intel - Intel integrated graphics chipsets


   Section "Device"
     Identifier "devname"
     Driver "intel"


   intel  is  an  Xorg driver for Intel integrated graphics chipsets.  The
   driver supports depths  8,  15,  16  and  24.   All  visual  types  are
   supported  in  depth  8.   For  the  i810/i815 other depths support the
   TrueColor and DirectColor visuals.  For the i830M and later,  only  the
   TrueColor  visual  is  supported for depths greater than 8.  The driver
   supports   hardware   accelerated   3D   via   the   Direct   Rendering
   Infrastructure (DRI), but only in depth 16 for the i810/i815 and depths
   16 and 24 for the 830M and later.


   intel supports the i810, i810-DC100, i810e, i815, i830M,  845G,  852GM,
   855GM,  865G,  915G,  915GM,  945G,  945GM,  965G,  965Q, 946GZ, 965GM,
   945GME, G33,  Q33,  Q35,  G35,  GM45,  G45,  Q45,  G43,  G41  chipsets,
   Pineview-M  in  Atom  N400 series, Pineview-D in Atom D400/D500 series,
   Intel(R) HD Graphics: 2000-6000, Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics: 5100/6100,
   and Intel(R) Iris(TM) Pro Graphics: 5200/6200/P6300.


   Please  refer  to xorg.conf(5) for general configuration details.  This
   section only covers configuration details specific to this driver.

   The Intel 8xx and 9xx families of integrated graphics chipsets  have  a
   unified memory architecture meaning that system memory is used as video
   RAM.  For the i810  and  i815  family  of  chipsets,  operating  system
   support  for  allocating system memory is required in order to use this
   driver.  For the 830M and later, this is  required  in  order  for  the
   driver  to  use more video RAM than has been pre-allocated at boot time
   by the BIOS.  This is usually  achieved  with  an  "agpgart"  or  "agp"
   kernel  driver.  Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, and Solaris have such
   kernel drivers available.

   By default, the i810/i815 will use 8 MB of system memory  for  graphics
   if  AGP  allocable  memory  is  < 128 MB, 16 MB if < 192 MB or 24 MB if
   higher. Use the VideoRam option to change the default value.

   For the 830M and later, the driver will automatically size  its  memory
   allocation  according  to the features it will support.  Therefore, the
   VideoRam option, which in the past had been  necessary  to  allow  more
   than some small amount of memory to be allocated, is now ignored.

   The following driver Options are supported

   Option "ColorKey" "integer"
          This sets the default pixel value for the YUV video overlay key.

          Default: undefined.

   Option "DRI" "string"
          Disable  or  enable  DRI  support.  A  driver name to use can be
          provided instead of simple boolean value, which will  be  passed
          to the GL implementation for it to load the appropriate backend.
          Alternatively the maximum level of DRI to enable (e.g. "1",  "2"
          or "3") can be specified.

          Default:  All levels of DRI are enabled for configurations where
          it is supported.

   The following driver Options  are  supported  for  the  i810  and  i815

   Option "CacheLines" "integer"
          This  allows  the  user  to change the amount of graphics memory
          used for 2D acceleration and  video  when  XAA  acceleration  is
          enabled.   Decreasing  this  amount leaves more for 3D textures.
          Increasing it can improve 2D performance at the  expense  of  3D

          Default:  depends  on the resolution, depth, and available video
          memory.   The  driver  attempts  to  allocate  space  for  at  3
          screenfuls  of  pixmaps  plus an HD-sized XV video.  The default
          used for a specific configuration can be found by examining  the
          Xorg log file.

   Option "DDC" "boolean"
          Disable or enable DDC support.

          Default: enabled.

   Option "Dac6Bit" "boolean"
          Enable or disable 6-bits per RGB for 8-bit modes.

          Default: 8-bits per RGB for 8-bit modes.

   Option "XvMCSurfaces" "integer"
          This  option  enables XvMC.  The integer parameter specifies the
          number of surfaces to use.  Valid values are 6 and 7.

          Default: XvMC is disabled.

   VideoRam integer
          This option specifies the amount of system  memory  to  use  for
          graphics, in KB.

          The  default  is 8192 if AGP allocable memory is < 128 MB, 16384
          if < 192 MB, 24576 if higher. DRI require at least  a  value  of
          16384.  Higher values may give better 3D performance, at expense
          of available system memory.

   Option "Accel" "boolean"
          Enable or disable acceleration.

          Default: acceleration is enabled.

   The following driver Options are  supported  for  the  830M  and  later

   Option "Accel" "boolean"
          Enable or disable acceleration.

          Default: acceleration is enabled.

   Option "Present" "boolean"
          Enable use of hardware counters and flow control for the Present

          Default: Enabled

   Option "AccelMethod" "string"
          Select acceleration method.  There  are  a  couple  of  backends
          available  for accelerating the DDX. "UXA" (Unified Acceleration
          Architecture) is the  mature  backend  that  was  introduced  to
          support  the  GEM  driver  model.  It is in the process of being
          superseded by "SNA" (Sandybridge's New Acceleration). Until that
          process  is complete, the ability to choose which backend to use
          remains for backwards compatibility.  In addition, there  are  a
          pair of sub-options to limit the acceleration for debugging use.
          Specify "off" or "none" to disable all acceleration, or "blt" to
          disable render acceleration and only use the BLT engine.

          Default: use SNA (render acceleration)

   Option "TearFree" "boolean"
          Disable  or  enable  TearFree  updates.  This option forces X to
          perform all rendering to a  backbuffer  prior  to  updating  the
          actual  display. It requires an extra memory allocation the same
          size as a framebuffer, the occasional extra copy,  and  requires
          Damage tracking. Thus enabling TearFree requires more memory and
          is slower (reduced throughput) and introduces a small amount  of
          output latency, but it should not impact input latency. However,
          the update to the screen is then  performed  synchronously  with
          the vertical refresh of the display so that the entire update is
          completed before the display starts its refresh.  That  is  only
          one  frame is ever visible, preventing an unsightly tear between
          two visible and differing frames. Note that this replicates what
          the  compositing  manager should be doing, however TearFree will
          redirect the compositor updates (and those of fullscreen  games)
          directly on to the scanout thus incurring no additional overhead
          in the composited case.  Also  note  that  not  all  compositing
          managers  prevent tearing, and if the outputs are rotated, there
          will still be tearing without TearFree enabled.

          Default: TearFree is disabled.

   Option "ReprobeOutputs" "boolean"
          Disable or  enable  rediscovery  of  connected  displays  during
          server  startup.   As  the  kernel  driver  loads  it  scans for
          connected displays  and  configures  a  console  spanning  those
          outputs.  When  the  X  server  starts, we then take the list of
          connected displays and framebuffer layout and use that  for  the
          initial configuration. Sometimes, not all displays are correctly
          detected  by  the  kernel  and  so  it  is  useful  in   a   few
          circumstances  for X to force the kernel to reprobe all displays
          when it starts. To make the  X  server  recheck  the  status  of
          connected  displays,  set  the  "ReprobeOutputs" option to true.
          Please do file a bug for any circumstances  which  require  this

          Default: reprobing is disabled for a faster startup.

   Option "VideoKey" "integer"
          This  is  the same as the "ColorKey" option described above.  It
          is provided for compatibility with most other drivers.

   Option "XvPreferOverlay" "boolean"
          Make hardware overlay be the  first  XV  adaptor.   The  overlay
          behaves  incorrectly  in  the  presence of compositing, but some
          prefer it due  to  it  syncing  to  vblank  in  the  absence  of
          compositing.   While  most XV-using applications have options to
          select which XV adaptor to use, this option can be used to place
          the  overlay first for applications which don't have options for
          selecting adaptors.

          Default: Textured video adaptor is preferred.

   Option "Backlight" "string"
          Override the probed backlight control interface.  Sometimes  the
          automatically selected backlight interface may not correspond to
          the correct, or simply most useful, interface available  on  the
          system.  This  allows  you to override that choice by specifying
          the entry under /sys/class/backlight to use.

          Default: Automatic selection.

   Option "CustomEDID" "string"
          Override the probed EDID on particular  outputs.  Sometimes  the
          manufacturer  supplied  EDID  is corrupt or lacking a few usable
          modes  and  supplying  a  corrected  EDID  may  be  easier  than
          specifying  every  modeline. This option allows to pass the path
          to load an EDID from per output. The format is a comma separated
          string         of         output:path         pairs,        e.g.

          Default: No override, use manufacturer supplied EDIDs.

   Option "FallbackDebug" "boolean"
          Enable  printing  of  debugging  information   on   acceleration
          fallbacks to the server log.

          Default: Disabled

   Option "DebugFlushBatches" "boolean"
          Flush the batch buffer after every single operation.

          Default: Disabled

   Option "DebugFlushCaches" "boolean"
          Include  an  MI_FLUSH  at the end of every batch buffer to force
          data to be flushed out of  cache  and  into  memory  before  the
          completion of the batch.

          Default: Disabled

   Option "DebugWait" "boolean"
          Wait for the completion of every batch buffer before continuing,
          i.e. perform synchronous rendering.

          Default: Disabled

   Option "HWRotation" "boolean"
          Override the use of native hardware rotation and force  the  use
          of  software,  but  GPU accelerated where possible, rotation. On
          some platforms the hardware can scanout directly into a  rotated
          output   bypassing   the   intermediate   rendering   and  extra
          allocations required for  software  implemented  rotation  (i.e.
          native  rotation  uses  less resources, is quicker and uses less
          power). This allows you to disable the native rotation  in  case
          of errors.

          Default: Enabled (use hardware rotation)

   Option "VSync" "boolean"
          This   option  controls  the  use  of  commands  to  synchronise
          rendering  with  the  vertical  refresh  of  the  display.  Some
          rendering  commands  have the option to be performed in a "tear-
          free" fashion by stalling the GPU to wait for the display to  be
          outside  of  the  region  to  be  updated.  This  slows down all
          rendering, and historically has been  the  source  of  many  GPU

          Default: enabled.

   Option "PageFlip" "boolean"
          This  option  controls  the  use of commands to flip the scanout
          address  on  a  VBlank.  This  is  used  by  glXSwapBuffers   to
          efficiently  perform  the back-to-front exchange at the end of a
          frame without incurring the penalty of a copy, or  stalling  the
          render  pipeline  (the  flip is performed asynchronrously to the
          render command stream by the display engine).  However,  it  has
          historically been the source of many GPU hangs.

          Default: enabled.

   Option "SwapbuffersWait" "boolean"
          This   option   controls  the  behavior  of  glXSwapBuffers  and
          glXCopySubBufferMESA calls by GL applications.  If enabled,  the
          calls  will avoid tearing by making sure the display scanline is
          outside of the area to be copied before  the  copy  occurs.   If
          disabled,  no  scanline  synchronization  is  performed, meaning
          tearing will likely occur.

          Default: enabled.

   Option "TripleBuffer" "boolean"
          This option enables the use of a third buffer for page-flipping.
          The  third  buffer  allows applications to run at vrefresh rates
          even if they occasionally  fail  to  swapbuffers  on  time.  The
          effect  of such missed swaps is the output jitters between 60fps
          and 30fps, and in the worst case appears frame-locked to  30fps.
          The  disadvantage  of triple buffering is that there is an extra
          frame of latency, due to the pre-rendered frame sitting  in  the
          swap queue, between input and any display update.

          Default: enabled.

   Option "Tiling" "boolean"
          This  option  controls  whether  memory  buffers for Pixmaps are
          allocated in tiled mode.  In most cases (especially for  complex
          rendering), tiling dramatically improves performance.

          Default: enabled.

   Option "LinearFramebuffer" "boolean"
          This  option  controls  whether the memory for the scanout (also
          known as the front or  frame  buffer)  is  allocated  in  linear
          memory.  A  tiled framebuffer is required for power conservation
          features, but for certain system configurations you may wish  to
          override this and force a linear layout.

          Default: disabled

   Option "RelaxedFencing" "boolean"
          This  option controls whether we attempt to allocate the minimal
          amount of memory required for  the  buffers.  The  reduction  in
          working set has a substantial improvement on system performance.
          However, this has been demonstrate to be buggy on older hardware
          (845-865  and 915-945, but ok on PineView and later) so on those
          chipsets defaults to off.

          Default: Enabled for G33 (includes PineView), and  later,  class

   Option "XvMC" "boolean"
          Enable  XvMC driver. Current support MPEG2 MC on 915/945 and G33
          series.  User should provide absolute path to in
          XvMCConfig file.

          Default: Disabled.

   Option "Throttle" "boolean"
          This  option  controls whether the driver periodically waits for
          pending drawing operations to complete. Throttling ensures  that
          the  GPU does not lag too far behind the CPU and thus noticeable
          delays  in  user  responsible  at   the   cost   of   throughput

          Default: enabled.

   Option "HotPlug" "boolean"
          This  option  controls whether the driver automatically notifies
          applications when monitors are connected or disconnected.

          Default: enabled.

   Option "Virtualheads" "integer"
          This option controls specifies the number  of  fake  outputs  to
          create  in  addition  to  the  normal  outputs  detected on your
          hardware. These  outputs  cannot  be  assigned  to  the  regular
          displays  attached to the GPU, but do otherwise act as any other
          xrandr output and share a portion of  the  regular  framebuffer.
          One use case for these extra heads is for extending your desktop
          onto a discrete GPU using the Bumblebee  project.  However,  the
          recommendation  here  is to use PRIME instead to create a single
          Xserver that can addresses and coordinate between multiple GPUs.

          Default: 0

   Option "ZaphodHeads" "string"

          Specify the randr output(s)  to  use  with  zaphod  mode  for  a
          particular driver instance.  If you set this option you must use
          it with all instances of the driver. By default,  each  head  is
          assigned only one CRTC (which limits using multiple outputs with
          that head to cloned mode). CRTC  can  be  manually  assigned  to
          individual  heads  by  preceding  the  output names with a comma
          delimited list of pipe numbers followed by a  colon.  Note  that
          different  pipes  may be limited in their functionality and some
          outputs may only work with different pipes.
          For example:

          Option "ZaphodHeads" "LVDS1,VGA1"

          will assign xrandr outputs LVDS1 and VGA1 to  this  instance  of
          the driver.

          Option "ZaphodHeads" "0,2:HDMI1,DP2"

          will  assign  xrandr  outputs HDMI1 and DP2 and CRTCs 0 and 2 to
          this instance of the driver.


   On 830M and better chipsets, the driver supports runtime  configuration
   of detected outputs.  You can use the xrandr tool to control outputs on
   the command line as follows:

          xrandr --output output --set property value

   Note that you may need to  quote  property  and  value  arguments  that
   contain  spaces.   Each  output  listed  below  may  have  one  or more
   properties associated with it (like a  binary  EDID  block  if  one  is
   found).  Some outputs have unique properties which are described below.
   See  the  "MULTIHEAD  CONFIGURATIONS"  section  below  for   additional

   VGA output port (typically exposed via an HD15 connector).

   Low  Voltage  Differential  Signalling  output  (typically a laptop LCD
   panel).  Available properties:

   BACKLIGHT - current backlight level (adjustable)
          By adjusting the BACKLIGHT property, the brightness on the  LVDS
          output  can  be  adjusted.   In some cases, this property may be
          unavailable (for example  if  your  platform  uses  an  external
          microcontroller to control the backlight).

   scaling mode - control LCD panel scaling mode
          When the currently selected display mode differs from the native
          panel resolution, various scaling options are  available.  These

          Center Simply  center  the image on-screen without scaling. This
                 is the only scaling mode  that  guarantees  a  one-to-one
                 correspondence  between  native and displayed pixels, but
                 some portions of  the  panel  may  be  unused  (so-called

          Full aspect
                 Scale  the  image  as  much  as possible while preserving
                 aspect ratio. Pixels  may  not  be  displayed  one-to-one
                 (there  may  be  some  blurriness).  Some portions of the
                 panel may be unused if the aspect ratio of  the  selected
                 mode does not match that of the panel.

          Full   Scale  the  image  to  the  panel  size without regard to
                 aspect ratio. This is the only mode which guarantees that
                 every  pixel of the panel will be used. But the displayed
                 image may be distorted by stretching either  horizontally
                 or vertically, and pixels may not be displayed one-to-one
                 (there may be some blurriness).

   The precise names of these options may differ depending on  the  kernel
   video driver, (but the functionality should be similar). See the output
   of xrandr --prop for a list of currently available scaling modes.

   Integrated TV output.  Available properties include:

   BOTTOM, RIGHT, TOP, LEFT - margins
          Adjusting these properties allows you to control  the  placement
          of  your  TV  output  buffer on the screen. The options with the
          same name can also be set in xorg.conf with integer value.

   BRIGHTNESS - TV brightness, range 0-255
          Adjust TV brightness, default value is 128.

   CONTRAST - TV contrast, range 0-255
          Adjust TV contrast, default value is  1.0  in  chipset  specific

   SATURATION - TV saturation, range 0-255
          Adjust  TV  saturation, default value is 1.0 in chipset specific

   HUE - TV hue, range 0-255
          Adjust TV hue, default value is 0.

   TV_FORMAT - output standard
          This property allows you to control the output standard used  on
          your  TV  output port.  You can select between NTSC-M, NTSC-443,
          NTSC-J, PAL-M, PAL-N, and PAL.

   TV_Connector - connector type
          This config option should be added  to  xorg.conf  TV  monitor's
          section,  it  allows  you to force the TV output connector type,
          which bypass  load  detect  and  TV  will  always  be  taken  as
          connected.   You  can  select  between  S-Video,  Composite  and

   First DVI SDVO output

   Second DVI SDVO output

   TMDS-1 , TMDS-2 , HDMI-1 , HDMI-2
   DVI/HDMI outputs. Available common properties include:

   BROADCAST_RGB - method used to set RGB color range
          Adjusting this property allows you to set  RGB  color  range  on
          each  channel  in  order to match HDTV requirement(default 0 for
          full range). Setting 1 means RGB color range is 16-235, 0  means
          RGB color range is 0-255 on each channel.  (Full range is 0-255,
          not 16-235)

   SDVO and DVO TV outputs are not supported by the driver at this time.

   See xorg.conf(5) for information on associating Monitor  sections  with
   these  outputs  for  configuration.   Associating Monitor sections with
   each output can be helpful if you need to ignore a specific output, for
   example, or statically configure an extended desktop monitor layout.


   The  number  of  independent outputs is dictated by the number of CRTCs
   (in X parlance) a given chip supports.  Most recent  Intel  chips  have
   two  CRTCs,  meaning  that  two  separate framebuffers can be displayed
   simultaneously, in  an  extended  desktop  configuration.   If  a  chip
   supports  more outputs than it has CRTCs (say local flat panel, VGA and
   TV in the case of many outputs), two of the outputs  will  have  to  be
   "cloned",  meaning  that they display the same framebuffer contents (or
   one displays a subset of another's  framebuffer  if  the  modes  aren't

   You  can use the "xrandr" tool, or various desktop utilities, to change
   your output configuration at runtime.   To  statically  configure  your
   outputs, you can use the "Monitor-<type>" options along with additional
   monitor sections in your xorg.conf to create your screen topology.  The
   example  below  puts  the VGA output to the right of the builtin laptop
   screen, both running at 1024x768.

   Section "Monitor"
     Identifier "Laptop FooBar Internal Display"
     Option "Position" "0 0"

   Section "Monitor"
     Identifier "Some Random CRT"
     Option "Position" "1024 0"
     Option "RightOf" "Laptop FoodBar Internal Display"

   Section "Device"
     Driver "intel"
     Option "monitor-LVDS" "Laptop FooBar Internal Display"
     Option "monitor-VGA" "Some Random CRT"


   The driver supports the following X11 Xv attributes for Textured Video.
   You can use the "xvattr" tool to query/set those attributes at runtime.

   XV_SYNC_TO_VBLANK   is   used   to  control  whether  textured  adapter
   synchronizes the screen update to the vblank to eliminate  tearing.  It
   is  a  Boolean  attribute  with  values  of 0 (never sync) or 1 (always
   sync). An historic value of -1 (sync for large windows only)  will  now
   be interpreted as 1, (since the current approach for sync is not costly
   even with small video windows).



   The xf86-video-intel driver is part of the  X.Org  and
   umbrella   projects.    Details  on  bug  reporting  can  be  found  at     Mailing
   lists  are  also  commonly used to report experiences and ask questions
   about configuration and other topics.   See  for
   more  information  (the mailing list is the
   most appropriate place to ask X.Org and driver related questions).


   Xorg(1), xorg.conf(5), Xserver(1), X(7)


   Authors include: Keith Whitwell, and  also  Jonathan  Bian,  Matthew  J
   Sottek,  Jeff Hartmann, Mark Vojkovich, Alan Hourihane, H. J. Lu.  830M
   and 845G support reworked for XFree86 4.3  by  David  Dawes  and  Keith
   Whitwell.   852GM,  855GM,  and  865G  support added by David Dawes and
   Keith Whitwell.  915G, 915GM, 945G, 945GM, 965G, 965Q and 946GZ support
   added by Alan Hourihane and Keith Whitwell. Lid status support added by
   Alan Hourihane. Textured video support for 915G and later chips,  RandR
   1.2  and  hardware  modesetting added by Eric Anholt and Keith Packard.
   EXA and Render acceleration added by Wang Zhenyu. TV out support  added
   by  Zou  Nan  Hai  and  Keith Packard. 965GM, G33, Q33, and Q35 support
   added by Wang Zhenyu.


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