mdadm.conf - configuration for management of Software RAID with mdadm




   mdadm  is  a  tool  for creating, managing, and monitoring RAID devices
   using the md driver in Linux.

   Some common tasks, such as assembling all arrays, can be simplified  by
   describing the devices and arrays in this configuration file.

   The  file  should  be  seen as a collection of words separated by white
   space (space, tab, or newline).  Any word that beings with a hash  sign
   (#)  starts  a comment and that word together with the remainder of the
   line is ignored.

   Spaces can be included in a word using  quotation  characters.   Either
   single quotes (') or double quotes (") may be used.  All the characters
   from one quotation character to next identical character are  protected
   and will not be used to separate words to start new quoted strings.  To
   include a single quote it must be between double quotes.  To include  a
   double quote it must be between single quotes.

   Any  line  that  starts  with  white space (space or tab) is treated as
   though it were a continuation of the previous line.

   Empty lines are ignored, but otherwise  each  (non  continuation)  line
   must  start  with  a  keyword  as  listed below.  The keywords are case
   insensitive and can be abbreviated to 3 characters.

   The keywords are:

   DEVICE A device line lists the devices (whole  devices  or  partitions)
          that might contain a component of an MD array.  When looking for
          the components of an array, mdadm will scan  these  devices  (or
          any devices listed on the command line).

          The  device  line  may  contain  a  number  of different devices
          (separated by spaces) and each  device  name  can  contain  wild
          cards as defined by glob(7).

          Also, there may be several device lines present in the file.

          Alternatively,  a  device line can contain either or both of the
          words containers and partitions.  The word containers will cause
          mdadm  to  look for assembled CONTAINER arrays and included them
          as a source for assembling further arrays.

          The word partitions will cause mdadm  to  read  /proc/partitions
          and  include  all  devices  and partitions found therein.  mdadm
          does not use the names from /proc/partitions but only the  major
          and  minor  device numbers.  It scans /dev to find the name that
          matches the numbers.

          If  no  DEVICE  line  is  present,   then   "DEVICE   partitions
          containers" is assumed.

          For example:

          DEVICE /dev/hda* /dev/hdc*
          DEV    /dev/sd*
          DEVICE /dev/disk/by-path/pci*
          DEVICE partitions

   ARRAY  The  ARRAY lines identify actual arrays.  The second word on the
          line may be the name of the device where the array  is  normally
          assembled, such as /dev/md1 or /dev/md/backup.  If the name does
          not start with  a  slash  ('/'),  it  is  treated  as  being  in
          /dev/md/.   Alternately  the  word <ignore> (complete with angle
          brackets) can be given in which case any array which matches the
          rest  of  the line will never be automatically assembled.  If no
          device name is given,  mdadm  will  use  various  heuristics  to
          determine an appropriate name.

          Subsequent  words identify the array, or identify the array as a
          member of a group. If multiple  identities  are  given,  then  a
          component  device  must  match ALL identities to be considered a
          match.  Each identity word has a tag, and equals sign, and  some
          value.  The tags are:

       uuid=  The  value  should  be  a  128 bit uuid in hexadecimal, with
              punctuation interspersed if desired.  This  must  match  the
              uuid stored in the superblock.

       name=  The  value  should  be a simple textual name as was given to
              mdadm when the array was created.  This must match the  name
              stored  in  the superblock on a device for that device to be
              included in the array.  Not all superblock  formats  support

              The  value  is  an  integer which indicates the minor number
              that was  stored  in  the  superblock  when  the  array  was
              created.  When  an  array  is  created as /dev/mdX, then the
              minor number X is stored.

              The value is a comma  separated  list  of  device  names  or
              device  name  patterns.  Only devices with names which match
              one entry in the list will be used to  assemble  the  array.
              Note  that the devices listed there must also be listed on a
              DEVICE line.

       level= The value is a RAID level.  This is  not  normally  used  to
              identify an array, but is supported so that the output of

              mdadm --examine --scan

              can be use directly in the configuration file.

              The  value  is  the  number  of devices in a complete active
              array.  As with level= this is mainly for compatibility with
              the output of

              mdadm --examine --scan.

              The  value  is a number of spare devices to expect the array
              to have.  The sole use of  this  keyword  and  value  is  as
              follows: mdadm --monitor will report an array if it is found
              to have fewer than this  number  of  spares  when  --monitor
              starts or when --oneshot is used.

              The  value  is  a  textual  name for a group of arrays.  All
              arrays with the same spare-group name are considered  to  be
              part  of  the  same  group.   The significance of a group of
              arrays is that mdadm will, when monitoring the arrays,  move
              a  spare drive from one array in a group to another array in
              that group if the first array had a failed or missing  drive
              but no spare.

       auto=  This option is rarely needed with mdadm-3.0, particularly if
              use with the Linux kernel v2.6.28 or later.  It tells  mdadm
              whether  to  use  partitionable  array  or non-partitionable
              arrays and, in the  absence  of  udev,  how  many  partition
              devices  to  create.   From  2.6.28 all md array devices are
              partitionable, hence this option is not needed.

              The value of this option can be "yes" or  "md"  to  indicate
              that  a  traditional,  non-partitionable  md array should be
              created, or "mdp", "part" or "partition" to indicate that  a
              partitionable  md  array  (only  available  in linux 2.6 and
              later) should be used.  This  later  set  can  also  have  a
              number  appended  to  indicate how many partitions to create
              device files for, e.g.  auto=mdp5.  The default is 4.

              The option specifies a file in which a  write-intent  bitmap
              should  be  found.   When  assembling  the array, mdadm will
              provide this file to the md driver as the bitmap file.  This
              has  the  same  function  as  the  --bitmap-file  option  to

              Specify the metadata format that the  array  has.   This  is
              mainly recognised for comparability with the output of mdadm

              Specify that this array is a member array of some container.
              The value given can be either a path name in /dev, or a UUID
              of the container array.

              Specify that this array is a member array of some container.
              Each  type  of  container  has  some way to enumerate member
              arrays,  often  a  simple  sequence   number.    The   value
              identifies  which  member  of  a container the array is.  It
              will usually accompany a "container=" word.

          The mailaddr line gives an E-mail address that alerts should  be
          sent  to  when mdadm is running in --monitor mode (and was given
          the --scan option).  There should only be one MAILADDR line  and
          it  should  have only one address.  Any subsequent addresses are
          silently ignored.

          The mailfrom line (which can only be abbreviated to at  least  5
          characters) gives an address to appear in the "From" address for
          alert mails.  This can be useful if you want to explicitly set a
          domain,  as  the  default from address is "root" with no domain.
          All words on this line are catenated with  spaces  to  form  the

          Note  that  this  value cannot be set via the mdadm commandline.
          It is only settable via the config file.

          The program line gives the name of a  program  to  be  run  when
          mdadm --monitor detects potentially interesting events on any of
          the arrays that it is monitoring.  This program  gets  run  with
          two or three arguments, they being the Event, the md device, and
          possibly the related component device.

          There should only be one program line and it should be give only
          one program.

   CREATE The  create  line  gives default values to be used when creating
          arrays, new members of arrays, and device  entries  for  arrays.
          These include:


       group= These  can  give  user/group  ids or names to use instead of
              system defaults (root/wheel or root/disk).

       mode=  An octal file mode such as 0660 can be given to override the
              default of 0600.

       auto=  This corresponds to the --auto flag to mdadm.  Give yes, md,
              mdp, part --- possibly followed by a number of partitions --- to
              indicate how missing device entries should be created.

              The name of the metadata format to use if none is explicitly
              given.  This can be useful to impose a  system-wide  default
              of version-1 superblocks.

              Normally when creating devices in /dev/md/ mdadm will create
              a matching symlink from /dev/ with a  name  starting  md  or
              md_.  Give symlinks=no to suppress this symlink creation.

              Since Linux 2.6.29 it has been possible to create md devices
              with a name like md_home rather than  just  a  number,  like
              md3.   mdadm  will use the numeric alternative by default as
              other tools that interact with md  arrays  may  expect  only
              numbers.   If  names=yes  is  given in mdadm.conf then mdadm
              will use a name when appropriate.   If  names=no  is  given,
              then  non-numeric  md  device names will not be used even if
              the default changes in a future release of mdadm.

       bbl=no By default, mdadm will reserve space for a  bad  block  list
              (bbl)  on all devices included in or added to any array that
              supports them.  Setting bbl=no will prevent this,  so  newly
              added devices will not have a bad block log.

          The  homehost  line  gives  a  default value for the --homehost=
          option to mdadm.  There should normally be only one  other  word
          on  the  line.   It  should either be a host name, or one of the
          special words <system>, <none> and  <ignore>.   If  <system>  is
          given,  then  the  gethostname(2)  systemcall is used to get the
          host name.  This is the default.

          If <ignore> is given, then a flag is set so that when arrays are
          being  auto-assembled  the  checking of the recorded homehost is
          disabled.  If <ignore> is given it is also possible to  give  an
          explicit  name which will be used when creating arrays.  This is
          the only case when there can be more that one other word on  the
          HOMEHOST  line.   If  there  are  other words, or other HOMEHOST
          lines, they are silently ignored.

          If <none> is given, then the default of using gethostname(2)  is
          over-ridden and no homehost name is assumed.

          When  arrays  are  created, this host name will be stored in the
          metadata.  When arrays are assembled using auto-assembly, arrays
          which  do not record the correct homehost name in their metadata
          will be assembled using a  "foreign"  name.   A  "foreign"  name
          alway  ends  with  a  digit  string preceded by an underscore to
          differentiate it from any possible local name. e.g.  /dev/md/1_1
          or /dev/md/home_0.

   AUTO   A  list  of names of metadata format can be given, each preceded
          by a plus or minus sign.  Also the word homehost is  allowed  as
          is all preceded by plus or minus sign.  all is usually last.

          When mdadm is auto-assembling an array, either via --assemble or
          --incremental and it finds metadata of a given type,  it  checks
          that metadata type against those listed in this line.  The first
          match wins, where all matches anything.  If  a  match  is  found
          that  was preceded by a plus sign, the auto assembly is allowed.
          If the match was preceded by a minus sign, the auto assembly  is
          disallowed.  If no match is found, the auto assembly is allowed.

          If  the  metadata  indicates that the array was created for this
          host, and the word homehost appears before any other match, then
          the array is treated as a valid candidate for auto-assembly.

          This  can  be  used  to  disable all auto-assembly (so that only
          arrays explicitly listed in mdadm.conf or on  the  command  line
          are assembled), or to disable assembly of certain metadata types
          which might be handled by other software.  It can also  be  used
          to disable assembly of all foreign arrays - normally such arrays
          are assembled but given a non-deterministic name in /dev/md/.

          The known metadata types are 0.90, 1.x, ddf, imsm.

          AUTO should  be  given  at  most  once.   Subsequent  lines  are
          silently  ignored.   Thus  an  earlier  config  file in a config
          directory will over-ride the setting in a later config file.

   POLICY This is used to specify what automatic behavior  is  allowed  on
          devices  newly  appearing  in  the  system and provides a way of
          marking spares that can be moved to other arrays as well as  the
          migration domains.  Domain can be defined through policy line by
          specifying  a  domain  name  for  a   number   of   paths   from
          /dev/disk/by-path/.  A device may belong to several domains. The
          domain of an array is a union of domains of all devices in  that
          array.   A  spare  can  be automatically moved from one array to
          another if the set of the destination array's  domains  contains
          all  the domains of the new disk or if both arrays have the same

          To update hot plug configuration  it  is  necessary  to  execute
          mdadm --udev-rules command after changing the config file

          Key words used in the POLICY line and supported values are:

                 any arbitrary string

                 0.9 1.x ddf or imsm

          path=  file glob matching anything from /dev/disk/by-path

          type=  either disk or part.

                 include, re-add, spare, spare-same-slot, or force-spare

          auto=  yes, no, or homehost.

          The  action  item  determines the automatic behavior allowed for
          devices matching the path and type  in  the  same  line.   If  a
          device  matches  several  lines  with different actions then the
          most permissive will apply. The  ordering  of  policy  lines  is
          irrelevant to the end result.

                 allows adding a disk to an array if metadata on that disk
                 matches that array

          re-add will include the device in the array if it appears to  be
                 a  current  member  or a member that was recently removed
                 and the array has  a  write-intent-bitmap  to  allow  the
                 re-add functionality.

          spare  as  above  and additionally: if the device is bare it can
                 become a spare if  there  is  any  array  that  it  is  a
                 candidate for based on domains and metadata.

                 as  above  and  additionally if given slot was used by an
                 array that went degraded recently and the device  plugged
                 in has no metadata then it will be automatically added to
                 that array (or it's container)

                 as above and the disk will become a  spare  in  remaining


   DEVICE /dev/sd[bcdjkl]1
   DEVICE /dev/hda1 /dev/hdb1

   # /dev/md0 is known by its UUID.
   ARRAY /dev/md0 UUID=3aaa0122:29827cfa:5331ad66:ca767371
   # /dev/md1 contains all devices with a minor number of
   #   1 in the superblock.
   ARRAY /dev/md1 superminor=1
   # /dev/md2 is made from precisely these two devices
   ARRAY /dev/md2 devices=/dev/hda1,/dev/hdb1

   # /dev/md4 and /dev/md5 are a spare-group and spares
   #  can be moved between them
   ARRAY /dev/md4 uuid=b23f3c6d:aec43a9f:fd65db85:369432df
   ARRAY /dev/md5 uuid=19464854:03f71b1b:e0df2edd:246cc977
   # /dev/md/home is created if need to be a partitionable md array
   # any spare device number is allocated.
   ARRAY /dev/md/home UUID=9187a482:5dde19d9:eea3cc4a:d646ab8b
   # The name of this array contains a space.
   ARRAY /dev/md9 name='Data Storage'

   POLICY domain=domain1 metadata=imsm path=pci-0000:00:1f.2-scsi-*
   POLICY domain=domain1 metadata=imsm path=pci-0000:04:00.0-scsi-[01]*
   #  One  domain  comprising  of  devices  attached to specified paths is
   # Bare device matching first path will be made an  imsm  spare  on  hot
   # If more than one array is created on devices belonging to domain1 and
   #  one  of them becomes degraded, then any imsm spare matching any path
   # given domain name can be migrated.
   MAILADDR root@mydomain.tld
   PROGRAM /usr/sbin/handle-mdadm-events
   CREATE group=system mode=0640 auto=part-8
   HOMEHOST <system>
   AUTO +1.x homehost -all


   mdadm(8), md(4).


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