HE who seriously considers the incertainty and instability of Humane Affairs, must needs be struck with great admiration; for he'll find that nothing which amongst Men is accounted Good, is purely such; nor any thing that is esteemed Bad, is perfectly or absolutely evil, without some ingredient of Profit and Advantage: Which Lesson we may learn from what is before Related, if we ponder and digest things well. For the Expedition of Xerxes the King of Persia into Greece by reason of his vast Army, terrify'd the Grecians to the highest degree, who were by that War in great danger to be brought into absolute Slavery, and might justly fear that Greece was likely to fall into the same condition with the Greek Cities in Asia, who were not long before brought under the power of the Persians. But beyond all expectation, the event of this War, was wonderful, for the Grecians were not only deliver'd from this threatning Storm, but by that occasion gain'd an everlasting Renown, and every City in Greece thereby abounded with so much Wealth, that their suddain Turn of Fortune into such a height of Prosperity was admir'd by all: For Fifty Years together from that time, Greece flourished in all Felicity; in which time, by the Wealth that abounded amongst them, all good Arts were highly improv'd, and excellent Artists are recorded to have flourished in this Age; amongst whom was Phidias that famous Statuary; and several other Arts and Sciencesthen advanced to an extraordinary degree. But the great honour of Greece was Philosophy and Oratory, and chiefly among the Athenians, Those that were eminent for Philosophy, were Socrates, Plato and Aristotle: For Oratory, Pericles, Isocrates and his Scholars. There were others no less famous for Military Discipline and excellent Commanders, as Miltiades, Themistocles, Aristides, Cimon, Mironides, and many others, of whom it would be too tedious to give a particular account. For the Athenian Name was highly honoured almost through all parts of the World; for they so enlarged Page 264 their Dominion that by their own strength without the help of the Lacedemonians, and them of Peloponesus, they routed the mighty Armies of the Persians, both by Sea and Land; and did so weaken that great Empire, that they compell'd it upon Treaties to set free all the Grecian Cities in Asia: The particulars whereof are distinctly and at large related in the former Book, and in this we have at present in hand. And now we are come to the Matters design'd to be treated of, endeavouring (as near as we can) to fix the time when things were done. We began the Book next before this with the Passage of Xerxes into Greece, and continued it with an account of affairs every where happening from that time to the Year next before the Expedition of the Athenians against Cyprus under Cymon their General. In this we shall begin with that Expedition, and proceed to the VVar decreed by the Athenians against the Syracusians.
Cymon the Athenian Admiral. his Expedition into Cyprus. Peace concluded between the Persians and Athenians. Cymon dyes in Cyprus.
EƲthydemus being chief Governor of Athens, Lucius Quintus Cinnatius and Marcus Fabius Vibulanus Roman Consuls, Fortune frown'd upon the Athenians; for in assisting the Egyptians against the Persians, they lost all their Ships in the Island Prosopis; but not long after a new War was Determin'd against the Persians for the Liberties of the Grecian Cities in Asia.
For this purpose the Athenians rigg'd out a Navy of Two Hundred Gallies, and made Cymon the Son of Miltiades Admiral, and order'd him to make streight for Cyprus, and there invade the Persians. Accordingly he forthwith Sail'd thither with a brave Fleet, well'd Man'd and Victual'd, and in all other things in every respect sufficiently provided. Artabasus was then Admiral of the Persian Fleet, and lay with Three Hundred Ships at Cyprus: And Megabyzus was General of the Persian Land Forces, and incamp'd with an Army of Three Hundred Thousand Men in Cilicia.
Cymon being Master at Sea, landed his Men at Cyprus, and forc'd Citium and Malus, but used his Victory with great Moderation and Humanity; having receiv'd Intelligence that Fleets were come from Phenicia and Celicia to the assistance of the Islanders, he hois'd up Sail, Fought with them, sunk many of their Vessels, and took an Hundred, together with their Men, and pursued the rest even to Phenicia. The Persians with the remnant of the Fleet that was left fled to Megabyzus, where he lay incamp'd. But the Athenians without delay pursued them, and landed their Men and set upon the Enemy, but lost in this Fight Anaxicrates, Vice Admiral of the Athenian Fleet, who Fought with much Gallantry, and there fell with Honour. However the Athenians got the Day, and after they had made a great Slaughter of their Enemies, return'd to their Ships, and Sail'd back to Cyprus. These were the things done in the first Year of the Cyprian War.
After this, when Pedieus was Archon of Athens, the Romans bestow'd the Consular Dignity upon Marcus Valerius Lactuca and Sporius Virginius Tricostus. In the time of their Government Cymon continuing Master at Sea, brought most of the Cities of Cyprus under the power of the Athenians: But Salamis the Metropolis was a very strong Persian Garrison, well stor'd with Arms, Ammunition and Provision of all sorts; therefore he judg'd it of mighty consequence and Advantage if he could gain this Place; for he conceiv'd if this were done that the whole Island would easily fall into his Hands, and the Persians would be altogether discourag'd, and not being able to relieve Salamis (the Athenians being Masters at Sea) would be deserted and despised by all their Confederats. Lastly, he concluded, Page 265 that if the whole Island of Cyprus were by force of Arms subdu'd, the chief ends of the War were obtain'd; and so it happend: For the Athenians laying close Siege to the City, Assaulted and Batter'd it every day. But the Garrison being well furnish'd with Arms and all other necessaries, easily defended themselves from the Walls against all the strength of their Enemies.
In the mean time Artaxerxes the King of Persia, hearing of the defeating of his Armies in Cyprus, call'd together a Council of War, where it was determin'd that it was most for the Public Good to make Peace with the Grecians: Whereupon Expresses were sent to the Generals and Officers of the Persians to make Peace with them upon any Terms. Artabasus and Megabyzus forthwith dispatch'd Embassadors to Athens, to treat of Peace, whose Conditions being accepted by the Athenians, they sent likewise Plenipotentiaries, the chief of whom was Callias the Son of Hipponicus.
And these were the Articles of Peace between the Persians and the Athenians and their Confederats, to wit, that all the Greek Cities in Asia should be free and govern'd by their own Laws. That none of the Persian Commanders with any Force should come within three Days Journey of the Sea. That they should not Sail in any Man of War between Phaselis and Cyane. When these were confirm'd by the King and the Officers of his Army, the Athenians on the other side agreed and engaged not to invade any of the Provinces of Artaxes. Peace thus concluded, the Athenians withdrew their Forces from Cyprus Triumphing in the glory of their Victories, and in the advantages of the Peace. But whilst the Army stay'd in Cyprus, Cymon fell Sick and there Dyed. Afterwards, Philiscus being chief Ruler at Athens, the Romans chusing Titus Romilius Vaticanus and Caius Veturius Cicurinus Consuls, was Celebrated the Eighty Third Olympiad, in which Crison of Himera carried the Victory. At this time the Megarians revolted from the Athenians, and by their Embassadors sent to Sparta, made a League with them; with which Treachery the Athenians inrag'd sent their Forces into their Country, who rob'd and spoil'd every where, and so loaden with Plunder return'd home. The Citizens indeed issued out of the Town for the Defence of the Country, and ingag'd, but were beaten and driven within their Walls.
The Megarians revolt from the Athenians, and are beaten. The Athenians routed at Cheronea by the Beotians. Many Cities revolt. A Peace is Concluded.
AFter these things, when Tymarchides was chief Governor of Athens, Sporius Tarpeius and Aulus Asterius Fontinus being created Roman Consuls, the Lacedemonians made an Irruption into Attica, and wasted and destroy'd the Country far and near; and after they had taken several Forts and Castles return'd into Peloponesus. However Tolmedes the Athenian General took Cheronea; but the Beotians joyning together supriz'd him, upon which a Bloody Battel was Fought at Cheronea, in which Tolmedes was kill'd, though Fighting with great Resolution, and the rest of the Athenians were all kill'd or taken. By this remarkable Slaughter the Athenians were compell'd for the redeeming of the Captives, to restore all the Cities of Beotia under their dominion unto their ancient Liberties. Afterwards, at the time when Calimachus was Archon of Athens and SextusQuintilius Tergeminus Roman Consuls; In Greece many Cities revolted from the Athenians, who were grown very low by reason of the late defeat at Cheronea, especially the Inhabitants of Eubea were plotting and contriving some dangerous Designs. Pericles, therefore being made General, makes for Eubea with a great Army, and assaulted and took the City of the Hestieans, and all the Citizens Captives, and transplanted them, and by this so terrified the rest that Page 266 they all submitted unto the Athenian Government. And a Peace was concluded for Thirty Years, and the Articles were Sign'd and Seal'd by Callias and Chares.
The War between the Agrigentines and Syracusians in Sicily. The War between them of Crotona and the Siberites. Sibaris raz'd. The Building of Thurium. Charondas his good Laws in Thurium. His remarkable Death. The Laws of Zaleucus of Locris.
IN Sicily Wars arose between them of Syracuse and of Agrigentum for these Reasons. After the Syracusians had broken the Power of Ducetius Prince of the Siculi, upon his submission to the People for Mercy, they pardon'd him, but commanded him to lead a private Life at Corinth: But he continued not long there before he broke all his Engagements and Agreements, and pretending that he was commanded by the Oracle to People the pleasant Sea Coast in Sicily, he arriv'd in the Island with a great Number of Men, as Colonies to Plant there. Some of the Siculi join'd him, and amongst them one Archonides, Prince of Erbita: While he was intent upon his Colony, the Agrigentines partly out of envy to the Syracusians, and likewise because they had spar'd Deucetius their common Enemy, without their Consent, make War upon the Syracusians. Upon this the Cities of the Siculi then divided; some joyn'd with the Agrigentines, others with the Syracusians, and great Armies are rais'd on both sides, and the Cities are pressed to the War with great Importunity. At length emcamping one over against the other, at the River Himera, they came to a Battle, and the Syracusians got the day, and kill'd a Thousand of the Agrigentines upon the Place. But presently after the Fight, the Agrigentines sent Embassadors to Syracuse to make Peace, which was agreed unto upon Conditions. Whilst things were thus acting in Sicily the City Thurium was Built in Italy: And this was the occasion;
The Grecians sometime before having Built Sybaris, in a short time the City grew very Rich by reason of the fruitfulness of the Soil. For being Situated between two Rivers, Crathis and Sybaris (from whence it took it's Name) and the Inhabitants having a large and rich Country to Till, they grew Rich on a suddain, and taking in many into the Freedom of the City, flourish'd to such a degree as that they seem'd to exceed all the Inhabitants of Italy. For they were so populous that this one City had in it three hundred thousand Inhabitants. There was at that time in the City one call'd Telys, who had great Influence over the People. This Man by raising Scandals amongst the the Citizens against those who were the Richest, so far at length prevail'd with the Sybarites, that they Banish'd Five Hundred of the most wealthy Citizens, and confiscated their Estates to the public Use.
These Banish'd Men went to Crotona, and there (after the manner of suppliants) fled to the Altars erected in the Forum. Hereupon Telys sent Embassadors to the Crotonians, either to deliver up the banish'd Men, or expect War. A Council was call'd, and put to the question, whether they should deliver up the Suppliants to the Sybarites or ingage in a War with an Enemy more powerful than themselves. The Senate and People made some doubt, and the People first inclin'd to deliver them up rather than endure the War. But afterwards Pythagoras advising them to protect the Suppliants they chang'd their Opinion, and determin'd to Fight in their Defence.
Hereupon the Sybarites took the Field with an Army of three hundred Thousand Men. The Crotonians had but an hundred Thousand, which were commanded by Milo the Wrestler, who at the first Onset put to flight that Wing of the Army which was opposite to him; for he was of invincible Strength, and had Courage answerable to his Strength, and had been six times Victor at the Olympick Games; when he began his Fight he was Crown'd with Olmpick Page 267 Wealths, wearing (like Hercules) a Lion's Skin and a Club; at last he gain'd an absolute Victory, and thereupon was much admir'd by his Country-Men. Upon the rout the Crotonians gave no Quarter, but Kill'd all they took, so that most of the Army was destroyed, the City was sackt and miserably laid wast and desolate. But within fifty eight Years after the Thessalians arriv'd in order to Plant there, and within less than five Years after they had rebuilt the City, they were likewise ejected by the Crotonians. For when Calimachus was Archon of Athens, this City began to be Inhabited: But shortly after it had chang'd both it's Name and Place, being Built elsewhere by Lampo and Xenocrates, which was upon this occasion. The Sybarites driven out of their Country a second time, sent Embassadors into Greece, and desir'd aid from the Lacedemonians and Athenians to assist them in restoring them to their Country, and likewise desiring that they would send a Colony to partake with them. The Lacedemonians rejected their Address; but the Athenians resolved to assist them, and sent ten Ships with Soldiers to the Sybarites, of which Lampo and Xenocrates were Generals: And Proclamation was made through all the Cities of Peloponesus by the Athenian Heralds, that it should be lawful for any that would, to Plant with them in their intended new Colony. Many comply'd, especially being mov'd thereunto by the Oracle of Apollo, who advis'd them to Build a City there where there was little Water, and yet Bread without Measure.
Setting Sail therefore for Italy, they at length arriv'd at Sybaris; and there made diligent search for the Place commended to them by the Deity. And finding a Fountain or Spring (not far from Sybaris) which was call'd Thuria, issuing it's Waters through a brazen Pipe, call'd Medymnum, which signifies a Bushel (judging this to be the Place foretold by the Oracle) they compass'd it in with a Wall, and there Built the City, calling it from the Name of the Spring Thurium.
The City in length contain'd four Streets: The first they call'd Heraclea, the second Aphrodisiade, the third Olympiad, the fourth Dionysiad. The bredth was divided into three Streets; the first call'd Heroa, the other Thuria, and the last Thurina. When all these Streets were fill'd with Houses, the City appear'd very compact and beautiful. But the Thurians continued not long at Peace amongst themselves, for a grievous Sedition (and not without some cause) began to disturb their Common-wealth. For the Sybarites, the ancient Inhabitants, shar'd all the chief Places of the Magistracy amongst themselves, and left only the inferior Offices to the new Colonies. And the Wives of the antient Citizens were first admitted to Sacrifice before those that were lately brought into the Freedom of the City. And besides, they ingross'd all the Land next to the City, and divided it among themselves, and left that which was far off to the new Comers. This Fire of Dissention broke out into a devouring Flame, insomuch that the new Colony (then more powerful than the other) destroy'd almost all the ancient Inhabitants, and brought the whole City into their own Power. But the Country being very Rich, and more than was sufficient for them that remain'd, they sent for many out of Greece to till and improve the Land, amongst whom they divided both the Houses in the City that were destitute of Inhabitants, and the Land in the Country. The Inhabitants grew very Rich in a short time, and entring into League with the Crotonians, govern'd their Common-wealth from thenceforth with great Commendation; and having setled a Democracy, divided the Citizens into ten Tribes, and gave them Names according to their several Countries: Three that came out of Peloponesus they call'd the Arcadian, Achaian and Elean. The same Number of them that came from other more remote Parts of Greece, they nam'd the Beotian, Amphyctonidae, and Doridae, according to their several Tribes. The four residue from other Countries of Greece they call'd the Jadans, Athenaidae, Enboedae and Islanders. Out of the most learned and best accomplish'd Citizens they chose for their Legislator Charonidas, who examin'd the Laws of every Country, and pickt out of every one what he judged to be the best, and digested them all into one Body or Systeme: But he added many himself of his own Contrivance: To rehearse some of which it will not be unprofitable to the Reader. And first he institued, That whoever Page 268 Married a second Wife, and brought a Stepmother amongst his Children, should be remov'd from the Senate and Common Assemblies, for he judg'd that Man could never advise his Country well who was so imprudent in his own Family: For they that were once well Marry'd ought to rest satisfied with such a Happiness; and such as are unfortunate in their first Match, and yet against their own experience commit a second Fault in the same kind, justly deserve to be noted for Fools. To False Accusers he appointed this Punishment, That they should be led through the City Crown'd with the Shrub-Tamarisk, that it might appear to all, that the Offender was guilty of the highest Wickedness. And it is reported that some Convicted of this Offence, to avoid the disgrace have kill'd themselves. By the severity of this Law false Informers (the Plague of the Common-wealth) were driven out of the City, and the Citizens lived in great prosperity. Charonidas made likewise a new Law (never before instituted by any former Legislator) concerning keeping bad Company. For he found by Experience, That both the Manners and Judgments of good and honest Men were often depraved by the society and familiarity of wicked Men, and drawn aside from the Paths of Virtue to the filthiness of Vice; and that such Company like an infectious Disease seised the Minds of the very best with it's Contagion and Corruption: For the way to Vice is down the Hill with a very easy descent; by reason whereof many of more than ordinary Integrity, (insnar'd with the inticing Charms of Pleasure) have fallen into the highest degree of Wickedness; desiring therefore to prevent this mischief he severly forbad the keeping company and familiarity with lewd Men: And fram'd a Process against ill Society, and impos'd a severe Fine upon such as should be found Guilty. And he made moreover another Law more excellent than this, past by, by all the ancient Lawmakers: That is, That all the Children of the Citizens should learn to Write, and the City should pay the Master Wages. For he knew that they who were poor were not able to be at the Charge, and by consequence must lose the advantage of Instruction for their Children: For he prefer'd (and not without Cause) the knowledge of Writing to be learnt in the first place before all other Arts; For by the help of this many things conducing to the publice Good are preserv'd to Posterity; as Suffrages, Decrees, Epistles, Wills Laws and other things necessary for Instruction. Who can sufficiently set forth the praises this Art? By this the Memory of the Dead is preserv'd amongst the living; by these Messengers, they that are at the greatest distance, far absent, may be Convers'd with as present. These preserve the Opinions of the wisest Men, the Answers of the Gods, the Learning of Philosophers, all the Sciences of the World, and hand them down to Posterity for ever. Life is due to Nature, but how to live well we ow to the Books of the Learned, so that by this good Law (at the public Care and Charge) those who were illiterate before (wholly depriv'd of those great Blessings) were now improv'd by more happy Education; so that (we may say) he far exceeded those former Lawmakers who appointed Phisicians for the curing of private Mens Distempers at the charge of the Public; for they provided cures for Mens Bodies; but he for Ignorance and disease of Mens Souls. And we never desire to have need of a Phisician, but are always unwilling to part with a learned Man: Many Poets have Celebrated these Laws concerning evil Company; among others are these.—
Of his Law concerning Stepmothers mention is made thus, The lawgiver (say they) Charonidas, amongst others made this Law.—
In truth he who miscarries twice in one and the same thing may justly be accounted a Fool. For what Philemon the Comick Poet says of them that have often escap'd Shipwrack, some have apply'd to this Case.
It's no wonder to see a Man Marry; but to see him twice Marry. For it's safer and more advisable for a Man to expose himself twice to the dangers of the Sea, than to the hazards of a second Wife. For most sad and cruel discords often arise in Families between Parents and Children by the tricks and devices of Stepmothers. Hence we have the frequent and horrid pieces of Villany of this kind represented upon the Stage by the Tragedians.
Charonidas fram'd another very good Law concerning the Guardianship of Orphans. Upon the first view there seems to be little in it worthy taking notice of; but Examining it more closely, we may discern much in it Wisdom and excellent Contrivance. Their Estates he commited to the care and Guardianship of next of Kin on their Fathers side, but their Education and the custody of their Persons to them of the Mothers. At first here seems nothing of any great weight in this Law, but upon more serious Consideration, it will evidently appear to be a most excellent Constitution: For if the Cause be seriously pry'd into why he order'd the care of the Estate to one, and the Education of the Person to another, the Wisdom and Prudence of the Lawmaker will be very evident: For they on the Mother's side would never contrive any thing of prejudice to the Person whose Estate could never come and descend to them; and the mischief was prevented as to the Kindred of the Father's side, because the Person was not committed to their Custody. On the other hand, in regard the Estate of the Orphan was to fall to the Father's Kindred in case of his Death, it was to be presum'd they would take care to preserve and improve it, upon the prospect of the possibility of it's coming unto themselves. Another Law he made against those that ran away from their Colours or refus'd to take up Arms for the Defence of their Country: For whereas former Lawgivers made it Death, his Edict was, That such Men should sit three days in the Forum cloth'd in Womans Apparel; which Constitution as it was more moderate than those in other places, so the greatness of the disgrace did work more upon ingenious Spirits to deterr them from softness and effeminatness; judging it far better to dye than to undergo so much disgrace in their own Country. By this way he destroy'd not those that were Guilty, but reserv'd them for the future Service of the City as occasion should be; who in all likelyhood after such disgrace would carry themselves better, and endeavour to wipe off the stain of their former reproach by doing something more than ordinary for the time to come. The Severity and Strictness likewise of his Laws gave a perpetual vigor to them; For it was absolutly forbidden to depart in the least from the Letter of the Law tho' it were never so severe or inconvenient. But if any were fit to be repealed or amended, he gave power for that purpose. For he judg'd it fit and just for every Man to Stoop to the Authority of the Lawgiver, but to suffer the Cavils and Exceptions of every private Man to prevail (nay though they seem'd to tend to the Public good) was most absurd. And by this means he restrain'd those that would in giving of of Judgment for criminal Matters bring in their own Glosses and Expositions against the express Words of the Law, lest by their Cavils the Authority of the Laws should come to nothing. And hereupon it is reported that some Prosecutors against Criminals said to the Judges, that either the Law or the Malefactor must of necessity be preserv'd, Charonidas therefore appointed something more than usual concerning the amendment of the Laws. For whereas he saw that there were many in diverse Cities who rashly, and hand over head going about to correct and amend the Laws, did nothing else but (by corrupting them) involve the common People in Seditions; he publish'd this most excellent Law (differing from all that were before) That any Person who would have any Law to be Page 270 altered or amended, a Council should be call'd, and he who would have an alteration, should have a Rope put about his Neck, and so continue while the Votes of the People-concerning the change of the Law were in taking; and if the Assembly did approve of the new Law, then the Author should be discharg'd; but if it were rejected, then he should be forthwith hang'd. By this so severe a Caution to prevent Innovation, new Law-makers disappear'd, and none durst so much as whisper any thing concerning the amendment or alteration of the Laws.
From that time forward, there were at Thurium only Three (forc'd by urgent Provocations) that appear'd and stood up to persuade the People to Abrogation of some Laws. For there was a Law, that he who struck out the Eye of another, should have his own Eye pluckt out. It happened that one who had only one Eye (by the injury of another) lost that also, so that he was altogether blind. In this case although the Offender was to lose his Eye for the injury done to the other, yet the punishment was not thought equivalent to the nature of the Offence; for he who made his Fellow Citizen wholly blind, although by losing one of his Eyes, he satisfied the letter of the Law, yet the loss and prejudice was not equal; and therefore it was conceiv'd to be most equitable and just, that he who depriv'd another of his sight wholly, should lose both his Eyes, if the punishment were proportion'd to the Offence. This blind Man therefore (mov'd and heated with the pain and indignity of the thing) complain'd to the People of his sad Condition, and made his Address to them for amendment of the Law. At length having the Rope about his Neck, he prevail'd, and the Law was abolish'd, and another made more effectual in its place, and so he escap'd hanging. Another Law likewise was moderated, whereby power was given to the Wife in some cases, to leave her Husband, and marry whom else she thought fit. For one grown old (being forsaken by his young Wife) proposed to the People for an amendment of the Law to have this further Addition, That it might be lawful for any Wife that had a desire to leave her Husband, to marry any other Man, provided he were no younger than her former Husband; and that he who cast off his Wife, should marry none younger than the Wife he rejected. And he succeeded so well in his Proposal, that by having the Law amended, he not only escap'd the Rope, but by this means, his Wife that had a Mind to a young Fellow, was forc'd to return to him again.
The Third Law (which Solon likewise had made) which was amended, was that concerning Virgins and Orphans. The Law was, that where there was an Heiress left, the next of Kin might demand her in Marriage; and so on the other hand, a young Woman an Orphan, might demand him that was of her next Kindred in Marriage, and he should be forc'd to marry her; or if she were poor, give her Five Hundred Drachma's for her Portion. There was an Orphan of this kind left of a good Family, but yet extream Poor; she by reason of her Poverty in no likelihood to get a Husband, made her application to the People, and with many Tears bemoaned her desolate condition, and despicable state of Life, and desir'd an amendment of the Law to this purpose, That in lieu of the Five Hundred Drachma's, the next of Kin whom by the Law the Orphan might demand in Marriage, should be forc'd to marry her. The People commiserating her Condition, chang'd the Law, and so she was delivered from the Rope, and the rich Kinsman was forc'd to marry the poor Maid without any Dowry.
Now it remains we should speak of the Death of Charonidas, concerning which, there happened something remarkable and wonderful; for when he was gone forth against some Robbers that made inroads into the Country, before he return'd, there happened a Tumult to be rais'd by the People in one of their Common Assemblies. Determining therefore to make diligent Enquiry into the Cause and Authors of the Sedition, he came hastily in amongst them, with his Sword girt at his side; and a Law he had made, that none should come arm'd into the Senate-house; but had forgotten his Sword then at his Side, and so rushed into the Assembly, and thereby gave an occasion to them that maligned him, to accuse him: Upon which, one cries out, You break the Law which you your self made. No, says he, but I will confirm it; and forthwith ran himself through. Some Writers ascribe this Fact to Diocles the Law-maker of Syracuse.
Page 271 But having spoken enough of Charonidas, we shall now relate something in short of Zaleuchus the Law-maker, because they were much alike in their Consultations, and bent their Minds and Thoughts to the same things, and flourished in Cities near adjoyning one to another. Zaleuchus was an Italian born at Locris, of a noble Family, of great Learning, and Scholar to Pythagoras. He was of great esteem and account in his Country, and chosen by the People to be their Law-maker. He began his Laws first with the Worship of the Gods. In the Preface he requires the Inhabitants,
That in the First place, and above all, they should be fully perswaded, and undoubtedly believe that there were Gods; and that devoutly looking up to Heaven, and viewing the Beauty and admirable Harmony and Order thereof, they should judge and certainly conclude, that that great Work was not of Men, or came there by chance: And therefore he ordain'd, they should adore and worship the Gods, from whom all that is good descends upon Men. And to that end, that they ought to have their Minds pure and unspotted, inasmuch as the Gods are better pleas'd with the just and honest Actions of Righteous Men, than with all their costly Sacrifices.
Having made this Preface or Introduction, he then subjoyns his Precepts. First,
That none should be implacable one against another, but that all should so manage their Animosities; as to keep a reserve in a short time to be reconcil'd, and in full Friendship with their Adversaries; and if any did otherwise, such a Man should be reputed of a fierce and inhumane Disposition. Secondly, He commanded the Magistrates that they should not be Proud and Domineering; that they should not give Judgment in any matter, either for Love or Hatred.
And in other particulars, he devised many things with great Wisdom, Prudence and Ingenuity. 3. Whereas in all other Countries, by the excess and extravagance of Women much Silver was spent and wasted, by a witty and ingenious kind of Punishment, he restrain'd their Excess, for he ordered,
That no Woman that was Free of the City should be attended Abroad with any more than one Servant, unless she were Drunk. That none should walk abroad in the Night, except it were with an intent to play the Who•e, nor wear golden Ornaments or Garments embroider'd with Gold, unless with the same intent: Nor that any Man should wear a Gold Ring, of a Milesian Garment, unless he were guilty of Fornication or Adultery.
By these dishonourable Exceptions and Conditions of Indempnity (which were Punishments in themselves) he easily restrain'd the Citizens from Luxury and Excess, for none were willing to expose themselves as laughing-stocks to their Fellow Citizens, by owning themselves guilty of such foul Offences. Many other Laws concerning Contracts and other Differences which might arise, were with great Judgment made by him, which would be too tedious particularly to relate, and beside the scope and intent of our History: We shall therefore return whence we made a digression.
Lysimachides was chief Ruler of Athens, when the Romans conferr'd the Consular dignity upon Titus Menenius, and Poplius Sestius Capitolinus. In their time the Sybarites that had escap'd in the late Sedition, seated themselves at the River Tarentum, where they continu'd for some time, but at length were rooted out, and utterly destroy'd by the Brutii. In Greece in the mean time, the Athenians having recovered Eubea, drave the Hestians out of the City; and sending thither a Colony of a Thousand Citizens of their own, they divided the City and Land adjacent amongst them by Lot.
Of the Decemviri in Rome, chosen to make Laws. The War between the Thurians and Tarentines. The sad Story of the Daughter of one Lucius Virginius in Rome, which caus'd a disturbance and great Sedition. The Law of the Twelve Tables. Peace all over the World.
WHen Praxitiles was Governor of Athens, the Eighty Fourth Olympiad was celebrated (in which Crison of Himera was Victor) and at Rome, Ten Persons (call'd the Decem-viri) were chosen to compose new Laws. Publius Claudius Regillanus, TitusMinutius, Sporius Viturius, Caius Julius,Caius Sulpitius, Publius Sestius,Romilius, Sporius Posthumius,Culbinius and Publius Horatius. By these Persons were Laws made. In their time a War broke out between the Thurians and them of Tarentum; in which War the Countries were wasted on both sides by Inroads by Land, and Invasions from Sea; many small Battels and Skirmishes were fought, but nothing done of any moment.
Lysanias being chief Ruler at Athens, the Romans again chose Ten Men for making of Laws. Appius Claudius, Marcus Cornelius, Lucius Minutius, Caius Sergius, Quintus Pitilius, Marcus Rabuleius, T. Antonius Meranda, Q. Fabius Vibulanus, C. Duilius, and Sp. Oppius. But these could not perfect the Business wherein they were imploy'd; for one of them fell in Love with a beautiful Virgin, but of small Fortune, whom he endeavour'd to debauch by Money. But when he saw he could not gain his Design by those means, he subborn'd a Fellow fit for his purpose to claim her for his Bondslave, and to bring her before the Decem-viri, and demand Judgment against her as his Slave; which was easily obtain'd from a corrupt Judge, the Author of the Villany. She being delivered to him, the Sycophant Knave carry'd her away as his Bond-maid. In the mean time, the Father of the Young Woman, mov'd with Grief and Rage at the indignity offer'd, hasten'd to the Court, where seeing no hopes of redress, he follow'd his Daughter close behind her, and spying a Knife in a Butcher's Shop, as he pass'd by, he snatcht it up, and forthwith stabb'd his Daughter to Death, to avoid the indignity and disgrace of such a condition, and forthwith without delay, hastening out of the City, made to the Army that was then encamp'd at Algidum, and with many Tears declar'd his miserable Condition, and implor'd their Assistance; which on the suddain affected them all with Commiseration, and great sorrow at his Calamity; upon which (being all stirr'd up with a resolution to relieve the distressed Father) in the Night they rush into Rome, and possess themselves of the Aventine Mount. As soon as the Day brake, the Decem-viri, being inform'd of the Rage of the Soldiers against the wickedness of the Fact (by force of Arms resolving to defend their Collegue) got together a multitude of Young Men to dispute the matter with their Adversaries by the Sword. And now a great and bloody Fight seem'd to be at hand, when some of the Citizens of the best Quality, foreseeing the danger, interpos'd by Messengers to both Parties, in order to compose the Difference; intreating and earnestly beseeching them, that they would forbear, and not involve their Country in Blood and Destruction. At length the matter was agreed upon these Conditions, That there should be Ten call'd Tribunes of the People chosen, who should have Sovereign Power and Authority over all the rest of the Magistrates of the City, and who might protect the common Liberty of the People: And that one of the Consuls every Year should be chosen out of the Senators, and the other out of the Common People. Yea, further, that they should have Power to chuse both Consuls out from among themselves if they thought fit. And this Law was then made to be a Check to the exorbitant power of the Patricians; for they under colour of their great and high Birth, and the glory of their Families, with insufferable Pride engross'd to themselves all the power and authority of Page 273 the City. Amongst the Conditions it was further added, That the Tribunes of the People, at the end of every Year, should appoint as many new ones in their room to succeed, and if they did neglect it, they should be burnt alive. And though the Tribunes could not agree in their Choice, yet they should continue still in their Offices in the mean time. And this was the end of the great Commotion at Rome.
Diphilus being Archon of Athens, the Romans created Marcüs Horatius, and Lucius Valerius Potitus Consuls, who perfected the Laws which suffered an irruption by the Sedition. For there were then Ten of the Twelve Tables (as they were call'd) only finished, the other Two were added by these Consuls. The Roman Laws thus perfected, the Consuls ordered them to be engraven upon Twelve Tables of Brass, and fix'd them to the Pleaders Desk in the face of the Court. And these Laws thus written briefly and plainly without any flourish of Words remain unto this Day.
About the time these things were done, most Nations through the World were at Peace; for the Persians made a double League with the Grecians, and with the Athenians and their Confederates, whereby Liberty was restor'd to all the Greek Cities of Asia. The other afterwards was with the Lacedemonians, by which it was agreed quite contrary, that the Greek Cities in Asia, should remain under the power of the Persians. In like manner, the Grecians were at Peace among themselves, the Athenians and Spartans having entred into a League for Thirty Years. And all was likewise quiet in Sicily, the Carthaginians having made Peace with Gelon, and all the Grecian Cities submitted to them of Syracuse. And the Agrigentines after the Slaughter at Himera, accepted of Terms of Peace. And all the People of Italy, France, Spain, and most Parts of the World, were at perfect Concord one with another. Therefore we have no account in History of any thing memorable done in War during this time; but all were every where at rest, solacing themselves with Sports and Sacred Festivals, and other Jollities, the common Attendants of a prosperous State and Condition.
The War between the Samians and the Melesians. A Sedition in Samos, which revolts from the Athenians. The War in Sicily by the Syracusians against the Trinacrians.
TImocles was now chief Governour of Athens, and Larius Herminius, and Titus Virginius Tricostus, Roman Consuls. In their time the Samians break forth into War against the Milesians concerning Priene; and discerning the Athenians more to favour the Milesians, they revolted from them. Hereupon the Athenians sent Pericles (made Admiral some time before) with Forty Sail against the Samians, who approached their City, easily reduced it, and there established a Democracy. And having impos'd a Mulct of Eighty Talents upon them, and receiv'd as many Youths for Hostages, he committed them to the care and custody of the Lemnians; and so having in a short time finish'd with good success all for which he was sent, he return'd to Athens.
After this, a grievous Sedition happen'd in Samos, some being for the Democracy, others endeavouring to set up an Aristocracy, whereby the City was in a mighty popular Tumult. They who were against the Democracy went over to Sardis in Asia to Pissuthines the Persian Governor to desire aid, who lends them Seven Hundred Soldiers, hoping by this means to bring Samos under his power. The Samians with this aid, loosing from Asia in the Night, stole secretly upon Page 274 the City, and by the help of their Accomplices, enter'd and surpriz'd it; and being thus easily possess'd, forthwith eject all of the contrary Faction. Then having stollen and carry'd away the Hostages out of Lemnos, and strengthen'd Samos with Garrisons, they declare themselves open Enemies against the Athenians; who again send against them Pericles with Sixty Sail; who overcame them in a Sea Fight though they had Seventy Sail. Upon this (with the help of Twenty Five Ships, which join'd him from Chios and Mitylene) he besieg'd Samos; and some few Days after, leaving part of his Forces to maintain the Siege, with the rest he made against the Phenician Fleet, which the Persians sent to the aid of the Samians. The Samians taking advantage of the opportunity of his departure, suddenly set upon the rest of his Fleet and routed them; with which success they grew very proud and haughty. But Pericles hearing of the ruin of his Fleet left behind, return'd without delay, and got together a strong and numerous Navy, fully resolving utterly to ruin the Enemy's Fleet; And being speedily supplied by the Athenians with Threescore Ships, and with Thirty from Chios and Mitylene, he renew'd the Siege both by Sea and Land, wearying the City with continual Assaults. He was the first that made use of those warlike Engines call'd Battering Rams, and Scorpions, by the assistance and ingenuity of Artemon the Lacedemonian. And by his fierce and violent Assaults, battering down the Walls with his Engines, the City fell into his Hands. And after he had put to Death the Authors of the defection, he caus'd the Samians to pay Two Hundred Talents in Compensation for the charge of the War. He carry'd away likewise all their Ships, and demolish'd the Walls; and when he had restored the Democracy, return'd into his own Country. To this time the Thirty Years Truce between the Athenians and the Lacedemonians continued unviolated. And with these things was this Year remarkable.
When Myrichides govern'd the state of Athens, Lucius Julius, and Marcus Geganius were Roman Consuls. The Eleans then celebrated the Eighty Fifth Olympiad, in which Crisus of Himera was the Second Victor. In these times in Sicily, Ducetius formerly Prince of the Siculi, planted the Country of the Callatines, and having setled there many Colonies, began at length to take upon him the Sovereign power over the Siculi: But falling sick, both his Life and his Designs vanish'd together.
The Syracusians now being Lords of all the Cities of Sicily (except Trinacria) resolv'd to gain that likewise by force of Arms; for they were exceedingly jealous of the Trinacrians, because they were very rich, lest they should at any time after gain the Sovereignty of the Siculi, to whom they were related as Kindred. This City both then and ever, had many valiant Men amongst them, and upon that account was ever esteem'd the principal City of the Siculi, for it was full of good Commanders, Men of brave and daring Spirits. The Syracusians therefore gathered together all their Forces both from Syracuse, and from among their Confederates, and march'd against the Trinacrians; who being destitute of all assistance, by reason the rest of the Cities were subject to Syracuse, were in a bloody Battel hard put to it; and after a resolute and valiant opposition, all gallantly dy'd upon the spot. For those that were wounded, rather than to undergo the disgrace of being Captives, dispatched themselves. They of Syracuse having obtain'd this Victory over a People never before subdu'd, made all the Inhabitants Captives, and raz'd the City to the Ground. The richest of the Spoils they sent to Delphos as a grateful Offering to the Gods.
The Corinthian War against Corcyra. Potidea revolts from the Athenians. Quarrels in Thurium. Meton's Year. Heraclea in Italy built. Potidea besieg'd by Phormio.
GLaucides the Chief Magistrate of Athens, Titus Quintus, and Agrippa Furius, Consuls of Rome: The Syracusians (being Victorious as is before related) fell a building of Ships of Three Oars upon a Bank, and doubling the number of their Horse, busi'd themselves in raising a Land-Army. And that they might. raise, and get together a great Treasure and Fond of Money, they exacted larger Contributions from their Subjects; and this they did with a Design to subject all Sicily by degrees to their Dominion.
Whilst these things were in doing, the Corinthian War (as it's call'd) broke forth upon the following occasion. The Epidamnians, the Inhabitants of the Coasts of the Adriatick Sea, being Colonies brought from Corcyra and Corinth, were greatly distress'd with Tumults and Seditions amongst themselves, where the stronger Party cast many of the contrary Faction out of the City; whereupon the Exiles join'd together, and calling the Illyrians to their Assistance and Confederacy, they made against Epidamnum with a great Fleet: And being the Barbarians were very strong, they easily possess'd themselves of the Country, and besieged the City. They of Epidamnum not able to resist so great a Force, sent to Corcyra for aid, who were of the same Stock and Kindred; but being disregarded by them, they made their Application to the Corinthians, owning that City to be their only Metropolis, and desired a Supply of more Citizens in the room of those that were ejected. The Corinthians partly out of pity to them of Epidamnum, and partly out of an old grudge they bore them of Corcyra (for that they only of all the Colonies, brought from them thither, neglected to send to them as their Metropolis, the usual Offerings) decreed Aid to be sent to them of Epidamnum. And accordingly they sent both a new Supply of Citizens, and a Guard of Souldiers sufficient for the defence of the City. The Corcyreans much inrag'd at this, fitted out a Fleet of Fifty Sail against them. The Admiral of which Fleet after his arrival commanded them of Epidamnum, to receive the Exiles: And then by Ambassadors propos'd to the Corinthian Garrison, That the matter relating to the Colony, might rather be ended in an orderly Course of Justice, than by force of Arms. But the Corinthians refusing, it came at length to a War; and Fleets were prepared, and Associations and Confederacies made on both sides: And these were the Causes of that Corinthian War. In the mean time, the Romans made War against the Volsci. At first they began with light and small Skirmishes; but at length in a formal Battel the Romans became Victorious, and slew most of their Enemies upon the Field.
When Theodorus govern'd Athens, and the Romans constituted Marcus Genusius, and Agrippa Curtius Chelon, Consuls; in Italy the Nation of the Campanians began to flourish; so call'd from the Fruitfulness of the Country round about them. In Asia the Archaeanactidae had now held the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosphorus for the space of Two and Forty Years; to whom then succeeded Spartacus, who reign'd Seven Years. In Greece the Corinthians and Corcyreans were preparing on both sides Navies for Fights at Sea: And presently the Corinthians made towards the Enemy with Seventy Gallies bravely sitted out; and the Corcyreans met them with Fourscore, routed them, and took Epidamnum by Storm, and made all the Corinthians their Prisoners, but put all the rest to the Sword. The Corinthians by this overthrow, wholly discouraged, return'd into Peloponesus. The Corcyreans now become Masters of this part of the Sea, invaded the Confederates of the Corinthians, and wasted their Country.
Page 276 This Year ended, Euthymenis entred upon the Government of Athens, and at Rome Three Military Tribunes were appointed Magistrates with Consular dignity, Aulus Sempronius, Lucius Atilius, and Titus Celius. At that time the Corinthians, not long before overcome at Sea, determined to put forth another Navy more glorious than the former. And to that end getting together Materials from all Parts, and hiring Ship-Carpenters out of the Cities, they built Ships with all care and earnestness, and prepared all manner of Arms and Weapons, and every thing necessary for War; some Ships they built new, others they repaired, and some they borrow'd of their Confederates. Nor were they of Corcyra idle, for they were nothing inferior to their Enemies in care and diligence; whence it was apparent how dreadful a War was like to ensue. In the mean time, the Athenians sent a Colony to Amphipolis, chosen partly out of their own City, and partly out of the neighbouring Forts and Castles.
Nausimachus being chief Ruler of Athens, Titus Quintus, and Marcus Geganius Macerinus were chosen Roman Consuls. At that time, the Eleans celebrated the Eighty Sixth Olympiad, in which Theopompus of Thessaly carry'd away the Prize. The Corcyreans hearing of the great Preparations that were making against them, sent Ambassadors to Athens, to desire their Assistance, which was done likewise by the Corinthians. The Assemblies being called, and audience given to the Embassadors on both sides, it was determin'd to joyn with them of Corcyra. And without delay, they sent them Ten Ships of Three Oars in a Seat, well Man'd and provided, promising to send them more, as there should be occasion.
The Corinthians (now abandoned by the Athenians) having Ninety Ships of their own, borrow'd Sixty more of their Confederates, and so made up a Fleet of an Hundred and Fifty Sail, and furnished it with choice Commanders, and forthwith made out against the Corcyreans, to fight them upon the first opportunity. As soon as the Corcyreans heard that their Enemies Fleet was near at Hand, they made forth against them with a Navy of an Hundred and Twenty Sail, accounting those of Athens.
The Fleets engaged, and fought with great Resolution; the Corinthians at the first had the Advantage, but a Fleet of Twenty Sail from Athens just then appearing (sent in pursuance of a second Address made to them) the Corcyreans got the Day. The next Day the Corcyreans appear'd with their whole Strength in a Line of Battel, daring the Corinthians to Fight; but they kept within their Harbours, and so avoided further Fighting.
Antilochides now Archon of Athens, at Rome Marcus Fabius, and Posthumius AebutiusAulicus were made Consuls: In their times the Corinthians greatly resented the Confederacy of the Athenians with them of Corcyra, especially for that the Victory obtain'd, was chiefly by their means. And therefore being inrag'd, and seeking by all the means they could to be reveng'd, they stirr'd up their Colony at Potidea to revolt. In like manner Perdicas the King of Macedonia, not long before incens'd against the Athenians, prevail'd with them of Chalcidica to revolt, and leave the Cities upon the Sea Coast, and withdraw only into one called Olynthus.
The Athenians hearing of the defection of Potidea, sent forth a Fleet of Thirty Sail, with Command both to destroy the Country of the Rebels, and storm the City. They according to order, bent their Course for Macedonia, and likewise besieg'd the City. The Corinthians sent Two Thousand Men to assist the Besieged, and the Athenians sent as many to strengthen it. Hereupon a great Battel was fought in the Isthmus near Pallene, where the Athenians were Victors, and kill'd above Three Hundred of the Enemy. And then straiter Siege was laid to Potidea. In the mean time, the Athenians built a new City in Propontis, which they call'd Letoanum.
In Italy the Romans sent new Colonies into Ardea, and divided the Country amongst them by Lot.
Now Charetes executed the Office of Archon at Athens, and the Romans made Quintus Furius Fusus, and Manius Papyrius Crassus Consuls. In Italy the Inhabitants of Thurium (being composed of People gathered from several Places) began to quarrel and disagree concerning what City chiefly Thurium, should be reputed a Colony of, and who should be acknowledg'd the Founder. For first they Page 277 of Athens challeng'd it, affirming most of the Inhabitants came from thence. Next they of Peloponesus (because many Cities sent Colonies from thence) claim'd the right of being accounted Founders of the City. In this manner (there being many Persons of Quality Members of the Colony, who had done much towards its Advancement,) there arose great Dissentions, every one challenging the dignity and honour as due to himself. At length they of Thurium sent to Delphos to consult there who should be esteemed and taken to be their Founder. The Oracle answered, That he himself should be so taken. And thus the great doubt being resolv'd, the Thurians declar'd Apollo their Founder: And so this Difference being remov'd, the People lived in Peace as formerly. In Greece, Archidamus King of Lacedemon died, having reign'd Forty Two Years, and Agis succeeded, who reign'd Seven and Forty Years.
At the time when Apseudes was chief Governor of Athens, and Titus Minenius, and Proculus Geganius Macerinus, Roman Consuls, Spartacus King of Bosphorus died, after he had Reigned Seventeen Years; whom Seleucus succeeding, Reign'd only Four Years. At Athens flourished that famous Astrologer Meton the Son of Pausanias, who then published his Table of the Cycle of the Moon called Enneadeceterides, beginning from the Thirteenth of the Attick Month Scirrophorion: For in the space of Nineteen Years the Stars return to the same State and Place, and compleat as it were a great Year. And therefore by some it is called Meton's Year. This Man in this Discovery, seems to be exactly true to a wonder, for the Motions and Aspects of the Stars, fully agree with this Description. And therefore most of the Grecians following the Rule of this Table, have never err'd to this Day. In Italy they of Tarentum, drave out the Inhabitants of Siris, and bringing a new Colony thither, built a City call'd Heraclea.
When Pythodorus govern'd Athens, and Titus Quintius, and Titus Menenius Agrippa, were Roman Consuls, the Eleans celebrated the Eighty Seventh Olympiad, in which was Victor Sophron of of Amphracion. At this time SpuriusManius affecting Sovereignty at Rome, was kill'd. In the mean time, the Athenians in a Signal Battel at Potidea (wherein they were Conquerors) lost their General Callias. Phormio was advanced to his Place, who as soon as he came to the Army, renew'd the Siege, and press'd hard upon it with continual Assaults: But by reason of the Valour and Obstinacy of the Defendants, the Siege continued long.
Here Thucydides the Athenian begins his History, and then proceeds to relate the War between the Athenians and the Lacedemonians, call'd the Peloponesian War. It continued Seven and Twenty Years, but Thucydides writes only of the first Two and Twenty Years, in Eight Books, others say Nine.
The Peloponesian War. Potidea Revolts; Besieg'd by the Athenians, and is surrendred upon Articles. Nicias made the Athenian Admiral. Gorgias an excellent Orator sent from Leontine in Sicily to Athens. A Peace concluded after the War had continu'd Ten Years.
WHen Euthydemus govern'd at Athens, the Romans created Three Military Tribunes, invested with Consular Power; Manius Emilius Mamercus, Caius Julius, and Lucius Quintius. At this time broke forth that War between the Athenians and the Lacedemonians, call'd the Peloponesian War, of longest continuance of any we read of in History.
According to the Design of our History, it is convenient in the first Place, to declare the Causes of this War. The Athenians now endeavouring to have the Dominion of the Sea, brought over to Athens all the Money they had laid-up at Delos, which they had gathered together from the Cities of Greece, almost to the value of Eight Thousand Talents, and made Pericles Treasurer. He was of a very noble Family, and in Eloquence far exceeded others of his Fellow Citizens: But not long after, having spent a great part of the Money (intrusted with him) upon his private occasions, and being call'd by the People to give an account, through grief of his incapacity to discharge himself, he fell Sick: And being thus disturb'd in his Mind, in regard he was not able to make satisfaction, Alcibiades his Nephew (who was then under Age, and under his Care and Guardianship) directed him into a way how to extricate himself out of the present trouble•. For seeing his Uncle so disturb'd, he ask'd the Reason; who answered, I am studying how I shall give an Account to the People for the Moneys committed to my Care and Custody. He replied, That it were better for him to consider and advise how he might give no account at all. Pericles hereupon following the Advice of the Young Man, contriv'd by all the ways imaginable how he might involve the Athenians in some great War. For by this means he foresaw he should avoid the Account, inasmuch as the City would be so distracted with Cares and Fears in such a conjuncture. To forward this Design, an Accident fell out very opportunely upon the following occasion. Phidias had made the Statue of Minerva, and Pericles the Son of Xantippe, was imploy'd to see the Work done: But some of Phidias's Workmen and Servants fell out, and stir'd up by the Enemies of Pericles, they fled to the Altars of the Gods. And being commanded to declare the Reason of a thing so unusual, they said, that they could make it out, that Phidias, with the connivance and help of Pericles, had imbezilled a great Sum of Money belonging to the Goddess. Whereupon an Assembly was call'd, at which the Enemies of Pericles mov'd the People to apprehend Phidias, and charge Pericles with the Sacrilege. They accus'd likewise Anaxagoras the Sophist, the Master of Pericles, for his impious Opinions concerning the Gods; with the same Calumnies they loaded likewise Pericles, chiefly designing to stain the glory, and weaken the interest of so brave a Man. But Pericles being well acquainted with the Disposition of the People, as knowing that they highly valued Men of worth, in times when they were threatned with War, (the present Circumstances of Affairs making it at such times of absolute necessity:) And on the contrary, that in times of Peace (when they had nothing to do but giving the Reins to Envy and Malice) blackned the same Men with all manner of Calumny; therefore judg'd it advantagious for his Affairs, if he could engage the City in some considerable War, that thereby having occasion to make use of them, they should be deaf to all Acccusations against him, and should have no time or leisure to call him to an Account. To help on this his Design, it was lately decreed at Athens, that they of Megara, should have no Traffick with the Athenians either by Sea or Land: The Megareans therefore made their Address for Relief to the Spartans, who agreed to their Requests, and by the Page 279 unanimous Assent of all the Assembly, they sent Ambassadors to the Athenians, with order to require them to rescind the Decree against them of Megara; And that if they refus'd, then that their Embassadors should denounce War against them in the name both of them and their Confederates. Upon hearing of the Embassadors, an Assembly was call'd to debate this matter; where Pericles, (that far surpass'd all the rest in Eloquence and strength of Reason) gave his Reasons against the abrogating of the Decree. He alledged it was a step to Bondage and Slavery, and against the common good to yield to the Demands of the Lacedemonians; but advis'd them rather that they should draw all their Goods and Concerns out of the Country into the City; and being now Masters at Sea, to enter into a War with the Lacedemonians. And hereupon making an accurate Discourse of the War, he told them what a Multitude of Confederats they had, what a brave and well man'd Fleet they were Masters of, what a vast Treasure they were possessed of, brought from Delos, gather'd from the common Contribution of the Cities, amounting to Ten Thousand Talents; and though Four Thousand of it were spent in the building of the Propyle, or Citadel, and in the Siege at Potidea, yet every Year Four Hundred and Sixty Talents were rais'd by Tribute from their Confederates. And besides all this, that the Adornments belonging to the Shows, and the Persian Spoils amouned to Five Hundred Talents more. And that in the Temples and other publick Works of the City, there were great Riches, so that the very Image of Minerva it self alone was worth Fifty Talents of Gold; whose Ornaments were so plac'd, that they might be taken off; and all of them when necessity requir'd might be borrow'd from the Goddess, so that they be faithfully restor'd in time of Peace. And as to the Estate of the Citizens, he told them, through the Enjoyment of a long Peace the City was grown exceeding Rich; he added moreover, that they had Twelve Thousand Armed Men, besides their Confederates, and what were in their Garrisons. And those in their Garrisons, together with their Colonies, were more than Seventeen Thousand; and that they had ready a Fleet of Three Hundred Sail. On the contrary, the Spartans were Poor, and far inferior to the Athenians in Naval Forces. Having fired the Citizens with these Discourses, he vehemently pressed the People not to give ear to the imperious Demands of the Lacedemonians: And by the earnestness of his Speech, he easily prevail'd; for which reason he was called Olympius. Aristophanes the Comick Poet, who flourished in the time of Pericles, mentions these things in the Verses following—
And likewise the Comick Poet Eupolis, in other Verses, says of Pericles, whom they call Olympius.
And these were the causes of the Peloponesian War, as they are related by Ephorus.
The principal Grecian Cities thus provoked to War, the Lacedemonians (in a general Convention with them of Peloponesus) declar'd War against the Athenians, and forthwith sent their Embassadors to the King of Persia, to enter into a League offensive with them. Embassadors were likewise sent, to desire Two Hundred Ships of their Confederates in Sicily and Italy.
Page 280 And now being join'd with the Peloponesians, and having rais'd a Land-Army from several Parts, and prepared with all things necessary for War, they first begin. At that time in Beotia the City Platea was a free City, in league with the Athenians: But some of the Citizens designing to enslave the Place, in contrivance with the Beotians promis'd to bring the City under their Power if they would but send them a Guard of Souldiers. The Beotians therefore sent Three Hundred Souldiers in the Night to Platea, who being let into the Gates, the Traytors deliver'd up the City into their Hands. But the Plateans willing to approve their Faithfulness to the Athenians (at first thinking that the whole Army of the Thebans were entr'd) sent Embassadors to them to treat and make Terms: But when Day appear'd, and they of Platea understood how small a Number the Enemy was, they all as one Man came upon them, and Fought with great resolution for their Common Liberty. But because the Fight was in the Streets, the Thebans being better Souldiers at the first destroy'd many of the Plateans: But afterwards they in the Houses, even the very Boys and Children by throwing down Tyles from the Roofs so sorely gall'd the Thebans that they were forc'd to fly; that part of them who got out of the City clearly escap'd, but another part that fled for shelter to a little House, at length were compell'd to give up themselves to the will of the Enemy.
The Thebans being inform'd by them that had escap'd, of this misfortune, with all their force hasten'd to the City: By reason of which suddain incursion many of them who liv'd in the Country, and those abroad being taken at unawares, were kill'd and many Prisoners taken; the whole Country being fill'd with Fears Devastations and Robberies. In the mean time the Plateans sent to the Thebans to intreat them to depart out of their Coasts, promising they would release the Prisoners. Upon which conditions the Matter was Compos'd; and the Thebans receiv'd the Captives and restor'd the Plunder to them of Platea, and so return'd home. The Plateans had sometime before sent to Athens for Aid, and had brought much of their Goods out of the Country into the City: The Athenians hearing of their Distress hastned away to them a competent Number of Souldiers, who tho' they March'd with all expedition, yet they could not prevent the Thebans: But what was left in the Country they brought into the Town: The Women and Children and those that were infirm, they got together in a Body, and convey'd them to Athens.
Hereupon the Lacedemonians judging the Athenians had broke the League, gather'd Forces together from all parts both from Sparta and from the rest of the Peloponesians. The Confederats of the Lacedemonians were the Peloponesians wholly, except the Argives, for they then stood Neuters. Those out of Peloponesus were the Megareans, Ambraciots, Leucadians, Phocians, Beotians, many of the Locrians over against Eubea, and the rest those of Amphissa. Those that sided with the Athenians were the Inhabitants of the Sea-Coasts of Asia, the Carians, Dorians, Ionians, them of the Hellespont, and all the Islanders, except the Inhabitants of Melus and Thera. The Thracians likewise were their Confederats, except those of Calcidica and Potidea. Besides these there join'd with the Athenians the Messenians in Naupactus, and the Corcyreans. All the rest sent Land-Forces. These Confederats stood firm on both sides.
The Lacedemonians having at length rais'd a great Army, made Archidamus their King, General, who made an Irruption into Attica, besieg'd their Castles, and wasted a great part of the Country. The Athenians inflamed with desire of Revenge for this Destruction of their Country, were eager to be out to Fight their Enemies; but Pericles the General advis'd the hot Youths to forbear a while, telling them that he would drive the Spartans out without Fighting. To this end he fitted out an hundred Gallies well Man'd, and gave the command of the Fleet to Carcinus and some other Officers, with order to make a descent into Peloponesus. Accordingly they laid wast a great part of the Sea-Coasts, took several Castles, and struck the Lacedemonians with great Consternation. So that without delay they withdrew their Forces out of Attica, and made it their chief care now to defend Peloponesus. The Athenians now freed by this ingenious Contrivance from their Enemies, highly Honour'd Pericles as a wise Commander and one able to carry on the War against the Lacedemonians.
Page 281Apolodorus now Archon at Athens, the Romans chose MarcusGenarius and Lucius Sergius Consuls. In the mean time the Athenian General ceas'd not to wast and plunder the Sea-Coast of Peloponesus, and destroy their Castles. And being join'd with Fifty Gallies of Three Tire of Oars from Corsyra, he made a more dreadful incursion into Peloponesus, and especially on the Sea-Coast, and up further into the Land, burning all the Towns before him. Then he made for Methone, a City of Laconia, wasting and plundering the Country in his way, and attempted the taking of the City it self. There Brasidas a Spartan (a young Man, but of great Strength and Valour) seeing Methone likely to be lost, with some other Spartans joining with him, made his way through the midst of the Enemy, who were dispers'd here and there in their several Posts, and with the slaughter of many of them got safe into the Castle. After the Athenians had made several Assaults (in which Brasidas behav'd himself with great bravery in the midst of dangers) and saw no hopes of gaining the Place, they return'd to their Ships. But Brasidas who had preserv'd Methone by his valour and resolute Defence, was highly honour'd amongst the Spartans. And being incourag'd by this Success in several Encounters, afterwards he behav'd himself with that Valour that he gain'd a great Name and Reputation.
The Athenians roul'd about to Elis, wasted the Country, and besieg'd Pheras, a Castle of the Eleans; to which they sent relief, but were beaten by the Athenians, who took Pheras by Storm. Yet within a while after the Eleans coming upon them with all their Strength, they were forc'd to their Ships, and Sail'd back to Cephalenia; where they made a league with the Inhabitants, and then return'd to Athens.
Afterwards Cleopompus, made by the Athenians Admiral of a Fleet of thirty Sail, was commanded into Eubea, both to defend the Island, and to make War upon the Locrians. He invaded and spoil'd all the Sea-tract of Locris, and took the City Thronium, and afterwards routed the Locrians in a Land-Fight at Aelopes. He then Fortisied the Island Atalante, near Locris, that it might be both a Defence against the Locrians, and that from thence he might with more ease make incursions upon them.
About the same time the Athenians cast all the Inhabitants out of Aegina, for favouring the Lacedemonians (as they were accused) and brought new Colonies thither, and divided the City and Country amongst them by Lot. The Lacedemonians appointed Thyre to the ejected Aeginites for their habitation; and on the other side, the Athenians forthwith alloted Naupactus for a receptacle for the Messenians, formerly ejected by the Lacedemonians. At the same time the Athenians sent Pericles with an Army against them of Megara, who after he had harras'd the Country and taken much Spoil and Plunder, return'd to Athens.
Shortly after the Lacedemonians with their Confederats broke a second time into Attica, and cut down the Trees, burnt the Towns and most miserably destroy'd almost the whole Country, except Tetrapolis, which they spar'd by reason of their former kindness in receiving of their Ancestors and subduing (by Arms from thence) Euristheus. For they conceiv'd it just and equal to shew kindness to them who had deserv'd so well from their Predecessors. The Athenians during this incursion durst not come into the Field, but kept close withim the Walls of their City, by reason whereof a great Plague raged amongst them. For a Multitude of all sorts of People being throng'd together, it may be reasonably concluded that through the straitness of the Place the Air was corrupted, and caused the Infection. By this means they were so weakn'd that they were not able to drive the Enemy out of the Country, but sent out Pericles again with a Fleet into Peloponesus; who wasting the Sea-Coasts, and taking some Cities, caus'd the Lacedemonians at length to leave Attica.
The Athenians by reason of the wast and spoil made in the Country, and the great destruction of the People by the Plague in the City, fell into great discontent and vexation, and were enrag'd, at Pericles, whom they look'd upon as the great Incendiary and occasion of the War, and therefore depriv'd him of the Magistracy, and upon slight and frivolous Surmizes laid a Mulct upon him of Thirty Talents. Then they sent Embassadors to Sparta to treat of Peace; but being slighted by the Lacedemonians (who would admit of no reasonable Terms,) they were reduced to a necessity to chuse Pericles General again. And these were the Actions of this Year.
Page 282Epaminondas this Year was chief Ruler of Athens, and Lucius Papyrius Crassus and Marcus ComeliusMacerinus Roman Consuls: At which time Pericles the General Died at Athens. A Man in Nobility of Birth, greatness of Estate, in Eloquence, Arts and Stratagems of War far beyond all the rest of the Citizens. About the same time the Athenians were very hot and earnest to recover Potidea by force, and to that end sent Hagno thither with the Army formerly commanded by Pericles. Hagno thereupon Sail'd thither with the whole Fleet, and made all the preparation for the Siege imaginable, viz. Engines of all Sorts for an Assault, Arms and Darts, and sufficient Provision for the whole Army. However though he continually batter'd the Walls of the City in many places, yet he spent much time to no purpose. For the fear of being taken by Storm added courage to the Defendants, and the hight of the Walls commanding the Port, made them very resolute: Besides, a Disease hapn'd among the Besiegers which destroy'd many of them, so that they were greatly discourag'd. Notwithstanding Hagno knowing that the Athenians had been at the charge of a Thousand Talents to carry on the Siege, and that they were highly incens'd against them of Potidea (because they were the first that made a Defection) durst not leave the Siege: But with all his might persisted, and stir'd up the Souldiers even above their Strength to force the City. But at length considering that many of the Citizens were lost both in the Assaults and by the infection of the Disease, leaving a part of the Army to maintain the Siege, he return'd with the rest to Athens, having lost above a Thousand Men. After he was gone, they of Potidea (being brought to the utmost extremity for want of Provision) sent to the Besiegers to treat with them upon Terms of Peace; which was readily accepted and imbrac'd with both Arms (as they say) by the Athenians, and Peace was made upon the Terms following, to wit, That all the Inhabitants should draw out of the City, and take nothing away with them but every Man one Suit of Apparel, and every Woman two.
Matters being thus compos'd, the Potideans with their Wives and Children (according to the Articles) left the City and setled themselves among the Calcideans in Thrace; after which the Athenians sent a Colony of a Thousand Persons, and divided both the City and Country adjacent amongst them by Lot.
Phormio being now made Admiral at Athens, with Twenty Ships sail'd round Peloponesus and arriv'd at Naupactum, where possessing himself of the Greek Criseus, he stopt the Passages against the Lacedemonians so as that their Ships could not come forth. But their King Archidamus with a great Army began a new expedition, and march'd into Beotia, and when he came to Platea (ready and prepar'd to wast and destroy the Country) he first solicited that City to revolt: But not being able to prevail, he fell a robbing and spoiling the Country all along as he went. Afterwards he Besieg'd the City, in hopes to weary them out for want of Provision: He incessantly likewise Batter'd the Walls with his Engines, and made frequent Assaults. But with all his Attempts not being able to gain the Place, he left a part of the Army to carry on the Siege, and with the rest march'd back into Peloponesus.
About this time the Athenians made Xenophon and Phanomachus Generals, and commanded them with a Thousand Men to go into Thrace. When they came as far as Pactolus in Beotia, they burnt spoil'd and rob'd the Country all before them, and destroy'd the very standing Corn. But they of Olynthus join'd with the Beotians, fell upon the Athenians and slew most of them, together with their Generals.
In the mean time the Lacedemonians by the advice of the Ambraciots with a Thousand Men and a few Ships under Cnemus their Captain, made for Acarnania and being inforc'd by a considerable Number of their Confederates, Cnemus arriv'd there and incamp'd near the City Stratos. But the Acarnanians in a Body came suddainly upon him, surpriz'd him with the loss of many of his Men and drove him into the Country of Oeniades. About the same time Phormio the Athenian Commander with his twenty Ships met with the Lacedemonian Fleet of Forty Seven Sail, and Fought them, sunk the Admiral and disabl'd many others, took Twelve with the Men in them, and pursu'd the rest to the Continent. The Lacedemonians thus unexpectedly beaten, with the remaining part of their Fleet got into Patrae in Achaia. This Battel was at a Place call'd Rhium. Hereupon the Athenians erected a Trophy, and Dedicated a Ship in the Isthmos to Neptune, and Page 283 so return'd to their Confederat City Naupactus. But the Lacedemonians sent other Ships to join the remainder of their Fleet that were at Patra. And all of them rendezvouz'd at Rhium, whither likewise the Lacedemonians Land-Army March'd, and there encamp'd near to their Fleet.
Phormio encourag'd by the late Victory, set upon the Enemy though they far exceeded him Number, and destroy'd many of their Ships; but not without some loss of his own, so that he went off but half Conqueror; but being enforc'd with Twenty more Ships from Athens, tlie Lacedemonians made off for Corinth, and durst never attempt any more to Fight at Sea. And these are the things reported to be done this Year.
Diotinus executing the place of chief Magistrate at Athens, the Romans created CaiusJunius and Proculus Virginius Tricostus Consuls: And they of Elis celebrated the eighty eighth Olympiad, in which Simmachus of Messina in Sicily carry'd away the Prize. About this time Cnemus the Lacedemonian Admiral while he lay at Corinth contriv'd how to surprize the Pyreum. For he understood by his Spies that no Shipping lay there, nor any Guard was appointed to defend the Place; and that the Athenians were secure, and therefore Negligent, conceiving none durst be so bold as to come up thither to attempt any thing of that Nature.
To this end having brought Forty Ships a little before to Megaris, with these well Man'd he set Sail from thence in the Night, and past over to Salamis, where he surpriz'd and took the Castle Budorium, and seiz'd their Ships and harras'd the rest of the Country. They of Salamis firing their Beacons, the Athenians suspected that the Pyreum was taken, and ran all with great fear and confusion to their Arms for the defence of the Place: But being better inform'd made away for Salamis. The Lacedemonians thus frustrated in their Design, left Salamis and return'd home. After their departure the Athenians had a more watchful Eye upon Salamis, and plac'd there a strong Garrison; and fortifi'd the Pyreum with Walls, and sufficient Guards for it's Defence.
About this time Sitalces King of Thrace, though he had but a Small Kingdom, yet by his Valour and Prudence greatly enlarg'd his Dominions; being a Man both Just and Kind to his Subjects, and Valiant and Diligent in time of War. He made his chief care to preserve and increase his Stores, by which means he grew so very Rich that he gain'd larger Territories than ever any King of Thrace had done before him. For that part which lay by the Sea Coast ran along from the Borders of the Abderites to the River Ister. And that from the Sea, up into the main Land, was of as great extent as a swift Footman could Travel over in Thirteen Days.
This Prince was possess'd of so large a Country, that his yearly Revenue amounted to above a Thousand Talents. During his Reign a War broke forth, upon which occasion he rais'd out of Thrace more than an Hundred and Twenty Thousand Foot, and Fifty Thousand Horse. But it's necessary that we declare the Causes of this War, that so the following account may be better understood.
Sitacles had entr'd into a League with the Athenians, and one of the Articles was, That he should faithfully Assist them in the War wherein they were engag'd in Thrace. To this end he rais'd a powerful Army, with a design to join with the Athenians to take Calcidea by Force: And likewise for the hatred he had to Perdiccas, King of Macedonia, he resolv'd to restore Amyntas the Son of Philip, to his Father's Kingdom. For these Causes he was necessitated to raise a very great Army. When all things were in readyness he Marc'hd all his Forces out of Thrace, and entr d Macedonia: But the Macedonians struck with terror at the multitude of their Enemies dar'd not to oppose them, but getting in all their Fruits and Goods they could within their Garrisons, they kept close within their Forts and Walls. The Thracians brought Amyntas along with them as King, and first treated the Cities by Messengers and fair Speeches; but when none would hearken to them, he Assaulted the first Castle in his way, and took it by Storm. Upon which many of the Cities and Garrisons (through fear) surrender'd of their own accord. After they had run through all Macedonia, loaded with Rich Booty, they made against the Greek Cities of the Calcideans.
Page 284 Whilst Sitalces was thus imploy'd, the Thessalians, Achaians, Magnesians, and all the other Grecians inhabiting within Macedon and Thermopyle, confederated and rais'd a mighty Army; for they were afraid lest the Thracians who were so powerful, should make an inroad into their Country, and bring them under the Thracian Yoke: And the Calcideans did the like. Sitalces hereupon being inform'd of the great Armies rais'd against him by the Grecians, and knowing his Army was not able to indure the sharpness of the approaching Winter, struck up a Peace with Perdiccas, and in confirmation thereof, contracted a Marriage with him, and so march'd his Army back into Thrace.
In the mean time, whilst these things were on foot, the Lacedemonians with their Confederates made another irruption out of Peloponesus into Attica, under their King Archidamus, who had the Sovereign Command of the Army; and after they had destroy'd all the standing Corn when it was near ripe, and made havock and spoil all over the Country, they return'd to their respective Habitations. The Athenians on the other hand, were not in heart to oppose them, but were under sore Calamities by Plague and Famine, and therefore altogether despair'd of any good issue and event of the War. And these were the things observable this Year.
Euclides was Ruler of Athens, when the Romans chose Three Military Tribunes in the room of Consuls, MarcusMannius, Quintus Su'pitius Pretextatus, and Servitius Cornelius Cossus. At this time in Sicily, the Syracusians made War upon them of Leontum, a Colony brought thither from the Calcideans, originally Athenians, who being overpress'd by the power of the Syracusians, and in great danger to lose their City, sent Embassadors to Athens for speedy and seasonable aid, to deliver them from their present Exigency. The chief among them that were sent, was Gorgias the Orator, the most Eloquent Man of his time. He was the first that taught the Rules of Rhetorick, and was so famous for his wise and learned Orations, that all his Scholars as a Gratuity, gave him an Hundred Mina's apiece.
When he came to Athens, and had Audience, he made an Oration to the People concerning the League desired; and by his new and ingenious way of speaking, the Athenians were so taken (who were otherwise Men of great Wisdom and Eloquence) that they were struck with admiration. For he adorn'd his Speech with most excellent Figures, and artificial composures of Words and Sentences, as by Opposites, Paranomacisms, equal Periods like Terminations, and the like gingling strains of Rhetorical Wit, to allure and intice his Auditors, which at that time for its novelty, was much admired. But now it's lookt upon to savour too much of affectation, and to be ridiculous, especially when by frequency and often repetition it becomes fulsome and tedious. Gorgias having perswaded the Athenians to enter into a League with the Leontines, return'd to Leontinum with great Reputation for his Eloquence.
The Athenians for some time before, had an hankering Mind after Sicily, by reason of the richness of the Soyl, and therefore were now more willingly perswaded by Gorgias, and decreed to send Aid as was desir'd. The pretence was to assist them who were their own Countrymen, and were brought into great straits, but in truth their chief Design was to gain the Island; for not many Years before, when the War broke forth between the Corinthians and them of Corcyra, and both address'd themselves to the Athenians for Aid, to make them their Confederates, the People of Athens resolv'd to side with the Corcyreans, because Corcyra was so situated, that it was a very ready and convenient Pass over from thence into Sicily. In short, the Athenians being now Masters at Sea, and every where successful, had many Confederates, and were richly furnished, both with Men and Money, had many Cities under their power, were possess'd of a mighty Treasure in ready Money brought from Delos, gathered from the Inhabitants of Greece to the value of above Ten Thousand Talents.
Moreover, they had likewise many excellent Officers, and expert Commanders; by these Advantages, the Athenians were grown very confident that they should both overcome the Spartans, (and having subdu'd all Greece) win also the Page 285 whole Island of Sicily. These were the Reasons induced them to resolve to assist the Leontines, and to that end sent them an Hundred Sail of Ships, under the command of Lachetes and Chabrias. With these they arriv'd at Rhegium, and from their Colonies there and at Calcidea, they had an Hundred Ships more, which join'd with the former; from thence they loos'd, and came first to the Lipare Islands, where they ravag'd the Country, because they were Confederates of the Syracusians. Then they made to Locris, and took Five Ships belonging to the Locrians, and besieg'd one of their Castles. The Siculi bordering upon the Myleans coming to their aid, the Armies engag'd, and the Athenians were Conquerors, and kill'd above a Thousand of their Enemies, and took no fewer than Six Hundred Prisoners: And presently after they took the Castle by Storm. In the mean time, Forty Ships more were sent to the Fleet by the Athenians, to carry on the War with more Vigour, under the command of Eurymedon and Sophocles. And when they were all join'd, they made up a Fleet of Two Hundred and Fifty Sail. But while the War was carrying on, the Leontines by their Embassadors, struck up a Peace with them of Syracuse: Upon which, the Athenian Fleet, return'd Home. But the Syracusians receiv'd all the Leontines into the City, and made them all free of Syracuse, and from that time appointed the City Leontium to be a Fort or Garrison of the Syracusians. And this was the Condition of Sicily at this time.
In Greece, they of the Island Lesbos revolted from the Athenians: And the Reason was, because all the Inhabitants of the Cities throughout Lesbos, were by order and decree of the Athenians, remov'd and brought into Mitylene. For this Reason also they entred into a League with the Lacedemonians, and advis'd them how they might become Masters at Sea. To accomplish which Design, they promis'd them a great number of Ships: The Spartans gave a very quick ear to this, and whilst they were preparing a Navy, the Athenians were before them, and commanded Clinippides with Forty Sail, forthwith to waft over an Army into Lesbos; who being joyn'd with other Confederates, made for Mitylene; and in a Sea-Fight routed the Mityleans, and then besieged them.
Hereupon the Lacedemonians resolved to assist them of Mitylene, and to that end prepared a brave Navy; but the Athenians enforc'd their Army with a Thousand Men more sent into Lesbos, before the Lacedemonians arriv'd. Paches, the Son of Epiderus, was General of this Expedition, who when he arriv'd at Mitylene (joining with the former Army) laid a more strait Siege to the Place; and contiually assaulted the City both by Sea and Land. The Lacedemonians in the mean time, sent Five and Forty Ships, under the Command of Alcidas, to assist the Mitylenes; and again invaded Attica, with the assistance of their Confederates; who fell upon those Places that were before untouch'd, and after they had most shamefully pillaged and wasted the Country, they return'd Home. But the Mitylenes, oppress'd with Famine, the Sword, and seditious Tumults, upon Conditions surrender the City. After which a Council was held at Athens what they should do with them of Mitylene: There was one Cleon an Orator, a cruel and violent spirited Man, stir'd up the People to kill all the Mitylenes, that were Men grown up, and to sell all the Women and Children for Slaves. The Athenians voted it to be so as Cleon had perswaded them, and sent Messengers to Mitylene, to acquaint the Governor with the Decree. When Paches had read it, another to the contrary presently came to his Hand; upon which, Paches understanding the Athenians had chang'd their Minds, with great joy call'd the Mitylenes together, and both remitted their faults, and likewise freed them from their fears. But the Athenians demolished the Walls of Mitylene, and divided the whole Island of Lesbos by Lot, except the Lands belonging to Methymna. And this was the issue of the Lesbean defection from Athens.
About the same time, the Lacedemonians (still carrying on the Siege at Platea) drew a Wall round the City, and fortify'd it with several Forts and strong Guards for its Defence. The Siege continuing long, and no Relief coming from Athens, the Besieg'd were greatly press'd both with want of Provision, and the loss of many of the Citizens who were cut off in the frequent Assaults. All therefore being doubtful what the issue might be, a Council was call'd to advise what was fit to be done in order to their Preservation. Many thought it most advisable to capitulate; but there were others, to the number of Two Hundred, Page 286 that were for breaking through the Guards in the Night, and so fly to Athens. In pursuance whereof, observing the darkness of the Night, those that were for Capitulating, were prevail'd with to assault a remote part of the Enemy's Wall; by which means, they who intended to break through the Guards (whilst their Enemies were busied in assisting their Fellows that were assaulted) scaled another part of the Wall (having got Ladders for that purpose) and kill'd the Guards, and so escap'd to Athens.
The next Day, the Lacedemonians were in great vexation at the escape of them out of the City, and brought their Forces close to the Walls, and bent all their Minds and Strength with all expedition to force the Place: Upon which, the Plateans being terrify'd, gave up both themselves and their City to the mercy of their Enemies.
But the Lacedemonian Commanders put this Question to every one that they sent for from among the Plateans, What good Offices or Services they had ever done to the Lacedemonians? And when one by one confessed they knew of none; they asked them again, Whether they had ever done the Spartans any harm? And when none deny'd that, they order'd them all to be slain; so that all that remain'd in the City, were put to the Sword, and the Town it self was raz'd to the Ground, and the Lands belonging to it let to farm. And thus the Inhabitants of Platea for their faithfulness to the Athenians, became involv'd in great Misery, and undeservedly perished.
Whilst these things were in doing, a great Sedition and civil Discord arose in Corcyra upon the following occasion: In the Battel at Epidamnum, many of the Corcyreans were taken Prisoners; and while they were in custody, they promis'd the Corinthians, that if they might be releas'd, they would undertake to deliver up Corcyra into their Hands. This was a very welcome and grateful Offer to the Corinthians. A considerable Number of Talents therefore being colourably procur'd from their Friends for their Redemption, they were all discharg'd.
As soon as they return'd into their Country, minding the performance of their Contract, they First seised upon the chief of the Citizens, (and especially those who could most influence the People,) and afterwards cut their Throats, and so quite dissolved the Democracy. But the Corcyreans were presently assisted by the Athenians, and recoverd their Liberty, and were resolved to execute Justice upon the Ringleaders of the Defection. But they (through fear of punishment) fled for refuge to the Altars of the Gods, and as Suppliants begg'd Pardon both of the Gods and the People.
Euthydemus was Governor of Athens, when Three Military Tribunes invested with Consular Power were again chosen at Rome, Marcus Fabius, Phalinius, and Lucius Sereulius. In their time the Plague broke out afresh, when they were freed from this Contagion but very lately before: It rag'd so exceedingly, that they lost Four Thousand Foot Soldiers, and Four Hundred Horse; and of others, Freemen and Servants, above Ten Thousand. And now because the Course of the History may require a Declaration of the Causes of this violent Distemper, it is necessary for us in this place to set them forth.
Abundance of Rain had fallen in the Winter, by reason whereof, the Earth being over-wet in many Places (especially in low and hollow Grounds) the Water lay like standing Pools; and those being corrupted and putrify'd by the heat of the Summer, thence proceeded a Mist of gross and stinking Vapours, which corrupted the Air, as it often happens about filthy Marishes. And besides, the want of good Food, much advanc'd the progress of the Disease, for the Year before, the Fruits by too much Rain were crude and unwholsom.
There was likewise a Third cause of this Distemper, which was this; the Etesian Winds this Summer blew not, by whose gentle Breezes, the violent heat of the Air was constantly allay'd before at other times; so that the Heat being now excessive, and the Air as it were inflam'd, Mens Bodies now wanting the usual Refreshment, contracted an evil Habit; from whence arose (through the vehement and immoderate heat) all sorts of burning Distempers. And hence it was, that many seiz'd with this Disease, to free themselves from the burning heat that was in their Bodies, cast themselves into Pits and Wells. But the Athenians judg'd that so grievous a Distemper was from God, and therefore according to the charge given them by the Oracle, they purg'd the Island Delos (which was formerly dedicated Page 287 to Apollo) now polluted (as they conceiv'd) by burying many dead Bodies there. Therefore all the Graves of the Dead were dug up, and the Urns were transported into the next Island to Delos, call'd Rhene; and a Law was made, that it should not be lawful for any for the time to come, either to bury, or to bear any Child in Delos. They then likewise reviv'd the Panegyrick Festival in Delos, now for a long time disus'd. While the Athenians were thus religiously imploy'd, the Lacedemonians with their Confederates in Peloponesus, incamp'd in the Isthmos, and there consulted together concerning the invading of Attica again. But there then happening such terrible Earthquakes in several parts of Greece, that it so terrify'd and possess'd them with fear and awe of the Gods, that they all return'd to their respective Countries. For the horrible Concussions of the Earth were so great, that many Cities near the Sea were sunk and drown'd. And whereas that Tract of Land near Locris was before a Peninsula, by the violence of the Earthquake, a Channel was made through the Isthmos, and the Place turn'd into an Island now call'd Atalante.
While these things were doing, the Lacedemonians sent new Colonies into Trachin, and changed its Name into Heraclea. The Reason was, for that the Trachinians having had Wars with the Oeteans many Years, had lost most of their Citizens. And therefore being almost depopulated, they addressed themselves to the Lacedemonians (whose Colonies they were) to repeople their City. The Lacedemonians in regard they were their Countrymen, and Hercules their Ancestor in times long past, had resided at Trachin, resolved to make it a large and beautiful City: And to this end, they sent a Colony thither, out of their own City, and out of others in Peloponesus, to the number of Four Thousand; and out of the rest of Greece, as many as pleased, were receiv'd as Members of the Cololony. The whole number was little less than Six Thousand. To conclude, Trachin was at length so far inlarged, that it contain'd Ten Thousand Men; and when they had divided the Land adjoining by Lot, they call'd the City Heraclea.
Stratocles being Archon of Athens, the Consular dignity was conferr'd upon the Three Military Tribunes at Rome, Lucius FuriusMetellus,Lucius Pinarius, and S. Posthumius Albus. In the time of their Government, Demosthenes made Admiral of the Fleet by the Athenians, with Thirty Ships well man'd, join'd with Fifteen more from Corcyra, and other Aids from the Cephaleans, Acarnanians and Messenians inhabiting Naupactus, and so set sail for Leucas, and when he had harrased and wasted the Country of Leucadia, he bent his Course for Aetolia, and there burnt and destroy'd many of their Villages; but the Aetolians making head against them, routed the Athenians, who fled to Naupactus. The Aetolians incouraged with this Victory, with the aid of Three Thousand Lacedemonians, march'd against Naupactus (which the Messeneans then inhabited) but were repulsed. From thence they made an Expedition against Molycria, and took the City.
The Athenian General Demosthenes, fearing lest they should attack Naupactus, sent a Thousand Men out of Arcarnania to strengthen the Garrison. He himself continu'd in Acarnania, and fell upon a Thousand Ambraciots in their March, and cut them almost all off. Upon this the whole Strength of the City came out against him, and he destroy'd most of them likewise, so that the City was almost made desolate. Hereupon he entred into a Consultation of assaulting Ambracia, hoping it might be easily won by reason there were few left to defend it: But the Acarnanians fearing that if the Athenians were Masters of the Town, they should have more troublesome Neighbours than the Ambraciots were, refused to follow Demosthenes: Upon this Mutiny the Acarnanians became Friends with the Ambraciots, and entred into a League of Peace and Amity for an Hundred Years. Demosthenes thus deserted by the Acarnanians, returns with Twenty Sail to Athens. Presently after the Ambraciots (having lately smarted so much, and in great fear of the Athenians) desir'd a Garrison from the Lacedemonians.
Page 288Demosthenes afterwards marching with an Army to Pylus in Peloponesus, determin'd to draw a Wall round the Place; which was naturally Fortify'd, and Four Hundred Stadia's from Messena: And being well furnished with Multitudes of Men, in Twenty Days space he finished the Work. But the Lacedemonians hearing of the Fortifying of Pylus, prepar'd great Forces, both by Land and Sea, and with a Fleet of Forty Five Sail well man'd and provided, and with Twelve Thousand Land Soldiers, made against Pylus. For it seem'd to them a thing dishonourable, to suffer them who durst not come into the Field to defend Attica from Devastations, now to nestle themselves, and to make Fortifications in Peloponesus. They incamp'd therefore with their Army, under the command of Thrasymedes near to Pylus, and were resolv'd to undergo all hardships and hazards, in order to subdue the Place. To this end they stood with their Fleet in the very Mouth of the Port, to block up all the Passage and Entrance from the Enemy. And by their Forces at Land, they assaulted the Walls with one Body after another by turns, pressing on with wonderful Obstinacy and Resolution.
They put likewise some of the choice of their Souldiers, both of the Lacedemonians and their Confederates, into the Island Sphacteria, which was near at hand, and ran out at length over-against the Port, by which the Harbour was the safer and securer from Storms. And this they did to prevent the Athenians, it being a Place very commodious, and useful for the carrying on of the Siege. They likewise continu'd the Assaults every Day, without intermission, and receiv'd Wounds upon Wounds, from the Towers and Bulwarks upon the Walls, and yet remitted nothing of their Heat and Resolution; so that Multitudes were kill'd, and many wounded, in striving to storm a Place most strongly Fortify'd. For the Athenians being possess'd of a Town of natural Strength, and abundantly furnish'd with Arms and all things necessary for a Defence, most vigorously repell'd their Enemies. For they hop'd, that if they frustrated this Design, Peloponesus would be the Seat of the whole War; and that they should by degrees wast and destroy their Country.
In the mean time, whilst these things were managed at the Siege with the greatest heat imaginable on both sides, and the Spartans exercis'd all their Force and Power, (amongst many others that purchas'd Honour by their Gallantry) Brasidas mounted to the highest step of Glory; for when the other Captains and Commanders in the Fleet durst not make up to the Shoar with the Ships, by reason of sharp Rocks, and the difficulty of the Place, he acting the part of an Admiral, with a loud Voice commanded, and incessantly urged the Pilot of his own Vessel, without any regard to the Ship, to force it ashore: For he said it was a base thing for the Spartans, if they resolving (as they pretended to be victorious) should be more sparing of their Ships than their Lives; and in the mean time suffer the Athenians to Lord it in Laconia. Hereupon the Pilot was forc'd to run the Ship ashore, and forthwith Brasidas (resolvedly fixing himself upon the Hatches) encountered with a whole Troop of Athenians that made up in a Body upon him, and kill'd many of them that first assaulted him; but Darts flying thick about him, and receiving many Wounds, at length (through the loss of much Blood) he fell down as dead; and his Arm slipping off Board, and hanging out of the Ship, his Buckler catcht by the Waves, dropt out of his Left Hand into the Sea, and was seiz'd presently by the Enemy; and he himself lying half Dead amongst the Heaps of those he had kill'd, was taken up and carry'd out of the Ship by his own Men; Thus far excelling others in Valour, that when others have been put to death because they basely threw away their Shields, he by the loss of his, gain'd the highest Honour and Reputation. However the Lacedemonians obstinately persisted in the Siege at Pylus, with great loss of their Men.
Here any one may justly admire at the wonderful and various turns and changes of Fortune at Pylus: For the Athenians drave the Spartans out of Laconia; and they who were usually Victors at Land (now forc'd from Land) over-power the Athenians at Sea; and they who were before Masters at Sea, now repel their Enemies at Land. But the Siege continuing very long, they who were in the Island were in great hazard to be famish'd, because the Athenian Fleet now commanding Page 289 at Sea, stop'd all Provision that way. The Lacedemonians therefore now fearing what would become of them that were block'd up in the Island, sent to Athens to treat upon Terms of Peace: But when nothing of Peace would be hearkened unto, they desired that they would accept of an Exchange, and receive as many Prisoners of their own Men, as they were that were in the Island. But when this was refus'd, the Lacedemonian Ambassadors very freely and sharply even in Athens it self, told them, that by their refusing to exchange one equal number for another, they own'd that the Lacedemonians were of more worth and value than the Athenians. Being reduc'd to these straits and necessities, they in the Island Sphacteria, were forc'd to submit, and the Athenians took them all Prisoners. The number of those that were Spartans (who then delivered up themselves) were an Hundred and Twenty; of those that were their Confederates, an Hundred and Fourscore. Cleon the Admiral of the Fleet, brought them all bound to Athens, where it was decreed by the People, that if the Lacedemonians would make an end of the War, they should all be preserved; but if they persisted, they should all be put to Death. After this, the Athenians sent for the best Soldiers of the Messenians that inhabited Naupactus, and join'd some of their Confederates with them for the defence of Pylus, judging the Messenians, for the inveterate hatred they had towards the Spartans, would be very eager to spoil Laconia by Sallies from so strong a Fortification: And in this condition were things at Pylus.
In the mean time Artaxerxes, King of Persia died, having reign'd Forty Years: Xerxes succeeded him, and reign'd only one Year. In Italy the Aequi rebell'd against the Romanś; to suppress whom, the Romans created Aulus Posthumius Dictator, and Lucius Julius, Master of the Horse; who made an inrode with a brave Army into their Country: Upon which the Aequi presently Fought them, and were routed. A great Slaughter was made, and many taken Prisoners, and the Romans carry'd away great Spoil. After this Slaughter, the Aequi submitted to the mercy of the Romans. Posthumius having thus bravely manag'd the War (according to Custom) triumph'd. A thing something incredible is reported to be done by this Posthumius; to wit, that he put his own Son to Death, for that in the Battel, out of a spritely heat of Youth, pressing on upon the Enemy, he left his Post assign'd him by his Father.
This Year ended, Isarchus was chief Magistrate at Athens, and at Rome, Titus Quintius, and Caius Julius were Consuls; at which time, the Eighty Ninth Olympiad was celebrated at Elis; in which Symmachus was again Victor. At this time the Athenians made Nicias Admiral of their Fleet, who with Threescore Sail, and Three Thousand Men at Arms, under his Command, was ordered to invade the Lacedemonian Confederates. Whereupon he forthwith made up to the Island Melus, spoil'd the Country, and besieged the City many days. For this only of all the Islands of the Cyclades stood firm and constant to the Lacedemonians, because they were a Colony from Sparta. Nicias knowing he was not in a condition able to storm the Place (which made a resolute Defence) pass'd to Oropus in Beotia, and leaving his Fleet there, march'd with his Forces into Tanagria, where he was join'd with new Supplies from Athens, under the Command of Hipponicus the Son of Callias: Both these together proceeded in wasting and spoiling the Country. Hereupon the Thebans came out against them, and fought them; but the Athenians routed them with a great Slaughter. When all was over, Hipponicus with his Forces return'd to Athens, and Nicias to the Fleet; who sailing along the Coasts of Locris, wasts and destroys many Places upon the Sea-shoar. Here Forty Ships came up to him from the Confederates, which (with those he had before) made up a Navy of an Hundred Sail; he had likewise a brave Army of Land Soldiers, with which he made for Corinth, and landing his Men, engaged with the Army of the Corinthians, beat them twice, and after the Slaughter of many of his Enemies, erected a Trophy. In this Fight there were kill'd only Eight of the Athenians, but Three Hundred of the Corinthians. Thence he sail'd toward Cremmion, spoil'd the Country, and took the Castle by Assault. Presently after, he marches back, Fortifying the Castle in Methone by the way, and having put in a strong Garrison, wasted the Country adjoining, and at length (spoiling and harrasing all along upon the Sea-Coast) return'd to Athens. Not long after, the Athenians sent forth Threescore Sail, Page 290 and Two Thousand Men at Arms against Cythera, under the command of Nicias and some others. When he had landed his Men in the Island, the City after a short Siege surrendred, and leaving there a good Garrison for the defence of the Island, he passed over to Peloponesus, and spoil'd the Country upon the Sea-Coasts, and took Thyre (situated between the Consines of Laconia and Argos) by Assault, and demolish'd the Walls, and made all the Inhabitants Captives. But the Aeginetes who inhabited there, and Tantalus the Governor of the Castle, he sent Prisoners to Athens, where they were detain'd with other Prisoners.
Whilst these things were acting, the Megareans now tir'd out with the War they had both with the Athenians and their Exiles (after many Messages backwards and forwards between the two Cities,) some of the Citizens of Megara (incens'd against the Exiles) promis'd the Athenian Commanders to betray the City. To that end, Hippocrates and Demosthenes the Athenian Generals (by Compact with them of Megara) sent in the Night Six Hundred Souldiers to the City, whom the Traitors let in within the Walls: But the Treachery being discover'd, the People were divided into Two Factions, one sided with the Athenians, and the other with the Lacedemonians. In the mean time, one of his own accord made Proclamation, that whosoever would, might join with the Megareans and Athethenians. The Lacedemonians thus deserted by them of Megara, the Watch which was all along upon the Walls, left their station, and fled into the Arsinal call'd Nicea, where the Megareans kept all their Naval Stores and Provisions. But the Athenians intrench'd round and besieg'd the Castle; and a little time after, sending for Workmen from Athens, compass'd in Nicea with a Wall. Upon this, the Peloponesians fearing they should all be put to the Sword, if the Place were taken by Storm, delivered up Nicea upon Conditions to the Athenians. Thus stood the Affairs of Megara at this time.
But Brasidas with a great Army rais'd in Sparta and other Parts of Peloponesus, marcht to Megara, and drave the Athenians (surprized with this suddain and unexpected approach) out of Nicea, and reduc'd the City to its former obedience to the Lacedemonians. Then he marched through Thessaly, and came to Dion in Macedonia. Thence going on to Acanthus, he assisted the Chalcedeans, and partly by Threats, and partly by fair and plausible Arguments, wrought upon the chief City of the Acanthians to desert the Athenians. Afterwards he brought over many other of the Thracians to join as Confederates with the Lacedemonians; and henceforward desiring to carry on the War with more Vigour, sent for Soldiers out of Lacedemon to strengthen his Army.
The Spartans hereupon sent to him a Thousand of the best Souldiers amongst the Helots, whom they had long before design'd to root out, hoping most of them would be cut off in the War: And there was another vile act of cruelty committed by them, by which they determin'd utterly to destroy all the Helots. For they made a Proclamation that whosoever of the Helots had done any service for Sparta, should be made Free, and to that end they should send in their Names: When Two Thousand had writ their Names, they order'd the most powerful and chief of the Citizens to cut all the Helots Throats in their several Houses: For they were in great dread of them, lest when they saw an opportunity they should join with their Enemies and so be instrumental to the ruin of Sparta. However, when these Helots, with some other supplies from their Confederates join'd with Brasidas, his Army was very Strong. And thus strengthen'd he March'd his Forces to Amphipolis. Aristogoras the Milesian, was the first that brought Colonies into the City; when he fled from Darius the King of Persia. But after Aristogoras his Death, the Inhabitants were ejected by the Thracians call'd Edones. Two and Thirty Years after the Athenians sent thither a Colony of Ten Thousand Men. But these being destroy'd by the Thracians at Drabiscum two Years after, the Thracians recover'd the City under Apion, their General. This City subject to so frequent changes of War, Brasidas made it his business to subdue. To this end marching thither with a great Army, he encamp'd at the Bridge near to the City, and presently possess'd himself of the Suburbs. The next day they of Amphipolis being greatly terrify'd, surrendred the Place, upon conditions that all Page 291 that would, might leave the City, and take their effects with them. And soon after he took in many other neighbouring Cities, amongst which, the chief were Sime and Galepsus, both Colonies of the Thracians, and Myrcinus a Town of the Edones.
He likewise fell a building new Ships at the River Strymon, and sent for fresh Supplies from Lacedemonia and other Confederates. He also caus'd great store of Arms to be made, by which he arm'd the new rais'd Men, and furnish'd himself with Darts, Weapons and all other Provisions. And being thus compleatly provided, he march'd from Amphipolis, and encamp'd at a Place call'd Acte. Here were Five of the Towns partly inhabited by Grecians of Andros, and partly by a mixt multitude of Barbarians, descended from the Bissalte, People of a double Tongue. Having brought these under his Power, he fell upon Toron, built by the Chalcideans, but then in the power of the Athenians. Here by the Treachery of some of the Inhabitants, in the Night he was let into the Town, and so won Toron. And thus far the Expedition of Brasidas prosper'd this Year.
In the mean time there was a Battel fought by the Athenians at Delium in Beotia, with the Beotians upon the accounts following: The then present Government in Beotia was displeasing to some, who desir'd to set up a Democracy in the Cities. These Malecontents discovered their Designs to the Athenian Generals, Hippocrates and Demosthenes, and engaged to deliver up the Cities in Beotia. This was a very welcome Overture to the Commanders: And that the Business might the better be effected, they divided the Army, and Demosthenes with the greater part made an incursion into Beotia: But the Beotians being well prepared, having had notice of the Treachery, he marcht back without doing any thing. Hippocrates in the mean time invaded Delium, possessed himself of the Place; and to prevent the March of the Beotians that way, fortify'd Delium with a Wall; which lies near to Oropia, and the Borders of Beotia lying towards the Mountains. But Pantoedas the Beotian General, gathered out of all the Cities of Beotia, the best and choicest Souldiers, and with a great Army and a swift March made for Delium; for he had with him little less than Twenty Thousand Foot, and a Thousand Horse. The Athenians on the other side were more in number, but not so well arm'd; for coming hastily and suddenly out of the City, many were ill furnished, both as to Arms and other Necessaries. This was the condition of both Armies, yet very hot and eager on both sides to fight. In the Army of the Beotians, the Thebans were in the Right Wing, the Orchomeans in the Left, and the Beotians in the main Body. Those that were call'd Heniochans and Paraebates, that is, the Charioteers, or those that fought in Chariots, were plac'd in the Front; these were the best Souldiers, in number Three Hundred. The Athenians were forc'd to join Battel, before they were perfectly drawn up in Battalia; but it was fought with great Courage and Resolution on both sides. The Athenian Horse charg'd with that Bravery, that in the beginning they put the Enemies Horse to flight. Then the Foot engaged, and that part of the Athenian Army that opposed the Thebans, by the violence of the Enemy's Charge were quite broken in pieces and routed. But the rest of the Athenians chas'd all the other Beotians, and pursu'd them a long way, with a great Slaughter. On the other side, the Thebans (being strong Bodied Men) left the chase of their Enemies, and fell upon the other Pursuers, hew'd them down, dispers'd and utterly routed them; and thus the Thebans highly advanc'd their Reputation by this signal Victory. As for the Athenians, some of them fled to Oropus, others to Delium; some made to their Ships, and the rest fled every way, as their Lot and Fortune led them, till Night put an end to the Pursuit. There were not above Five Hundred of the Beotians kill'd, but many more of the Athenians, and if Night had not come on, most of them had been cut off; but that sav'd them, and gave a check to the fury of the Conquerors. Yet the number of the Slain was so great, that with the Price of the Spoils the Thebans built a great Walk or Gallery in the Forum, and adorn'd it with many Statues of Brass; and even cover'd over the Temples with Brass, and the publick Buildings in the Market Place, with the Arms and Shields of their Enemies. And with the Riches got in this Fight, they set up Sports and Shews at Delium.
Page 292 After this Victory, the Beotians assaulted Delium with that fury, that the greater part of the Garrison were kill'd in defending the Place. Two Hundred only were taken, the rest escaped to their Ships, and with other Inhabitants came to Athens. Into this Disaster fell the Athenians by their crafty Designs against the Beotians.
In Asia, Xerxes the Persian King died, after he had reigned one Year, some say only Two Months. To him succeeded Sogdianus for the space only of Seven Months; who being kill'd, Darius injoy'd the Kingdom Nineteen Years. With this Year Antiochus of Syracuse, the noble Writer of the Affairs of Sicily ends his History, beginning at King Cocalus, and consisting of Nine Books.
When Amyntas was chief Magistrate of Athens, Caius Papirius, and LuciusJulius were Roman Consuls. In their time the Scioneans now slighting the Athenians, by reason of the late Defeat given them, made a defection to the Lacedemonians, and gave up their City into the protection of Brasidas, then General of the Army in Thrace. And those who escap'd out of Lesbos, after the taking of Mitylene by the Athenians (who were no small Number) (some time before contriving how to return into their Country) join'd together, and possess'd themselves of Antandrus; from whence taking their opportunity, they issued forth and set upon the Garrison at Mitylene: At which the Athenians being incens'd, command was given to Aristides and Symmachus, to lead the Army against them; who having passed over the Forces into Lesbos, after some few Assaults, took Antandrus, and put part of the Exiles to the Sword, and expelled the rest out of the City: And after they had strenghned the Place with a Garrison, they departed from Lesbos. After this Lamachus, with Ten Ships under his Command, Sail'd for Pontus, and lay with his Fleet at Heraclea, and near the River Cacheta, lost all his Ships. For abundance of Rain falling, the Rain by the violence of the Stream, dash'd in Pieces all the Vessels against the Rocks lying upon the Shoar. Hereupon the Athenians made a Truce with the Lacedemonians for a Year, upon these Conditions, that all that was then under the Power and Government of each other, should so remain on both sides. And after several Debates and Consultations, it was Judged to be the wisest course to put an end to the War, and those destructive Contentions between themselves for ever after. That which chiefly mov'd the Lacedemonians was the earnest desire they had to release those who were taken in the Island Sphacteria. Thus far the Truce went on; but they could not agree concerning Scione, though all other things were consented to on both sides. The Contention was so hot, that all further overtures of Peace were at an end, and the War was still carry'd on upon the Account of Scione.
About this time the City Menda fell off to the Lacedemonians, which caused a greater heat and resolution for the keeping of Scione. To this end Brasidas remov'd all the Women and Children, and their best Goods out of Scione and Menda, and put strong Garrisons into them. The Athenians were so enraged at this, that they made a Decree to put all the Sciones to the Sword, when ever they took the City.
To that end they sent Nicias and Nicostrates with Fifty Sail against them: They first set upon Menda, which they took by the Treachery of some within. Then they Besieg'd Scione, compassing it round with a Wall, and press'd upon it with continual Assaults. But the Garrison in Scione being very strong, and well provided with all things necessary, easily defended themselves, and from the top of the Walls greatly gall'd the Besiegers. And these were the things done this Year.
The Year following, Alceus governing at Athens, and Opicter Lucretius, and Lucius SergiusFideniates, Roman Consuls, the Athenians cast the Delians out of the Island, and took the City into their own Hands, because they kept secret correspondence (as they alledg'd) with the Lacedemonians. Being thus expuls'd, Pharnaces the Persian Lord Lieutenant gave them the City Adramyttium to inhabit. The Athenians at the same time, sent forth Cleon, with a great Body of Foot unto the Coasts of Thrace; who arriving at Scione, shipt part of them that lay before the Town, and sail'd with them to Torona. For he had intelligence that Brasidas was gone from those Parts, and had left but few Soldiers at Torona. To which Place, he approached as close as he could, and besieged it both by Sea and Land; at length he took it by Storm, and made the Women Page 293 and Children Captives; the Souldiers he bound in Chains, and sent them to Athens; having left at Torona a small Garrison, he march'd with the rest of his Forces to the River Strymon in Thrace, and thence to the City Scione (which is distant Thirty Stages from the City Amphipolis) which he fiercely assaulted. But here having intelligence that Brasidas incamp'd with his Army at Amphipolis, he makes against him with a swift March; who being inform'd of the approach of the Enemy, sets forth in Battalia to meet the Athenians; whereupon they presently join'd Battel, the Victory continuing very doubtful for some time where it would fall, both sides bravely behaving themselves: In the mean time the Generals fought with that Resolution, as if each would gain the Victory with his own Hands; and the Officers themselves, with undaunted Courage rush'd into the heat of the Battel, insomuch as many brave Men on both sides breathed out their last. At length Brasidas fell in the Bed of Honour, amongst Heaps of his Enemies slain by his own Hand. Cleon likewise was slain in the thickest of the Combatants: And now both Armies were at a stand, and in a Consternation at the loss of their Generals; but at length the Lacedemonians got the day, and set up a Trophy. And the Athenians upon a Truce made, bury'd their Dead, and sail'd back to Athens. When some who return'd to Lacedemon gave an account of the Victory and Death of Brasidas, it is reported that his Mother asked how he behaved himself in the Battel. To whom Answer was made, That he went beyond all the Lacedemonians. Upon which, she replied, Her Son Brasidas was an Honest and Good Man, but much inferiour to many other Spartans in Valour. What she said being nois'd through the City, the Ephori decreed her publick Honours, because she prefer'd the Glory of her Country, before the particular praise of her Son. After this Battel, the Athenians determin'd to make Peace with the Lacedemonians for Fifty Years, and did so upon these Conditions, that the Prisoners on both sides should be discharg'd, and that the Cities taken in the War should be restored. And so the Peloponesian War that had now continu'd Ten Years, was in this manner ended at this time.
The continuance of the Peloponesian War. The War by the Romans against the Fidinates for putting their Ambassadors to death. The Quarrels between the Aegistines and the Seluntines in Sicily. The Expedition of the Athenians against Sicily under Nicias, being the Sixteenth Year of the Peloponesian War.
ARiston was Archon at Athens, when the Romans committed the Consulship to Titus Quintius, and Aulus Cornelius Cossus. The Peloponesian War was scarcely ended, when new Commotions and Dissentions broke out afresh, occasion'd as follows. The Athenians and Spartans, with the common Consent of all their Confederates, had enter'd into Terms of Truce and Peace. But in the mean time they privately confederated in a League Offensive and Defensive, without taking in the Cities that had sided with either Party; which rais'd a suspicion as if there was a Design laid by this secret Association to inslave all Greece: And therefore the chiefest Cities in Greece sent one to another, and enter'd into mutual Leagues to join together against the Lacedemonians and Athenians. The most potent Grecian Cities in this Confederacy were Four, Argos, Thebes, Corinth and Elis. And indeed there was some reason to suspect these Two Cities had some Design against Greece; for that in the Articles of the League, there was a Clause superjoyn'd, that it should be lawful for the Athenians and Lacedemonians at any time when they thought fit, either to add to, or take any thing from that which was before solemnly agreed to. Besides, the Athenians had created Ten Magistrates, who were invested with full power to manage all Affairs relating to the City. And whereas the Lacedemonians did Page 294 the same thing, it was very evident at what the insatiable Ambition of the Two Cities pointed. Many therefore of the Cities now resolv'd to defend the common Liberty, and to that end considering the power of Athens to be low, by their late overthrow at Delium, and the honour and glory of Sparta, much diminished upon the account of so many Captives of the noblest of their Citizens taken in the Island Sphacteria, they conspir'd against them, and committed the Sovereign power and management of the War to the City Argos. For the ancient noble Actions done by that City, challeng'd above all others that preeminence and prerogative; for long before, and to the very time of the * migration of the Heraclidae into Peloponesus, the greatest Kings of Greece came out of Argos; and besides, by the advantage of a long Peace, it was grown very rich and populous.
Argos now concluding that the chief Command was lodg'd in themselves, pickt out a Thousand of the strongest young Men, and best ability for Estates, whom they freed from all publick Affairs, and maintain'd at the common Charge. These were continually by daily Exercise, to inure themselves to Martial Discipline: And by the help of a plentiful allowance, and constant care and diligence, in a short time they became most expert Souldiers. But when the Lacedemonians perceiv'd all Peloponesus had conspir'd against them, and foreseeing the greatness and danger of the War, they made preparation for defence of the Government, as far as was possible. To that end, in the first place, they manumitted a Thousand of the Helots that were with Brasidas: And afterwards they restored the Citizens to their former Priviledges that had been taken Prisoners in Sphacteria, whom they had before degraded by reason of the disgrace they had brought upon their Country. Moreover they brought in many who had formerly done great Service in the Wars, by crying them up, and feeding them by Rewards, to incourage them to shew the like instances of their Valour in the hazards of the approaching War. They carried themselves likewise with more kindness towards their Confederates, and strove to gain and win by courtesie and civility, those they had disoblig'd and alienated from them. But the Athenians went a quite contrary way; for conceiving that those whom they suspected to be false, were to be discourag'd by fear of Punishment, they put them in mind of that severe Revenge taken in the business of Scione; for there when the City was taken, they put all the Men to the Sword, and carry'd away all the Women and Children as Captives, and planted the Island with the Plateans, who were banish'd their Country for their faithfulness to the Athenians.
About the same time, the Campanians in Italy march'd against Cuma with a great Army, and routed and destroy'd most of the Cumeans. Then they besieg'd the City, and after several Assaults, at length took it by force, and having plunder'd it, and carry'd away all the Inhabitants that were left as Slaves, they repeopled it with Colonies sent out of their own City.
The chief of the Senate at Athens, was Aristophilus, Lucius Quintius, and Aulus Sempronius, Roman Consuls, when they of Elis celebrated the Ninetieth Olympiad, in which Hiperbius the Syracusian was crown'd with Victory. And at that time, the Athenians by command of the Oracle, restor'd the Island Delos to the Deleans; and they that inhabited Attramitium in Delium, return'd to their own Country. And now because Pylus was not given up, and restor'd to the Lacedemonians, the War began to break out afresh between the Two Cities, which being understood by them of Argos, they enter'd into League with the Athenians. And the breach growing wider and wider, the Lacedemonians perswaded the Corinthians, that leaving their Association with the Confederate Cities, they would join with them. In this condition and confusion of Affairs stood Peloponesus.
As to other Places out of the Bounds of Peloponesus, the Aenians, Dolopeans and Melcans, confederated together, and set upon Heraclea in Trachinia. The Heracleans march'd against them with great Forces, wherewith they bravely fought the Enemy, but were totally routed, with the loss of a great part of their Army; the rest by Flight got within their Walls. Then they sent to the Beotians for aid, who sent them a Thousand of heavy arm'd Men from Thebes; by which assistance they repell'd their Enemies. In the mean time, the Olyntheans.Page 295 made an Expedition against the City Micyberna, then a Garrison of the Athenians, and having forc'd out the Guards there, possess'd themselves of the Place.
Archias was Archon of Athens, and Lucius Papyrius Mugillanus, and Caius ServiliusStructus, were Consuls at Rome, when the Argives proclaim'd War against the Lacedemonians, because they neglected to offer the usual Frankincense to Apollo Pythius. At the same time Alcibiades the Athenian General came with his Army into the Country of Argos, by whom the Argives being Forc'd, invaded Troezena, which was Confederated with Sparta, and after they had wasted and spoil'd the Country, and burnt many of their Towns, at length they return'd. The Lacedemonians being greatly inrag'd at the Injuries done against all Law and Justice to them of Troezena, denounce War against Argos; in prosecution whereof, they rais'd an Army, and thereof made Agis their King, General, who march'd with all speed against the Argives, and after he had made spoil and havock in the Country, made up close to the City, and offer'd them Battel. Hereupon the Argives being join'd with Three Thousand of the Eleans, and as many of the Mantineans, march'd out of the City; and just when they were ready to joyn Battel, the Generals on both sides by their Ambassadors, made a Truce for Four Months; so both Armies return'd, without doing any thing: But both the Cities were incens'd at the Authors of the Truce, insomuch as they of Argos cast Stones at the Officers of the Army, and had order'd them all to be put to death; which had been executed if by great intercession their Lives had not been spared; but their Goods were confiscated, and their Houses pull'd down.
The Lucedemonians also intended to have put Agis to Death; but upon his promise to wipe off the stain of the late miscarriage by his future Services, with much adoe he was spar'd. However for the future, they join'd with him Ten Persons, approv'd for their Wisdom and Prudence, without whose Advice he was strictly charg'd not to do any thing for the time to come.
After this, when the Athenians had sent forth a Thousand well-arm'd Men, and Two Hundred Horse by Sea to them of Argos, under the command of Nichetes and Nichostratus (to whom Alcibiades join'd himself (though then in no command) for the great love and kindness he bore towards the Mantineans and Eleans,) the Argives in a common Assembly decreed, that notwithstanding the former Agreement, they should make it their business to carry on the War with all their Power. To that end all the Officers incouraged every one their own Souldiers; who readily and heartily follow'd their Leaders, and encamp'd out of the Walls of the City. There it was concluded to be most advisable to begin first with an Expedition against Orchomenia in Arcadia. To that purpose, having advanced into Arcadia, they besieg'd the City, and wearled it out with daily Assaults; and having taken the Town, they march'd to Tegea, determining to force that likewise. The Tegeans desiring speedy aid from the Lacedemonians, they with the strength of their whole City, and of their Confederates, made for Mantinea, conceiving that by Besieging of that, a stop would be easily put to the Siege of Tegea. But the Mantineans (being inforc'd by the Assistance of their Confederates) march'd out with the Youth of their City, and had an Army in the Field ready to oppose the Lacedemonians. Presently hereupon Battel was joyn'd, and a select Band of the Argives (consisting of a Thousand well disciplin'd and expert Souldiers) were the first that put the Enemy to flight, and made a great Slaughter in the Pursuit. But the Lacedemonians returning from the Pursuit and Slaughter of those they had routed in another part of the Army, fell upon the Conquering Argives, and surrounding them, made no question but to cut them off every Man: And whereas these brave Men, although far inferior in number, prevail'd in a great measure against their Enemies, the Lacedemonian King (being earnest to perform his Promise to the Citizens, and to wipe off the stain of his former disgrace by some great and remarkable Action) in the Head of his Army, ran through all sorts of Difficulties in the Fight, and had kill'd them all upon the spot, if he had not been prevented; for Pharax (one of the Ten, join'd with the King as his Council, a Man of great authority in Lacedemon) commanded the Souldiers to open a way for the Arcadians, lest fighting with Men in a desperate condition, they came to experience what Valour can do when it's driven to a necessity. The King restrain'd by his Command, a Passage was made for the Enemy to break through, as Pharax had ordered. Page 296 And in this manner; these Thousand Men got off, and the Lacedemonians having gain'd an eminent Victory, set up a Trophy, and return'd Home.
The former Year ended, Antopha was chief Governour at Athens, and Four Military Tribunes, Caius Furius,Quintilius,Marcus Posthumus, and Aulus Cornelius, bore the Office of Consuls at Rome. At that time the Argives and Lacedemonians had several Meetings and Messages to and fro, about entring into a League one with another, which was effected accordingly. Upon this, the Mantineans (now deserted by the Garrison put in there by the Argives) were forc'd to come under the power of the Lacedemonians. About the same time, the Thousand choice Men before spoken of, in the City of Argos, conspir'd to overthrow the Democracy, and set up an Aristocracy from among themselves: And having many Associates and Abettors in this Affair, of the wealthiest and most couragious Men of the City, they forthwith seiz'd upon the Tribunes of the People, and the Heads and chief of those that were for Popular Government, and cut their Throats. The rest being terrified, repealed all the ancient Laws, and began to order all Affairs in the Commonwealth, according to the Will and Pleasure of these Men. And after they had thus govern'd for the space of Eight Months, they were by an insurrection of the People depos'd, and the Democracy restor'd.
Another Disturbance likewise arose in Greece; for upon a Difference happening between the Phoceans and the Locrians, the matter came to a decision by the Sword. The Phoceans were Conquerors, and kill'd above a Thousand of the Locrians. In the mean time, the Athenians under the Command of Niceas, took Two Cities, Cithera and Nicea, and in Melus, (which was taken by Storm) they put all (but Women and Children) to the Sword, and them they made Captives.
In Italy the Fidenates put the Roman Ambassadors to Death upon a light occasion. At which base act of Injustice, the People of Rome were highly incens'd, and decreed to revenge it by a War. To this end they made Manius Aemilius Dictator, and according to the Custom, join'd with him Aulus Cornelius, the Master of the Horse. When all things were in readiness, he marcht against the Fidenates with all expedition, who drew out, and met him; upon which there was a sharp Ingagement, and so continu'd for a long time; and after many were cut off on both sides, they parted at length upon equal Terms.
At this time Euphemus was chief Magistrate at Athens, and the Military Tribunes Lucius Furius, Lucius Quinctius, and Aulus Sempronius again executed the Consular Dignity at Rome. At this time the Lacedemonians inforc'd by the Aid of their Confederates, made an incursion into Argaia, and took the small Town of of Argias, kill'd the Inhabitants, and raz'd the Castle. Then hearing that they of Argos had enlarged their Walls out as far as to the Sea, they marched thither, and pull'd them down, and return'd Home. The Athenians made Alcibiades General, who with Twenty Ships under his Command, was order'd to do the utmost he could to restore the Argives to their former Government; for there was such Confusion and Disorder there, that great Multitudes of them were for the advancing of the Aristocracy. Alcibiades therefore as soon as he came to Argos, call'd an Assembly of those that were for the Popular Government, and caus'd those who seem'd to side with the Lacedemonians to be banished out of the City, and having setled the Democracy, return'd to Athens. At the end of the Year, the Lacedemonians invaded Argaia with a great Army, and making waste and spoil in many Places of the Country, plac'd the Exiles of Argos in Orneas, and Fortified and walled the Place round, in regard it lay in Argaia; and having put in there a strong Garrison, they order'd them to waste the Country of Argos with continual Excursions. When the Lacedemonians were march'd back, the Athenians sent Forty Ships, and Twelve Hundred Souldiers to the Assistance of the Argives. With this Aid they march'd against Orneas, and took it by Storm, and putting part of the Garrison and the Exiles to the Sword, they expelled the rest out of the City. And these were the things done in the Fifteenth Year of the Peloponesian War.
Page 297 In the Sixteenth Year, when Aristomnestes was Archon at Athens, and Titus ClaudiusSpurius, Nautius Lucius Sergius, and Sextus Julius, Military Tribunes, executed the Office of Consuls at Rome, the Ninety First Olympiad was celebrated at Elis, wherein Exaneus of Acragentum was Victor. At that time the Bysantines and Chalcedeans joining with the Thracians, pass'd over with a great Army into Bithynia, and wasted and spoil'd the Country; and after they had taken several small Towns by force, they executed most horrid cruelty. For after they had gathered together a great multitude of Prisoners, of Men, Women and Children, they cut all their Throats.
About the same time, the Aegistines and Seluntines in Sicily went to Blows, upon the Differences between them concerning the Bounds of their Country. For though the River divided the Territories of the several Cities that were at variance, yet the Seluntines pass'd over to the other side, and seiz'd upon the Lands lying next to the River; and incroaching still by little and little, they gain'd the next to them, and laugh'd and jeer'd at those they thus abus'd. Provoked with these Indignities, the Aegistines at first thought to win them by fair Words, and dissuaded them all they could from seizing of other Mens Estates. But when they saw they turn'd a deaf Ear, the Proprietors rose up in Arms, and drove them out of the Country, and so recontinued their ancient Possessions. Upon this, a great Fire of Strife and Contention was kindled, and Armies were rais'd on both sides, to decide the Controversie by the Sword. Both Armies being drawn into the Field, a sharp Battel was fought, in which the Seluntines got the Day, and kill'd a great number of the Aegistines.
The power of the Aegistines being very much weakened by this Slaughter, and so unable of themselves to oppose their Enemy, they First sought Aid and Assistance from them of Acragentum and Syracuse: But these failing them, they sent Ambassadors to Carthage for relief; and they likewise refus'd. Upon which they sought to get Confederates beyond the Seas: And this prov'd successful; for whereas the Leontines had been driven both out of their City and Country by the Syracusians, those that were remaining of these Exiles consulted together and determin'd to enter into a League with the Athenians, from whom they were descended. The matter was debated and decreed in a Common Assembly of all their Allies, that Embassadors should be sent to Athens, to desire their Assistance for the Relief of the oppressed Cities, and withal to promise that they would do their utmost endeavour to serve the Athenians in all their Concerns in Sicily.
When the Ambassadors came to Athens, the Leontines pleaded their Kindred and ancient Allyances; but the Aegistines promis'd a great Sum of Money for the carrying on the War, and with all their power to oppose the Syracusians. Upon this the Athenians thought fit First to send some prudent Citizens to Sicily, better to understand the State and Condition both of the Island and of the Aegistines. When they came to Aegista, the Aegistines with great Ostentation and Vanity, shew'd them a great mass of Treasure, in part their own, and part borrow'd. When the Ambassadors were return'd, and the great Riches of the Aegistines was nois'd Abroad, an Assembly of the People was call'd, where the War to be made in Sicily was propos'd, and where Niceas the Son of Niceratus, a Man of great account amongst the People, argued with great prudence against the War, alledging it impossible both to contend with the Lacedemonians, and likewise to send so great a Force as they must needs do, into parts beyond the Seas. And alledg'd, that when they were not able hitherto to subdue Greece, it was in vain to think to bring the greatest Island of the World under their power. He added moreover, when Carthage, that was of so large an Empire, and had often attempted Sicily, was not able to conquer it, could they suppose that the Athenians, who were far inferior in Strength and Power, could subdue an Island the most potent in Arms of all others in the World? After he had spoken this and much more, suitable to the present Occasion, Alcibiades one of the chief of the Nobility of Athens, persuaded the People to prosecute the War. This Man was the most Eloquent Speaker of all amongst the Citizens, and for the Nobleness of his Birth, and greatness of his Estate, and Skill in Martial Affairs, far exceeded the rest. The People upon his persuasion, without delay rigg'd out a Fleet of Page 298 Thirty Sail from their Confederates, and an Hundred of their own. In these compleatly furnish'd with all Provisions and Necessaries, they put Five Thousand Men well Arm'd, and appointed Three Generals, Alcibiades, Nicias, and Lamachus for this Expedition; and thus were the Athenians then imploy'd. And now being come to the War between the Athenians and Syracusians, according to our design'd Method at the beginning, we shall pursue the things that follow'd in the next Book.
The Histories of Herodotus written in 440 BC is considered to be the founding work of history in Western literature. His history included stories and fables but he claimed to have traveled extensively and learned about many countries through direct observation.
The thesis of Stolen Legacy is that the Egyptians created what is wrongly called Greek philosophy. Dr. James argues that the African origin of Greek Philosophy is well known but rarely discussed. Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus the Sicilian wrote in significant detail about the contributions of Egypt. Egyptian technology and libraries were unmatched and Greek philosophers such as Pythagoras and Plato studied there. The contribution of Africa to the intellectual foundation of modern knowledge is tremendous but unacknowledged.
The Library of History by Diodorus the Sicilian is one of the most highly regarded universal histories in antiquities. His work includes the history of Egypt, Asia, Africa, Greece and Europe. His book is a must read for research of ancient history.
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