump ;
         Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same

     Meta-arguments are as follows:

     dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as an
         IPv4/v6 address, and an optional port number between square
         brackets.  setkey can resolve a FQDN into numeric addresses.  If
         the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses, setkey will install
         multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by trying all possible
         combinations.  -4, -6, and -n restrict the address resolution of
         FQDN in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict results into IPv4/v6
         addresses only, respectively.  -n avoids FQDN resolution and
         requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

         protocol is one of following:
         esp         ESP based on rfc2406
         esp-old     ESP based on rfc1827
         esp-udp     ESP-UDP based on rfc3948
         ah          AH based on rfc2402
         ah-old      AH based on rfc1826
         ipcomp      IPComp
         tcp         TCP-MD5 based on rfc2385

     spi     Security Parameter Index (SPI) for the SAD and the SPD.  spi must
         be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with a "0x" prefix.
         SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
         and cannot be used.  TCP-MD5 associations must use 0x1000 and
         therefore only have per-host granularity at this time.

         take some of the following:
         -m mode     Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
                     one of following: transport, tunnel, or any.  The
                     default value is any.
         -r size     Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
                     size must be decimal number in 32-bit word.  If size
                     is zero or not specified, replay checks don't take
         -u id       Specify the identifier of the policy entry in the
                     SPD.  See policy.
         -f pad_option
                     defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option
                     is one of following:
                     zero-pad    All the paddings are zero.
                     random-pad  A series of randomized values are used.
                     seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
                                 started from 1 are used.
         -f nocyclic-seq
                     Don't allow cyclic sequence numbers.
         -lh time
         -ls time    Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA
                     measured in seconds.
         -bh bytes
         -bs bytes   Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA
                     measured in bytes transported.
         -ctx doi algorithm context-name
                     Specify an access control label.  The access control
                     label is interpreted by the LSM (e.g., SELinux).
                     Ultimately, it enables MAC on network communications.
                     doi         The domain of interpretation, which is
                                 used by the IKE daemon to identify the
                                 domain in which negotiation takes place.
                     algorithm   Indicates the LSM for which the label is
                                 generated (e.g., SELinux).
                                 The string representation of the label
                                 that is interpreted by the LSM.

         -E ealgo key
                     Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
         -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
                     Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a
                     payload authentication algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
         -A aalgo key
                     Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
         -C calgo [-R]
                     Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
                     specified, the spi field value will be used as the
                     IPComp CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as-
                     is.  If -R is not specified, the kernel will use
                     well-known CPI on wire, and spi field will be used
                     only as an index for kernel internal usage.

         key must be a double-quoted character string, or a series of
         hexadecimal digits preceded by "0x".

         Possible values for ealgo, aalgo, and calgo are specified in the
         Algorithms sections.

         These select the communications that should be secured by IPsec.
         They can be an IPv4/v6 address or an IPv4/v6 address range, and
         may be accompanied by a TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes
         the following form:


         prefixlen and port must be decimal numbers.  The square brackets
         around port are really necessary, they are not man page meta-
         characters.  For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and
         dst apply here as well.

         Upper-layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of the words in
         /etc/protocols as upperspec, or icmp6, ip4, gre, or any.  any
         stands for "any protocol".  You can also use the protocol number.
         Additional specification can be placed after the protocol name
         for some protocols.  You can specify a type and/or a code of ICMP
         or ICMPv6.  The type is separated from a code by single comma and
         the code must always be specified.  GRE key can be specified in
         dotted-quad format or as plain number.  When a zero is specified,
         the kernel deals with it as a wildcard.  Note that the kernel can
         not distinguish a wildcard from an ICPMv6 type of zero.

         For example, the following means that the policy doesn't require
         IPsec for any inbound Neighbor Solicitation.
               spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in none;

         A second example of requiring transport mode encryption of
         specific GRE tunnel:
               spdadd gre 1234 ipsec

         Note: upperspec does not work against forwarding case at this
         moment, as it requires extra reassembly at the forwarding node
         (not implemented at this moment).  There are many protocols in
         /etc/protocols, but all protocols except of TCP, UDP, GRE, and
         ICMP may not be suitable to use with IPsec.  You have to consider
         carefully what to use.

     label   label is the access control label for the policy.  This label is
         interpreted by the LSM (e.g., SELinux).  Ultimately, it enables
         MAC on network communications.  When a policy contains an access
         control label, SAs negotiated with this policy will contain the
         label.  Its format:
         -ctx doi algorithm context-name
                     doi         The domain of interpretation, which is
                                 used by the IKE daemon to identify the
                                 domain in which negotiation takes place.
                     algorithm   Indicates the LSM for which the label is
                                 generated (e.g., SELinux).
                                 The string representation of the label
                                 that is interpreted by the LSM.

     policy  policy is in one of the following three formats:
         -P direction [priority specification] discard
         -P direction [priority specification] none
         -P direction [priority specification] ipsec
         protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

         You must specify the direction of its policy as direction.
         Either out, in, or fwd can be used.

         priority specification is used to control the placement of the
         policy within the SPD.  Policy position is determined by a signed
         integer where higher priorities indicate the policy is placed
         closer to the beginning of the list and lower priorities indicate
         the policy is placed closer to the end of the list.  Policies
         with equal priorities are added at the end of groups of such

         Priority can only be specified when setkey has been compiled
         against kernel headers that support policy priorities (Linux >=
         2.6.6).  If the kernel does not support priorities, a warning
         message will be printed the first time a priority specification
         is used.  Policy priority takes one of the following formats:

         {priority,prio} offset
                  offset is an integer in the range from -2147483647 to

         {priority,prio} base {+,-} offset
                  base is either low (-1073741824), def (0), or high

                  offset is an unsigned integer.  It can be up to
                  1073741824 for positive offsets, and up to 1073741823
                  for negative offsets.

         discard means the packet matching indexes will be discarded.
         none means that IPsec operation will not take place onto the
         packet.  ipsec means that IPsec operation will take place onto
         the packet.

         The protocol/mode/src-dst/level part specifies the rule how to
         process the packet.  Either ah, esp, or ipcomp must be used as
         protocol.  mode is either transport or tunnel.  If mode is
         tunnel, you must specify the end-point addresses of the SA as src
         and dst with '-' between these addresses, which is used to
         specify the SA to use.  If mode is transport, both src and dst
         can be omitted.  level is to be one of the following: default,
         use, require, or unique.  If the SA is not available in every
         level, the kernel will ask the key exchange daemon to establish a
         suitable SA.  default means the kernel consults the system wide
         default for the protocol you specified, e.g. the esp_trans_deflev
         sysctl variable, when the kernel processes the packet.  use means
         that the kernel uses an SA if it's available, otherwise the
         kernel keeps normal operation.  require means SA is required
         whenever the kernel sends a packet matched with the policy.
         unique is the same as require; in addition, it allows the policy
         to match the unique out-bound SA.  You just specify the policy
         level unique, racoon(8) will configure the SA for the policy.  If
         you configure the SA by manual keying for that policy, you can
         put a decimal number as the policy identifier after unique
         separated by a colon ':' like: unique:number in order to bind
         this policy to the SA.  number must be between 1 and 32767.  It
         corresponds to extensions -u of the manual SA configuration.
         When you want to use SA bundle, you can define multiple rules.
         For example, if an IP header was followed by an AH header
         followed by an ESP header followed by an upper layer protocol
         header, the rule would be:
               esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;
         The rule order is very important.

         When NAT-T is enabled in the kernel, policy matching for ESP over
         UDP packets may be done on endpoint addresses and port (this
         depends on the system.  System that do not perform the port check
         cannot support multiple endpoints behind the same NAT).  When
         using ESP over UDP, you can specify port numbers in the endpoint
         addresses to get the correct matching.  Here is an example:

         spdadd[any][any] any -P out ipsec
             esp/tunnel/[4500]-[30000]/require ;

         These ports must be left unspecified (which defaults to 0) for
         anything other than ESP over UDP.  They can be displayed in SPD
         dump using setkey -DPp.

         Note that "discard" and "none" are not in the syntax described in
         ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are a few differences in the syntax.
         See ipsec_set_policy(3) for detail.

     The following list shows the supported algorithms.  protocol and
     algorithm are almost orthogonal.  These authentication algorithms can be
     used as aalgo in -A aalgo of the protocol parameter:

       algorithm       keylen (bits)
       hmac-md5        128             ah: rfc2403
                       128             ah-old: rfc2085
       hmac-sha1       160             ah: rfc2404
                       160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
       keyed-md5       128             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                       128             ah-old: rfc1828
       keyed-sha1      160             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                       160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
       null            0 to 2048       for debugging
       hmac-sha256     256             ah: 96bit ICV
                       256             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
       hmac-sha384     384             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                       384             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
       hmac-sha512     512             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                       512             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
       hmac-ripemd160  160             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
                                       ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
       aes-xcbc-mac    128             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
                       128             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
       tcp-md5         8 to 640        tcp: rfc2385 (tcp-md5 support only on BSD)

     These encryption algorithms can be used as ealgo in -E ealgo of the
     protocol parameter:

       algorithm       keylen (bits)
       des-cbc         64              esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
       3des-cbc        192             rfc2451
       null            0 to 2048       rfc2410
       blowfish-cbc    40 to 448       rfc2451
       cast128-cbc     40 to 128       rfc2451
       des-deriv       64              ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
       3des-deriv      192             no document
       rijndael-cbc    128/192/256     rfc3602
       twofish-cbc     0 to 256        draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-cbc-01
       aes-ctr         160/224/288     draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03
       camellia-cbc    128/192/256     rfc4312

     Note that the first 128 bits of a key for aes-ctr will be used as AES
     key, and the remaining 32 bits will be used as nonce.

     These compression algorithms can be used as calgo in -C calgo of the
     protocol parameter:

       deflate         rfc2394

   RFC vs Linux kernel semantics
     The Linux kernel uses the fwd policy instead of the in policy for packets
     what are forwarded through that particular box.

     In kernel mode, setkey manages and shows policies and SAs exactly as they
     are stored in the kernel.

     In RFC mode, setkey

     creates fwd policies for every in policy inserted

     (not implemented yet) filters out all fwd policies


     The command exits with 0 on success, and non-zero on errors.


     add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
         -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     add -6 ah 123456
         -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     add esp 0x10001
         -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
         -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     flush ;

     dump esp ;

     spdadd[21][any] any
         -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/ ;

     add tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ;

     add esp 0x10001
         -ctx 1 1 "system_u:system_r:unconfined_t:SystemLow-SystemHigh"
         -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff;

     spdadd any
         -ctx 1 1 "system_u:system_r:unconfined_t:SystemLow-SystemHigh"
         -P out ipsec esp/transport//require ;


     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     Changed manual key configuration for IPsec,, October 1999.


     The setkey command first appeared in the WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol
     stack kit.  The command was completely re-designed in June 1998.


     setkey should report and handle syntax errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range and dst_range with TCP/UDP
     port numbers does not work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets
     (it cannot inspect upper-layer headers).

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