git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order


   git rev-list [ --max-count=<number> ]
                [ --skip=<number> ]
                [ --max-age=<timestamp> ]
                [ --min-age=<timestamp> ]
                [ --sparse ]
                [ --merges ]
                [ --no-merges ]
                [ --min-parents=<number> ]
                [ --no-min-parents ]
                [ --max-parents=<number> ]
                [ --no-max-parents ]
                [ --first-parent ]
                [ --remove-empty ]
                [ --full-history ]
                [ --not ]
                [ --all ]
                [ --branches[=<pattern>] ]
                [ --tags[=<pattern>] ]
                [ --remotes[=<pattern>] ]
                [ --glob=<glob-pattern> ]
                [ --ignore-missing ]
                [ --stdin ]
                [ --quiet ]
                [ --topo-order ]
                [ --parents ]
                [ --timestamp ]
                [ --left-right ]
                [ --left-only ]
                [ --right-only ]
                [ --cherry-mark ]
                [ --cherry-pick ]
                [ --encoding=<encoding> ]
                [ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
                [ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
                [ --extended-regexp | -E ]
                [ --fixed-strings | -F ]
                [ --date=<format>]
                [ [ --objects | --objects-edge | --objects-edge-aggressive ]
                  [ --unpacked ] ]
                [ --pretty | --header ]
                [ --bisect ]
                [ --bisect-vars ]
                [ --bisect-all ]
                [ --merge ]
                [ --reverse ]
                [ --walk-reflogs ]
                [ --no-walk ] [ --do-walk ]
                [ --count ]
                [ --use-bitmap-index ]
                <commit>... [ -- <paths>... ]


   List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the
   given commit(s), but exclude commits that are reachable from the one(s)
   given with a ^ in front of them. The output is given in reverse
   chronological order by default.

   You can think of this as a set operation. Commits given on the command
   line form a set of commits that are reachable from any of them, and
   then commits reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are
   subtracted from that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in
   the command's output. Various other options and paths parameters can be
   used to further limit the result.

   Thus, the following command:

               $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

   means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but
   not from baz".

   A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand
   for "^'<commit1>' <commit2>". For example, either of the following may
   be used interchangeably:

               $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
               $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

   Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful for
   merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference
   between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:

               $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
               $ git rev-list A...B

   rev-list is a very essential Git command, since it provides the ability
   to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a
   lot of different options that enables it to be used by commands as
   different as git bisect and git repack.


   Commit Limiting
   Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
   special notations explained in the description, additional commit
   limiting may be applied.

   Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
   --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
   --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a line
   that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

   Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
   options, such as --reverse.

   -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
       Limit the number of commits to output.

       Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

   --since=<date>, --after=<date>
       Show commits more recent than a specific date.

   --until=<date>, --before=<date>
       Show commits older than a specific date.

   --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
       Limit the commits output to specified time range.

   --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
       Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
       that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
       than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches any of
       the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple

       Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the
       specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
       --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the
       given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
       --walk-reflogs is in use.

       Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
       specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
       --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
       patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

       Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
       instead of ones that match at least one.

       Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
       the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

   -i, --regexp-ignore-case
       Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
       letter case.

       Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
       this is the default.

   -E, --extended-regexp
       Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
       instead of the default basic regular expressions.

   -F, --fixed-strings
       Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
       pattern as a regular expression).

       Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular
       expressions. Requires libpcre to be compiled in.

       Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

       Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

       Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the
       same as --max-parents=1.

   --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
       Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
       commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
       --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
       root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

       --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no
       limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has
       0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
       upper limit).

       Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
       This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution
       of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch
       tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to
       time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
       brought in to your history by such a merge. Cannot be combined with

       Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
       following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

       Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the command line
       as <commit>.

       Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command
       line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones
       matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
       end is implied.

       Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
       line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones
       matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
       end is implied.

       Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
       command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
       remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
       pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

       Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
       listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
       automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*
       at the end is implied.

       Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
       --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
       Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
       next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
       options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

       The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
       refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
       respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
       or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given

       Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
       command line as <commit>.

       Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
       bad input was not given.

       In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
       from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
       commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

       Don't print anything to standard output. This form is primarily
       meant to allow the caller to test the exit status to see if a range
       of objects is fully connected (or not). It is faster than
       redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to be

       Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
       rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

       Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit
       on the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with
       symmetric difference.

       For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list
       all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right (see the
       example below in the description of the --left-right option).
       However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the
       other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from
       branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded
       from the output.

   --left-only, --right-only
       List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
       i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

       For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
       from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In
       other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
       precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact

       A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to
       limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
       have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git
       log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream

   -g, --walk-reflogs
       Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
       from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used
       you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
       commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

       With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this
       causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from
       the reflog. The reflog designator in the output may be shown as
       ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the reverse-chronological index in the
       reflog) or as ref@{timestamp} (with the timestamp for that entry),
       depending on a few rules:

        1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the index

        2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
           timestamp format.

        3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command line,
           show the timestamp in the format requested by --date.

        4. Otherwise, show the index format.

       Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
       information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
       --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

       After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict
       and don't exist on all heads to merge.

       Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed
       with -.

       Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if one
       is available). Note that when traversing with --objects, trees and
       blobs will not have their associated path printed.

       Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The
       <header> text will be printed with each progress update.

   History Simplification
   Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
   the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
   History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other
   is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the

   The following options select the commits to be shown:

       Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

       Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

   Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

   The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

   Default mode
       Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
       state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
       the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same

       Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

       Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful

       All commits in the simplified history are shown.

       Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges
       from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits
       contributing to this merge.

       When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
       commit2 ^commit1), only display commits that exist directly on the
       ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e. commits that
       are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

   A more detailed explanation follows.

   Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
   modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for
   foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

   In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
   illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
   that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

                /     /   /   /   /   /
               I     B   C   D   E   Y
                \   /   /   /   /   /
                 `-------------'   X

   The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
   each merge. The commits are:

   *   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents "asdf",
       and a file quux exists with contents "quux". Initial commits are
       compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

   *   In A, foo contains just "foo".

   *   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
       TREESAME to all parents.

   *   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to "foobar", so
       it is not TREESAME to any parent.

   *   D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D
       to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

   *   E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to
       "quux xyzzy".  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

   *   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
       modified it.  Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and
       Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

   rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding
   commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
   --parents or --children) are used. The following settings are

   Default mode
       Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though
       this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a
       merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent.
       (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of
       them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

       This results in:

                    /     /   /

       Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
       available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was considered
       via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree,
       so I is !TREESAME.

       Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that
       does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have
       shown the parent lines.

   --full-history without parent rewriting
       This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
       parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if
       more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this
       does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

                   I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

       M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and B
       were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not

       Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to
       talk about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
       we show them disconnected.

   --full-history with parent rewriting
       Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though
       this can be changed, see --sparse below).

       Merges are always included. However, their parent list is
       rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
       included themselves. This results in

                    /     /   /   /   /
                   I     B   /   D   /
                    \   /   /   /   /

       Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was
       pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
       rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C and N,
       and X, Y and Q.

   In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
   affects inclusion:

       Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to
       any parent.

       All commits that are walked are included.

       Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if
       one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the
       other sides of the merge are never walked.

       First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history
       with parent rewriting does (see above).

       Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
       history according to the following rules:

       *   Set C' to C.

       *   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the
           process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or
           that are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove
           duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that we are
           TREESAME to.

       *   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
           (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
           remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

       The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
       --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

                    /     /       /
                   I     B       D
                    \   /       /

       Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

       *   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the
           other parent M. Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

       *   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed
           completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       *   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed,
           because it was a TREESAME root.  Q was then removed completely,
           because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

   Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

       Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain
       between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit range. I.e.
       only display commits that are ancestor of the "to" commit and
       descendants of the "from" commit.

       As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                      /     \       \
                    /                     \

       A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
       but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to
       see what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the sense
       that "what does M have that did not exist in D". The result in this
       example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of

       When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with
       the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to
       view only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of D,
       i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path
       option does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

                            \       \

   The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
   picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are
   not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
   words, kept after history simplification rules described above) if (1)
   they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the
   paths given on the command line. All other commits are marked as
   TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

   Bisection Helpers
       Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway
       between included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection
       ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the included commits (if it exists)
       and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* are added to the
       excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs
       in refs/bisect/, if

                   $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

       outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

                   $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
                   $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

       would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
       introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search:
       repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain
       is of length one. Cannot be combined with --first-parent.

       This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in
       refs/bisect/ are not used, and except that this outputs text ready
       to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of the
       midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and the expected
       number of commits to be tested after bisect_rev is tested to
       bisect_nr, the expected number of commits to be tested if
       bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the expected number
       of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be bad to
       bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to

       This outputs all the commit objects between the included and
       excluded commits, ordered by their distance to the included and
       excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not used. The farthest
       from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by

       This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
       test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason
       (they may not compile for example).

       This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this case,
       after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as
       if --bisect-vars had been used alone.

   Commit Ordering
   By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

       Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
       show commits in the commit timestamp order.

       Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
       show commits in the author timestamp order.

       Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid
       showing commits on multiple lines of history intermixed.

       For example, in a commit history like this:

                   \              \

       where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git
       rev-list and friends with --date-order show the commits in the
       timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

       With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
       3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
       avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed

       Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting section
       above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
   These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

       Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
       commits.  --objects foo ^bar thus means "send me all object IDs
       which I need to download if I have the commit object bar but not

       Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits
       prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1)
       to build a "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form
       based on objects contained in these excluded commits to reduce
       network traffic.

       Similar to --objects-edge, but it tries harder to find excluded
       commits at the cost of increased time. This is used instead of
       --objects-edge to build "thin" packs for shallow repositories.

       Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed on
       the command line. Note that you probably want to use --objects,

       Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in

       Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
       This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
       unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
       given on the command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument was
       given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order by
       commit time. Cannot be combined with --graph.

       Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
   Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more
   specialized family of commit log tools: git-log(1), git-show(1), and

   --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
       Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
       where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
       email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When <format> is
       none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts as if
       --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

       See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for
       each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

       Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
       configuration (see git-config(1)).

       Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
       show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be
       specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if
       it is displayed).

       This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
       people using 80-column terminals.

       Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
       --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as
       "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

       This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used

       The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in
       their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command
       to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the
       user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8. Note that
       if an object claims to be encoded in X and we are outputting in X,
       we will output the object verbatim; this means that invalid
       sequences in the original commit may be copied to the output.

   --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
       Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to
       fill to the next display column that is multiple of <n>) in the log
       message before showing it in the output.  --expand-tabs is a
       short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a
       short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

       By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
       message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and

       Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
       signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

       Synonym for --date=relative.

       Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as
       when using --pretty. config variable sets a default value
       for the log command's --date option. By default, dates are shown in
       the original time zone (either committer's or author's). If -local
       is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user's local time
       zone is used instead.

       --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2
       hours ago". The -local option has no effect for --date=relative.

       --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

       --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like
       format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:

       *   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

       *   a space between time and time zone

       *   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

       --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps in
       strict ISO 8601 format.

       --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
       often found in email messages.

       --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD

       --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
       00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an
       offset from UTC (a + or - with four digits; the first two are
       hours, and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp
       were formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note that the -local option
       does not affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which is always
       measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying timezone value.

       --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since
       1970). As with --raw, this is always in UTC and therefore -local
       has no effect.

       --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system strftime.
       Use --date=format:%c to show the date in your system locale's
       preferred format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of
       format placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is

       --date=default is the default format, and is similar to
       --date=rfc2822, with a few exceptions:

       *   there is no comma after the day-of-week

       *   the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used

       Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
       separated with a NUL character.

       Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit
       parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
       Simplification below.

       Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
       child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
       Simplification below.

       Print the raw commit timestamp.

       Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable
       from. Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those from
       the right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are
       prefixed with -.

       For example, if you have this topology:

                        y---b---b  branch B
                       / \ /
                      /   .
                     /   / \
                    o---x---a---a  branch A

       you would get an output like this:

                   $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                   >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                   >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                   <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                   <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                   -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                   -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

       Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on
       the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines to be
       printed in between commits, in order for the graph history to be
       drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

       This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

       This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
       --date-order option may also be specified.

       When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened which
       can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits do not
       belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in between
       them in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the string that
       will be shown instead of the default one.

       Print a number stating how many commits would have been listed, and
       suppress all other output. When used together with --left-right,
       instead print the counts for left and right commits, separated by a
       tab. When used together with --cherry-mark, omit patch equivalent
       commits from these counts and print the count for equivalent
       commits separated by a tab.


   If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
   email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
   This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are
   printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
   necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
   limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
   in changes related to a certain directory or file.

   There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
   formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
   format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
   config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

   *   oneline

           <sha1> <title line>

       This is designed to be as compact as possible.

   *   short

           commit <sha1>
           Author: <author>

           <title line>

   *   medium

           commit <sha1>
           Author: <author>
           Date:   <author date>

           <title line>

           <full commit message>

   *   full

           commit <sha1>
           Author: <author>
           Commit: <committer>

           <title line>

           <full commit message>

   *   fuller

           commit <sha1>
           Author:     <author>
           AuthorDate: <author date>
           Commit:     <committer>
           CommitDate: <committer date>

           <title line>

           <full commit message>

   *   email

           From <sha1> <date>
           From: <author>
           Date: <author date>
           Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

           <full commit message>

   *   raw

       The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
       commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are displayed in full,
       regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
       information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts or
       history simplification into account. Note that this format affects
       the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
       e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff
       format, use --no-abbrev.

   *   format:<string>

       The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information
       you want to show. It works a little bit like printf format, with
       the notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead of \n.

       E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
       would show something like this:

           The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
           The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

       The placeholders are:

       *   %H: commit hash

       *   %h: abbreviated commit hash

       *   %T: tree hash

       *   %t: abbreviated tree hash

       *   %P: parent hashes

       *   %p: abbreviated parent hashes

       *   %an: author name

       *   %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

       *   %ae: author email

       *   %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

       *   %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

       *   %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

       *   %ar: author date, relative

       *   %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

       *   %ai: author date, ISO 8601-like format

       *   %aI: author date, strict ISO 8601 format

       *   %cn: committer name

       *   %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
           or git-blame(1))

       *   %ce: committer email

       *   %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
           or git-blame(1))

       *   %cd: committer date (format respects --date= option)

       *   %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

       *   %cr: committer date, relative

       *   %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

       *   %ci: committer date, ISO 8601-like format

       *   %cI: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

       *   %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

       *   %D: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

       *   %e: encoding

       *   %s: subject

       *   %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

       *   %b: body

       *   %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

       *   %GG: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

       *   %G?: show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
           signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown validity and
           "N" for no signature

       *   %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

       *   %GK: show the key used to sign a signed commit

       *   %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
           minutes ago}; the format follows the rules described for the -g
           option. The portion before the @ is the refname as given on the
           command line (so git log -g refs/heads/master would yield

       *   %gd: shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
           portion is shortened for human readability (so
           refs/heads/master becomes just master).

       *   %gn: reflog identity name

       *   %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
           shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

       *   %ge: reflog identity email

       *   %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
           shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

       *   %gs: reflog subject

       *   %Cred: switch color to red

       *   %Cgreen: switch color to green

       *   %Cblue: switch color to blue

       *   %Creset: reset color

       *   %C(...): color specification, as described under Values in the
           "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1); adding auto, at
           the beginning will emit color only when colors are enabled for
           log output (by color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting
           the auto settings of the former if we are going to a terminal).
           auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring on the
           next placeholders until the color is switched again.

       *   %m: left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

       *   %n: newline

       *   %%: a raw %

       *   %x00: print a byte from a hex code

       *   %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w
           option of git-shortlog(1).

       *   %<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc]): make the next placeholder take
           at least N columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
           Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle
           (mtrunc) or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N
           columns. Note that truncating only works correctly with N >= 2.

       *   %<|(<N>): make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
           columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary

       *   %>(<N>), %>|(<N>): similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively,
           but padding spaces on the left

       *   %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>): similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively,
           except that if the next placeholder takes more spaces than
           given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces

       *   %><(<N>), %><|(<N>): similar to % <(<N>), %<|(<N>)
           respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is

       Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision
       traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert
       an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
       git log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will use the "short"
       decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the
       command line.

   If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
   inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
   placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

   If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that
   immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the
   placeholder expands to an empty string.

   If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted
   immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands
   to a non-empty string.

   *   tformat:

       The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
       provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
       In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
       (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
       between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
       format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
       "oneline" format does. For example:

           $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
             | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
           7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

           $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
             | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

       In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
       interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example,
       these two are equivalent:

           $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
           $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef


   Part of the git(1) suite


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