systemd-analyze - Analyze system boot-up performance


   systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

   systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

   systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

   systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]

   systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

   systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

   systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-level LEVEL

   systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-target TARGET

   systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILES...]


   systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance
   statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the
   system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit

   systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before
   userspace has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk
   (initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the time
   normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
   measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all
   system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully
   finished initialization or the disk is idle.

   systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by
   the time they took to initialize. This information may be used to
   optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as the
   initialization of one service might be slow simply because it waits for
   the initialization of another service to complete.

   systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]  prints a tree of the
   time-critical chain of units (for each of the specified UNITs or for
   the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is active or
   started is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes to
   start is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output might be
   misleading as the initialization of one service might depend on socket
   activation and because of the parallel execution of units.

   systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system
   services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they
   spent on initialization.

   systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in
   dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a
   command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to
   generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or --require is
   passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
   dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.
   *.target) may be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in the
   graph if any of these patterns match either the origin or destination

   systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
   serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to
   change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.

   systemd-analyze set-log-level LEVEL changes the current log level of
   the systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts the same values as --log-level=
   described in systemd(1)).

   systemd-analyze set-log-target TARGET changes the current log target of
   the systemd daemon to TARGET (accepts the same values as --log-target=,
   described in systemd(1)).

   systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any
   errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be
   loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. The full unit
   search path is formed by combining the directories for all command line
   arguments, and the usual unit load paths (variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH
   is supported, and may be used to replace or augment the compiled in set
   of unit load paths; see systemd.unit(5)). All units files present in
   the directories containing the command line arguments will be used in
   preference to the other paths.

   If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.


   The following options are understood:

       Operates on the user systemd instance.

       Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied

   --order, --require
       When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects
       which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If --order is
       passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before= are shown. If
       --require is passed, only dependencies of type Requires=,
       Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed,
       this shows dependencies of all these types.

   --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
       When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this
       selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph. Both
       options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will be
       matched against the left-hand and the right-hand, respectively,
       nodes of a relationship.

       Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit
       name must match one of the values. When tests for both sides of the
       relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be shown.
       When patterns are also specified as positional arguments, they must
       match at least one side of the relation. In other words, patterns
       specified with those two options will trim the list of edges
       matched by the positional arguments, if any are given, and fully
       determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

       When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
       above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than the
       latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is seconds
       unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

       Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in

   -H, --host=
       Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username
       and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may
       optionally be suffixed by a container name, separated by ":", which
       connects directly to a specific container on the specified host.
       This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance.
       Container names may be enumerated with machinectl -H HOST.

   -M, --machine=
       Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to
       connect to.

   -h, --help
       Print a short help text and exit.

       Print a short version string and exit.

       Do not pipe output into a pager.


   On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.


   Example 1. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with

       $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
             $ eog avahi.svg

   Example 2. Plots the dependencies between all known target units

       systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
       $ eog targets.svg


   The following errors are currently detected:

   *   unknown sections and directives,

   *   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

   *   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the

   *   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in
       the system or not executable.

   Example 3. Misspelt directives

       $ cat ./user.slice


       $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
       [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
       [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
       Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
          Unit different.service failed to load:
          No such file or directory.
       Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
       user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

   Example 4. Missing service units

       $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
       ==> ./a.socket <==

       ==> ./b.socket <==

       $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
       Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
       Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.


       Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. If
       neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of well-known
       pager implementations are tried in turn, including less(1) and
       more(1), until one is found. If no pager implementation is
       discovered no pager is invoked. Setting this environment variable
       to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing

       Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

       Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if the
       invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).


   systemd(1), systemctl(1)


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