telnetd — DARPA telnet protocol server
/usr/sbin/in.telnetd [-hnNs] [-a authmode] [-D debugmode] [-L loginprg] [-S tos] [-X authtype] [-edebug] [-debug port] [-z sslopt]
The telnetd program is a server which supports the DARPA telnet interactive communication protocol. Telnetd is normally invoked by the internet server (see inetd(8)) for requests to connect to the telnet port as indicated by the /etc/services file (see services(5)). The -debug option may be used to start up telnetd manually, instead of through inetd(8). If started up this way, port may be specified to run telnetd on an alternate TCP port number. The telnetd program accepts the following options: -a authmode This option may be used for specifying what mode should be used for authentication. Note that this option is only useful if telnetd has been compiled with support for authentication, which is not available in the current version. The following values of authmode are understood: debug Turns on authentication debugging code. user Only allow connections when the remote user can provide valid authentication information to identify the remote user, and is allowed access to the specified account without providing a password. valid Only allow connections when the remote user can provide valid authentication information to identify the remote user. The login(1) command will provide any additional user verification needed if the remote user is not allowed automatic access to the specified account. other Only allow connections that supply some authentication information. This option is currently not supported by any of the existing authentication mechanisms, and is thus the same as specifying valid. none This is the default state. Authentication information is not required. If no or insufficient authentication information is provided, then the login(1) program will provide the necessary user verification. off This disables the authentication code. All user verification will happen through the login(1) program. -D debugmode This option may be used for debugging purposes. It allows telnetd to print out debugging information to the connection, allowing the user to see what telnetd is doing. Repeated use of the option arranges composite debug reports. There are several possible values for debugmode: options Prints information about the negotiation of telnet options. report Prints the options information, plus some additional information about what processing is going on. netdata Displays the data stream received by telnetd. ptydata Displays data written to the pty. exercise Has not been implemented yet. -edebug If telnetd has been compiled with support for encryption, then the -edebug option may be used to enable encryption debugging code. -h Disables the printing of host-specific information before login has been completed. -L loginprg This option may be used to specify a different login program. By default, /usr/lib/telnetlogin is used. -n Disable TCP keep-alives. Normally telnetd enables the TCP keep-alive mechanism to probe connections that have been idle for some period of time to determine if the client is still there, so that idle connections from machines that have crashed or can no longer be reached may be cleaned up. -N Disable reverse DNS lookups and use the numeric IP address in logs and REMOTEHOST environment variable. -s This option is only enabled if telnetd is compiled with support for SecurID cards. It causes the -s option to be passed on to login(1), and thus is only useful if login(1) supports the -s flag to indicate that only SecurID validated logins are allowed. This is usually useful for controlling remote logins from outside of a firewall. -S tos Sets the IP type-of-service (TOS) option for the telnet connection to the value tos. -X authtype This option is only valid if telnetd has been built with support for the authentication option. It disables the use of authtype authentication, and can be used to temporarily disable a specific authentication type without having to recompile telnetd. -z SSL-parameter This option is only valid if telnetd has been built with SSL (Secure Socket Layer) support. debug Enable SSL related debugging. ssl Negotiate SSL at first, then use telnet protocol. In this mode telnetd only accepts connections from SSL enhanced telnet with option -z ssl nossl, !ssl switch off SSL negotiation certsok Look username up in /etc/ssl.users. The format of this file is lines of this form: user1,user2:/C=US/..... where user1 and user2 are usernames and /C=US/... is the subject name of the certificate. Use openssl x509 -subject -noout to extract the subject name. If client certificate is valid, authenticate without password. certrequired client certificate is mandatory secure Don't switch back to unencrypted mode (no SSL) if SSL is not available. verify=int Set the SSL verify flags (SSL_VERIFY_* in ssl/ssl.h ). cert=cert_file Use the certificate(s) in cert_file. key=key_file Use the key(s) in key_file. cipher=ciph_list Set the preferred ciphers to ciph_list. (See ssl/ssl.h ). If the file /etc/issue.net is present, telnetd will display its contents before the login prompt of a telnet session (see issue.net(5)). Telnetd operates by allocating a pseudo-terminal device (see pty(4)) for a client, then creating a login process which has the slave side of the pseudo-terminal as stdin, stdout, and stderr. Telnetd manipulates the master side of the pseudo-terminal, implementing the telnet protocol and passing characters between the remote client and the login process. When a telnet session is started up, telnetd sends telnet options to the client side indicating a willingness to do the following telnet options, which are described in more detail below: DO AUTHENTICATION WILL ENCRYPT DO TERMINAL TYPE DO TSPEED DO XDISPLOC DO NEW-ENVIRON WILL SUPPRESS GO AHEAD DO ECHO DO LINEMODE DO NAWS WILL STATUS DO LFLOW DO TIMING-MARK The pseudo-terminal allocated to the client is configured to operate in “cooked” mode, and with XTABS CRMOD enabled (see tty(4)). Telnetd has support for enabling locally the following telnet options: WILL ECHO When the LINEMODE option is enabled, a WILL ECHO or WONT ECHO will be sent to the client to indicate the current state of terminal echoing. When terminal echo is not desired, a WILL ECHO is sent to indicate that telnetd will take care of echoing any data that needs to be echoed to the terminal, and then nothing is echoed. When terminal echo is desired, a WONT ECHO is sent to indicate that telnetd will not be doing any terminal echoing, so the client should do any terminal echoing that is needed. WILL BINARY Indicates that the client is willing to send a 8 bits of data, rather than the normal 7 bits of the Network Virtual Terminal. WILL SGA Indicates that it will not be sending IAC GA, go ahead, commands. WILL STATUS Indicates a willingness to send the client, upon request, of the current status of all TELNET options. WILL TIMING-MARK Whenever a DO TIMING-MARK command is received, it is always responded to with a WILL TIMING-MARK WILL LOGOUT When a DO LOGOUT is received, a WILL LOGOUT is sent in response, and the TELNET session is shut down. WILL ENCRYPT Only sent if telnetd is compiled with support for data encryption, and indicates a willingness to decrypt the data stream. Telnetd has support for enabling remotely the following TELNET options: DO BINARY Sent to indicate that telnetd is willing to receive an 8 bit data stream. DO LFLOW Requests that the client handle flow control characters remotely. DO ECHO This is not really supported, but is sent to identify a 4.2BSD telnet(1) client, which will improperly respond with WILL ECHO. If a WILL ECHO is received, a DONT ECHO will be sent in response. DO TERMINAL-TYPE Indicates a desire to be able to request the name of the type of terminal that is attached to the client side of the connection. DO SGA Indicates that it does not need to receive IAC GA, the go ahead command. DO NAWS Requests that the client inform the server when the window (display) size changes. DO TERMINAL-SPEED Indicates a desire to be able to request information about the speed of the serial line to which the client is attached. DO XDISPLOC Indicates a desire to be able to request the name of the X windows display that is associated with the telnet client. DO NEW-ENVIRON Indicates a desire to be able to request environment variable information, as described in RFC 1572. DO LINEMODE Only sent if telnetd is compiled with support for linemode, and requests that the client do line by line processing. DO TIMING-MARK Only sent if telnetd is compiled with support for both linemode and kludge linemode, and the client responded with WONT LINEMODE. If the client responds with WILL TM, the it is assumed that the client supports kludge linemode. Note that the [-k] option can be used to disable this. DO AUTHENTICATION Only sent if telnetd is compiled with support for authentication, and indicates a willingness to receive authentication information for automatic login. DO ENCRYPT Only sent if telnetd is compiled with support for data encryption, and indicates a willingness to decrypt the data stream.
RFC-854 TELNET PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION RFC-855 TELNET OPTION SPECIFICATIONS RFC-856 TELNET BINARY TRANSMISSION RFC-857 TELNET ECHO OPTION RFC-858 TELNET SUPPRESS GO AHEAD OPTION RFC-859 TELNET STATUS OPTION RFC-860 TELNET TIMING MARK OPTION RFC-861 TELNET EXTENDED OPTIONS - LIST OPTION RFC-885 TELNET END OF RECORD OPTION RFC-1073 Telnet Window Size Option RFC-1079 Telnet Terminal Speed Option RFC-1091 Telnet Terminal-Type Option RFC-1096 Telnet X Display Location Option RFC-1123 Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application and Support RFC-1184 Telnet Linemode Option RFC-1372 Telnet Remote Flow Control Option RFC-1416 Telnet Authentication Option RFC-1411 Telnet Authentication: Kerberos Version 4 RFC-1412 Telnet Authentication: SPX RFC-1571 Telnet Environment Option Interoperability Issues RFC-1572 Telnet Environment Option
Some TELNET commands are only partially implemented. Because of bugs in the original 4.2 BSD telnet(1), telnetd performs some dubious protocol exchanges to try to discover if the remote client is, in fact, a 4.2 BSD telnet(1). Binary mode has no common interpretation except between similar operating systems (Unix in this case). The terminal type name received from the remote client is converted to lower case. Telnetd never sends TELNET IAC GA (go ahead) commands. The source code is not comprehensible.
Personal Opportunity - Free software gives you access to billions of dollars of software at no cost. Use this software for your business, personal use or to develop a profitable skill. Access to source code provides access to a level of capabilities/information that companies protect though copyrights. Open source is a core component of the Internet and it is available to you. Leverage the billions of dollars in resources and capabilities to build a career, establish a business or change the world. The potential is endless for those who understand the opportunity.
Business Opportunity - Goldman Sachs, IBM and countless large corporations are leveraging open source to reduce costs, develop products and increase their bottom lines. Learn what these companies know about open source and how open source can give you the advantage.
Free Software provides computer programs and capabilities at no cost but more importantly, it provides the freedom to run, edit, contribute to, and share the software. The importance of free software is a matter of access, not price. Software at no cost is a benefit but ownership rights to the software and source code is far more significant.
Free Office Software - The Libre Office suite provides top desktop productivity tools for free. This includes, a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation engine, drawing and flowcharting, database and math applications. Libre Office is available for Linux or Windows.
The Free Books Library is a collection of thousands of the most popular public domain books in an online readable format. The collection includes great classical literature and more recent works where the U.S. copyright has expired. These books are yours to read and use without restrictions.
Source Code - Want to change a program or know how it works? Open Source provides the source code for its programs so that anyone can use, modify or learn how to write those programs themselves. Visit the GNU source code repositories to download the source.
Study at Harvard, Stanford or MIT - Open edX provides free online courses from Harvard, MIT, Columbia, UC Berkeley and other top Universities. Hundreds of courses for almost all major subjects and course levels. Open edx also offers some paid courses and selected certifications.
Linux Manual Pages - A man or manual page is a form of software documentation found on Linux/Unix operating systems. Topics covered include computer programs (including library and system calls), formal standards and conventions, and even abstract concepts.