zsh - the Z shell


   Because  zsh contains many features, the zsh manual has been split into
   a number of sections:

   zsh          Zsh overview (this section)
   zshroadmap   Informal introduction to the manual
   zshmisc      Anything not fitting into the other sections
   zshexpn      Zsh command and parameter expansion
   zshparam     Zsh parameters
   zshoptions   Zsh options
   zshbuiltins  Zsh built-in functions
   zshzle       Zsh command line editing
   zshcompwid   Zsh completion widgets
   zshcompsys   Zsh completion system
   zshcompctl   Zsh completion control
   zshmodules   Zsh loadable modules
   zshcalsys    Zsh built-in calendar functions
   zshtcpsys    Zsh built-in TCP functions
   zshzftpsys   Zsh built-in FTP client
   zshcontrib   Additional zsh functions and utilities
   zshall       Meta-man page containing all of the above


   Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter  (shell)  usable  as  an  interactive
   login  shell  and as a shell script command processor.  Of the standard
   shells, zsh most closely resembles ksh but includes many  enhancements.
   Zsh has command line editing, builtin spelling correction, programmable
   command completion,  shell  functions  (with  autoloading),  a  history
   mechanism, and a host of other features.


   Zsh  was  originally  written by Paul Falstad <pf@zsh.org>.  Zsh is now
   maintained  by  the   members   of   the   zsh-workers   mailing   list
   <zsh-workers@zsh.org>.   The  development  is  currently coordinated by
   Peter Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  The coordinator can  be  contacted  at
   <coordinator@zsh.org>,   but   matters  relating  to  the  code  should
   generally go to the mailing list.


   Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites.  These  mirror
   sites are kept frequently up to date.  The sites marked with (H) may be
   mirroring ftp.cs.elte.hu instead of the primary site.

   Primary site



   The up-to-date source code is available via Git from Sourceforge.   See
   http://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/   for   details.    A  summary  of
   instructions    for     the     archive     can     be     found     at


   Zsh has 3 mailing lists:

          Announcements about releases, major changes in the shell and the
          monthly posting of the Zsh FAQ.  (moderated)

          User discussions.

          Hacking, development, bug reports and patches.

   To subscribe or unsubscribe, send mail to the associated administrative
   address for the mailing list.


   submissions to zsh-announce are automatically forwarded  to  zsh-users.
   All   submissions   to   zsh-users   are   automatically  forwarded  to

   If you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any  of  the  mailing
   lists,  send  mail  to  <listmaster@zsh.org>.   The  mailing  lists are
   maintained by Karsten Thygesen <karthy@kom.auc.dk>.

   The mailing lists are archived; the archives can be  accessed  via  the
   administrative  addresses  listed  above.   There  is  also a hypertext
   archive,  maintained  by  Geoff  Wing   <gcw@zsh.org>,   available   at


   Zsh has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), maintained by Peter
   Stephenson <pws@zsh.org>.  It is  regularly  posted  to  the  newsgroup
   comp.unix.shell  and the zsh-announce mailing list.  The latest version
   can   be   found   at   any   of   the   Zsh   FTP   sites,    or    at
   http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.   The  contact address for FAQ-related matters
   is <faqmaster@zsh.org>.


   Zsh has a web page which is located at  http://www.zsh.org/.   This  is
   maintained  by  Karsten  Thygesen <karthy@zsh.org>, of SunSITE Denmark.
   The contact address for web-related matters is <webmaster@zsh.org>.


   A userguide is currently in preparation.  It is intended to  complement
   the  manual, with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can
   be cabbalistic, hierographic, or downright mystifying (for example, the
   word  `hierographic'  does not exist).  It can be viewed in its current
   state at http://zsh.sourceforge.net/Guide/.  At the  time  of  writing,
   chapters  dealing  with  startup  files  and their contents and the new
   completion system were essentially complete.


   A `wiki' website for zsh has been created  at  http://www.zshwiki.org/.
   This  is  a  site  which can be added to and modified directly by users
   without any special permission.  You can add  your  own  zsh  tips  and


   The  following  flags  are  interpreted  by  the  shell when invoked to
   determine where the shell will read commands from:

   -c     Take the first argument as a command  to  execute,  rather  than
          reading  commands  from  a  script  or  standard  input.  If any
          further arguments are given, the first one is  assigned  to  $0,
          rather than being used as a positional parameter.

   -i     Force  shell to be interactive.  It is still possible to specify
          a script to execute.

   -s     Force shell to read commands from the standard input.  If the -s
          flag is not present and an argument is given, the first argument
          is taken to be the pathname of a script to execute.

   If there are any  remaining  arguments  after  option  processing,  and
   neither  of  the  options  -c or -s was supplied, the first argument is
   taken as the file name of a script  containing  shell  commands  to  be
   executed.  If the option PATH_SCRIPT is set, and the file name does not
   contain a directory path (i.e. there is no `/' in the name), first  the
   current  directory and then the command path given by the variable PATH
   are searched for the script.  If the option is not set or the file name
   contains a `/' it is used directly.

   After  the  first  one  or  two  arguments  have  been  appropriated as
   described above, the remaining arguments are assigned to the positional

   For  further  options,  which  are  common  to  invocation  and the set
   builtin, see zshoptions(1).

   Options may be specified by name using the -o option.  -o acts  like  a
   single-letter  option, but takes a following string as the option name.
   For example,

          zsh -x -o shwordsplit scr

   runs the script scr, setting the XTRACE  option  by  the  corresponding
   letter  `-x'  and  the  SH_WORD_SPLIT  option  by name.  Options may be
   turned off by name by using +o instead of -o.  -o  can  be  stacked  up
   with  preceding single-letter options, so for example `-xo shwordsplit'
   or `-xoshwordsplit' is equivalent to `-x -o shwordsplit'.

   Options may also be  specified  by  name  in  GNU  long  option  style,
   `--option-name'.   When this is done, `-' characters in the option name
   are permitted: they are translated into `_', and thus ignored.  So, for
   example,  `zsh  --sh-word-split'  invokes  zsh  with  the SH_WORD_SPLIT
   option turned on.  Like other option syntaxes, options  can  be  turned
   off  by replacing the initial `-' with a `+'; thus `+-sh-word-split' is
   equivalent to  `--no-sh-word-split'.   Unlike  other  option  syntaxes,
   GNU-style long options cannot be stacked with any other options, so for
   example `-x-shwordsplit' is an error, rather than  being  treated  like
   `-x --shwordsplit'.

   The  special  GNU-style  option  `--version'  is  handled;  it sends to
   standard  output  the   shell's   version   information,   then   exits
   successfully.   `--help' is also handled; it sends to standard output a
   list of options that can be used when invoking the  shell,  then  exits

   Option  processing  may  be finished, allowing following arguments that
   start with `-' or `+' to be treated as normal arguments, in  two  ways.
   Firstly,  a  lone  `-'  (or  `+')  as an argument by itself ends option
   processing.  Secondly, a special option `--' (or `+-'),  which  may  be
   specified  on  its  own  (which  is the standard POSIX usage) or may be
   stacked with preceding options (so `-x-' is  equivalent  to  `-x  --').
   Options  are  not  permitted  to be stacked after `--' (so `-x-f' is an
   error), but note the  GNU-style  option  form  discussed  above,  where
   `--shwordsplit' is permitted and does not end option processing.

   Except  when  the sh/ksh emulation single-letter options are in effect,
   the option `-b' (or `+b') ends option processing.  `-b' is  like  `--',
   except that further single-letter options can be stacked after the `-b'
   and will take effect as normal.


   Zsh tries to emulate sh or  ksh  when  it  is  invoked  as  sh  or  ksh
   respectively;  more precisely, it looks at the first letter of the name
   by which it was invoked, excluding any initial `r'  (assumed  to  stand
   for `restricted'), and if that is `b', `s' or `k' it will emulate sh or
   ksh.  Furthermore, if invoked as su (which happens on  certain  systems
   when  the  shell  is executed by the su command), the shell will try to
   find an alternative  name  from  the  SHELL  environment  variable  and
   perform emulation based on that.

   In  sh  and  ksh  compatibility  modes the following parameters are not
   special and not initialized by the shell: ARGC, argv, cdpath,  fignore,
   fpath,  HISTCHARS,  mailpath,  MANPATH,  manpath, path, prompt, PROMPT,
   PROMPT2, PROMPT3, PROMPT4, psvar, status, watch.

   The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts are not executed.  Login  shells
   source /etc/profile followed by $HOME/.profile.  If the ENV environment
   variable is set on  invocation,  $ENV  is  sourced  after  the  profile
   scripts.  The value of ENV is subjected to parameter expansion, command
   substitution, and arithmetic expansion before being  interpreted  as  a
   pathname.   Note  that the PRIVILEGED option also affects the execution
   of startup files.

   The following options are set if the shell is invoked  as  sh  or  ksh:
   and IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh.   Also,  the
   SINGLE_LINE_ZLE options are set if zsh is invoked as ksh.


   When the basename of the command used to invoke  zsh  starts  with  the
   letter  `r'  or the `-r' command line option is supplied at invocation,
   the shell becomes  restricted.   Emulation  mode  is  determined  after
   stripping  the  letter `r' from the invocation name.  The following are
   disabled in restricted mode:

   *      changing directories with the cd builtin

   *      changing or unsetting the PATH, path, MODULE_PATH,  module_path,
          LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters

   *      specifying command names containing /

   *      specifying command pathnames using hash

   *      redirecting output to files

   *      using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another

   *      using jobs -Z to  overwrite  the  shell  process'  argument  and
          environment space

   *      using  the  ARGV0  parameter  to  override  argv[0] for external

   *      turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED

   These restrictions are enforced after  processing  the  startup  files.
   The  startup  files  should  set  up  PATH  to  point to a directory of
   commands which can be safely invoked  in  the  restricted  environment.
   They may also add further restrictions by disabling selected builtins.

   Restricted  mode  can  also  be  activated  any  time  by  setting  the
   RESTRICTED option.   This  immediately  enables  all  the  restrictions
   described  above  even if the shell still has not processed all startup


   Commands  are  first  read  from  /etc/zsh/zshenv;   this   cannot   be
   overridden.  Subsequent behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS
   options; the former affects all startup files, while  the  second  only
   affects  global  startup  files (those shown here with an path starting
   with a /).  If one of the options is unset at any point, any subsequent
   startup file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read.  It is also
   possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re-enable GLOBAL_RCS. Both  RCS  and
   GLOBAL_RCS are set by default.

   Commands  are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv.  If the shell is a login
   shell,   commands   are   read   from   /etc/zsh/zprofile   and    then
   $ZDOTDIR/.zprofile.   Then,  if  the shell is interactive, commands are
   read from /etc/zsh/zshrc and then  $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc.   Finally,  if  the
   shell is a login shell, /etc/zsh/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin are read.

   When  a  login  shell  exits,  the  files  $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout  and  then
   /etc/zsh/zlogout are read.  This happens with either an  explicit  exit
   via  the  exit  or  logout  commands,  or  an  implicit exit by reading
   end-of-file from the terminal.  However, if the shell terminates due to
   exec'ing  another  process,  the  logout files are not read.  These are
   also affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.  Note  also  that  the
   RCS  option  affects  the saving of history files, i.e. if RCS is unset
   when the shell exits, no history file will be saved.

   If ZDOTDIR is unset, HOME is used instead.  Files listed above as being
   in /etc may be in another directory, depending on the installation.

   As  /etc/zsh/zshenv  is  run  for all instances of zsh, it is important
   that it be kept as small as possible.  In particular, it is a good idea
   to  put code that does not need to be run for every single shell behind
   a test of the form `if [[ -o rcs ]]; then ...' so that it will  not  be
   executed when zsh is invoked with the `-f' option.

   Any  of  these  files  may  be  pre-compiled  with the zcompile builtin
   command (see zshbuiltins(1)).  If a compiled file exists (named for the
   original  file  plus  the  .zwc  extension)  and  it  is newer than the
   original file, the compiled file will be used instead.


   ${TMPPREFIX}*   (default is /tmp/zsh*)
   /etc/zsh/zlogout    (installation-specific - /etc is the default)


   sh(1),  csh(1),  tcsh(1),  rc(1),  bash(1),   ksh(1),   zshbuiltins(1),
   zshcompwid(1),  zshcompsys(1),  zshcompctl(1),  zshexpn(1), zshmisc(1),
   zshmodules(1), zshoptions(1), zshparam(1), zshzle(1)

   IEEE Standard for information Technology -  Portable  Operating  System
   Interface  (POSIX)  - Part 2: Shell and Utilities, IEEE Inc, 1993, ISBN

More Linux Commands

Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(3) - manipulate Tcl objects as strings
The procedures described in this manual entry allow Tcl objects to be manipulated as string values. They use the internal representation of the object to store

optarg(3) - Parse command-line options - Linux manual page
optarg.3 - The getopt() function parses the command-line arguments. Its arguments argc and argv are the argument count and array as passed to the main() functio

jstest(1) joystick test program (Commands - Linux man page)
jstest can be used to test all the features of the Linux joystick API, including non-blocking and select(2) access, as well as version 0.x compatibility mode. I

catanl(3) - complex arc tangents (Library - Linux man page)
The catan() function calculates the complex arc tangent of z. If y = catan(z), then z = ctan(y). The real part of y is chosen in the interval [-pi/2,pi/2]. One

tora(1x) - (unknown subject) (Commands - Linux man page)....
oneko changes your cursor into a mouse and creates a little cute cat and the cat starts chasing around your mouse cursor. If the cat catches the mouse, it will

htsearch(1) - create document index and word database for th
Htsearch is used to search in de databases created by htdig for content. is the actual search engine of the htdig search system. It is a CGI program that is exp

dnsmasq(8) - A lightweight DHCP and caching DNS server......
dnsmasq is a lightweight DNS, TFTP, PXE, router advertisement and DHCP server. It is intended to provide coupled DNS and DHCP service to a LAN. Dnsmasq accepts

autopano-noop.sh(1) Trivial wrapper script for autopanosiftc
autopano-noop.sh is an obsolete wrapper around autopano-sift-c(1) If you see a message from autopano-noop.sh or have it configured as a hugin(1) control point d

smbcontrol(1) - send messages to smbd, nmbd or winbindd proc
This tool is part of the samba(7) suite. smbcontrol is a very small program, which sends messages to a smbd(8), a nmbd(8), or a winbindd(8) daemon running on th

mshowfat(1) - shows FAT clusters allocated to file (ManPage)
The mshowfat command is used to display the FAT entries for a file. Syntax: mshowfat [-o offset] files If no offset is given, a list of all clusters occupied by

podofocountpages(1) count the number of pages in a pdf file
podofocountpages is one of the command line tools from the PoDoFo library that provide several useful operations to work with PDF files. It counts the pages in

glutCopyColormap(3) - copies the logical colormap for the la
glutCopyColormap copies (lazily if possible to promote sharing) the logical colormap from a specified window to the current windows layer in use. The copy will

We can't live, work or learn in freedom unless the software we use is free.