THE former Book being the Sixteenth of our History, began with theReign of Philip the Son of Amyntas, and comprehended not only the Things done by him to the very Day of his Death, but the Actions and Affairs of other Kings, Cities, and Countries during the space of Four and twenty Years. Being now in this to declare what follow'd, we shall begin with the Reign of Alexander; and in treating of the Actions of this Prince, from the Beginning to the End, we shall take along with us the most remarkable Things done through all Parts of the World.
And the Relations (we conceive) will be the better remembred, if Things be methodically digested, as it were, into distinct Heads, so as that the Beginning and End may, as by one Thread, be knit one to the other: For this King did great Things in a very short time, and excell'd all the Princes that ever were before him in his wonderful Atchievements, effected by his own Valour and Policy. For he Conquer'd a great Part of Europe, and almost all Asia, within the space of Twelve Years: So that his Fame was (deservedly) advanc'd to that degree, that in Glory he surmounted all the Heroes and Semigods.
But we need not (we judge) in a Preface anticipate any of the worthy Actions of this King; for the particular Relations themselves will sufficiently evidence his Greatness, and the Fame and Glory of his Name. Alexander therefore descended from Hercules on the Father's side, and from Achilles on the Mother's, seem'd to derive his Valo•r as well as his Person from such Famous Ancestors.
The Time thus stated for this present Relation, we return to the Course of our History.
Conspiracies of the Cities against Alexander. The Athenians send Ambassadors to Alexander to beg Pardon. He's made General by the Amphictyons. Attalus kill'd by Alexander's Command. The Wickedness of Bagoas. Darius commended. Raises Forces. A Description of Mount Ida. Alexander invades the Illyrians, and others. Thebes besieg'd by Alexander, and raz'd. The Miseries of Thebes. Prodigies. Alexander demands Demosthenes and others to be deliver'd up to him by the Athenians: Their Answer. He returns into Macedonia; and Feasts his Soldiers.
WHEN Evaenetus was Lord Chancellor in Athens, and Lucius Furius and CaiusManlius were Roman Consuls, Alexander ascended the Throne, and in the first place executed Justice upon the Murtherers of his Father: And when he had with great care celebrated his Funerals, he set in order the Concerns of the Kingdom much better than most expected: For being very young, and upon that account despis'd, he sought first to win the Common People by fair Words and courteous Addresses: Amongst others, he told them that the Name of the King was only chang'd, but that the Government should not be manag'd a jot worse than it was when his Father was alive. He courteously likewise gave Audience to the Ambassadors, and desir'd the Grecians that they would have the same Kindness for him that they had for his Father, which he so esteem'd, as that he look'd upon it as part of his Inheritance. Then he employ'd himself in the frequent Trainings of the Soldiers, and in Martial Exercises, and brought the Army readily to submit to his Commands. Attalus, the Uncle of Cleopatra, Philip's other Wife, conspir'd to gain the Kingdom; and therefore he Page 522 resolv'd to take him out of the way, For Cleopatra was brought to bed of a Son a few Days before the Death of Philip, and Attalus was sent a little before as General with Parmenio his Colleague, with an Army into Asia, where by his Bribes and fair Tongue he so gain'd the Hearts of the Soldiers, that the Army was wholly at his Devotion: Therefore the King conceiv'd he had just cause to be jealous of him, lest if he should side with the Grecians (who he knew were his Enemies) he should by that means gain the Kingdom to himself. Therefore he made choice of Heccateus, one of his Friends, and sent him with a considerable Army into Asia, with Command to bring over Attalus alive if he could; and if he could not effect that, to take the first Opportunity to kill him. When he came into Asia, he join'd his Forces with Attalus and Parmenio, and watch'd a fit Opportunity to execute what he was commanded.
In the mean time, Alexander being inform'd that many of the Greciani were hatching some Mischief, in order to new Commotions, his Thoughts were greatly perplex'd and disturb'd. For the Athenians (Demosthenes stirring them up against the Macedonians) rejoyc'd at the News of Philip's Death, and resolv'd that the Macedonians should no longer domineer over Greece. To this end they sent over Ambassadors to Attalus, and privately consulted with him concerning the Management of the whole Affair, and stirr'd up many of the Cities to assert their Liberties. The Etolians made a Decree to recall the Exiles of Acarnania, whom Philip had driven out of their Country. The Ambrociots, by the Persuasion of Aristarchus, drave outthe Garison that was there, and restor'd the Democracy. The Thebans likewise decreed to cast out the Garison that was in the Citadel of Cadmea, and that Alexander should never with their Consent have Command in Greece. The Arcadians also, as they were the only People that refus'd to give their Consent that Philip should be General of Greece, so they now rejected Alexander. The rest of the Peloponnesians, as the Argives, Eleans, Lacedaemonians, and some others were with all their might for their own Government. To conclude, many of the Nations beyond Macedonia waited for an Opportunity to rebell, and great Commotions there were among the Barbarians in those Parts.
Notwithstanding all which, and the Fears that were every where in the Kingdom, and though he was but a Youth, yet in a short time (beyond all expectation) he overcame all those Difficulties, and made all plain and clear before him, reducing some to their Duty by fair and smooth Words, and others through fear and dread of Punishments; and the rest he compell'd by force to stoop to his Sovereignty.
In the first place, he so far gain'd upon the Thessalians, both by Promises of large Rewards, and by his smooth and courteous Language (telling them how near of kin he was to them by his Descent from Hercules) that they by a Publick Decree declar'd him General of Greece, as that which descended to him from his Father. Having gain'd this Point, he brought over the bordering Nations to the same Good Opinion of him; Then he went to Pyle; and in the Senate of the Amphictyons he so manag'd his Matters, that by the General Consent of all, he was created Generalissimo of all Greece. He assur'd the Ambrociots, in a kind and smooth Oration made to them, That he had that Kindness for them, that he would presently restore them to that Liberty which they so lately sought to recover. But to strike the greater Terror into those that regarded not his Words, he came with a swift March with an Army of Macedonians in an hostile manner into Baeotia, and encamping near Cadmea, struck a Terror into the City of the Thebans.
About the same time the Athenians hearing of the King's coming into Boeotia, slighted him no longer: For the Quickness of the Youth, and his diligent dispatch of Business, greatly terrify'd the Revolters. Hereupon the Athenians order'd every thing they had in the Country to be brought into the City, and the Walls to be repair'd and guarded as well as they could; and sent Ambassadors to Alexander to beg pardon that they had no sooner own'd his Sovereignty; and order'd Demosthenes to accompany the Ambassadors: But he came not with the other to Alexander, but return'd from Citherone to Athens; either because he was afraid upon the account of the Speeches he had publickly made against the Macedonians, or that he was not willing to displease the Persian King. For it is reported that he had receiv'd great Sums of Money from the Persians, to beat down the Interest of the Macedonians by his Orations. Which was hinted (they say) by Eschines; in one of his Speeches; wherein he upbraids Demosthenes for taking of Bribes in these Words: Now the King's Gold plentifully bears all his Charges: But this will not serve his turn long; forCovetousness is never satisfy'd with Abundance.
But to proceed; Alexander return'd a very courteous Answer to the Ambassadors, which freed the Athenians from their Fears, and he order'd all the Ambassadors and Members of the Council to meet him at Corinth; where when those who were usually Members Page 523 of the General Council were come, the King by a gracious Speech so prevail'd with the Grecians, that they created him General of all Greece, and decreed him Aid and Assistance against the Persians, in order to revenge the many Injuries the Greeks had receiv'd from them. Having gain'd the Honour he thus sought for, he march'd back with his Army into Macedonia.
Having now given an Account of the Affairs of Greece, we shall relate next what things were done in Asia: For Attalus presently upon the death of Philip, began to set up for himself; and to that end made a League with the Athenians, in order by their joint Concurrence to oppose Alexander. But afterwards he chang'd his Mind, and fent a Letter (written to him by Demosthenes) to Alexander, and in many smooth and flattering Expressions, endeavour'd to clear himself of all those Crimes and Miscarriages that were laid to his charge. However, he was afterwards kill'd by Hecateus, according to the King's Command; upon which, the Macedonian Army in Asia laid aside all Thoughts of a Defection, for that Attalus was now gone, and Parmenio greatly lov'd Alexander.
But being we are now about to write of the Kingdom of Persia, it's necessary that we begin our Relation a little higher.
Lately in the Reign of Philip,Ochus rul'd over the Persians, hated by all for his Ill Nature and Cruelty towards his Subjects. Bagoas therefore, a Colonel in the Army, and an Eunuch, but a wicked and beastly Fellow, poison'd the King by the help of his Physician, and plac'd the King's youngest Son Arses upon the Throne. He likewise murder'd the New King's Brothers (who were yet very young) that being thus bereft of his Relations, he might be more observant to himself.
But the Young Man abhorring the Wickedness of this Wretch, and plainly by many Tokens discovering his Design to punish him, Bagoas smelling it out, murther'd Arses and all his Children, in the Third Year of his Reign.
The Royal Family being thus extinct, and none of that Race left who could make any Title to the Crown, he advanc'd one of his Friends, call'd Darius, to the Kingdom. He was the Son of Arsanus, the Brother of Artaxerxes King of Persia. But the Fate of Bagoas was very remarkable; for having habituated himself to Cruelty, he resolv'd likewise to poison Darius in a medicinal Potion: But this Treason being discover'd, the King sent friendly to speak with him; and when he came deliver'd to him the Cup, and forc'd him to drink it off. And indeed Darius was judg'd worthy to enjoy the Kingdom, being look'd upon as the most Valiant Man among the Persians: For heretofore when Artaxerxes was engag'd in a Battel against the Cadusians, one of the Enemy, of a strong Body and couragious Spirit, challeng'd any of the Persians there present to a single Combat; which when none would dare to undertake, this Darius enter'd the List, and kill'd the Cadusian. For which he was highly rewarded by the King, and gain'd the chiefest Reputation for Valour among the Persians. And for this reason also he was accounted worthy of the Crown of Persia, and began to Reign about the same time that Philip dy'd, and Alexander succeeded in the Kingdom.
The Valour therefore of Alexander meeting with such a Man as this for his Adversary to cope with, was the occasion so many Battels were fought for the Empire with that Resolution as they were. But these Matters will appear more clear hereafter, when things come to be distinctly and particularly related: For the present we shall return to the orderly course of the History.
Darius being advanc'd to the Throne of Persia, a little before the Death of Philip, he was contriving how to avert the War threatned, and bring it over to Macedonia it self: But when he was dead, and so the King freed from that Fear, he slighted and despis'd the Youth of Alexander: But being for his Valour, and Activeness of Spirit in dispatch of Business, at length created General of all Greece, the Fame and Valour of the Young Man was in every Man's mouth.
And Darius now began to look about him, and employ'd his chief Care to raise Forces, and fitted out a great Fleet, and made choice of the best Officers he could procure to Command his Army, which was now very great and numerous; among whom Memnon the Rhodian was one, a Brave man, both for Valour and Discipline: Him the King Commanded to march to Cyzicus with Five thousand men, and to endeavour to take in that City: Who in order thereto, march'd his Army over the Mountain Ida. Some fabulously report, that this Mountain was so call'd from Ida of Meliseus.Page 524 It is the highest Mountain of any about the Hellespont. In the middle is a Cave, as if it were made of purpose to entertain the Gods, in which it is reported, That Alexander gave Judgment concerning the Goddesses.
Here it's said, the Idei Dactyli were born, who were the first that were taught to work in Iron by the Mother of the Gods.
A thing also very Wonderful and Remarkable is ascrib'd to this Place: For at the rising of the Dog-Star there is such a Serenity and Calmness of the Air upon the Top of the Mount, as if it were there above all Storms and Winds; and then even at Midnight the Sun seems to rise, so as that its Rays appear not in a Circular Form, but casts abroad Flames of Fire here and there at a great distance, so that it seems as if Flakes of Fire in several Places overspread the Earth; which within a little while after are contracted into one Body till they come to the quantity of Three Plethras. At length when the Day is at hand, there appears as it were the compleat Body of the Sun inlightning the Air as it uses to do at other times.
But to proceed; Memnon having pass'd over this Mountain, assaults Cyzicum on a sudden, and was very near surprizing of it. But failing in his Design, he harrass'd the Country, and return'd loaden with a rich Booty.
In the mean time, Parmenio took Grynnius by Storm, and sold all the Inhabitants for Slaves. Then he besieg'd Pitane; but Memnon approaching, the Macedonians in a Fright quitted the Siege.
Afterwards Callas, with a Body of Macedonians and other Mercenaries, fought with the Persians in the Country of Troas, and being overpower'd with Number, was beaten, and forc'd to retire to Rhetium. And in this Condition was Asia at that time.
Alexander having quieted all the Commotions in Greece, march'd with his Army into Thrace, which struck such Terror into those People that had caus'd Tumults and Disorders there, that he forc'd them to submit to his Government. Then he invaded Peonia and Illyria, and the People bordering upon them, and having subdu'd those that had Revolted, he likewise brought under his Dominion the Barbarians next adjoyning. While he was engag'd in these Wars, he receiv'd Intelligence, that many of the Graecians were about to Revolt, and that a considerable Number of the Greek Cities, particularly Thebes, had already actually rejected his Sovereignty. He was hereupon in a great Rage, and return'd into Macedonia, with a Design to hasten into Greece to quiet the Tumults and Disturbances there.
In the mean time, the Thebans were intent upon driving the Macedonian Garison out of Cadmea, and to that end besieg'd the Citadel; and had no sooner done so, but Alexander was presently at the City Walls, and lay before it with his whole Army. The Thebans, before Alexander's Approach, had so begirt Cadmea with a deep Trench, and a strong Baracado of Timber, that neither Relief nor Provision could be brought in to them. They had sent likewise to the Arcadians, Argives, and Eleans, for their Assistance; and sollicited the Athenians by their Ambassadors to join with them, and had receiv'd a great Number of Arms freely given to them by Demosthenes, with which they arm'd those that had none.
Among those, to whom the Thebans address'd themselves for Assistance, the Peloponnesians had sent Forces as far as to the Isthmus, and there order's them to make an Halt till the King came, who was then expected. The Athenians, though they had decreed Aid to the Thebans; yet they sent no Forces thither, minding first to observe how Matters were like to go.
The Governor likewise of the Castle Cadmea taking Notice what great Preparation the Thebans were making for the Siege, was very diligent to strengthen and fortify the Walls, and had furnish'd the Garison with all sorts of Weapons.
But after that Alexander was come unexpectedly, and on a sudden, with his whole Army out of Thrace, and that it was uncertain whether any Assistance would come in to the Thebans, the Forces of the Enemy far exceeding them of Thebes, the Officers call'd a Council of War to consult what to determine, and there it was unanimously agreed to stand it out in Defence of the Liberties of their Country: Which Resolution being approv'd of by all the Citizens, all earnestly set themselves to the carrying on of the War.
Page 525 But the King forbore Force for some time, to the end they might have space to recollect themselves, not thinking that one only City would engage with so great an Army. For Alexander had with him above Thirty thousand Foot, and Three thousand Horse, all old Experienc'd Soldiers, (Conquerors almost in every Battel under Philip,) in whose Valour he so far confided, that he doubted not but by them to put an End to the Persian Monarchy. However, if the Thebans had yielded to the present Difficulty of the Time, and had sent Ambassadors to the Macedonians with Terms of Peace, he had no doubt comply'd with them, and granted whatever they would have desir'd. For he wish'd greatly to have all Quiet in Greece, and to be Free and Undisturb'd in his War against the Persians. But when he saw that he was slighted by the Thebans, he resolv'd to destroy the City, and by that means to terrify all others that for the future should dare to Rebel. And now when the Army was drawn out in Battalia ready to engage, the King caus'd Proclamation to be made, that any of the Thebans should have Liberty to come in to him, and whosoever did, should enjoy the Common Liberty of Greece. On the other side, the Thebans, to shew themselves as forward in their Ambition as the Enemy; by the Voice of a Crier from an high Tower made another Proclamation, That whosoever had a Desire to join with the great King and the Thebans, to defend the Liberties of the Graecians, and kill the Tyrant of Greece, should be receiv'd by them. This touch'd him to the Quick, and he was thereupon so inrag'd, that he vow'd all sorts of Death to the Thebans, and so commanded the Engines to be prepar'd in order to an Assault, and other Things to be made ready for an Engagement.
In the mean time, the Greeks considering the utter Ruin that seem'd to hang over the Heads of the Thebans, were greatly affected with the Miseries wherewith they were like to be overwhelm'd, yet none durst appear to Relieve the City, for that they had rashly and inconsiderately brought apparent Destruction upon themselves: However, the Thebans were very forward and resolute to venture all to the utmost Extremity, though they were a little startled with some Prophecies and Prodigies from the Gods. The most Remarkable was, that in the Temple of Ceres, a slender Spider's Web was observ'd to spread out it self as broad as a Cloak, and to represent the Rainbow in an Arch'd Circumference. Concerning which, the Oracle at Delphos gave them this Answer:
And the Oracle in their own Country return'd them this other:
This Prodigy happen'd about Three Months before the King came against Thebes. About the time of the King's Arrival, the Statues plac'd in the Forum seem'd to sweat to that degree, that great Drops in every part stood upon them. Moreover the Magistrates were inform'd, that in the Lake of Onchestus were heard Voices like roaring and bellowing of Oxen. And that the Waters in Dirce were to the view as if they had been all turn'd into Blood. There were others from Delphos that reported, that the Roof of the Temple, built by the Thebans out of the Spoils of the Phocians, appear'd to be besmear'd over with Blood.
Those who addicted themselves to the Interpretation of Prodigies, said, That the Web portended the Departure of the Gods from the City; by the Colour of the Rainbow, was signify'd various Troubles and Turmoils; by the appearance of Sweat, extream Miseries; and by the Blood, Slaughters and Destructions in the City.
Therefore they advis'd the Thebans, that insomuch as the Gods plainly pointed at the Ruin of the City, That they should not engage in Fight with the Enemy, but rather seek to agree Matters some other way, which was much more safe.
But the Thebans abated nothing of their Courage, but on the contrary push'd forward by the Heat of their Spirits, encourag'd one another with the Remembrance of their famous Victory at the Battel of Leuctra, and other Successes gain'd by their former Valour. Page 526 So that trusting more to the Valour of their Arms, than making use of Prudent Councils, they ran headlong to the Ruin of themselves and their Country.
In the mean time, the King, within the space of Three Days, put all Things in order, both for assaulting the City, and marshalling of his Army for Battel. His Army he divided into Three Parts: One Part he order'd to assault the Out wall; another to fight the Thebans Army; and the third he kept for Reserves to relieve his Men, and renew the Fight as there should be occasion. But the Thebans plac'd their Horse within the Ramparts. Their Slaves that were manumitted, the Exiles and the Strangers that were Inhabitants, were order'd to defend the Walls: And the Thebans themselves (though they were far inferiour in Number) were resolv'd to fight those Macedonians commanded by the King, that were ready to make the Assault.
And now all the Women and Children ran to the Temples, to make Supplication to the Gods to deliver them from the Ruin that threaten'd them. When the Macedonians drew near, the Trumpets sounded a Charge, upon which both Armies set up a great Shout, and every one charg'd that Battalion to which he was appointed. By Day-break the Darts flew one at another, and those being quickly spent, they fell to it with their Swords Hand to Hand, so that the Fight presently was very sharp and bloody. For the Macedonians, through their Number (far exceeding the other) and the fierceness of their Charge, put the Enemy hard to it. On the other side, the Thebans heing stronger body'd Men, and us'd to Martial Discipline by their continual Exercises in the Schools, and more resolv'd than the other, resolutely went through all Difficulties whatsoever, so that many were wounded, and multitudes kill'd on both Sides. In the Heat of the Battel, a Man might have heard Shouts for Victory and Groans of Dying Men at one and the same time, and the Macedonians often calling out one to another, not to stain the Glory of their former Victories by any base Act of Cowardise in the present Engagement; and the Thebans pressing theirs not to suffer their Parents, Wives and Children, to be miserable Captives, and all their Families expos'd to the rageful Lust of the Macedonians, but that they would remember the Battels at Leuctra and Mantinea, and the noble Actions for which they were famous all the World over. So that the obstinate Resolution of both Parties occasion'd the Issue of the Battel to be very doubtful a long time.
Alexander perceiving how the Love of Liberty inflam'd the Courage of the Thebans, and that the Macedonians began to faint, commanded the Reserves to relieve them that were ingag'd. Upon which, the Macedonians coming with a fierce and sudden Charge upon the Thebans, now even tir'd out, bore them down and kill'd multitudes of them. However the Thebans would not yield the Enemy the Day, but stood to it with that Obstinacy, that they slighted all Misfortunes, and their Valour so strengthen'd their Resolution, that they cry'd out, That the Macedonians must own themselves worsted by the Thebans. And this is to be observ'd of them, That when all others (being still press'd upon by their Enemies with fresh Supplies one after another) are wont to flag, they only are the more Couragious, even when their weary'd Enemy is reliev'd by fresh Reserves.
While the Armies were thus resolutely engag'd, the King spy'd a Portal without any Guard, and sends away Perdiccas with some Regiments in order to possess himself of the Place, and so to break into the City. Perdiccas having presently executed the King's Command, the Macedonians through this little Gate forthwith rush'd into the City. And though the Thebans had a good while before worsted the Enemy's first Battalion, and were now ingag'd with the second, and full of Hopes of a perfect Victory, yet when they understood that the Enemy had possess'd themselves of part of the City, they forthwith retir'd within the Walls. And then both the Horse and Foot hasted back with all speed into the City, and trod many of their Fellow-Citizens under Foot, who there perish'd; and while they made into the City in this Trepidation and Confusion, many were kill'd by running upon their own Weapons in the strait and narrow Passages, and by falling into the Trenches. And in the midst of this Distraction, the Garison out of the Castle of Cadmea issu'd forth like a rapid Torrent upon the Backs of the Thebans, and fell upon them as they were in this Disorder and Confusion, and cut them down in Heaps. The City being thus taken, multitudes of all sorts of Cruelties were acted within the Walls. For the Macedonians, by reason of that Insolency of the Common Crier, were inrag'd against the Thebans beyond what the Law of Arms would allow, and with many Threats in their Mouths, flew upon the miserable People, and without all Pity or Compassion put all to the Sword that were in their way. However, among all these Calamities, the Courage of the Thebans and their Love to their Liberty was such, that they were so far from minding the Preservation of their Lives, as that when they met any of their Enemies, they would provoke them of their own accord to kill them. For after the Page 527 City was taken, not a Theban ask'd any Quarter from a Macedonian, not a Man that sordidly bow'd down at the Feet of the Conqueror. Neither had the Enemy any Pitv, notwithstanding the Valour of the miserable People; nay, the whole Day (though it was long) was judg'd too short to satiate their most cruel Revenge. The whole City was plunder'd, poor Children, Boys and Girls, were dragg'd up and down, calling upon their Mothers by their Names with most lamentable Outcries. And to comprehend all in a few Words, whole Families, with all their Kindred, were hurried away, and the whole Body of the People brought under miserable Slavery. The Bodies of some of the Thebans, as they lay wounded upon the Ground, though they were upon the point of Expiring, yet clasping their Enemy in their Arms, breath'd out their Last with a sort of Joy and Content that their Enemy dy'd with them. Others, though they had but a meer Trunk of a Spear to lean upon, yet sought with whomsoever they met; and so by that last Attempt made it evident, how far they preferr'd their Liberty before their Lives. And though there was so great a Slaughter made, that every part of the City was fill'd with dead Carkasses, yet none that saw the miserable Condition of these poor Wretches pitied them. For even the Grecians, as the Thespians, Plateans, Orchomenians, and some others who hated the Thebans, (and who then bore Arms under the King,) broke in with others into the City, and amongst these dreadful Slaughters executed their Malice upon them. So that many sad Spectacles of most inhumane Cruelty might be seen throughout the whole City. Graecians butchering Graecians without all Compassion, and those of the same Language, Blood, and Nation, without any Regard to any of these Obligations, knock'd on the Head one by another. At length when Night came, the Houses were pillag'd, Women young and old were dragg'd out of the Temples, (whither they had sled,) and most vilely and filthily abus'd. There were kill'd of the Thebans above Six Thousand, and Three thousand made Captives, and a vast Treasure carry'd away. Above Five hundred Macedonians were slain, whom the King took care to bury. Presently after, the King caus'd the General Senate of Greece to meet, and referr'd it to their Determination how Thebes should be dealt with. When the Matter came to be debated, some who hated the Thebans were for putting them all to the Sword; and made it appear how they had join'd with the Barbarians against the Greeks. For in the time of Xerxes, they join'd as Confederates with the Persians against Greece; and were the only Graecians that were honour'd as Friends by the Persian King, and their Ambassadors plac'd and preferr'd before Kings. These, and such-like, being remember'd and inforc'd, they so incited the Senators against the Thebans, that they Decreed, That theCity should be raz'd to the Ground, and the Captives sold for Slaves; That all the Fugitives of Thebes should be driven out of all Parts of Greece, and no Theban should be entertain'd by any Graecian. Hereupon the King according to the Decree raz'd the City, which struck a Terror into all the Graecians that had revolted. By the Sale of the Captives, he rais'd Four hundred and forty Talents of Silver.
After this, he sent to Athens to demand Ten of the Orators to be deliver'd up to him, (amongst whom Demosthenes and Lycurgus were the chief,) because they had stirr'd up the People against him. Upon which a General Assembly was call'd, and when the Ambassadors were introduc'd, and had deliver'd their Message, the People were greatly troubled and perplex'd, desiring on the one hand to preserve the Honour and Dignity of the City, and on the other hand to consult their own Safety, considering the Destruction of Thebes, and that some eminent Mischief might befal themselves; and thus they were made more cautious by their Neighbours Misfortunes. At length, after many Speeches made in the Assembly upon this Account, Phocio, that good Man, who differ'd from Demosthenes in his Politicks, stood up and said, That it would very well become those who were demanded to imitate the Daughters of Leo and the Hyacinthides, by offering up their Lives of their own accord to prevent the Ruin of their Country. And told them, That it was Baseness and Cowardise to refuse to dye for the Preservation of the City.
At this Motion the People were highly incens'd, and in a popular Tumult threw Phocio out of the Senate. Then the People (by a studied Speech made by Demosthenes) being mov'd to Compassion, declar'd, That they would defend the Men to the utmost. At length Demades, wrought upon (as is reported) by the Friends of Demosthenes, for Five Talents of Silver, gave his Opinion for the securing and preserving of the Orators; and read the Decree, which was drawn by himself with great Cunning and Artifice. Page 528 In which was contain'd an Apology for the Orators, and a Promise, That if they were guilty, they themselves would punish them according to the Laws.
The People approv'd and ratify'd what Demades had read, and sent him with some others to the King with Order, That he should intercede likewise on the behalf of the Theban Exiles, that the People of Athens might lawfully receive and entertain them.
Demades wisely manag'd his Embassy, and by his Eloquence prevail'd with the King in every respect. For Alexander both pardon'd the Orators, and granted all other Things the Athenians desir'd.
Then the King march'd back with his Army into Macedonia, and call'd a General Council of his Officers and chief Friends, and when they were met together, he ask'd their Opinion, what they thought of an Expedition into Asia? When it was fit to begin the War? And how it was to be manag'd? The Counsel, indeed, of Antipater and Parmenio was, That he should first Marry and have Issue to succeed him, and then set upon matters that were of so great Weight and Concernment. But the King, who was natuturally fierce, and could not endure stops and delays in Business, rejected their Advice. For he said, it was a Mean and Unworthy thing for him who was created General of all Greece, and had the Command of an Army, that never knew what it was to be conquer'd, to stay at home meerly to Marry and beget Children. Wherefore, after he had set before them the Advantages of the War, and had encourag'd them to undertake it, he offer'd most magnificent Sacrifices to the Gods at Dium in Macedonia, and exhibited the Sports and Plays which his Ancestor Archilaus had instituted to Jupiter and the Muses. This Solemnity continu'd Nine days, according to the Number of the Muses, a Day for every Muse. He provided likewise a Pavilion which would contain an Hundred Beds, where he Feasted, and entertain'd all his Friends and Commanders of his Army, and Ambassadors of Cities.
After these Sumptuous Feasts were over (in which he not only kindly entertain'd a vast number of People, but likewise distributed parts of the Sacrifices, and other things fuitable to the Magnificence of the Festival amongst his Soldiers) he Rendezvous'd all his Forces from all parts.
Alexander lands his Army in Asia. The Battel at Granicum. The Forces of the Persians and of Alexander. Alexander kills Spithrobates; near being kill'd by Rosaces. Miletus besieg'd and taken. Ada, Queen of Caria, meets Alexander. Halicarnassus besieg'd, taken, and sack'd. The strange Act of the Marmarians.
CTesides was Lord-Chancellor of Athens, and Caius Sulpitius and Lucius Papirius, Consuls at Rome, when Alexander at the Hellespont pass'd over his Army out of Europe into Asia. Being arrived at Troas with sixty Sail of Long Ships, he was the first of the Macedonians that cast a Spear out of the Ship, which fixt in the Earth upon the Shore, and then leapt out of the Vessel, signifying, that by the help of the Gods he had taken Possession of Asia, which was conquer'd by his Spear.
Then he Sacrific'd to the Ghosts of Achilles and Ajax, performing all other Rites and Ceremonies proper to the Veneration of those Heroes. When that was done, he took an exact account of the Number of those Forces he had transported, which were found to amount unto Thirteen thousand Macedonian Foot, Seven thousand Confederates, and Five thousand Mercenaries. Parmenio had the chief Command of all these. Besides these, there were the Odrise, Treballians and Illyrians, to the Number of Five thousand, and a Thousand Darters, call'd Agrians; so that in the whole there were Thirty thousand Foot. For Horse there were Eighteen hundred rais'd out of Macedonia, under the Command of Philotas, the Son of Parmenio. As many out of Thrace, Commanded by Callas, the Son of Harpalus. From the rest of Greece Six hundred led by Eurygius. Besides these, there were Nine hundred Thracians and Peonians in the Van, whose Commander was Cassander. The whole Body of Horse was Four thousand five hundred. And this is the Number of them that Landed in Asia with Alexander.
In the mean time, he left under the Command of Antipater, in Europe, Twelve thousand Foot and Eleven thousand five hundred Horse.
Page 529 When he departed from Troas, and came to the Temple of Minerva, the Priest, call'd Alexander, seeing the Statue of Ariobarzanes (that had been Lord-Lieutenant of Phrygia) lie prostrate upon the Ground before the Temple, and observing several other good Omens, came to the King, and told him, that he would be Conqueror in a considerable Horse Engagement, especially if he fought in Phrygia, and that he should kill a great Commander of the Enemy's with his own Hand. And these things, he said, were foretold him by the Gods, and especially by Minerva, who would be assistant to him in obtaining of his Victories.
Alexander much taken with this Prophecy, and relying upon it, offer'd to Minerva a most Splendid Sacrifice, and dedicated his Arms to her, and took away others (that had been laid up there) in their stead, which he made use of in the first Fight afterwards, and gain'd a most glorious Victory by his own peculiar Valour. But this happen'd some few days after.
In the mean time, the Persian Lord-Lieutenants and Commanders (who through their sloath were not able to put a stop to the Progress of the Macedonians) met together to consult how to manage the War against Alexander. Memnon the Rhodian, one there amongst them (a very skilful General) was not for fighting, but to give a Check to the Macedonians, by destroying the Country all before them, that so they might not be able to march forward for want of Provision: And was for bringing over both Land and Sea Forces into Macedonia, by that means to make that the Seat of the War. Although this was sound Advice (as the Event made it afterwards evident) yet the rest of the Commanders would not hearken to it, looking upon it as a thing Dishonourable, and much reflecting upon the Valour of the Persians.
All being therefore resolv'd upon a Battel, Forces were brought together from all parts, and the Lord-Lieutenants being now much Superior in number, march'd towards the Hellespont in Phrygia, and Encamp'd close by the River Granicus, having the River for a Defence between them and the Macedonians.
Alexander having intelligence of the Forces of the Barbarians, made a swift march, and came up so close to the Enemy, that the River only separated both Armies.
In the mean time, the Barbarians stood in Battallia at the Foot of the Hill, judging it would do their business effectually, and that they should be sure of the Victory, by falling upon them in their Passage over the River, and by that means breaking in pieces the Macedonian Battallion. But Alexander prevented the Enemy, and with great Courage pass'd over his Army about break of Day, and drew up his Men in order of Battel. The Barbarians drew up the whole Body of their Horse against the Macedonians, for they had before resolv'd to begin the Fight with them. Memnon the Rhodian, and Arsamenes the Lord Lieutenant, with their several Regiments of Horse, were in the Left Wing, supported by Arsites, who commanded the Paphlagonian Horse; and next to him Spithrobates, Lord-Lieutenant of Ionia, with them of Hyrcania. In the Left Wing were Two thousand Median Horse, under the Conduct of Arrheomithres, and the like number from Bactria. In the main Body was a vast Number of Horse of other Nations, of the best and most Experienc'd Soldiers; the whole amounted to above Ten thousand Horse.
The Persian Foot were at least a Hundred thousand Men, who stood drawn up behind the Horse, without moving a Foot, because they concluded, that the Horse themselves would serve the turn to rout the Macedonians.
And now the Horse charg'd with great Resolution on both sides, especially the Thessalians in the Left Wing, under the Command of Parmenio, bore the brunt of a brisk Charge with undaunted Courage.
Alexander with the choicest Body of Horse in the Left Wing, setting Spurs to his Horse, was the first that charg'd, and rushing into the Thickest of his Enemies, made great slaughter amongst 'em. The Barbarians fought valiantly striving to outdo the Macedonians, and Fortune at this time brought together the Persons of the greatest Quality into the Place. For Spithrobates the chief Governor of the Province of Ionia, a Persian, and Son in Law to Darius, a very Valiant Man, charg'd the Macedonians with a great Body of Horse, seconded by Forty of his Guard, all of his Kindred, and inferior to none for Valour and Courage; with these he put the Enemy hard to it, and lays about him with great Resolution, killing some and wounding others. And when none were able to deal with him, Alexander rid up to the Barbarian, and fought with him hand to hand.
Hereupon, the Persian concluding, that the Gods of their special favour to him, had given him the opportunity of an Happy Combate, (especially, if by his Valour he should free all Asia from their Fears, and by his own hands give a Check to these audacious Attempts of Alexander that rung so all the World over, and prevent the Dishonor of the Page 530Persians) was the first that cast his Javelin at Alexander, and with such Force and Violence, that it pierc'd through his Buckler and Breast-plate into his right Shoulder-blade. The King plucking out the Dart with his own Hand, threw it away, and setting Spurs to his Horse flew upon the Persian Lord-Lieutenant with that Fierceness and Violence, that he fix'd his Spear in the middle of his Breast. Upon which the Battalions of both Armies there near at hand, in admiration of such a piece of singular Valour, set up a great shout. But the Point breaking in the Breast-plate, so that the Spear pierc'd no further, the Persian made at Alexander with his drawn Sword, who having got another Lance threw it directly into his Face, and pierc'd him through the Head; at which instance, Rosaces, Brother to him that was kill'd, came swiftly riding in, and reach'd the King such a Blow, that he cut through his Helmet, and gave him a slight wound upon the Head, and just as he was ready to second his stroke, Clitus, Sirnam'd Niger, posts up and cuts off the Hand of the Barbarian.
The Kinsmen of the two Brothers (now both fallen) came round about them, and at the first ply'd Alexander with their Darts, and then fell to it hand to hand, and ran through all hazards, that they might kill Alexander. And though he was inviron'd with imminent Hazards and Dangers of his Life, yet the throng of his Enemies did not at all daunt him. For though he had receiv'd three strokes through his Breast plate, and one Cut upon his Helmet, and had his Buckler, which he brought from the Temple of Minerva, thrice pierc'd through, yet he stirr'd not a Foot, but stood his ground against all Hazards and Difficulties with undaunted Resolution.
In the mean time, other brave Commanders fell round about him, among whom the most remarkable were Artyaxes, and Pharnaces, the Brother of Darius, and Mithrobarzanes the Commander of the Cappadocians; so that many great Officers being kill'd, and all the Troops of the Persians routed and broken by the Valour of the Macedonians, the first that fell in upon Alexander were forc'd to take to their Heels. And after them all the rest. In this Battel, by the Confession of all, the Valour of Alexander was cry'd up above all others; and he reputed the chief Instrument of the Victory. The Thessalian Horse manag'd their Troops with that Dexterity, and fought with that brave Resolution, that next to the King, they were most highly applauded, and gain'd exceeding Honour and Reputation.
After the Horse was routed and fled, the Foot running one in upon another in confusion fought a while, but amaz'd and dejected with the flight of their Horse, they likewise turn'd their Backs and made away.
There were kill'd in the Persian Army above Ten thousand Foot, and at least Two thousand Horse, and above Twenty thousand taken Prisoners.
After the Battel, the King buried those of his that were slain, with great Solemnity, by these Honours to encourage his Soldiers to fight the more readily. When he had refresh'd his Army, he march'd forward through Lydia, and came to Sardis, which with the Cittadel, and all the Provision and Treasure therein, were voluntarily surrender'd to him by Mithrinnes the Governor.
In the mean time, those Persians that had escap'd out of the Battel, fled, together with their General, Memnon, to Miletus, before which the King afterwards came, and assaulted it continually for several days together, still relieving his Men from time to time with fresh Supplies. The Besieged at first easily defended themselves from the Walls, in regard the City was full of Soldiers, and plentifully furnish'd with Weapons and all other things necessary for the enduring of a Siege. But as soon as the King began fiercely to batter the Walls with his Engines, and violently to push on the Siege both by Sea and Land, and the Macedonians had forc'd their way through a Breach of the Walls, putting their Enemies to flight in that part; the Milesians forthwith prostrated themselves as suppliants at the King's Feet, and gave up themselves and the City to his Mercy. Some of the Barbarians were kill'd by the Macedonians, others fled out of the City, and the rest were all taken. He dealt kindly and mercifully with the Milesians, but for others, he sold them all for Slaves.
And now having no further use for his Navy, and being likewise chargeable to maintain, he dismiss'd his Fleet, except a few Ships which he detain'd for the Conveying of his Engines of Battery, and other Instruments useful for the Besieging of Towns. Among which were Twenty Vessels from Athens.
There are some who say, that this Discharging of the Fleet was a prudent part of a General in Alexander. For Darius being on his march, and therefore very likely that a great Battel was to be fought, he conceiv'd that the Macedonians would fight with more Resolution, when they saw there was no possibility of flight. And the very same Project he Page 531 contriv'd at the Battel of Granicum, where he so order'd the matter, that the River should be at his Soldiers back, to the end, that none might have a Thought of flying, since the River threatned certain destruction to them that attempted it.
In following times Agathocles, King of Syracuse, follow'd this Example of Alexander, and so gain'd a glorious Victory. For having transported a small Army into Africa, he set all his Ships on fire, to take away all hope from his Soldiers of escaping by flight, by which means being forc'd of necessity to stand to it courageously, he overcame many thousands of the Carthaginians drawn up against him.
After the taking of Miletus, both Persians and Mercenaries with their chiefest Commanders, came flocking to Halicarnassus. This was then the greatest City in Caria, in which was a Palace of the Kings, adorn'd with most curious, Turrets and Cittadels.
About the same time, Memnon sent away his Wife and Children to Darius, as well for their security, as to induce the King, having such considerable Hostages in his hands to intrust him with more confidence in the Management of the War. Which happen'd accordingly; for Darius presently sent Letters to all the Inhabitants of the Sea Coasts of Asia, to be observant in every thing to all the Commands of Memnon. Being made therefore General of the whole Army, he provided all things necessary for the Defence of Halicarnassus against a Siege.
In the mean time the King sent away his Engines of Battery, and Corn and Provision by Sea, to Halicarnassus, and he himself with his whole Army march'd into Caria, and where ever he came he gain'd upon the Cities by his smooth Tongue, and courteous Behaviour. The Greek Cities especially tasted of his Grace and Favour, for he gave all Liberty to govern according to their own Laws, and order'd they should be free from Tribute, declaring, that he had undertaken a War against the Persians for the Rights and Liberties of the Grecians.
When he was upon his March, he was met by a Noble Woman call'd Ada, of the Lineage of the King of Caria, who upon discourse with him, concerning the Right of her Ancestors, intreated him to restore her to the Kingdom of her Grandfather, which he gave up to her, and bid, her take it as her own; by which bounty to the Woman, he gain'd the Hearts of the Grecians, and all the Cities sent their Ambassadors to him, presenting him with Crowns of Gold, promis'd and offer'd to serve him in all things to the utmost of their Power.
Alexander now Encamps near to the City, and forthwith assaults the Town in a furious and terrible Manner.: For at the very Beginning; his Soldiers by turns storm'd the Walls without any intermission, so that the Conflict continu'd whole days together. Afterwards he brought up all sorts of Engines to the Walls, and fill'd up the Trenches, before the City, by the help of three Machines call'd Snails, and then with his Rams batter'd down the Towers and Walls that ran along between them. Part being thus beaten down, he engag'd in the Breach with the Enemy, and endeavour'd to force his way into the City over the Rubbish. But Memnon easily repuls'd the Macedonians (who first assaulted the Wall) there being many Men within the City; and in the Night, when the Engines were brought up he made a Sally with a great Body of Men, and fir'd them: Upon which there were many sharp Conflicts before the Walls, in which the Macedonians far excell'd the other for Valour, but the Persians them for number of Men and all Warlike Provisions. But those upon the Walls were of great advantage to the Persians that were engag'd in the Sally, by galling their Enemies with their Darts and Arrows, attended with Death and Wounds; shouting of Men and sounding of Trumpets, every where eccho'd in the Air, while the Soldiers on both sides with loud Acclamations, applauded the noble Actions of their several Parties.
And now some endeavour'd to extinguish the mounting Flames of the Engines, and others engaging with the Enemy, made grievous slaughters among their Adversaries. Those within rais'd up other Walls much stronger, instead of them that were batter'd down. The Commanders with Memnon being in the Front, encourag'd their Men to stand to it, offering great Rewards to such as valiantly behav'd themselves. So that it was incredible with what Heat and Spirit every one was push'd on forward to win the Day. Then might be seen some carry'd out of the Army so wounded, that they were breathing out their last; others gather'd in a round about the Bodies of the Dead, and sharply engag'd in striving to carry off the Bodies, in order to their Burial. Others but even now tyr'd out with Wounds, and Blows, presently (through the Encouragement of the Officers) recovering their Spirits, fell to it briskly again.
Page 532 Some of the Macedonians (among whom was Neoptolimus, an honourable Person) were slain, even under the City Gates. And now Towers and two Flanks were batter'd down; upon which, some Drunken Soldiers of Perdiccas rashly in the Night mounted the Walls of the Cittadel: But Memnon understanding in what plight they were in, made a Sally, and being much Superior in number repuls'd the Macedonians, and kill'd many of them, which being nois'd abroad, the Macedonians came flocking in to the aid of their Fellows; upon which there was a brisk Encounter. At length, when those with Alexander appear'd and join'd with the rest, the Persians flag'd and were beaten back into the City. Then the King sent a Trumpeter to make a Truce, in order to carry off those Macedonians that were slain before the Walls: But Ephialtes and Thrasybulus, both Athenians, and then in Arms for the Persians, gave advice not to suffer the Dead to be bury'd. However, Memnon granted what the King desir'd.
Afterwards Ephialtes in a Council of War declar'd his Opinion, That it was not advisable for them to stay till the City was taken, and so all to be made Prisoners, but for all the Officers with the Mercenaries to venture their Lives for the Safety and Security of the rest, and to sally upon the Enemy out of the City. Hereupon Memnon perceiving Ephialtes to be prompted to Action by an extraordinary Impulse of Valour, and placing great Confidence in him by reason of his Courage and the strength of his Body, agreed to what he had advis'd. In order to which, he appointed Two thousand Mercenaries, of the best Soldiers he could pick out, to sally with him, one half of whom were commanded to carry along with them light Firebrands, and the other to fall in upon the Enemy. About break of Day the Gates were suddenly flung open, and the Regiments issue out, and cast their Fire brands among the Engines, upon which a great Flame presently appear'd. He himself at the Head of others form'd into a deep Phalanx charg'd upon the Macedonians, who were hasting to preserve and defend the Engines. The King, quick in discerning what was to be done, places the chief of the Macedonians in the Front, and some of the chiefest Soldiers next, in order to support them, and to these he adds a third Battalion, for Valour excelling all the rest; The whole Body he led up himself, and fell upon the Enemy, who seem'd (through their firm and close Order) to be impenetrable; not to be broken by any Force whatsoever.
In the mean time, he commands others to go to defend the Engines, and quench the Fire. Noise and Clamour fill'd the Camps, and the Trumpet giving the Alarm to Battel, they fell to it, fighting with more than ordinary Valour, ambitious to purchase Honour and Renown. The Macedonians easily quench'd the Fire, but in the Conflict, those with Ephialtes got the better. For with whomsoever he engag'd, (being of a far stronger Body than any of them,) he certainly kill'd, and those that were upon the new Wall slew many with their Darts. For upon this Wall there was a Wooden Tower erected an Hundred Cubits high, full of Engines for shooting of Darts and Arrows.
Many therefore of the Macedonians being kill'd, and the rest retreating by reason of the multitude of Darts, and Memnon coming in to the Assistance of the Persians with a far greater Number, the King himself knew not well what to do. While they that issu'd out of the Town thus prevail'd, on a sudden the Tables were turn'd: For the old Macedonians (who by reason of their Age were to this time dispens'd with, and not call'd to Fight, though formerly Victorious in many Battels under King Philip,) now at this very instant were stirr'd up to their anient Courage and Resolution. And being both Valiant and Expert Soldiers, (far beyond all the rest,) they upbraided the Cowardice of the Freshwater Soldiers, who turn'd their Back, with most bitter Taunts and Reproaches: These presently getting into a Body, and clapping their Bucklers one into another, fell in upon the Enemy, (now confident of an assured Victory,) and having killed Ephialtes and many others, forc'd the rest into the City; and the Macedonians being mix'd with the other in the Night-time, enter'd pell-mell with them within the Walls; but the King order'd a Retreat to be sounded, and so they return'd into the Camp. After this, Memnon and the rest of the Commanders consulted together, and determin'd to leave the City. In execution of which Resolve, they left the best of the Soldiers to keep the Cittadel with sufficient Provision and all other Things necessary, and transported themselves with the rest of the Citizens, and all their Wealth, into Coos.
Alexander about spring of Day understanding what was done, cast a Trench, and built a Rampart upon it round about the Castle; and raz'd the City it self to the Ground. Then he order'd part of his Army to march further up into the Country in order to force other Provinces to his Obedience; these Forces valiantly brought under the Power of Alexander all the Nations as far as to the Borders of the Greater Phrygia, and forc'd them to find Provision for their Army.
Page 533Alexander himself subdu'd all the Sea Coast of Asia to Cilicia, gaining many Cities by Surrender, and taking several Forts and Castles by Storm; amongst which, there was one that was taken after a wonderful manner, which by reason of the Rarity of the Thing is not to be pass'd over.
In the utmost Borders of Lycia, the Marmarensians, who inhabited upon a great Rock, and well fortifi'd, set upon the Rear of Alexander's Amy in their March thither, and slew many of the Macedonians, and carry'd away a great number of Prisoners and Carriage-Horses. At which, the King was so inrag'd, that he resolv'd to besiege the Place, and us'd his utmost Endeavour to gain it. But the Marmarensians trusting to their own Valour and the Strength of the Place, manfully endur'd the Siege; for they were assaulted two Days together without any intermission, and were assur'd, that the King would not stir thence till he had taken the Rock. The ancient Men therefore at the first advis'd the Younger to forbear standing it out with such Violence, and to make Peace with the King upon as good Conditions as they could; which when they deny'd, and all resolv'd to part with their Lives and the Liberties of their Country together; the graver Men then advis'd them to kill all the old Men, Women, and Children, and that those that were strong and able to defend themselves should break through their Enemies Camp in the Night, and flee to the next Mountains. The young Men approv'd of the Councel, and thereupon an Edict was made, That every one should go to his own House, and Eat and Drink plentifully with his Wife, Children and Relations, and then expect the Execution of the Decree. But some of the young Men who were more considerate than the rest, (who were about Six hundred in the whole,) judg'd it more Advisable to forbear killing their own Kindred and Relations with their own Hands, but rather set the Houses on fire, and then to sally out at the Gates, and make to the Mountains for their Security. This was presently taken to, and the Thing put in execution, and so every Man's House became his Sepulchre. And the young Men themselves broke through the midst of their Enemies, and fled to the Hills near at hand. And these were the chief Things done this Year.
Mytelen taken by Memnon, Darius his General. His Successes. He dies. Charidemus the Athenian unjustly put to Death by Darius. Alexander falls sick, recover'd by Philippus. Alexander seizes Alexander of Lyncestas, upon his Mother's Letters. Alexander takes Issus. The memorable Battel at Issus, where the Mother, Wife, Two Daughters, and Son of Darius, were taken. Alexander's noble Carriage towards them. Darius's Letters and Offers to Alexander. Darius prepares another Army.
BUT in the following Year, wherein Nicocrates was chief Governor of Athens, and Cesus Valerius and Lucius Papirius succeeded in the Consular Dignity at Rome. Darius sent a great Sum of Money to Memnon, and declar'd him General of all his Forces. Hereupon he rais'd great Numbers of Men from all Parts, and fitting out a Navy of Three hundred Sail, set himself with all diligence to the prosecution of the War. To that end, he brought in Chius to join with him. Then he sail'd to Lesbos, and presently took Antissa, Mythimnus, Pyrrhus, and Erissus. But for Mitylene, and Lesbos, because it was much larger, and strongly Garison'd and well provided, he gain'd it not without many Assaults, and the Loss of many of his Men, though he took it at length with much ado. The Fame of this Action being presently nois'd abroad, many of the Cyclade Islands sent Ambassadors to him to make Leagues with him. Then there was a Report spread abroad, that Memnon with his whole Fleet was intending to invade Eabaea, which put all the Cities into a great Consternation. And some of the Graecians being come into the Confederacy of the Persians, were hearten'd in hopes of a change of their Affairs for the better. Besides, Memnon had corrupted many of the Greeks with Money to sail in the same Bottom with the Persians. But Fortune put a stop to the Progress of this Man's Success; for he fell sick of a mortal Distemper, and dv'd; and by his Death, the Affaris of Darius went backward: For the King hop'd to have transferr'd the whole Weight of the War out of Asia into Europe.
Page 534 But when he heard of the Death of Memnon, he call'd his Friends together, and ask'd their Advice, Whether he should send a General with the Army, or go himself in Person, and try his Fortune with the Macedonians. Some were of Opinion for the King to go himself, for that they said, the Persians would then with more chearfulness venture their Lives. But Charidemus the Athenian, who was in great Esteem for his Valour and Prudence as a General, (for under Philip he gain'd a great Reputation, and was his chief and principal Adviser in all his weighty Affairs,) advis'd Darius not to lay the Kingdom rashly at stake, but still to continue Lord of Asia, and keep the Government in his own Hand, and to appoint an Experienc'd General to manage the Concerns of the War. And he told him, that an Hundred thousand Men, of which Number a Third Part to be Mercenaries out of Greece, were sufficient for the Expedition, and engag'd that he would see the Thing accomplish'd. The King at the first agreed to what he said: But his Friends peremptorily rejected this Advice; suspecting that Charidemus sought for the chief Command, out of design to give up all into the Power of the Macedonians. Hereupon Charidemus was in such a Rage, as that he call'd them all Cowards: With which Words, the King was much more offended than before; and whereas Anger never suffers a Man to consider wisely before hand, Darius orders him to be bound in a Belt, (which is the manner of the Persians,) and delivers him to his Guard to be put to Death: Who when he was leading to Execution, cry'd out, That the King would in a short time repent of what he had done in this Matter, and would be punish'd for that unjust Judgment against him by the loss of his Kingdom. Thus fell Charidemus from the top of all his Hopes and Expectations through the unseasonable Liberty of his Tongue. But the King, as soon as his Anger was over, presently repented of what he had done, and accus'd himself as guilty of a most horrid Crime: But the Power of a King could not undo that which was past Remedy. Considering therefore how valiant the Macedonians were, and musing upon the Courage of Alexander, he enquir'd where he might have a fit Person to succeed Memnon in the chief Command of the Army, and when none could be found, he was forc'd to run the Hazard himself for the saving of his Kingdom. He forthwith therefore order'd all his Forces to be call'd together from all Parts, and to Rendevouz at Babylon. Then he made choice of such of his Kindred and Friends as he thought fit, and to some he gave Commands in the Army according to their several Qualities, and others he appointed to attend upon his Person as his Life-Guard. As soon as the time before fix'd upon for the Expedition was come, they all Rendevouz'd at Babylon, to the Number of Four hundred thousand Foot, and an Hundred thousand Horse; Hence he march'd away with this vast Number of Men towards Cilicia, taking along with him his Mother, Wife and Children; that is to say, a Son and two Daughters.
In the mean time, Alexander (while Memnon was living, hearing how Chius and the Cities of Lesbos were surrender'd into the Hands of Memnon, and that Mitylene was taken by Storm, and that he was ready to invade Macedonia with a Navy of Three hundred Sail, and that many of the Graecians were upon the Point of Revolting) was very much perplex'd and discontented. But as soon as he heard of Memnon's Death, his Mind was more at rest. But within a short time after he fell desperately sick, and growing worse and worse, sent for Physicians, who coming to him, were all afraid to administer any thing, looking upon him as irrecoverable: Saving that there was one Philip of Acarnania, (whose Practice it was commonly to make use of desperate Medicines,) promis'd to cure him by a Potion; the King hereupon readily comply'd with him, especially because he heard Darius was on his march from Babylon. Then the Physician deliver'd the Potion, which through the Art and Skill of Philip, and the Advantage of the Natural Strength of the Patient, presently cur'd the King: Who being thus beyond all Hope recover'd, bountifully Rewarded the Physician, and receiv'd him into the Number of his most faithful Friends.
About the same time Alexander receiv'd Letters from his Mother, wherein (among other Things which she thought fit to advise him of) she wish'd him to have a care of Alexander of Lyncestas, who was a very valiant Man, and of a generous Disposition, and not inferior to any for his Faithfulness to Alexander. But many things concurring that seem'd to fortify the Accusation, he was seiz'd and committed to Custody, in order to his Legal Trial. But Alexander having Intelligence that Darius was within a few Days march, sent Parmenio before with the Army to gain the Passes and the Gates, as they were call'd; who marching away with all speed, possess'd himself of them, beating off the Barbarians, who were there before him. Darius, that he might march with more ease, had left all his heavy Baggage and Rabble behind him at Damascus, a City of Syria. Hence he march'd with all the speed he could, hearing that Alexander had preposfess'd Page 535 himself of all the difficult Passes and Places, as not daring to fight in the Plain and open Field, as he suppos'd. The Inhabitants of all the Places through which Alexander came, slighting the inconsiderable Number of the Macedonians, and frighted with the approach of the vast Army of the Persians, without any regard to Alexander sided with Darius, and readily supply'd the Persians with Provisions and all other Necessaries, and by the Rule of their own Opinions adjudg'd the Victory before hand to the Barbarians.
In the mean time Alexander had possess'd himself of Issus, (surpriz'd with the Fear of his Army,) a considerable City of Cilicia; and understanding by his Spies that Darius was not distant above Thirty Furlongs, and that he was even now approaching with his Army so provided, and in that order, as to make them terrible to all, he judg'd the Gods highly favour'd him in putting such an Opportunity into his Hands, as that by the gaining of one Victory he should ruin the whole Empire of Persia. Hereupon he stirr'd up the Spirits of his Soldiers, (by a Speech for the Occasion,) encouraging them to fight Manfully, now all lay at Stake. His Regiments of Foot, and Squadrons of Horse, he posted so, as the Place and Ground would best allow: The Horse was plac'd before the whole Body of the Foot, which were order'd behind to support and relieve the Horse. Being in the Right Wing himself, he march'd on towards the Enemy with the choicest of the Horse. The Thessalian Horse were in the Left, for Valour and Skill sar excelling all the rest. And now the Armies came within the cast of a Dart one of another, upon which there flew such a shower of Darts from the Barbarians against them with Alexander, that through their Multitude they so brush'd in their flight one upon another, that their Force was much abated, and did little harm. Then presently the Trumpets on both Sides sounded a Charge, and the Macedonians were the first that set up a great Shout, which being answer'd by the Barbarians, all the Hills and Mountains there near at hand eccho'd and rang again with the Noise. But the Shout of the Barbarians far exceeded the other, being made by Five hundred thousand Men at once.
Then Alexander look'd every where round about to spy out Darius, whom having found, he made at him (with those Horse that were with him) with all the speed imaginable, desiring not so much to conquer the Persians, as to gain the present Victory by his own Personal Valour. In the mean time the whole Body of Horse engag'd, great Slaughters being made on both Sides; but the Valour of those engag'd caus'd the Victory to hang in Suspence a long time, appearing sometimes here and sometimes there, by Changes and Turns. No Dart cast, or Stroak given by any was in vain, but did some Execution, for in such a Multitude the Mark was sure to be hit. So that great Numbers were wounded, and others fighting to their last Breath, chose rather to lose their Lives, than part with their Honour, And the Officers at the Head of their Regiment so bravely behav'd themselves, that they put Life and Courage into the Common Soldiers. There might then be seen all sorts of Wounds, and as various and sharp Contests for Victory Oxathres a Persian, and Brother of Darius, a very valiant Man, as soon as he saw Alexander make so fiercely at Darius, was resolv'd to undergo the same Fortune with his Brother, and therefore charges Alexander's Body with the best of the Horse he could make choice of out of his own Troops, and knowing that his Love to his Brother would advance his Fame and Reputation above all other things among the Persians, he fought close by his Chariot, and with that Courage and Dexterity, that he laid many dead at his Feet; and inasmuch as the Macedonians were as resolute on the other Side not to move a Foot, the dead Bodies rose up in heaps of Carkasses round about the Chariot of Darius. And being that every one strove to lay hold on the King, both Sides fought with great Obstinacy, without any regard of their Lives. In this Conflict many of the Persian Nobility were slain, amongst whom were Antixyus and Rheomitus, and Tasiaces the Lord Lieutenant of Egypt. And many of the Macedonians likewise; and Alexander himself (compass'd round by the Enemy) was wounded in the Thigh. The Chariot-Horses of Darius receiving many Wounds, and frighted with the multitude of Carkasses that lay round in Heaps about them, grew so unruly, that they had hurri'd Darius into the midst of his Enemies, if he had not in this Extremity catch'd hold of the Reins himself, being forc'd thus to make bold with the Laws of the Persians, in debasing the Majesty of the Persian Kings. In the mean time his Servants brought to him another Chariot, and a great hurly burly there was while he was ascending this, insomuch as Darius himself (by the Enemy pressing hard upon him) was in a great Terror and Consternation; Which when some of the Persians discern'd, they began first to fly, the Horse that were next following the Example of their Fellows, and at length all made away as fast as they could. The Places being narrow and strait, in their hast they trod down one another, and many Page 536 perish'd without a Stroke of the Enemy; for they lay on Heaps, some with their Arms, others without them; some held their naked Swords as long in their Hands, as that their Fellow-Soldiers ran themselves upon them, and so were slain. But many got away into the open Plain, and by the swiftness of their Horses, escap'd to the several Cities of the Allies.
During this time, the Macedonian Phalanx and the Persian Foot fought a while; for the Flight of the Horse was the Preludium to the Victory. The Barbarians therefore taking to their Heels, and so many Thousands making away through the same Straits, all Places thereabouts were in a short time cover'd with dead Carcasses: But the Persians, by the advantage of the Night, got away here and there into several Places of shelter.
The Macedonians therefore left off the Pursuit, and betook themselves to the rifling of the Camp, especially the King's Pavillion, because there were the richest Booties; so that there was found and carry'd thence vast Sums of Gold and Silver, and exceeding rich Garments and Furniture; an abundance likewise of Treasure belonging to his Friends and Kindred, and the Commanders of his Army: For the Wives not only from the King's Houshold, but from the Families of his Kindred and Attendants, mounted in Chariots glittering with Gold (according to the Custom of the Persians) accompany'd the Camp in their march from place to place. And every one of these (through their Luxury and Delicateness, to which they had commonly inur'd themselves) carry'd with them abundance of rich Furniture, and a multitude of beautiful Women. But the captive Ladies were then in a most miserable Condition: For they who before, by reason of their Nicety, could scarcely be plac'd in their stately Chariots so as to please them, and had their Bodies so attir'd, as that no Air might touch them, now rent their Garments in pieces, and scarce with one simple Veil to cover their Nakedness, threw themselves shrieking out of their Chariots, and with their Eyes and Hands lifted up to Heaven, cast themselves down at the Feet of the Conquerors. Some with their trembling Hands pull'd off all their Jewels and Ornaments from their own Bodies, and ran up steep Rocks and craggy Places, with their Hair flying about their Ears; and thus meeting in Throngs together, some call'd for Help from those who wanted the Relief of others as much as themselves: Some were dragg'd along by the Hair of their Heads, others were stripp'd naked, and then kill'd, and sometimes cudgell'd to death with the heavy end of the Soldiers Lances. Nay, even all manner of Disgrace and Contempt was pour'd upon the Glory of the Persians, so famous and honourable heretofore all the World over.
But the more sober and moderate of the Macedonians seeing that strange Turn of Fortune, much pity'd the Condition of those miserable Creatures, who had lost every thing that was near and dear to them in this World, and were now environ'd with nothing but Strangers and Enemies, and fallen into miserable and dishonourable Captivity. But the Mother of Darius, and his Wife, and two Daughters, now Marriageable (and his little Son especially) drew Tears from the Eyes of the Beholders: For their sad change of Fortune, and the greatness of their sudden and unexpected Calamity (presented thus to their view) could not but move them to a compassionate Resentment of their present Condition: For as yet it was not known whether Darius was alive or dead. And in the mean time they perceiv'd his Tent pillag'd and rifled by arm'd Men, who knew no difference of Persons, and therefore committed many indecent and unworthy Actions, and saw likewise all Asia brought under the Power of a Conquering Sword as well as themselves. The Wives of the Governors of the Provinces that fell at their Feet to beg Protection, were so far from finding Relief, that they themselves earnestly pray'd them to rescue them out of their present Calamity.
Alexander's Servants having possess'd themselves of Darius his Tents, prepar'd the Tables and Baths which were us'd by Darius himself, and lighted up many Lamps in expectation of the King, that in his return from the pursuit he might take possession of all the Furniture of Darius, as an earnest of the Empire and Government of all Asia. Of the Barbarians there fell in this Battel above an Hundred and twenty thousand Foot, and no fewer than Ten thousand Horse. Of the Macedonians, Three hunded Foot, and an Hundred and fifty Horse. And this was the Issue of the Battel at Issus.
But to return to the Kings themselves: Darius with all his Army being thus routed, fled, and by changing from time to time one Horse after another the best he had, he made away with all speed to escape out of the Hands of Alexander, and to get to the Governors of the Upper Provinces. But Alexander, with the best of his Horse and chiefest of his Friends, pursu'd him close at the very Heels, earnestly longing to be Lord of Darius. But after he had rid Two hundred Furlongs, he return'd at midnight into the Page 537 Camp; and having refresh'd his weary Body in the Baths, went to Supper, and then to his rest.
In the mean time, one came to the Mother of Darius, and told her that Alexander was return'd from the pursuit of Darius, and had possess'd himself of all the rich Spoils of his Tent. Upon which, there was given up a great Shriek and Lamentation amongst the Women, and from the multitude of the Captives lamenting with the Queen at the sad News, all places were fill'd with Cries and Lamentations. The King understanding what Sorrow there was among the Women, sent Leonatus, one his of Courtiers to them, to put an end to their Fears; and to let Sisygambres, the Mother of Darius, know, that her Son was alive, and that Alexander would have respect to their former Dignity; and that to confirm the Promise of his Generosity by his Actions, he would come and discourse with them the Day following. Whereupon the Captives were so surpriz'd with the sudden and happy Turn of their Fortunes, that they honour'd Alexander as a God; and their Fears were turn'd into Exultations of Joy.
The King, as soon as it was light (with Hephestion, one of the trustiest of his Friends) went to visit the Queens. When they entred, in regard they were both habited alike, Sisygambres taking Hephestion for the King (because he was the more comely and taller Man) fell prostrate at his Feet; but the Attendants, by the Nods of their Heads, and Pointing of their Fingers, directed her to Alexander; whereupon being much asham'd, and out of Countenance by reason of Mistake, she salutes Alexander in the same manner she had done before the other. Upon which, he lift her up, and said, Mother, trouble not, nor perplex your self; for that Man also is Alexander. By which courteous and obliging Title of Mother, to a grave and honourable Matron, he gave a clear Demonstration of the Respects and Civilities he intended towards them all.
Having therefore own'd her for a Second Mother, he presently confirm'd his Words by his Actions: For he order'd her to be cloath'd in her Royal Robes, and restor'd her to all the Honours becoming her former State and Dignity. For he gave her all her Attendants and Houshold Servants and Furniture allow'd her by Darius, and added also as much more of his own Bounty. He promis'd likewise to dispose of the young Ladies in Marriage far better than if their Father had provided Husbands for them; and that he would educate the King's little Son as carefully and honourably as if he were his own. Then he call'd him to him, and kiss'd him; and taking notice that he was not at all dash'd, nor seem'd to be in the least afrighted, turning to Hephestion and those about him, This Youth, but Six Years of Age (says he) carries in his Countenance Marks of a stcut and brave Spirit above his Age, and is better than his Father. He further declar'd, That he would take care of the Wife of Darius; that nothing should be wanting to her; in order to the support and maintenance of her Royal State and former Prosperity. Many other kind and gaining Expressions he us'd, insomuch as the Ladies fell a weeping in Showers of Tears, out of Transports of Joy, upon account of the Greatness of their unexpected Felicity. After all, he at length put forth to them his Right Hand to kiss, upon which not only they who were immediately honour'd with those Kindnesses, set forth his Prai•e, but even the whole Army cry'd up his incomparable Grace and Clemency. And indeed, I conceive, that amongst the many Brave and Noble Acts of Alexander, none of them were greater than this, nor more worthy by History, to be handed down to Posterity. For storming and taking of Cities, gaining of Battels, and other Successes in War, are many times the Events of Fortune, more than the Effects of Valour and Virtue; but to be compassionate to the miserable, and those that lie at the Feet of the Conqueror, must be the Fruit only of Wisdom and Prudence. For many by Prosperity grow high-crested, and are so far swell'd with Pride, by the favourable Blasts of Fortune, that they are careless and forgetful of the Common Miseries of Mankind; so that 'tis common to see many to sink under the weight of their prosperous Successes, as an heavy Burden they are not able to bear.
Therefore though Alexander was many Ages before us who are now living, yet the remembrance of his Virtue, justly challenges Honour and Praise from all those that succeed him in future Generations.
As for Darius, being now got to Babylon, he musters up his broken Troops that were escap'd from the Battel of Issus; and though he had receiv'd so great an Overthrow, yet he was not at all discourag'd, but writ Letters to Alexander, whereby he advis'd him to use his Good Fortune and Success moderately, and offer'd him a great Sum of Money for the Ransom of the Captives: He promis'd likewise to give up to him all that part of Asia, with the Cities which lay on that side, within the Course of the River Halys, if he were willing to be his Friend.
Page 538 Whereupon Alexander call'd a Council of War, and laid before them such Letters as he judg'd most for his own Advantage, but conceal'd the true ones: By which Contrivance the Ambassadors were dismiss'd, without any effect of their Embassie.
Darius therefore concluding that Things were not to be compos'd by Letters, sets himself wholly to make preparation for War. To which end, he arm'd those Soldiers that had loft their Arms in the late unfortunate Battel, and rais'd others, and form'd them into Regiments. He sent likewise for those Forces he had through Haste left behind him in the Upper Provinces, when he first began his Expedition. To conclude, he was so earnest and diligent in recruiting his Army, that they were now twice as many as they were at Issus; for they made up a Body of Eight hundred thousand Foot, and Two hundred thousand Horse, besides a vast multitude of hook'd Chariots. These considerable Actions were the Events of this Year.
Alexander marches towards Egypt: Besieges Tyre. Prodigies of Tyre. The Tyrians bind Apollo with Golden Chains. The Inventions of the Tyrians to defend themselves. The Advancement of Ballominus, a poor Man, to be King of Tyre. The Acts of Agis and Amyntas: Amyntas kill'd, and all his Soldiers. Alexander takes Gaza by Storm: Is presented by the Grecians.
NIceratus was Chief Governor of Athens, and Marcus Atilius and Marcus Valerius were Consuls at Rome, when the Hundred and Twelfth Olympiad was celebrated, wherein Grylus of Chalcidon was Victor.
Alexander, after the Battel of Issus, caus'd both his own, and those likewise of the Enemies that were of greatest Repute for Valour, to be bury'd. After he had sacrific'd and given Thanks to the Gods, he bountifully rewarded all such as had valiantly behav'd themselves, every one according to his Merit. After which, he gave liberty to his Soldiers for some days to recreate and refresh themselves. Thence marching with his Army towards Egypt, as he came into Phoenicia, other Cities readily submitted to him, and were receiv'd into his Protection. But Tyre was the only City that obstinately deny'd him entrance, when he desir'd it, in order to Sacrifice to Hercules Tyrius; at which Alexander was so enrag'd, that he threatned to storm and take it by force of Arms. But the Tyrians resolv'd to stand it out, because they thought thereby to ingratiate themselves with Darius; and that for their Faithfulness and Loyalty to him, they concluded he would bountifully reward them; who by that means gain'd him more time to recruit his Army, while Alexander was detain'd in a troublesome and dangerous Siege. And besides, they plac'd their Confidence in the Strength of the Island, and their plentiful Provision of all Things necessary, and in the Carthaginians, from whom they were descended.
The King therefore, though he foresaw that it would be a very difficult matter to carry on the Siege by reason of the Sea, and that they were so well provided with all Things for the defence of the Walls, and had a strong Navy, and that the City was separated from the Continent; so that nothing could be effectually put in execution: Yet he judg'd it more for his Honour to undergo all sorts of Hazards, than for the Macedonians to be baffled with one City, and that too not altogether so difficult to be gain'd.
He forthwith therefore demolish'd Old Tyre, as it was then call'd, and by the Stones carry'd by many Thousands of Men, rais'd a Mole Two hundred Foot in breadth, which by the Help of the Inhabitants of the Neighbouring Cities (who were all call'd in for that purpose) was presently dispatch'd. The Tyrians, in the mean time, from their Ships laugh'd and jeer'd at the King, and ask'd him whether he suppos'd himself stronger than Neptune. Afterwards, when they perceiv'd (beyond whatever they thought could be done) that the Mole still increas'd, and was in likelihood to be finish'd, they decreed to transport their Wives, Children, and Old People to Carthage; and those that were Young Men were kept some of them to guard the Walls, and others for Sea-Service; for they had a Fleet of Fourscore Sail. At length they sent away part of their Wives and Children, in order to sail by the Enemy for Carthage; but being prevented by the multitude of them that were at work, and not in a fit posture to fight at Sea, they were all forc'd to return, and abide the Siege. And tho' they were plentifully supply'd with Page 539 Engines to shoot Arrows, Darts, and Stones, and all other Machines and Instruments, fit and necessary for the defence of the Walls against any Assault; yet they readily furnish'd themselves as they had occasion with many more, for that Tyre was full of Gunsmiths, and Artificers of all sorts. So that being supply'd by these Workmen, with many new invented Engines, every place round the Walls was fill'd with them, especially towards that side where the Mole was rais'd.
And now the Work was brought by the Macedonians within the Cast of a Dart, when presently a Prodigy from the Gods appear'd to them who were thus threatned; for the working of the Sea cast a Whale of an incredible bigness to the side of the Mole; and there it lay without doing any Harm, but remain'd there a good while, leaning one side of its Body to the Work, which struck the Beholders with much Terror and Amazement. After it was gone, and return'd into the Sea, both Parties went to their Divinations, and each (severally concluding as they would desire to have it) made this Construction, That by this Sign was portended, that Neptune would aid and assist them.
There was another Prodigy likewise happen'd, which greatly amaz'd the Common People: For when the Macedonians were at Meat, the Faces of those that broke the Bread seem'd to be all over bloudy; and one of Tyre affirm'd, that he saw a Vision, by which Apollo told him that he would forsake the City. And because the Common People suspected that he spoke this in favour of Alexander's Party, the Young Men had ston'd him to death, but that he was rescu'd by the Magistrates, and fled into Hercules his Temple; and so through his pious Supplication he escap'd so imminent a Danger.
Upon this, the Tyrians, to prevent Apollo's leaving the City, fastned his Image to the Pedestal with golden Chains. But the Citizens being put into a great Fright through the increase of the Mole, loaded many little Boats with Engines to shoot Arrows and Darts, and with Slingers and Archers; who setting upon them that were at work, wounded and kill'd many of them: For Showers of Arrows and Darts being discharg'd upon Throngs of naked Men, none miss'd their Mark, in regard all lay open and expos'd to every Shot without any defence; for they were not only wounded with Darts before, but (through the narrowness of the Mole) likewise gall'd at their Backs, being not possible for any one to guard both sides at once.
Alexander therefore, that he might repair the sudden and unexpected Loss, with all the speed he could mann'd as many Ships as he had, and went on board as Admiral himself, and made it his Business to get into the Haven of Tyre, in order to intercept the Phoenicians in their return. Hereupon the Barbarians fearing if he gain'd the Haven he would take the City it self (those who should defend it being now out) made all the haste they could to return to the City. And indeed both sides ply'd their Oars with all their might to prevent one another. But the Macedonians just entring the Port before the other, all the Phoenicians were every Man upon the point like to be cut off; but forcing their way through their Enemies, they return'd into the City, with the loss of some of those Vessels that lagg'd behind. However, though the King mist of his Design, yet he eagerly set to his Work again for the finishing of the Mole, and by a considerable number of Vessels guarded the Work for the future.
The Work being brought near to the City, and the Town now in a probability of being taken, on a sudden a violent Storm of Wind arose, and tore away part of the Mole; which so perplex'd Alexander, that he repented that he ever began the Siege. But however, being prick'd forward with an unquenchable Thirst after Glory, he caus'd Trees of an incredible magnitude to be cut down in the Mountains, and brought thither, and with them Booths, Branches, and Earth pil'd together, gave a check to the Violence of the Stream.
Having therefore presently repair'd the Breach that was made, the Mole by the help of many Hands was brought again within the Cast of a Dart, and by Engines mounted upon it, he batter'd down the Walls, and by shot with Darts and Arrows out of Engines, beat off the Enemy from the Bulwarks: With these likewise both Archers and Slingers ply'd the Besieg'd, and grievously wounded and gall'd many of the Townsmen upon the Walls. But the Tyrians being accustom'd to the Sea, and having many Artificers and Contrivers of Engines, us'd many Arts and ingenious Contrivances to preserve themselves: For against the Shot they contriv'd Wheels with many Spoaks, which being whirl'd about with an Engine, shatter'd in pieces some of the Darts and Arrows, and turn'd off others, and broke the Force of all the rest. And to give a check to the Violence of the Stones that were shot out of the Ballasts, they prepar'd Wooll-packs and other things that were soft and pliant to receive them.
Page 540 But the King not contented to assault the City only from the Mole, girt the Town round with his whole Fleet, and diligently view'd all parts of the Walls, as if he resolv'd to besiege the Place both by Sea and Land. The Tyrians not daring to engage him at Sea, he destroy'd three Ships, that were then by chance in the Mouth of the Harbour, and then return'd to his Camp. But the Tyrians, that they might make their Walls as strong again as they were before, rais'd another Wall ten Cubits broad, and five Cubits distant from the former, and fill'd the empty space between the two Walls with Earth and Stones.
Alexander likewise made a Battery, by joining many of his Ships together, and planted upon them all sorts of Rams and Battering Engines, whereby he beat down an hundred Foot of the Wall, and attempted to break into the City over the Ruines: Upon which, the Tyrians discharg'd a shower of Darts and Arrows, and with much ado repuls'd the Enemy, and the Night following repair'd that part of the Wall that had been batter'd down.
But after that the Passage to the City, by the joining of the Mole close to the Walls, was made, as if it had been a Peninsula, there were many and sharp Contests both to get and defend the Walls. For though they had imminent Destruction before their Eyes, and the Miseries that attend upon a Town's being taken by Storm, yet they so resolv'd to go through all Dangers, that they despis'd Death it self. For when the Macedonians approach'd with Towers of that height that they equall'd the Battlements, and cast out Planks, whereof one of the ends lay upon the Top of the Ramparts, and so by a Bridge mounted the Walls; the Tyrians by the ingenuity of the Artificers, were supply'd with many sorts of Engines and Weapons for their effectual Defence. As amongst others they had very great three Fork'd Hooks, which they cast close at hand, and therewith wounded them in the Towers (to which were fastned Cords, one end whereof they held themselves) and by these fixing in their Enemies Targets they pluck'd them out of their hands: For to this Necessity and Streight the Macedonians were brought, that they must either stand naked, and expos'd (without defensive Arms) to a multitude of Darts and Arrows, and so be wounded to Death, or else out of a point of Honour stick to their Arms, and so perish, by being pluck'd headlong out of the Towers. Others threw Fishing Nets upon them that were engag'd upon the Bridges laid to the Walls, and so intangled their Hands, that they drew them off and tumbled them headlong to the Ground.
Another wonderful invention they found out against the Macedonians, whereby they grievously plagu'd the chiefest of their Enemies, which was this, they fill'd their Iron and Brazen Shields with Sand, and heated them so long in the Fire till the Sand was scorching hot, which by an Engine they threw upon them that were chiefly engag'd, whereby they were cruelly tormented; for the Sand getting within their Breast-plates and Coats of Mail, and grievously scorching their Flesh, no Remedy could be apply'd for the curing of the Malady. So that (though they made most bitter Complaints as Men upon the Rack) yet none there were who were able to help them, insomuch, as they grew mad in the Extremity of the Torture, and dy'd in the height of unexpressible Torments.
In the mean time, the Phaenicians never ceas'd casting Fire-darts and Stones at their Enemies, so that they were scarce able to endure, the Multitude was so excessive. Moreover, with long Poles with sharp Hooks at the end, they cut the Cords of the Battering-Rams in pieces, (which forc'd them forwards) whereby the Force of the Engine was lost; and shot out of Machines for the Purpose, great massy pieces of red hot Iron into the midst of great multitudes of the Assailants, which by reason of the number of them, against whom they were discharg'd, were sure to do Execution. They pluck'd likewise Men in Armour from off the Rampiers with Iron Instruments, call'd Crows, and others shap'd like Mens Hands. And having many Hands at work, they eluded all the Enemies Engines, and kill'd multitudes of them. And although the Service was so amazing, and the Conflict so sharp, that it was scarce to be endur'd, yet the Macedonians remitted nothing of their ancient Valour, but made their way over the Bodies of those that were slain, not at all discouraged by the Misfortunes of others. In the mean time, Alexander batter'd the Walls with massy Stones shot out of his Engines, and grievously gall'd the Defendants with Arrows and Darts, and all sorts of shot from the Wooden Towers. To prevent which mischief, the Tyrians plac'd Marble Wheels before the Walls, which were turn'd round by certain Engines, and with these they either broke the Darts in pieces, or so threw them off that they were ineffectual. And to allay the Force of the Stones shot against the Wall, they sow'd together Hides and Skins oil'd over to receive them, which meeting with what was soft and pliant, their Force was thereby much abated.
Page 541 To conclude, the Tyrians were not short in any thing, whereby their Valour might be made to appear for the Defence of the Place. And being sufficiently supported with fresh aid, they were the more Couragious, and to that degree, that they left the Walls and Towers, and leap'd out upon the Bridges to oppose the Assailants, and Hand to Hand fought it out smartly in the Defence of their Country. There were some, that with Axes cut off whole Limbs at once of all that were in their way. For among the rest, there was one Admetus, a Macedonian Captain, a strong and valiant Man, in the heat of his Contest with the Tyrians, had his Head cloven in the midst with an Ax, and so Perish'd.
Alexander seeing that the Tyrians had the better on't, and Night approaching, sounded a Retreat. And indeed, at first he had thoughts to raise his Siege, and to go on with his Expedition into Aegypt, But he presently chang'd his Mind, looking upon it as Base and Dishonourable to give up all the Glory to the Tyrians. And therefore set himself again to carry on the Siege, though he had only one of his Friends call'd Amyntas, the Brother of Andromenes, who approv'd of his Resolution.
Having therefore encourag'd the Macedonians to stick to him, and furnish'd his Fleet with all things necessary, he besieg'd the City both by Sea and Land. And observing that part of the Wall near the Arsenal, was weaker than the rest, he brought all his Gallies, (which carry'd his best Engines) chain'd fast together, to that Place. There he attempted an Act which the Beholders scarcely believ'd, though they saw it with their Eyes. For he cast a Plank from a Wooden Tower, with one end upon the Battlements of the Walls, as a Bridge, and by this himself alone mounted the Rampire, not regarding any Danger, nor in the least affrighted with the violent Assaults of the Tyrians; but in the View of that Army which had conquer'd the Persians, he shew'd his own Personal Valour, and call'd to the Macedonians to follow him, and was the first that came to handy strokes with the Enemy; and killing some with his Spear, others with his Sword, and tumbling down many with the Bosies of his Buckler, he thus allay'd the Courage of his Adversaries.
In the mean time, the Rams batter'd down a great Part of the Wall in another Place. And now the Macedonians enter'd through the Breach on one side, and Alexander with his Party pass'd over the Wall in another, so that the City was now taken; yet the Tyrians valiantly bestirr'd themselves, and encouraging one another, Guarded and block'd up all the Narrow Passes, and fought it out to the last Man, insomuch as above Seven thousand were cut in pieces upon the Place; the King made all the Women and Children Slaves, and hung up all the young Men that were left, to the number of Two thousand. And there were found so great a Number of Captives, that though the greatest Part of the Inhabitants were transported to Carthage, yet the remainder amounted to Thirteen thousand. Into so great Miseries fell the Tyrians, after they had endur'd a Siege of seven Months with more Obstinacy than Prudence.
Then the King took away the Golden Chains from the Image of Apollo, and caus'd this God to be call'd Apollo Philaxandrus. When he had offer'd splendid Sacrifices to Hercules, and rewarded those who had signaliz'd their Valour, he honourably buried the Dead, and made one Ballonymus King of Tyre. But it would be a thing justly to be condemn'd to neglect to give a further and larger Account of this Man, whose Advancement and wonderful change of Condition, was so extraordinary.
After Alexander had gain'd the City, Strato the former Prince, by reason of his Faithfulness to Dari•s, was depriv'd of the Command; upon which the King gave Power and Liberty to Hephestion, to bestow the Kingdom of Tyre upon which of his Friends he pleas'd. Hephestion hereupon, minding to gratify one where he had been courteously entertain'd, resolv'd to Invest him with the Principality of Tyre; but he though he was very Rich and Honourable above the rest of his Fellow Citizens, yet (because he was not of the Lineage of the Kings) refus'd it. Then Hephestion wish'd him to name some one that was of the Royal Blood; He thereupon told him of one who was a very prudent and good Man, but extream Poor. Hephestion hereupon, forthwith grants the Principality to him, and the Officer assign'd for this Purpose hastens away with the Royal Robes, and finds him in an Orchard in Rags, drawing of Water for his Hire. Having inform'd him of the Change and Alteration of his Condition, he cloath'd him with the Robe and other Ornaments becoming his State and Dignity, and then introduc'd him into the Forum, and there declar'd him King of Tyre. Which unexpected and wonderful Occurrence, was very grateful and acceptable to the People.
Page 542 Thus he obtain'd the Kingdom, and was ever after a most faithful Friend to Alexander, and an Example to all that are unacquainted with the sudden and various Turns of Fortune in this World. Having now related the Acts of Alexander, we shall turn to affairs elsewhere.
In Europe, Agis King of Lacedaemon, having listed Eight thousand Mercenaries, who escap'd from the Battel at Issus, began some new disturbances in favour of Darius. For having receiv'd from him a great Sum of Money and a Fleet, he sail'd into Creet, and reducing many Towns there, he forc'd them to side with the Persians. Amyntas likewise, an Exile of Macedonia, who had fled to Darius, and sided with the Persians in Cilicia, escaping with Four thousand Mercenaries out of the Battel of Issus, pass'd over to Tripolis in Phenicia before Alexander's arrival; and there made choice only of so many of the Navy as would transport his Soldiers, and burnt the rest. With these he sail'd to Cyprus, and from thence, being well furnish'd with Soldiers and Shipping, he pass'd over to Pelusium, and having entred the City, he pretended that Darius sent him to be their General, because the late Governor of Aegypt was kill'd in the Battel in Cilicia. Thence he sail'd to Memphis, and routed the Inhabitants in a Field-fight near to the City; who not long after set upon the Soldiers, stragling out of the Town, and plundering the Country, as they were in that disorder, carrying away what they could get, cut off Amyntas and every Man with him.
In this manner, Amyntas, as he was projecting great Matters, was suddenly disappointed, and lost his Life. So likewise, other Officers and Captains of the Army that surviv'd the Battel of Issus, still cleav'd to the Persian Interest. For some secur'd convenient Cities and Garisons for Darius, and others procur'd several Provinces to raise Soldiers for him, and provide other things necessary, as the present Exigency of affairs required.
In the mean time, the General Senate of Greece made a Decree, to send Fifteen Ambassadors to present a Golden Crown to Alexander, in Congratulation of his Victory at Issus, who was at that time besieging Gaza, a Garison of the Persians, which he took by Assault, after a two Months siege.
Alexander makes a Journey to the Temple of Jupiter-Hammon. He's presented by the Cyreneans. The Description of the Place about the Temple. The wonderful Properties of the Fountain Solis. The Building of Alexandria. Alexander's Answer to Darius his Ambassadors. Alexander passes over the River Tygris with great hazard. The Preparations on both sides for Battel. The Persians routed at that Famous Battel at Arbela.
ARistophanes was now chief Governor of Athens, and Spurius Posthumius, and TitusViturius, were invested with the Dignity of Consuls at Rome, when Alexander, after the taking of Gaza, sent Amyntas with Ten Sail into Macedonia, with Orders to List the Stoutest of the young Men for Soldiers. And in the mean time, he himself march'd forward with the whole Army towards Aegypt, and coming there, all the Cities submitted to him without fighting. For because the Persians had wickedly violated their Holy Rites, and domineer'd imperiously over them, they most willingly receiv'd the Macedonians.
Having setled his Affairs in Aegypt, he undertook a Journey to the Temple of Hammon, to consult with the Oracle there. When he was in the midst of his Journey, he was met by the Ambassadors of Cyrene, presenting him with a Crown and other rich Gifts, among which were Three hundred War-Horses, and Five of the best Chariots, drawn with four Horses a piece. These he accepted, and made a League of Peace and Amity with them; and then with those that attended him went on forward in his Journey to the Temple. When they came to the parch'd and dry Deserts, (for they had taken Water along with them) they passed through a Region which was nothing but heaps of Sand. After the fourth Day their Water was spent, so that they were in extremity of Distress; while they were in this great perplexity, and knew not what to resolve, a sudden and unexpected shower of Rain then falling, supply'd all their present Necessities; which unexpected Preservation they imputed to the Kindness and Providence of the Gods.
Having furnish'd themselves out of a Valley with so much Water as was sufficient for four days; in that time they pass'd over this Dire and scorching Desart; But in regard there was no visible Path, by reason of the great Heaps of Sand, those who led the way, Page 543 told the King, that there were Crows, which by their Croking at the Right Hand, directed them the way to the Temple; which the King taking as an happy Omen, and thereupon concluded, that his coming was grateful and acceptable to the Gods, he went forward on his Journey with more chearfulness. The next Place he came to, was call'd the BitterPond; Having travell'd thence a Hundred Furlongs, he pass'd by the Cities of Hammon, and in one days Journey more came to the Grove of the God.
The Site of the Temple is surrounded with a vast Dry and Sandy Desart, Wast and Untill'd; but it self is Fifty furlongs Broad, and as many Long, full of pleasant Fountains, and watered with running Streams, richly planted with all sorts of Trees, most of them bearing Fruit.
The Temperature of the Air is a constant Spring. And though all the Places round it are Dry and Scorching, yet to all that live there, the Heavens afford a most healthful Climate. It's reported, that this Temple was built by Danaus the Aegyptian.
Towards the East and West part of this Sacred Ground the Aethiopians inhabit; towards the North the Numinidians, a People of Africa; and towards the South the Nasomeneans. The Hammonians, the Inhabitants of the Sacred Grove, live in Villages. In the middle of the Grove is a Castle fortify'd with a Treble Wall; within the first stands the Palace of the ancient Kings; within the other was the Gynecaeum, where were the Apartments for the Wives, Children, and Kindred of the Prince, and stood as a common Fortress and Guard to the whole Place; and lastly, the Temple it self, and the Sacred Laver, wherein they wash'd the Sacrifices. Within the Third, were the Lodgings of the Archers and Darters, and Guard-houses of those who attend as Guards upon the Prince when he walks abroad. Not far from the Castle, out of the Walls, stands another Temple of Hammon, shaded round with many Fruit Trees, next to which is a Fountain, call'd Solis, from the Natural Effects of it. For the Water differs in its temper, according to the several Hours of the Day. For about Sun rising it's Lukewarm; afterwards as the Day comes on, it grows colder and colder, every Hour till Noon, at which time it's at the Coldest. And thenceforward till Evening the Cold abates by degrees; and when Night approaches it waxes hot again, and encreases by little and little till Midnight, at which time it boils through intensiveness of Heat. From that time it cools by degrees, till Sun-rising, and then is Lukewarm again, as it was before.
The Image of the God is adorn'd in every part with Emeralds and other precious Stones, and delivers his Oracles in a singular and unusual Way: For he's carry'd about in a Golden Ship by fourscore Priests, who make to that Place, whither the God with a Nod of his Head directs them.
There follows a great Multitude of Matrons and young Virgins, singing Paeans all the way as they go, and setting forth the Praises of the Idol, in Songs compos'd after the Custom of their own Country.
When Alexander was introduc'd by the Priests into the Temple, and saw the God, one of the Old Prophets address'd himself to him, and said, God save thee my Son, and this Title take along with thee from the God himself. To whom he made Answer, I accept it, my Father, and if you'll make me Lord of the whole World, your Son I'll ever be call'd. Upon which, the Priest approach'd near the Altar; and when the Men (who according to Custom lift up the Image) at the uttering some Words as Signs for that Purpose, mov'd forward, the Priest answer'd, That the God would certainly bestow upon him what he had desir'd. This was very acceptable to Alexander.
But then he further said, I intreat thee, O God, that thou wouldst let me know what I have yet to enquire, and that is, Whether I have executed Justice upon all my Father's Murderers? Or whether any have escap'd? At which the Oracle cry'd out, Express thy self better, for no Mortal can kill thy Father, but all the Murderers of Philip have suffer'd just Punishment.
He added further, That his wonderful Successes and Prosperous Atchievements, were Evidences of his Divine Birth: For as he was never yet overcome by any, so he should be ever Victorious for the time to come.
Alexander being greatly pleas'd with these Answers, after he had bestow'd many rich and stately Gifts upon the Oracle, return'd back on his way for Egypt, where he intended to build a great City. In order whereunto, when he came there, he directed the Overseers of this Work to build it between the Marishes and the Sea, and measur'd out the Ground himself, and mark'd out the Streets, and call'd it Alexandria, after his own Name. It had a very commodious Situation, being near unto the Haven of Pharos. He order'd and contriv'd the Streets with that Prudence, as that the Etesean Winds should, with their comfortable Gales, refresh all parts of the City: For these so cool the Air by their Page 544 Breezes from the Great Sea, as that the Inhabitants, by so welcome and delightful Temperature of the Heat, are very healthful. He likewise drew a large and wonderful strong Wall round the City; and inasmuch as it lay between a large Pond on the one side, and the Sea on the other, there were but two narrow Ways and Passes by Land to it; so that it was easie to be defended by a small Guard. The City was in form like unto a Soldier's Coat, one large and beautifully built Street running almost through the middle of the Town; in length from Gate to Gate forty Furlongs, in breadth an hundred Foot, adorn'd with most stately Structures, both of Temples and private Houses. Alexander likewise built a large and stately Palace of most admirable Workmanship: And not only Alexander, but all the succeeding Kings of Egypt from time to time, to our present Age, have enlarg'd this Palace with most costly and sumptuous Buildings. The City likewise it self has been enlarg'd in after-times; so that by many it is reputed to be one of the Greatest and most Noble Cities in the World; for Beauty, rich Revenues, and plentiful Provision of all things for the comfortable Support of Man's Life, far excelling all others; and far more populous than any other: For when I was in Egypt, I was inform'd by them that kept the Rolls of the Inhabitants, That there were above Three hundred thousand Freemen that inhabited there, and that the King receiv'd above Six thousand Talents out of the yearly Revenues of Egypt. But when the King had appointed some of his Friends to oversee and take care of the Building of Alexandria, and had setled all the Affairs of Egypt, he return'd with his Army into Syria.
As soon as Darius had intelligence of his coming, he got all his Forces together, and prepar'd all things necessary in order to fight him: For he order'd the Swords and Lances to be made much longer, thinking by that advantage Alexander gain'd the Victory in Cilicia. He provided likewise two hundred hook'd Chariots, drawn with four Horses a piece, so contriv'd as to strike Terror into the Hearts of his Enemies. For in every one of them on both sides, the Horses which drew the Chariot by Iron Chains, were fix'd in the Yoak-Darts of three Spans long, with their Points full in the Faces of the Enemy. Upon the lower Parts of the Axle-trees, were two others fastned directly as those before, pointing into the Enemies Faces, but longer and broader; and at the top of them were fix'd sharp Hooks. Having compleatly furnish'd and set forth his Army with glittering Arms and stout Commanders, he march'd from Babylon with Eight hundred thousand Foot, and no less than Two hundred thousand Horse. In his march, Tygris was on his right, and Euphrates on his left Hand; where he past through a very rich Country, abounding in Forage for his Horse, and supplying sufficient Provision of all Things for his Soldiers.
He made all the haste he could to reach Niniveh, there to fight the Enemy, because it was a large and Champain Country, convenient for the drawing up of so great an Army. When he came to a Village call'd Arbela, he there encamp'd, and every day drew up his Army in Battalia, and train'd and exercis'd them; for he was much afraid lest amongst so many Nations differing in Language one from another, there should be nothing but Tumult and Confusion in the heat of the Fight. He had indeed but lately before sent Ambassadors to Alexander to treat upon Terms of Peace, and had offer'd to him all the Countries lying within the Liver Halys, and Two thousand Talents of Silver; and now sent others to him, much commending him for his generous and honourable Usage of his Mother and the rest of the Captives, and desir'd to make Peace with him, and offer'd all the Lands lying within the River Euphrates, with Three thousand Talents of Silver, and one of his Daughters in Marriage: And further promis'd, That if he would be content to be his Son-in-Law, he should be joint Partner with him in the Kingdom.
Alexander imparted all these Proposals, offer'd to him by Darius, to his Friends, whom he call'd together for that purpose, and wish'd them freely to deliver their Opinions in this matter. When none durst speak their Minds in a Business of so high a Concernment, Parmenio stood up and said, If I were Alexander, I would accept of the Terms offer'd, and make Peace. To whom Alexander reply'd, And if I were Parmenio, I would do the same. And so uttering several other Words manifesting a Greatness and Nobleness of Mind, he rejected the Conditions offer'd by the Persians; and preferring Honour before Profit or other Advantage, he spoke to the Ambassadors in this manner: As two Suns in the Heaven would disorder the Course of the Universe, so two Kings Reigning together upon Earth, would turn all into Tumult and Confusion. Therefore he commanded them to tell Darius, That if he affected the Superiority, then to come and try it out with him for the whole Empire by the Sword; but if he preferr'd Wealth and Ease before Honour, that then he should submit to Alexander, and so he might Reign over others as a King; but yet receive his Kingdom at the hands of Alexander as a Fruit of his Bounty.
Page 545 Having said this, he presently after broke up the Assembly, and march'd with his Army towards the Enemy's Camp. In the mean time, the Wife of Darius dy'd, and Alexander bury'd her honourably according to her Quality. When Darius receiv'd Alexander's Answer, he was out of all hopes of putting an end to the War by Letters and Messages, and therefore he train'd his Soldiers every day, thereby making them more ready and willing to observe all Words of Command whenever they should engage.
In the mean while he sent Mazeus, one of his Faithfull Friends, with a Battalion of stout Men to guard the Passage over the River Tygris, and secure the Ford. Others he commanded to burn up all the Country through which the Enemy was to pass: For he reresolv'd to make use of the River as a Defence and Bulwark against the Enemy's approach.
But Mazeus observing that the River was not passable, both by reason of its depth, and swiftness of its Stream, wav'd the guarding of it, and employ'd himself in wasting and destroying of the Country; concluding, that when that was done, the Enemy could not pass that way through want of Provision.
Alexander, when he came to the River Tygris (being inform'd by the Inhabitants where the Ford lay) pass'd his Army over, but with very great Toil and extream Hazard; for the Water came up above their Breasts, and several were taken off their Feet, and hurry'd away by the violence of the Stream; many others likewise were born away, and perish'd through the rapid Course of the Water, involving it self within their Arms. Alexander, to withstand the Violence of the Water, order'd his Men to stand close in a Body together, like a Rampire against the Stream: By this means they got safe over; and after so much danger and difficulty, he permitted them to refresh themselves for one day. The next day he march'd in Battalia against the Enemy, and at length encamp'd near to them. But while he revolv'd in his Mind the vast number of the Persian Army, and what great Difficulties he was to cope with, and that now all lay at stake, he spent all that Night in anxious Thoughts concerning the Event. But he fell into so deep a Sleep about the Morning-Watch, that though the Sun was now up, yet he could not be awak'd. His Friends at the first were very glad of it, as judging the longer he rested the more lively he would be, and so more able to bear the Fatigues of the Day. But Time drawing far on, and the King still fast asleep, Parmenio, the Oldest of the Commanders, gave Command through the Army to prepare for an Engagement. The King sleeping still, some of his Friends stept in to him, and had much ado to awake him. While all wonder'd at a thing so unusual, and expected to hear the Cause from himself, Now, says Alexander, I am free from all Fear and Care as concerning Darius, who has brought his whole Strength together into one Place; for by one Day's Battel for the Trial of all, I shall be quit and discharg'd of all my Hazards and Toils for the time to come. Upon which, without any delay he made a Speech to encourage his Officers to pluck up their Spirits, and with Courageous Hearts to▪ 〈◊〉 all the Dangers that were before them. Upon which he march'd in Battalia against the Barbarians, with the Horse in the Front of his Army. The Right Wing was Commanded by Clitus, surnam'd Niger, wherein were other special Friends under the Command of Philotas the Son of Parmenio, supported by seven other Regiments of Horse under the same Commander. After them were plac'd the Battalion of Foot call'd Argyraspides, glittering in their Arms (most excellent Soldiers) led by Nicanor the Son of Parmenio; to support them, he plac'd next the Squadrons of Elimia, whose Leader was Cenus. In the next Squadron stood the Oresteans and Lyncestians, whose Captain was Perdiccas; next to these was Meleager with his Squadron; and after him Polysphercon commanded the Stympheans; and next to him Philip the Son of Balacrus commanded another Squadron; and after him Craterus. To the Squadrons of Horse before-mention'd were •oin'd, as Auxiliaries, those from Peloponnesus and Achaia, together with the Phthiots, Malieans, Locrians, and Phocians, commanded by Erigyrus of Mitylene. After these were plac'd the Thessalians (for Valour and Horsemanship far beyond all the rest) whose Commander was Philip. Next to these he drew up the Archers from Crete, and the Mercenaries from Achaia.
Both Wings were drawn up into the Form of an half-moon, that the Macedonians might not be hemm'd in by the multitude of the Persians. The King provided against the hook'd Chariots, that they might not break in upon them, by this Contrivance: he commanded the Foot, that when the Chariots advanc'd near in their Career, they should strike with their Javelins upon their Shields lock'd one into another, that the horses, frighted with the noise, might start back; but that if they still press'd forward, in order to force their way, that then they should open, that so they might shun them without any prejudice. Page 546 He himself took upon him the Command of the Right Wing, and drawing up in an oblique Line, resolv'd to venture himself wherever there was any Danger.
Darius drew up his Army according to the distinction of the several Nations, and advanc'd against the Enemy in that Wing opposite to Alexander. And now both Armies drew near one to another, and the Trumpets on both Sides gave the Signal to Battel, and the Soldiers made at one another with a great shout, and forthwith the hook'd Chariots rushing forward with a mighty force, greatly amaz'd and terrifi'd the Macedonians. For Mazeus the General of the Horse charging with a great Body close after the Chariots, caus'd them to be more terrible. In the midst of the Action, a mighty Crash and dreadful Noise was made on a sudden by the Foot's striking with their Jav•lins upon their Bucklers, as the King had commanded; upon which many of the Chariots (through the fright of the Horses) were turn'd aside, and the Horses being altogether ungovernable, made away back again into the Persian Army; Most of the rest of the Chariots breaking in among the Foot, by opening to make way, were either quite destroy'd by Darts and Arrows, or diverted. Some indeed forc'd their way with that Violence, that with their Hooks they bore down all before them, and many perish'd by several sorts of deadly Wounds. For such was the Force and Violence, together with the Sharpness of the hook'd Sithes contriv'd for Destruction, that many had their Arms with their Shields in their Hands cut off; and not a few had their Heads so suddenly shear'd off, that they tumbled to the Ground with their Eyes open, and their Countenance in the same Posture as they were when alive. Some were so mortally gash'd, and cut through their Sides, that they forthwith fell down dead.
When the Armies came closer together, and all their Darts and Arrows both from their Bows and Slings, and those cast by the Hand, were spent, they fell to it hand to hand. The first Charge was by the Horse, the Macedonians being in the Right Wing opposite to Darius, who commanded the Left of the Persians, in which were his Kindred and near Relations. For there was a Regiment of a Thousand Horse, compos'd only of such as were in greatest Reputation and Account for their Valour and special Love to the King. These having him a Spectator of their Valour, readily and chearfully receiv'd all the Darts that were cast at the King. They were seconded by the Melephorians, who were numerous and stout Men, and with them were join'd the Mardians and Cisseans, Men admir'd for their Courage, and the Bulk of their Bodies. Besides these, there were those of the King's Houshold, and some of the stoutest of the Indians. All these made a fierce Charge with a great Shout upon the Macedonians, who were put very hard to it by reason of their Multitude. Mazeus likewise in the Right Wing, with a brave Body of Horse charg'd with that briskness, that he laid many at his Feet at the first onset. Then he order'd Two thousand Cadusian Horse, and a Thousand more of the Scythians, to take a compass round the Enemies Wings, and to break in upon the Trenches that defended their Carriages; who presently thereupon put in execution what they were commanded. Thus having forc'd into the Macedonians Camp, some of the Prisoners catch'd up Arms and join'd with the Scythians, and rifled the Carriages. Upon which, through the suddenness of the Surprize, a great Noise and Clamour arose throughout the whole Camp. Then other Prisoners ran in to the Barbarians. But Sisygambris the Mother of Darius would not stir, though she was mov'd to it, but with a kind of an affectionate Regard to her Condition, continu'd in the same place, not trusting to the uncertain Turns of Fortune, nor judging it fit and honourable to manifest so much Ingratitude towards Alexander. The Scythians having at length rifled most of the Carriages, return'd to Mazeus, and gave him an Account of the happy Success. With the like good Fortune that Body of Horse with Darius put the Macedonians (overpower'd with Number) to flight. While the Victory seem'd thus to incline to the Persians by this second Success, Alexander making it his only Business with all the speed possible to rally his broken Forces, and to repair his Losses, charg'd Darius with his own Brigade, and some others of the bravest Horse in the Army; The Persian King receiv'd the Enemy's Charge with great Resolution, and fighting mounted upon his Chariot, dispatch'd many with Darts that assaulted him; neither were they few that defended him. And while both Kings were eager to destroy one another, Alexander in throwing a Dart at Darius miss'd him, but kill'd his Chariot-driver. Upon which, those about the King that were at some distance set up a great Cry, believing that the King was kill'd; and forthwith betook themselves to their Heels, and then the next to them follow'd. Presently the Troops next to Darius himself gave ground by degrees, till such time as he was left naked on one side; and then he himself in a great Consternation made away with all speed. The Persians being thus dispers'd, the Horse in their flight rais'd so great a Cloud of Dust, that Alexander and his Men, who pursu'd close at the Page 547 Heels of the Enemy, could not see which way Darius fled: Nothing was heard but the Groans of dying Men, the trampling of Horses, and continual Noise and Lashing of Whips. In the mean time, Mazeus in the Right Wing having the bravest and stoutest Horse of any of the Persians, press'd grievously upon those Troops with whom he was engag'd. So that though Parmenio with the Thessalian Horse, and others join'd with them, were greatly distress'd, yet he bore the Brunt for some time, and at first through his own Valour, and the Bravery of the Thessalian Horse, worsted the Persians; but the Horse with Mazeus by their Number bearing down the other, that Wing of the Macedonians was quite routed, so that a great Slaughter was made, and there was now no standing before the Barbarians. Parmenio therefore sent Horsemen after Alexander to intreat his Assistance with all speed, who hasted away to execute the Orders and Command given: But when they heard that a great part of the Army was fled, they return'd without going further. However Parmenio bestirring himself, and rallying his Troops as well as he could, with the help of the Thessalian Horse hew'd down many of his Enemies, and at length with much ado put the Barbarians to flight, who were in Amaze and Consternation upon hearing that Darius was fled.
Darius in the mean time being an expert General, and help'd by the thick Cloud of Dust, took not his Course strait forward like the rest, but turn'd a different way; and so being not discern'd, (by reason the Dust rose so high,) escap'd clear away, and brought all those that went along with him safe into the Towns and Villages that lay at the Backs of the Macedonians.
At length all the Barbarians taking to their Heels, and the Macedonians killing all that were in the Rear, in a short time all that large Plain was cover'd over with dead Carkasses. There were kill'd in this Battel, of the Barbarians, Horse and Foot, above Ninety thousand; of the Macedonians, Five hundred only, but great Multitudes wounded. Amongst whom, Hephestion, one of the bravest of Alexander's Commanders, and Captain of his Guard, was shot through the Arm with a Dart. Perdiccas, Cenas, Menidas, and some others likewise were wounded. And this was the Issue of the Battel at Arbela.
The Graecians conspire to Revolt. Memnon rebells in Thrace. Antipater marches against him. The Lacedaemonians raise an Army; are routed by Antipater, and Agis their King kill'd.
ARistophon was at that time Lord Chancellor of Athens, and Cneius Domitius and AulusCornelius were created Roman Consuls, when many of the Cities of Greece, upon the News of the Victory at Arbela, began to bestir themselves to defend their ancient Liberties, whilst the Persians had any Power left to assist them; and therefore resolv'd to assist Darius with Monies to raise Foreign Soldiers from all Parts. For they concluded, that Alexander durst not divide his Army lest he should disturb them; but if they should suffer the Persians to be destroy'd, they were not able of themselves to defend their Liberties. And an Insurrection in Thrace encourag'd them the more to Revolt: For Memnon being sent General into Thrace, having both Courage and Force sufficient, at the Instigation of the Barbarians rebell'd, and with a great Army now appear'd in open War. Upon which, Antipater gather'd all his Forces together, and march'd through Macedonia into Thrace against Memnon. Things thus falling out, the Lacedaemonians judging that now a fair Opportunity was offer'd them to prepare for War, sollicited the Graecians to Confederate together for their remaining Liberties. But the Athenians, in regard they had receiv'd many Kindnesses and Marks of Honour from Alexander beyond all the rest of the Cities, continu'd quiet and firm in their Duty. But many of the Peloponnesians, and some others, entred into the League, and inroll'd their Names as Soldiers for the Army; so as according as every City was able, they sent forth the choicest of their Youth, and rais'd an Army of Twenty thousand Foot and Two thousand Horse. The Management of the whole War was left to the Lacedaemonians, who were resolv'd to lay all at Stake, and made Agis General. Antipater hearing of the Defection of the Greeks, compos'd all Matters relating to the War in Thrace as well as he could, and march'd with all his Forces into Greece, having no less than Forty thousand Greek Auxiliaries as Confederates. Hereupon Page 548 a great Battel was fought, wherein Agis (though he behav'd himself with great Valour and Resolution) was kill'd, and at length the Lacedaemonians (having stood to it stoutly for a long time) upon their Confederates giving Ground, likewise retreated towards Sparta. There fell of the Lacedaemonians and their Confederates in this Battel above Five thousand and Three hundred: Of those with Antipater, Three thousand and Five hundred.
There was one Thing very Remarkable concerning the Death of Agis. Having fought with great Gallantry and Resolution, and receiv'd many Wounds, he was carry'd off by the Soldiers in order to be brought back to his own Country, but being surrounded by the Enemy, and finding no likelihood to escape, he charg'd his Soldiers forthwith to be gone, and preserve themselves for the further Service of their Country. He himself remain'd, and with his Sword in his Hand fought it out upon his Knees, and kill'd several of the Assailants, till at length being shot through the Body with a Dart, he there dy'd, after he had reign'd Nine Years. Thus far for Europe, we shall now return again to the Affairs of Asia.
Alexander comes to Babylon. The Wealth found there. Views his Troops at Sitacana. The Riches there. Thence goes into the Country of the Uxians. Marches towards Persepolis. A Company of maim'd Greeks met Alexander: His Bounty to them. He takes Persepolis; gives it up to the Plunder of the Soldiers. The Riches of the Cittadel of Persepolis. Alexander's Feast at Persepolis. Persepolis burnt at the Instigation of Thais. Darius murder'd.
DArius being routed at Arabela, fled towards the higher Provinces, to the end that he might both by the distance of the Place recruit himself, and likewise have more time to raise a new Army. He came first to Ecbatane, where he stay'd for some time, and there receiv'd his broken Troops that came in to him, and arm'd again such as had lost their Arms. He sent likewise for the Militia out of the Neighbouring Provinces, and dispatch'd Messengers to the Lord-Lieutenants and Commanders in Bactria and the upper Praefectures, wishing them to abide firm to him in their Faith and Loyalty.
In the mean time, Alexander (after he had buri'd those that were kill'd in the Battel) enter'd Arbela, where he found abundance of rich Furniture of the Kings, and vast Treasures of the Barbarians, amounting to Three thousand Talents of Silver. But because he judg'd that the Air thereabouts must needs be infected through the Stench of the Bodies that lay there slain, he presently remov'd his Camp, and came with all his Forces to Babylon, where he was chearfully receiv'd by the Inhabitants, and splendid Entertainment afforded to the Macedonians. And there his Army was refresh'd after the many Toils and Difficulties they had undergone. And thus in the Confluence of all Things desirable, and free and noble Entertainment of the Citizens, he continu'd in the City above Thirty Days. Then he made Agatho of Pydna Governor of the Castle, with a Garison of Seven Hundred Macedonians. To Apollodorus of Amphipolis, and Menetes of Pelea, he gave the Government of Babylon, and of all the Prefectures as far as to Cilicia, and order'd them to raise what Forces they could; and gave them a Thousand Talents for that purpose. He made Mithrinas, who betray'd the Castle of Sardis, Lord Lieutenant of Armenia. Of the Monies that he found in Babylon, he gave to every Horseman Six Minas; to every Auxiliary, Five; to each of the Macedonian Phalanx, Two; and to every Foreign Mercenary, Two Months Pay.
The King removing from Babylon, as he was in his March there came to him Recruits from Antipater, Five hundred Macedonian Horse, and Six thousand Foot; Six hundred Thracian Horse, and Three thousand Five hundred Trallians: From Peloponnesus Four thousand Foot, and almost a Thousand Horse. Among these were sent Fifty of the Sons of the King's special Friends from Macedonia, design'd by their Fathers to be of the King's Life-Guard. Having receiv'd these, he march'd forward, and came, after Six Decampments, into the Province of Sitacina. And here he stay'd several Days, in regard the Country abounded in all Things necessary for the Life of Man, and for that he had a mind his Soldiers should refresh themselves after their tedious March. And had a Purpose Page 549 likewise to take a more exact View and Account of his Troops, and to inlarge the Commands and Governments of his Captains and Commanders, and so to strengthen his Army, both by the Number of Soldiers, and Valour of their Officers. All which he forthwith put in Execution; and making choice of the most Deserving with the utmost Care possible, he advanc'd many from very considerable Places of Trust and Authority to much higher Preferments, by which means he both promoted his Officers, and gain'd their Hearts and Affections at the same time. He took care also for the better Government of the Common Soldiers, and by many new Inventions put every thing into a better Order and Posture than they were before. To conclude, when he had so manag'd every thing as that he had gain'd the Love of the whole Army, and made them in all Points observant to his Commands, and was assur'd for Valour they would give Ground to none, he march'd forward, in order to finish by fighting what further remain'd. When he came to the Province of Susiana, he presently without any difficulty gain'd the Possession of Susa, the Royal City, the most beautiful Palace of the Universe, which was voluntarily surrender'd to him by Abuletes the Lord Lieutenant of the Province. But some Writers have said, That this was done by order from Darius himself, to them that otherwise would have been both Loyal and Faithful to his Interest; and that this was done by the Persian King for this end, that Alexander being taken up with Matters of such great Moment, as taking Possession of famous and noble Cities, and loading himself with vast Treasures, Darius might gain more time for the raising of fresh Forces for the carrying on of the War.
Alexander therefore having possess'd himself of the City and the King's Treasures, found there above Forty thousand Talents of uncoin'd Gold and Silver. The Kings had preserv'd this Treasure untouch'd for many Ages, that it might be ready to resort to in case of some sudden and unexpected Turn of Fortune. Besides this, there was likewise Nine thousand Talents in coin'd Money call'd Daricks. While Alexander was taking an Account of this Wealth, there happen'd something that was very Remarkable. The Throne whereon he sate being too high for him, so that his Feet could not touch the Footstool, one of the King's Boys observing it, brought Darius his Table and plac'd it under his Feet, with which the King was very well pleas'd, and commended his Care. But one of the Eunuchs standing at the side of the Throne, much concern'd and griev'd at such a change of Fortune, burst out into Tears: Which Alexander perceiving; What Ill dost thou see (says he) that thou weepest so? To whom he answer'd, I was once Darius his Servant,now I am yours; but because I cannot but love my natural Lord and Master, I am not able without extream Sorrow to see that Table put to so base and mean a Use, which by him was so lately grao'd and honour'd. The King, upon this Answer, reflecting upon the strange Change of the Persian Monarchy, began to consider that he had acted the part of a Proud and Insulting Enemy, not becoming that Humanity and Clemency which ought to be shewn towards Captives; and therefore he commanded him who plac'd the Table there, to take it away: But Philotas standing near to him, said, It is not Pride or Insolency, O King! being done without your Command, but it falls out to be so through the Providence and Pleasure of some good Genius. Upon which, the King order'd the Table to remain where it was, looking upon it as some happy Omen.
After this, he order'd some Masters to attend upon Darius his Mother, his Daughters and Son, to instruct them in the Greek Tongue, and left them at Susa. And he himself march'd away with the whole Army, and after four Decampments came to the River Tigris, which rising out of the Uxian Mountains, runs first through a rough and craggy Country, full of large and wide Channels for the space of a Thousand Furlongs; thence it passes through a Champion Country with a more gentle Current, and having made its way for the space of Six hundred Furlongs, it empties it self into the Persian Sea.
Alexander having pass'd the River, march'd towards the most fruitful Country of the Uxians: For being water'd in every part, it plentifully produces Fruits of all sorts and kinds; of which, being in their proper Season dri'd in the Time of Autumn, they make all sorts of Sweetmeats, Sauces, and other Compositions, both for necessary Use and Pleasure, and the Merchants convey them down the River Tygris to Babylon. He found all the Passes strongly guarded by Madates, who was near related in Kindred to Darius, and had with him a strong and well-disciplin'd Army. Whilst Alexander was viewing the Strength of the Places, and could find out no Passage through those steep Rocks; an Inhabitant of the Country, who was well acquainted with those Ways, promis'd Alexander, that he would lead his Soldiers through such a strait and difficult Path-way, as that they should stand at length over the Heads of their Enemies: Hereupon the King order'd a small Party to go along with him. He himself in the mean time us'd his utmost Endeavour Page 550 to force his Way, and for that purpose set upon the Guards, and while they were hotly engag'd. (fresh Men still supplying the Room of them that were weary,) and the Barbarians disorderd, and running here annothere in the Engagement, on a sudden the Soldiers that were sent away appear'd over the Heads of the Guards that kept the Passages; upon which they were so amaz'd, that they forthwith fled, and so the King gain'd the Pass; and presently all the Cities throughout all Uxiana were brought into Subjection. Thence he decamp'd and march'd towards Persia, and the Fifth Day came to a Place call'd: he Susian R•cks, which were before possess'd by Ariobarzanes, with Five and twenty thousand Foot, and Three hundred Horse. The King concluding, that he must gain the Pass by force, led his Troops through some of the strait and craggy Places without any Resistance; the Barbarians never offer'd to disturb him till he came the mid-way, and then on a sudden they bestirr'd themselves, and threw down great Numbers of massy Stones upon the Heads of the Macedonians, and destroy'd Multitudes of them. Many cast their Darts from the Rocks above upon them, which fail'd not to do Execution, falling among such a Throng of Men together: Others with Hand-stones repuls'd the Macedonians that were forcing to break in upon them; so that by reason of the Difficulty of the Places, the Barbarians so far prevail'd, as to kill Multitudes, and wound as many. Alexander not being able to prevent this sad and miserable Slaughter, and perceiving that not one of the Enemy fell, or was so much as hurt, and that many of his own Men were slain, and almost all that led the Van were wounded, he sounded a Retreat; and march'd back Three hundred Furlongs, and then encamp'd. Then he enquir'd of the Inhabitants, whether there was any other Way to pass, who all answer'd, That there was none, but that he must go round many Days Journey. But the King looking upon it as a Dishonourable Thing to leave the Bodies of them that were slain unbury'd; and as disgraceful, and even owning himself to be conquer'd by treating for Liberty to bury the Dead, he commanded the Captives, as many as were there at hand, to be brought to him. Among these, there was one that understood both the Persian and Greek Tongue, who declar'd, that he was a Lycian and sometime ago made a Prisoner at War, and that for several Years last past he had exercis'd the calling of a Shepherd in those Neighbouring Mountains, and by that means had perfect knowledge of the Country, and told the King, that he could lead the Army through the Woods, and bring them directly upon the Backs of them that guarded the Passes; Hearing this, the King promis'd the Man a large Reward, who thereupon so conducted him, that in the Night with great Labour and Toil he got to the top of the Mountains, for he drail'd through abundance of Snow, and past through a Country full of steep Rocks, deep Gulphs, and many Vallies. Having march'd through this Tract, as soon as he came in sight of the Guards, he presently kill'd the first, and took those Prisoners that were plac'd in the next Pass. The third Guard presently fled, and so he gain'd all into his own Power, and cut off the greatest part of Ariobarzanes his Army. Thence he march'd towards Persepolis, and in his way receiv'd Letters from Teridates Governor of the City, whereby he signify'd to him, That if he hasted away, and prevented those that were coming to relieve Persepolis, he would deliver the City into his Hand. Upon which he made a swift March, and pass'd his Army over the River Araxis, by a Bridge then laid for that purpose. As the King was on his March, a most sad Spectacle presented it self, which stirr'd up just Hatred against the Author, Pity and Compassion for the irreparable Loss of those that suffer'd; and Grief and Sorrow in all the Beholders. For there met him certain Greeks, whom the former Kings of Persia had made Captives and Slaves, and fell down at his Feet; they were near Eight hundred, most of them then old Men, and all maim'd, some having their Hands, others their Hands, others their Feet, some their Ears, and others their Noses, cut off. If any were expert in any Art, and had made a considerable Progress therein, all his outward Members were cut off, but such only as were necessary for the Management of his Art. So that all that beheld their Venerable old Age, and the sad mangling of their Bodies, greatly pity'd the miserable Condition of these poor Creatures: Especially Alexander so piti'd their sad Condition, that he could not re•rain from Weeping. These all with one Voice cry'd out, and intreated him, That he would Succour and Relieve them in these their Calamities. Upon which, the King call'd the chiefest of them to him, and told them, that he would take special Care of him, and promis'd he would see them sent honourably to their own Country, as became the Dignity of his Person. Upon which they consulted together, and at length concluded, That it was better for them to remain where they were, than to return into their own Country: For when they were return'd, they should be scatter'd here and there, and all the Days of their Lives be Mock'd and Despis'd by reason of their sad Misfortunes. But if they continu'd together as Fellows in their Misery, the Calamity of their Fellow-Sufferers would Page 551 be an Allay, and some Comfort to every one of them in their own Adversities. Upon this, they made a second Address to the King, and declar'd to him what they had resolv'd upon, and desir'd him he would afford such Relief to them as was most agreable to their present Circumstances. The King consented to what they had determin'd, and order'd to each of them Three thousand Drachmas, Five Suits of Rayment to every Man, and as many to each Woman; and to every one of them Two Yoke of Oxen, Fifty Sheep, and as many Medimnas of Wheat. And commanded they should be free from all Taxes and Tribute, and gave strict Charge to the Officers employ'd, that none should offer them any Injury. And thus Alexander, according to his natural Goodness and innate Generosity, comforted these poor miserable People. He then call'd the Macedonians together, and told them, That Persepolis, the Metropolis of the Kingdom of Persia, of all the Cities of Asia had done most Mischief to the Graecians, and therefore he gave it up to the Plunder and Spoil of the Soldiers, except the King's Palace. This was the richest City of any under the Sun, and for many Ages all the private Houses were full of all sorts of Wealth, and what ever was desirable.
The Macedonians therefore forcing into the City, put all the Men to the Sword, and rifl'd and carry'd away every Man's Goods and Estate, amongst which was abundance of rich and costly Furniture and Ornaments of all sorts. In this Place was hurri'd away here and there vast Quantities of Silver, and no less of Gold, great Numbers of rich Garments, some of Purple, others embroider'd with Gold, all which became a plentiful Prey to the ravenous Soldiers: And thus the great Seat Royal of the Persians, once famous all the World over, was now expos'd to Scorn and Contempt, and rifl'd from top to bottom. For though every Place was full of rich Spoil, yet the Covetousness of the Macedonians was insatiable, still thirsting after more. And they were so eager in Plundering, that they fought one with another with drawn Swords, and many who were conceiv'd to have got a greater Share than the rest, were kill'd in the Quarrel. Some Things that were of extraordinary Value they divided with their Swords, and each took a Share; Others in Rage cut off the Hands of such as laid hold upon a Thing that was in Dispute. They first ravish'd the Women as they were in their Jewels and rich Attire, and then sold them for Slaves. So that by how much Persepolis excell'd all the other Cities in Glory and Worldly Felicity, by so much more was the Measure of their Misery and Calamity. Then Alexander seiz'd upon all the Treasures in the Cittadel, which was a vast Quantity of Gold and Silver of the Publick Revenues that had been heaping up, and laid there, from the time of Cyrus the first King of Persia, to that Day. For there was there found an Hundred and twenty thousand Talents, reckoning the Gold after the Rate of the Silver.
Part of this Treasure he took for the Use of the War, and order'd another Part of it to be treasur'd up at Susa. To this purpose, he order'd that a multitude of Mules both for Draught and Carriage, and Three thousand Camels with Pack-saddles, should be brought out of Babylon, Mesopotamia, and Susa; and with these he convey'd all the Treasure to the several Places he had appointed. For because he extreamly hated the Inhabitants, he was resolv'd not to trust them with any Thing, but utterly to ruin and destroy Persepolis: Of whose Palace, in regard of its stately Structure, we conceive it will not be impertinent if we say something. This stately Fabrick, or Cittadel, was surrounded with a treble Wall: The first was Sixteen Cubits high, adorn'd with many sumptuous Buildings and aspiring Turrets. The second was like to the first, but as high again as the other. The third was drawn like a Quadrant foursquare, Sixty Cubits high, all of the hardest Marble, and so cemented, as to continue for ever. On the four Sides are brazen Gates, near to which are Gallowes's of Brass twenty Cubits high, these rais'd to terrify the Beholders, and the other for the better strengthening and fortifying of the Place. On the East-side of the Cittadel, about Four hundred Foot distant, stood a Mount call'd the Royal Mount, for here are all the Sepulchres of the Kings, many Apartments and little Cells, being cut into the midst of the Rock; into which Cells there's made no direct Passage, but the Coffins with the dead Bodies are by Instruments hoist up, and so let down into these Vaults. In this Citadel were many stately Lodgings, both for the King and his Soldiers, of excellent Workmanship, and Treasury Chambers most commodiously contriv'd for the laying up of Money.
Here Alexander made a sumptuous Feast for the Entertainment of his Friends in Commemoration of his Victory, and offer'd magnificent Sacrifices to the Gods. At this Feast were entertain'd Whores, who prostituted their Bodies for Hire, where the Cups went so high, and the Reins so let loose to Drunkenness and Debauchery, that many were both drunk and mad. Among the rest, at that time there was a Curtesan call'd Thais, an Page 552Athenian, that said, Alexander would perform the most glorious Act of any that ever he did, if while he was Feasting with them, he would burn the Palace, and so the Glory and Renown of Persia might be said to be brought to nothing in a moment, by the Hands of Women. This spreading abroad and coming to the Ears of the young Men (who commonly make little use of Reason when Drink is in their Heads) presently one crys out, Come on, bring us Fire-brands, and so incites the rest to Fire the Citadel to revenge that Impiety the Persians had committed, in destroying the Temples of the Grecians. At this, others with joy set up a shout, but said, That so brave an Exploit belong'd only to Alexander to perform.
The King stirr'd up at these Words, embrac'd the Motion, upon which, as many as were present left their Cups and leap'd from the Table, and said, That they would now celebrate a victorious Festival to Bacchus. Hereupon, multitudes of Firebrands were presently got together, and all the Women that play'd on Musical Instruments, which were at the Feast, were call'd for, and then the King, with Songs, Pipes, and Flutes bravely led the way to this noble Expedition, contriv'd and manag'd by this Whore, Thais, who next after the King, threw the first Firebrand into the Palace. This President was presently follow'd by the rest, so that in a very short time, the whole Fabrick by the Violence of the Fire, was consum'd to Ashes.
It's very observable, and not without just admiration, that the Sacrilege and Impiety of Xerxes, King of Persia, (exercised in his destroying the Citadel of Athens) should so many years after be reveng'd in the same kind, by one Curtesan only of that City that was so injur'd.
After these things thus done, Alexander marches against the rest of the Persian Cities, and having taken in some by Force, and others surrender'd upon the Fame and Report of his L•nity and Moderation, he made after Darius, who had begun to raise Forces out of Bactria, and other Provinces; but being prevented by the March of the Enemy, he made away with all speed out of Bactria with Thirty thousand Persians and Mercenary Greeks, and in his return was treacherously Murther'd by Bessus, the Lord-Lieutenant of Bactria. He was scarce dead, when Alexander with a Party of Light Horse, came up to the Place where he lay, and there finding him, caus'd him to be honourably interr'd.
But some do report, that Alexander finding him yet alive, Darius complain'd of his sad Misfortune, and desir'd him that he would see his Death reveng'd, which Alexander faithfully promis'd. He forthwith indeed, pursu'd Bessus, but he being a long way before him, escap'd into Bactria, so that considering it was not possible to overtake him he march'd back. This was the State of Affairs in Asia.
In Europe, the Lacedaemonians being routed in a great Battel by Antipater, were forc'd to send Ambassadors to him; who put them off till the meeting of the General Assembly of Greece; which afterwards met at Corinth, where, after many things were Banded and Disputed on both sides, the Matter was at length left to the Decision of Alexander. Hereupon, Antipater receiv'd the chiefest of the Nobility of Sparta as Hostages; and the Lacedaemonians sent Ambassadors into Asia, to beg Pardon for their late Revolt.
Bessus stirs up the Bactrians. Alexander discharges the Greek Auxiliaries with Rewards. The River Stiboetes. He enters Hircania; Its Richness. Enters the Mardis Country. Loses his brave Horse, but is restor'd. Thalestris the Amazon Queen meets him. He falls into the Effeminacy of the Persians. Enters Drangina. A Plot against Alexander. Philotas and others put to Death. Marches against the Arimispi. Subdues Arachosia.
WHen this Year ended, Cephisophon executed the Office of Chief Magistrate at Athens, and Caius Valerius, and Marcus Claudius were created Roman Consuls. At that time, Bessus, with Na•arzanes and Barxaentes, and many others, after the Death of Darius, having escap'd the hands of Alexander, came into Bactria. And in regard he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of this Country by Darius, and upon that account was well known by the Inhabitants, he persuaded the People to stand up for their Liberty, and told them, That the Situation and Condition of their Country was such, being full of Page 553 difficult Passes, and very Populous, that they had an extraordinary advantage to succeed in the Attempt, and promised that he himself would take upon him the whole Management of the War.
Hereupon, he so far prevail'd, that he got a considerable Number to join with him, and to own him for King. Then he Listed Men, prepar'd Arms, and procur'd whatever was necessary for the present State of his Affairs.
In the mean time, Alexander perceiving that the Macedonians had a design to end the War with the Death of Darius, and to return to their own Country, he call'd them together; and so courted them by an Oration fitted for the purpose, that he prevail'd with them readily to go on with the Expeditions that then yet remain'd. Then he call'd together all the Greek Auxiliaries, and having highly commended them for their Valour, bestow'd upon every Horseman as a Reward a Talent, and every Footman Ten Minas, and discharg'd them from further Service in the Army. And over and besides he paid to every one of them what was due to them for their common Pay, and gave them likewise sufficient Provision to carry them into their own Country; and to every one that was willing still to continue in the Army, he gave Three Talents. He gave indeed large Rewards to the Soldiers, being naturally of a generous Disposition, and besides, in pursuing Darius had possess'd himself of a vast Treasure: For he had receiv'd Eight thousand Talents out of the Treasures; and besides what he gave to the Soldiers, he rais'd Thirteen thousand Talents by sale of the Cups, Flaggons, and Furniture. And it was believ'd, that what was stollen and taken away by force was much more.
Having done this, he march'd with his Army towards Hircania, and the third day came near the City Hecatompylon, and there encamp'd. Here he continu'd some Days to refresh his Army, because the Country was exceeding Rich, and abounded with every thing for Man's Use. Thence he mov'd forward an Hundred and fifty Furlongs, and encamp'd near a very high Rock, at the foot of which is a Cave not unbecoming the Gods, from whence (as the Spring-head) issues the great River Stiboetes. Thence it runs with a fierce and violent Stream for the space of Three Furlongs, 'till it dash it self upon a great Rock in shape like a Woman's Pap, under which is a vast Gulph, or opening of the Earth, into which, being now divided into two Channels, it falls down with a mighty Noise, turn'd all into Froth and Spume, and there runs under-ground Three hundred Furlongs; and then appears again, as if that we e its Spring-head. Having entred Hircania with his Army, he gain'd all the Town, and Cities as far as the Caspian Sea, which some call likewise the Hircanian Sea. It's reported, that in that Sea are many Serpents of an extraordinary Bigness, and Fish of all sorts, much differing in Colour from those in our Parts. When he entred further into Hircania, he came to Towns call'd the Fortunate Towns, which are so in Deed, as well as in Name For this Country excels all the rest in fertility of Soil; for every Vine, they say, affords a Metrete of Wine: And that some Fig-trees are so very fruitful, that they'll bear Ten Medimnas of dried Figs; and that what are left upon the Tree after Harvest, fall upon the Ground, and spring up again of themselves, and bring forth abundance of Fruit to perfection. There's a Tree in that Country much like to an Oak, which distills Honey from its Leaves; and this the Inhabitants gather in great plenty for their own use. There's likewise a little Insect in this Tract call'd an Anthredon, less than a Bee, but very remarkable; it gets its living in the Mountains, sucking the Flowers that grow here and there in those places. It works its Combs within hollow Rocks, or Trees shatter'd or made hollow by the Thunder-bolts, and there makes a Liquor not inferiour to any for sweetness.
In the mean time, Alexander, while he was on his March through Hircania, and the bordering Countries, gain'd great Reputation, and was highly honour'd for his Clemency, in carrying himself with so much Humanity towards all those Commanders who fled away with Darius, and afterwards submitted themselves to him: So that Fifteen hundred brave and valiant Grecians (who sided with Darius) forthwith came unto him, and laid themselves at his Feet, whom he readily pardon'd, and plac'd them in several of his Regiments, and allow'd them the same Pay with the rest.
Having run through the Sea-Coasts of Hircania, he entred the Country of the Mardi; who being a Warlike Nation, slighted the growing Power of the King, and shew'd him not the least Respect, either by sending Ambassadors, or otherwise; but having possess'd themselves of the strait Passes of the Mountains with Eight thousand Men, stood there, waiting for the coming of the Macedonians. Hereupon the King sets upon them, kills many, and drives the rest within the Straits. But while he was burning up the Country all before him, it fell out that (some of the King's Boys who led his Horses, being at some distance from the rest of the Army) his best Horse, by a sudden Incursion of the Page 554Barbarians, was carry'd away. This Horse was given him by Damarotus the Corinthian, and the King had made use of him in all his Battels in Asia. When he was bare-back'd, he would admit only his Tender to mount him; but when he had the King's War-Saddle, and the rest of his brave Trappings upon him, he would not suffer his former Rider to get upon his Back, nor any other Person but Alexander; and to him he would down upon his Knees for the King to get into the Saddle. Because of these excellent Properties of the Horse, the King was the more griev'd and troubled; and therefore he order'd all the Trees in all parts of the Country as he went to be hewn down, and caus'd a Proclamation to be made in their own natural Tongue, That unless his Horse were restor'd, he would waste and destroy all before him with Fire and Sword; which he began presently to put in execution. Upon which, the Barbarians were so terrify'd, that they not only restor'd the Horse, but brought along with them many rich Presents for the King, and by Fifty Ambassadors begg'd his Pardon. Upon which, the King accepted some of the most Honourable among them for Hostages.
When he came back into Hircania, Thalestris Queen of the Amazons met him, whose Dominions lay between Phasis and Taermodon; of an admirable Beauty, and strong Body, greatly honour'd in her own Country for here Brave and Manly Spirit. She presented herself to the King, with Three hundred Amazons in their Warlike Habit, having left the rest of her Forces on the Borders of Hircania. The King being struck with admiration at the sudden and unexpected approach of the Queen, and the graceful appearance of the Women, ask'd Thalestris, what was the Reason of her Journey thither? Who answer'd him, That she came there to have Issue by him; for she look'd upon him to transcend all other Men for Great and Noble Actions; and she her self to exceed all other Women both in Body and Mind, as to the Strength of the one, and Courage of the other: And therefore there was good ground to hope that the Issue of such Parents, would excell all other Men in Valour. The King was greatly pleas'd with what she said, and gratisy'd her Request; and after he had convers'd with her for the space of Thirteen Days, he presented her with honourable Gifts, and suffer'd her to return to her own Kingdom.
Alexander conceiving that he had now effected all that he design'd, and that there was no Competitor with him for the Empire, began to indulge the soft and effeminate Manners of the Persians, and to imitate the Luxury of the Asian Kings: And therefore in the first place he order'd all the Officers of the Court to be Asiaticks, and the Nobility of Asia to be * 'Squires of the Body, amongst whom Oxathres, the Brother of Darius, was one. He put likewise the Persian Diadem upon his Head, and wore the White Cassock and Belt, after the manner of the Persian Kings, and all the rest, except the Persian Hose and Vestment, call'd the Candys. He bestow'd likewise Purple Gowns upon his Friends, and cloath'd all his Horsemen in the Persian Habit. He began likewise to carry his Concubines along with him from place to place as Darius us'd to do, who had almost as many as the Days in the Year, and were the greatest Beauties that could be found throughout all Asia. These stood round the King's Bed every Night, that he might take his choice of whom he pleas'd to lie with him. However, for the most part he follow'd the ancient Customs of his Ancestors, and us'd the other but seldom, lest he should offend the Macedonians; and when some notwithstanding complain'd of the King, he stopp'd their Mouths with Gifts and Bribes.
About this time, Intelligence was brought him that Satibarzanes, one of Darius his Lord Lieutenants, had kill'd all the Soldiers he had committed to his Charge, and was join'd in Conspiracy with Bessus to make War upon the Macedonians; whereupon he march'd out against him.
Satibarzanes had got all his Forces together into Chrotacana, a most Noble City in those Parts, and naturally fortify'd; but as soon as the King came in sight, being terrify'd with the Greatness of the King's Army, and the Valour of the Macedonians, (which was now cry'd up all the World over) he hasted away with Two thousand Horse to Bessus, to procure help from him with all speed. The rest of his Forces he ordered to make to a Mountain near at hand, which was full of straight Passes; and where they might lye close and secure when they durst not Engage with the Enemy in the open Field. Upon this, the King was so intent and diligent (as he always was) that though they had shelter'd themselves in a large Rock, and naturally strong, yet he reduc'd the Besieg'd to those streights, as that he forc'd them to Surrender themselves.
Afterwards, having reduc'd all the Cities in this Province, in the space of Thirty days, he left Hircania, and came to the Royal City of * Drangina, where he Encamp'd and refresh'd his Army.
Page 555 About t•is time a most wicked Plot was laid against Alexander, very unworthy the Goodness of his Disposition. For one of the King's Friends, call'd Dimnus, blaming the King for something he had done, and thereupon become Enrag'd at him, contriv'd to Assassinate him. This Man had a Catamite, call'd Nicomachus, whom he dearly lov'd; him he went about to persuade to join with him in this Wicked Design: But being a very young Youth, he discover'd the whole Business to his Brother Cebalinus, who (fearing lest some other should be before him in the Discovery) resolv'd to make the first Discovery to the King.
Thereupon he goes to the Court, and first meets Philotas, and acquaints him with what he had heard, and intreats him to inform the King what was hatching out of hand.
Philocas, whether through Covetousness, or that he was one of the Conspirators, (it's not certain) minded not to make the Discovery of what had been imparted to him: For though he went in to the King, and had a long Discourse with him of divers matters, yet he told him nothing of what Cebalinus had related to him. But when he came out, told Cebalinus, that he had not had as yet a fit Opportunity for opening of the Matter to the King; but that the next Day he would take him aside by himself, and discover all that Cebalinus had made known to him. Philotas neglecting the Business the next Day also; Cebalinus was afraid, lest if it should be discover'd by some other Person, and so he himself should be in great danger; Therefore he wav'd Philotas, and goes to one of the King's Pages, and tells him the whole Plot, wishing him forthwith to acquaint the King; and then withdraws himself into the Armory, and there lay private. The Page took the Opportunity when the King was in the Bath, and related to him the whole Matter told him by Cebalinus, and that he then lay hid and secret in the Armory. At this the King was greatly sta•tled, and forthwith order'd Dimnus to be seiz'd; and now fully inform'd of the Conspiracy, sent for Cebalinus and Philotas. When every thing after strict Examination was fully discover'd, Dimnus stabb'd himself. Philotas confess'd his Neglect in not making the Discovery, but utterly deny'd that he had any hand in the Conspiracy. The King hereupon committed the Examination of the Business to the Judgment of the Macedonians, who after many Arguments and Debates, Pro and Con, condemn'd Philotas and the rest of the Conspirators to die, amongst whom was Parmenio; who was ever thought to have been one of the King's most faithful Friends. And though he was not then present himself, yet it was suspected that he manag'd the Business by his Son Philotas.
Philotas therefore being put upon the Rack, confess'd the whole Plot; and so he and the other Conspirators were put to Death, according to the manner of their own Country. Alexander Lyncestes also (who was before accus'd of a Conspiracy against the King) suffer'd in the same manner. He had been now three years in custody, but his Trial was deferr'd to that time for the sake of Antigonus, who had a great kindness for him, and between whom there was a particular Friendship and Familiarity. But being then brought before the Macedonian Senate, and having nothing by way of Plea to say for himself, he was Executed with the rest.
Then Alexander dispatch'd some away upon Dromadary Camels, to prevent the Report of Philotas his Punishment, and by that means caus'd Parmenio, the Father of Philotas, to be seiz'd unawares, and put to Death; he was then Governor of Media, and was intrusted with the King's Treasures in Ecbatana, which amounted to an Hundred and Fourscore thousand Talents. About the same time he sever'd from the rest of his Army all such as had given out harsh Expressions against him, and grumbl'd at the Death of Parmenio, and all those who had written false and scandalous Letters to their Friends in Macedonia, relating to the King's Affairs: All these he cast into one Company or Regiment which he call'd the Unruly Company, lest by their unseasonable Jangling and Prating, they should corrupt the rest of the Macedonians.
After these things thus done, and that he had settl'd his Affairs in Drangina, he march'd against the Arimaspi, (as they were anciently call'd) but now Evergetae, which Name was given them upon the following account; Cyrus (who was the first that translated the Empire from the Medes to the Persians) in a certain Expedition he had undertaken, being brought into great Extremity in a barren Country for want of Provision, insomuch as the Soldiers to satisfy their Hunger, were forc'd to eat the Flesh one of another; the Arimispi at that time brought to his Army Thirty thousand Carts and Wagons, loaden with Provision. And therefore the King being thus unexpectedly Reliev'd and Preserv'd, not only quitted the People from paying of Tribute for the future; but bestow'd upon them many other Privileges and bountiful Rewards, and chang'd their old Name into Everget•.
Page 556 And now when Alexander came into their Country, they receiv'd him with all the Demonstrations of Love and Kindness, and he rewarded them with marks of his Grace and Favour, suitable to his State and Dignity. And return'd the like Favour to the Gedrosians their Neighbours, who had entertain'd him likewise with the same Respect: And over these two Nations he made Teridates Governor.
In the mean time while he staid in these Parts, some brought him Intelligence that Satibarzmes with a great Body of Horse out of Bactria, had enter'd the Country of the Arians, and had withdrawn the Inhabitants from their Allegiance. Upon which the King sent him part of the Army, under the Command of Erigyus and Stasanor. He himself in the mean time, in a few days subdu'd Arachosia, and caus'd them to submit to his Government.
Alexander marches against the Paromisades. His troublesome March. Comes to Mount Caucasus. A Battel in Area by Alexander's Officers against Satibarzanes, who is kill'd in a single Combat by Erigius. Bessus brought to Alexander; His Punishment. Alexander kills some Barbarians unexpectedly, after they had surrender'd their City. He marches to the River Indus. Mophis his remarkable delivery up of himself and his Army.
AT the End of this Year Euthycritus was created Chief Governor of Athens, LuciusPlotius, and Lucius Papyrius executing the Office of Roman Consuls; At this time was celebrated the Hundred and thirteenth Olympiad. Then Alexander led his Army against the Paropamisades. This Country lies very far North, and is covered over with Snow, and by reason of the Sharpness of the Cold, People cannot endure to come into their Country. The greatest Part of it is open and plain, without any Trees, and has in it many Towns scatter'd here and there. The Roofs of their Houses are cover'd with Tyles, running up in shape like a Spire, in the Middle is a Hole to let in Light, and to evaporate the Smoke: And the Walls of their Houses are so close jointed and cemented, that the Inhabitants are sufficiently guarded against the Cold. By reason of the great Driffs of Snow, they keep within their Houses most part of the Year, where they have every thing necessary for their Provision laid up in store. They cover their Vines and Fruit-Trees all the Winter with Earth, and uncover them again when the Spring approaches. The Nature of all this Tract is such, that nothing that is Green or Pleasant is seen in any Part of it. But Snow glittering with Ice covers all Places. No sorts of Fowl or Birds breed here; no Wild Beasts feed in the Woods or Forests; Insomuch, as that there's neither Entertainment for any Stranger, nor Hospitality one with another throughout the whole Country. Notwithstanding all these Difficulties, yet the King, encourag'd by the Hardness of the Macedonians, and put on forward by his own daring Resolution, overcame all the Disadvantages of the Place. But yet some of the Soldiers, and others that straggl'd and kept not up to the rest, were so tyr'd, that they were left behind. Others by the Brightness and Sharpness of the Snow, and reflection thereof upon their Eyes, were destroy'd. Nothing could be seen at a distance, save only the smoke that discover'd the Villages; which was a sign to the Macedonians that there were Inhabitants not far off. The Towns being thus discover'd and gain'd, the Soldiers after their great hardships, refresh'd themselves with the Plentiful store of Provision they found in the Houses, and in a short time all the Inhabitants submitted.
After this, he march'd forward, and came near to Caucasus, where he Encamp'd. That Mountain by some is call'd Paropamisus: Having pass'd over the Breadth of the Mountain in sixteen days march, he built a City, call'd Alexandria, near the Foot of the Mount, at a Pass which opens a Way into Media. In the middle of Caucasus is a Rock ten Furlongs in Compass, and four in Height, wherein the Inhabitants pretend to shew. * Promotheus his Cave, the Fabulous Vulture's Nest, and the Chains and Fetters. He built likewise other Cities, each distant a days Journey from Alexandria. In these he planted Seven thousand of the Barbarians, Three thousand of those that follow'd the Camp, and as many of the Mercenary Soldiers as would.
In the mean time, the Commanders that were sent into Area, there found the Ring-leaders of the Rebellion, with a strong Army under the Command of Satibarzanes, an Experienc'd and Valiant General. The Armies Encamp'd near to one another, and sometimes would engage in considerable Bodies, and at others in light Skirmishes, by a few on either side. At length it came to a General Battel, and in the midst of the Fight, (wherein the Valour of the Barbarians was such, that the Issue was very doubtful) Satibarzanes himself (to discover who he was) pluck'd off his Helmet with his own Hand, and challenges any of his Enemies Commanders, to fight with him Hand to Hand. Upon which, Erigyus makes up to him, and a stout Combat there was, in which Erigyus was the Victor. The Barbarians upon the Death of their General were so disheartned, that upon Quarter, they gave up themselves to the King.
In the mean while, Bessus had taken upon him the Name of King, and having Sacrific'd to the Gods, invited his Friends to Feast with him. In the midst of his Cups, he began to Quarrel with one of his Companions, call'd Bagodoras, and the Contest growing higher, he fell at length into such a Rage, as that he resolv'd to kill him, but chang'd his Mind through the Persuasion of his Friends. Bagodoras thus narrowly escaping with his Life, fled in the Night to Alexander. The Chief of the Commanders (mov'd by the Consideration of his Escape, and stirr'd up by hopes of Rewards) conspir'd together and seiz'd upon Bessus, and brought him to Alexander, for which the King bountifully rewarded them. As for Bessus, he gave him up into the Hands of Darius his Brother, and the rest of his Kindred, to punish him in such manner as they thought fit, who after they had put him to all manner of Torments, and us'd him with all the Despite and Disgrace imaginable, they cut his Body into small pieces, and hurl'd every part here and there away out of their Slings.—
[Here the History is broken off and lost, viz. 1. Alexander's March through a dry Country. 2. The Defection of the Sogdians, Bactrians. 3. The Hunting in Bahastis.
Peace being made upon these Conditions, and ratify'd by mutual Oaths, the Queen mightily admir'd the Brave and Noble Spirit of Alexander, and sent to him most rich Presents, promising to do whatever he was pleas'd to Command.—
[Here the History is likewise lost. 4. The Impiety against Bacchus. 5. The Death of Clitus and Calisthenes. 6. Wars with the Nauticae. 7. His Marriage with Roxana. 8. of Nysia. These are wanting may be supply'd out of Archian. Lib. 4. and Q. Curtius, Lib. 7, 8.
Then the Mercenaries, as they had agreed, forthwith left the City, and having march'd Eight hundred Furlongs Encamp'd without any Disturbance, not in the least suspecting any thing of that which afterwards happen'd: For Alexander hating them implacably pursu'd them with a considerable Body of Men, and fell upon the Barbarians on the sudden, and cut off Multitudes of them. Upon which the Mercenaries first cry'd out, that he had violated his Oath, in falling upon them in that Hostile manner, and call'd upon the Gods to revenge that Impious Cruelty executed upon them. But the King, with a loud Voice answer'd, That he indeed did agree, that they should quit the City, but not that they should ever be accounted as Friends to the Macedonians. Hereupon, the Barbarians not at all terrify'd with the desperate Condition they were in, drew up in a Body in a round Ring; placing their Wives, Children, and Women in the middle, that they might receive the Enemy on every side with less Hazard and Prejudice. Being therefore Desperate and of daring Spirits, encourag'd by their Successes in former Conflicts, they bravely receiv'd the Enemy. The Macedonians on the other hand resolving to be in nothing inferior to them, the Engagement was very sharp and terrible. For fighting close hand to Hand, Man to Man, various kinds of Death and Wounds appear'd every where: For the Macedonians by their Sarissas pierc'd through the short Shields of the Barbarians with that violence, that the Points ran into their very Bodies The Mercenaries likewise on their part threw their Lances amongst the Thickest of their Enemies, upon whom (being so near) they were sure not to fail in doing Execution. When a great Number of them were wounded and as many kill'd, the Women took up the Arms of those that were slain, and join'd with the Men in the Engagement. For the Desperateness of their Condition, and the Greatness of the Work in hand, forc'd them to the most resolute Resistance for the Defence of themselves. Some of them therefore getting Arms, defended their Husbands Page 558 with Shields; others that had no Arms rush'd in upon the Enemy, and caught hold of their Bucklers, so as they could scarce do any thing. At length all the Men, together with their Wives (who valiantly fought to the last) being overpower'd by Multitude, died upon the place, preferring an honourable Death, before a Life with Slavery and Disgrace. The useless and unarm'd Rabble, together with the Women that were left, he gave to his Horsemen. He took likewise several other Cities, putting them to the Sword that oppos'd him.
Hence he mov'd forward to the Rock call'd Aornon; for here those Inhabitants that surviv'd shelter'd themselves, being a very strong Place. It is reported, that the ancient Hercules attempted the taking this Place, but was forc'd to quit the Siege, by reason of terrible Earthquakes, and other Prodigies of the Gods, that happen'd there at that time; which coming to the Ears of Alexander, it made him far more eager to assault the Place, as if he glory'd to be the Gods Corival both in Might and Power. The Rock was an hundred Furlongs round, and sixteen high, and seem'd to be even and steep, and every where round. At the foot of the Rock towards the South runs Indus, the greatest River of India; other Parts are inviron'd with unaccessible Rocks and dreadful Precipices. Alexander upon view of the Place, concluding that it was not possible for him to take it by force; at that instant there came to him an Old Man with his two Sons, who had a long time liv'd in those Places, in a very poor and low Condition: He had there a little Cell cut into the Rock, wherein were three Beds: He and his Sons lodging together in this place, he was very well acquainted with all the Avenues and Passages round about. When he came therefore to the King, he told him his Condition, and promis'd to lead the King through the Straits and craggy By-ways, to such a Post where he might assault the Barbarians upon the Rock. Hereupon Alexander promis'd him a large Reward, made use of his Conduct, and in the first place possess'd himself of the only Passage that led up to the top of the Rock: And because there was no other way to pass, he so block'd up the Besieg'd, that there was no Relief to be expected. Then by the help of many hands, he rais'd up a Mount from the bottom and foot of the Rock; and advanc'd so close up to the Enemy, that by that means he made a very sharp and vigorous Assault, which continu'd without any interruption Night and Day, for the space of seven Days and Nights. At the beginning the Barbarians, by advantage of the heighth of the Fort, prevail'd, and cut off many that too rashly forc'd in upon them: But when the Battery was rais'd up to its due heighth, and the Engines for shooting of Darts and other Warlike Instruments were brought up, and that the Resolution of the King not to leave the Assault was discern'd, the Besieg'd were in a great Consternation. But Alexander wisely foreseeing what would be the Issue, commanded the Guard that he had left at the Passage to withdraw, that so the Enemy might have free liberty to be gone, if they had a mind to it.
Upon which, the Barbarians, affrighted by the Valour of the Macedonians, and the King's brave Resolution, in the Night left the Fort. The Indians being thus frighted with a Scarecrow, the King gain'd the Rock without any considerable loss: And then having rewarded his Guide, march'd away with his Forces to other places.
About that time there was one Aphrices, an Indian, that lay in those parts with an Army of Twenty thousand Men, and Fifteen Elephants: Him the Indians kill'd, and brought his Head to Alexander, and by that means gain'd his Favour. He possess'd himself likewise of all the Elephants in that Tract, and receiv'd the Indians into his Protection. Thence he mov'd to the River Indus, where being furnish'd with some Ships of Thirty Oars a piece, with them he made a Bridge over the River, and continu'd in that place for thirty days space to refresh his Army, and there offer'd magnificent Sacrifices to the Gods.
After he had pass'd over his Forces, there hapned something unusual and remarkable: One Taxilis, who formerly reign'd in that Country, being lately dead, his Son Mophis succeeded him; this Mophis some time before had sent an Ambassador to Alexander, when he was in Sogdiana, to offer him his Assistance against the Indians that were then preparing to oppose him; and likewise promis'd to deliver up his Kingdom into the King's hands. When the King was Thirty Furlongs distant, Mophis and his Friends march'd towards him with a well-appointed Army, and Elephants adorn'd and fitted for Battel. When Alexander saw so numerous an Army advance, he believ'd the Indian had made a Cloak of his Promises to cover his Fraud, by that means to surprize the Macedonians at unawares; therefore he commanded the Trumpets to give the Sign of Battel, and drew up his Army in Battalia, and advanc'd towards the Indians. But Mophis being inform'd of the sudden Commotion that was amongst the Macedonians, easily judging what was the Page 561 occasion, commanded his Army to make an halt, and he himself with a few in his Company, posts away, and presently undeceives the Macedonians, by delivering up himself and his Army (which was the Strength of the Kingdom) into the Power of the King; who was so well pleas'd with what the Barbarian had done, that he restor'd him to his Kingdom, and ever after found Taxiles (for so he was call'd) his constant and faithful Friend and Associate. And these were the Transactions of this Year.
Alexander overcomes Porus. How Apes are taken, Strange Serpents for Venem. Large Trees. Marches against the Andrastians, Catheri, and against Sophithes. The Custom of them under Sophithes. Indian Dogs. Entertain'd by Phigeus. The Macedonians refuse to march against the Gandarides. Alexander leaves Monuments behind him at the River Hyphasis. Nicea built, and Bucephalis. The Ibori present Alexander. Routs the Agalassians. In danger in the River Indas by Whirlpools. Marches against the Oxidracans and Mallians. The King leaps off the Wall into the Town. A Duel between Coragus and Dioxippus. The Sambestae submit to Alexander; and the Sodrans and Massanians. Subdues Musicanus, Porticanus, and Sambus. Poison'd Weapons. The King's Dream. Comes into the main Ocean. Comes into Gedrosia. The Savageness of the People. His Army near perishing in Gedrosia. Comes into Carmania. Punishes the Bormcial Goremours, Nearchus returns. Islands cover'd at high Tides. The strange Death of Calanus. Alexander marrieth Statira. Harpalus his Luxury. He seizes with his own Hand them that mutiny'd.
AT the time when Chremes was Lord Chancellor at Athens, and Publius Cornelius and Aulus Posthumius executed the Consulship at Rome; Alexander, after he had refresh'd his Army in the Province of Taxilis, march'd against Porus Prince of the Neighbouring Indians, who had in his Army above Fifty thousand Foot, Three thousand Horse, above a Thousand Chariots, and an Hundred and thirty Elephants, and was confederated with another Neighbouring King, call'd Embisarus, not inferior in Power to Porus.Alexander understanding that he was not above 400 Furlongs distant from Porus, advanc'd with a Resolution to fight him, before the other join'd him. Porus perceiving him to approach, drew up his Horse in two Wings: His Elephants, so accountred as to terrifie his Enemies, he plac'd at equal distances one from another in the Front, and lin'd them with his arm'd Men, who were commanded to guard and defend them from Darts and Arrows in the Flank. The whole Army drawn up thus in Battalia, seem'd like a City: For the Elephants stood like so many Towers, and the Soldiers plac'd among them resembled the Walls. Alexander, on the other hand (observing how his Enemies were drawn up) so dispos'd and order'd his own Men, as the present Circumstances of his Affairs then requir'd.
The Horse engag'd in the first place, and thereupon almost all the Indians Chariots were presently broken in pieces: Afterwards the Elephants being made use of (by the mighty Bulk of their Bodies and their great Strength) bore down and trod underfoot many of the Macedonians; others were catch'd up in their Trunks, and toss'd into the Air, and then fell down again with great violence upon the Earth, and so miserably perish'd: Many likewise were so rent and torn by their Teeth, that they died forthwith. However, the Macedonians with invincible Courage indur'd all the Hardships wherewith they were press'd, and with their Sarissas kill'd the Soldiers that guarded the Elephants: So that now they fought upon equal Terms; and not long after, the Beasts being ply'd with Darts on every side, and not being able longer to endure the many Wounds they receiv'd, their Riders were not able to rule them, insomuch as they furiously rush'd backwards, and broke in upon their own Regiments, and trode many of them underfoot, which caus'd great disturbance and consusion. Upon which, Porus mounted upon the Bravest Elephant (seeing how things were like to be) commanded Forty of those that were not as yet startled and affrighted, to be plac'd round about him. And with these Page 562 he made so desperate and sierce a Charge, that he made a sad Slaughter amongst the Macedonians; especially being a Man of the strongest Body of all those that were with him; for he was five Cubits high, and in bulk proportionable; so that his Breast-plate was twice as big as any of the rest of the most strongest Men amongst them; and he threw a Dart with as great force as if it had been shot out of an Engine. But this extraordinary Strength of Porus did not at all terrifie the Macedonians, that were plac'd in the front against him: Alexander therefore commanded the Archers and light-arm'd Men, with all their Darts and Arrows to make at Porus himself; who did as they were commanded. So that such a multitude of Archers were got in one Body together, and such Showers of Darts and Arrows pour'd out upon him, that they could not possibly miss their Mark. Porus at length (having fought with great Valour and Resolution) by multitude of Wounds lost so much Blood, as that his Spirits fail'd him, and he fell down from his Beast to the Ground. Upon which it being presently spread abroad that the King was dead, the rest of the Indians fled, and thereupon a great Slaughter was made amongst 'em.
Thus Alexander having gain'd this glorious Victory, at length commanded his Trumpets to sound a Retreat. But there were kill'd in this Battel above Twelve thousand Indians; amongst whom were Two Sons of Porus, the Generals of his Army, and the Chiefest of his Commanders. There were taken above Nine thousand Prisoners, and Fourscore Elephants. As for Porus, he was not yet quite dead, and therefore Alexander recommended him to the Care of the Indians themselves for the dressing of his Wounds. There fell of the Macedonians, Two hundred and fourscore Horse, and above Seven hundred Foot, whom the King took care to be decently bury'd, and rewarded those that surviv'd who had merited by their Valour. He sacrific'd likewise to the Sun, through whose Favour and Assistance he had conquer'd the East. The neighbouring Mountains being cloth'd with great Numbers of Firr-Trees, Cedars, and the Pitch-Tree, the Place affords plentiful Materials for the Building of Ships; and therefore he built as many here as he had occasion for. For he design'd when he came to the utmost Bounds of India, after he had subdu'd those Nations that lay in his way, to pass along through the River into the Ocean.
In the mean time, he built Two Cities in those Parts, one upon the further side of the River where he pass'd over; the other where he overcame Porus; and both were presently perfected, having many hands at work.
Porus being recover'd, he restor'd him to the Possession of his Kingdom; and being there was plenty of all sorts of Provision, he suffer'd his Army to lie still and refresh themselves for the space of thirty Days.
There are some things very remarkable, and worth observing, in the Mountains near where they encamp'd: For besides the Materials for Shipping, this Tract abounds with Serpents of a vast Bigness, 16 Cubits in length, and breeds a sort of Apes, to be admir'd both for their number and greatness of their Bodies. The nature of the Beast has instructed the Hunter how to take her; for she's apt to imitate every Action she sees; but because of her Strength and natural Sagacity, it's very difficult to take her by force. Therefore some of the Hunters anoint their Eyes with Honey, and others put on Shoes in the sight of the Apes; and some there are that clap upon their Heads Looking-glasses: Then they leave some Shoes behind them, with Bands fixt to them, and instead of Honey lay Birdlime, and within the Glasses are Ropes to run on Nooses: When they are gone, the poor Beasts begin presently to imitate what they saw done, and so are deluded; for their Eye-lids are glew'd together, their Feet are fast bound, and their whole Bodies held by the Snares; and so they become an easie Prey to the Hunter.
Afterwards Alexander forces Embisarus (who had been so slow in assisting Porus, and now in a Consternation) to a Submission; and then passes the River with his Forces, and makes his way through a most fruitful Country: For here are strange sorts of Trees seventy Cubits high, and of that thickness that four Men can scarcely fathom 'em, and cast a Shade 300 foot distance.
There are likewise in this Tract multitudes of Serpents of small Bodies; but for their various Colour most remarkable: For some lie like Rods yellow as Brass; others have very rough and hairy Breasts, and whoever is bitten by them, falls down dead immediately. If any be stung by them, he's most horridly tormented, and a bloody Sweat issues out at all the Pores of his Body. The Macedonians, to secure themselves from these Mischiefs, hung up their Beds on the Limbs of these Trees, watching the greatest part of the Night: But at length, by some of the Inhabitants, they were directed to a Root, which was an Antidote against the Poison.
Page 563 After the King had mov'd from thence, he was inform'd that Porus, a neighbouring Prince, Nephew of Porus lately vanquish'd, was fled out of his Kingdom, and run to the Gangarides. At which Alexander was not a little troubled, and thereupon sent Hephestion with a considerable Body of Men into his Dominion, and order'd him to reduce it into the nature of a Province, and to deliver it into the hands of his Friend Porus. He himself march'd into the Country of the Andrastians, and gain'd some of their Cities by assault, and others by surrender.
Thence he came into the Country of the Catheri, where by the Law the living Wives are burnt together with their dead Husbands; and the Wickedness and Treachery of one Woman, who poison'd her Husband, was the occasion of this Law. There the King burnt down to the Ground the greatest and strongest Town of all others in those Parts after he had with great difficulty and hazard taken it by assault. The Inhabitants of another Town, which he was ready to assault, came forth, and humbly submitted themselves to him, upon which he spar'd them.
Thence he led his Army to the Cities belonging to Sophithes, which were govern'd by most excellent Laws; amongst the rest they strictly observe this, To value their Beauty andand comely Proportion above all other Things; and therefore they carefully examine every part of the Child when it is in the Cradle, and such as are sound and perfect in every Limb and Member, and likely to be strong and comely, they nurse and bring up; but such as are lame and deficient, and of a weak Habit of Body, they kill, as not worth the rearing. They have the same regard to their Marriages; for without any respect to Portion, or any other Advantages, they only mind the Beauty of the Person, and the Health and Strength of their Bodies. Hence it is, that those who live in those Cities, are for the most part more Beautiful and Comely than others. But Sophithes the King surpass'd all the rest of his Subjects for admirable Beauty and stately Proportion; for he was above four Cubits high: He came forth of his Royal City, and gave up himself and Kingdom into the hands of Alexander; and from the Bounty of the Victor forthwith receiv'd it back again; and thereupon he nobly feasted Alexander and all his Army for several Days together. And after many rich Presents made to him, he presented him with an hundred and fifty Dogs of a wonderful Strength and Bigness, and of other most remarkable Properties. It was said they were brought forth by Tygars, who had coupled with Dogs. Alexander minding by an Experiment to try their Strength and Courage, caus'd an exceeding great Lion to be brought into the Circus, and then loos'd at him two of the weakest of the Dogs; which proving too weak, he let go other two. The Lion being now surrounded by four, and over-power'd, Sophithes sent one with a Sword, who began to cut off the right Thigh of one of the Dogs: Upon which, the King call'd out, and thereupon the Squires of his Body ran to the Indian, and held his Hand: But Sophithes wish'd 'em to let him alone, and promis'd to give three for that one. The Huntsman theresore laid hold again on the Dog's Thigh, and cut it off by little and little; and all that while the Dog neither how•'d nor made the least noise; but held fast his Hold till he fell down dead upon the Lion.
In the mean time Hephestion return'd with those Troops before sent along with him, having subdu'd a great part of India where-ever he came, and was hereupon honour'd by the King with all deserv'd Praises.
Next Alexander march'd into the Kingdom of Phigeus, where all the Macedonians were welcom'd by the Inhabitants, and Phigeus himself meeting him with Gifts and Presents, willing to receive from him his Kingdom as a Gift of his Bounty; which Alexander accordingly restor'd to him: And both he and his Army being entertain'd by Phigeus for two days, he then mov'd forward to the River Hyphasis, which is seven Furlongs over, and six Fathoms deep, of a very fierce Stream, and difficult to pass. He had learn'd from Phigeus, that beyond Indus there was a vast Desart of twelve Days Journey; and at the farthest Borders thereof ran the Ganges Two and twenty Furlongs broad, and the deepest of all the Rivers in India: And that beyond this River, there dwelt the Tabresians, the Gandarides, whose King's Name was Xandrames, who had an Army of Twenty thousand Horse, and Two hundred thousand Foot, Two thousand Chariots, and Foursand Elephants. The King could not believe this to be true, and therefore sent for Porus, and enquir'd of him whether it were so or not. He told him all was certainly true; but that the present King of the Gandarides was but of a mean and obscure Extract, accounted to be a Barber's Son. For his Father being a very beautiful and handsome Man, the Queen fell in love with him, and then murther'd her Husband; and so the Kingdom devolv'd upon the present King.
Page 564Alexander however, though he perceiv'd that the Expedition against the Gandarides would be very difficult; yet through a desire he still had to gain further Glory, would not wave it; but confiding in the Valour of the Macedonians, and the Answers he had receiv'd from the Oracles, hop'd to conquer all the Barbarians where-ever he went: For he remembred that at Delphos he was call'd by the Oracle Invincible, and that the Empire of the whole World was promis'd to him by Jupiter Hammon. But discerning that his Soldiers were even tired out with continual Marches (for they had now toil'd themselves with extream Hazards for Eight Years together) he judg'd it necessary to make a Speech to his Army, to perswade them to undertake with him this Expedition against the Gandarides. For now he had lost many Soldiers, and no hopes or prospect remain'd of ending the War: Nay, their very Horse-Hoofs were worn away by their continual Marches, and many of their Arms wasted and become useless. And besides, all their Grecian Habits and Clothes were worn out, and they were forc'd to make use of the Barbarians Stuff, and cut the Indian Plads in pieces to make themselves Clothes. And it happen'd likewise about that time, that there pour'd down from Heaven fearful Storms of Rain, with terrible Thunder and Lightning, which continu'd for seventy Days together. All which, though they happen'd cross to his Designs, as he conceiv'd, yet he judg'd there was one way still left for him to accomplish what he so much desir'd, and that was by Bounty and Liberality to gain the Hearts of his Soldiers. To that end he gave free liberty to the Soldiers to ravage and plunder all over the Enemies Country, which was rich and abounding in all good Things.
While the Army was thus employ'd in spoiling and plundering, he call'd together the Soldiers Wives and all their Children; and among the Wives he order'd Corn to be distributed every Month; and commanded so much Money to be paid to the Children, as their Fathers Pay amounted unto. When the Soldiers return'd to the Camp, loaded with abundance of rich Prey, he call'd them all together, and there made a handsom study'd Speech to them, to persuade them to march along with him against the Gandarides; but being not able upon any Terms to prevail with the Macedonians, he left off that Design. And now determining there to put an end to all his Expeditions, in the first place he erected Twelve Altars to the Twelve Gods, every one fifty Cubits high. Then he drew a Trench round his Camp thrice as large as the former, and made it fifty Foot broad, and forty deep; and by the Earth out of the Trench, cast up a strong Mud-wall on the inner side. He commanded likewise every Foot-Soldier to provide two Beds in his Tent of five Cubits high; and every Horse-man (besides two Beds of the same quantity) to make Mangers twice as big as any other; and that every thing they left behind them should be enlarg'd to the same proportion. And this he did partly to leave behind him Monuments of his Heroick Actions, and partly to make the World believe, that those with him were Men of mighty Stature, and stronger than any other. When this was done, he march'd back with all the Army the same way he came to the River Acisines, where he found some Ships in building, which he order'd to be perfected, and built several others.
About that time came to him Supplies out of Greece, both of Auxiliaries and Mercenaries, to the number of about Thirty thousand Foot, and almost Six thousand Horse. There were likewise brought to him at the same time Arms for Five and twenty thousand Men most curiously wrought, and an hundred Talents weight of all sorts of Medicines and Physical Preparations; and all these he distributed amongst the Soldiers. His Ships now with all their Tackle and Furniture were compleatly Rigg'd, of which there were Two hundred open Vessels, and Eight hundred Transport-Ships for all manner of Service. The two Cities he had built near the River, the one he call'd Nicea, from a Victory there gain'd, and the other Bucephalis, from his Horse that was there kill'd in the Battel against Porus.
Then he, together with his Friends, went aboard, and sail'd down the River, with an intent to fall down to the Southern Ocean; but a great part of the Army march'd along the River's Bank, under the Command of Craterus and Hephestion. He came now to that place where the River Hydaspes and Ascisines meet together. Here he landed his Soldiers, and march'd to the Borders of the Ibori; these are said to be descended from them who besieg'd the Rock Aornon with Hercules; and after that they were defeated in that Design, were planted in this Country by that Hero. Here he encamp'd near an eminent City of greatest Command in those parts: The Citizens went out to the King, and were admitted to converse with him; and there they renew'd the Memory of their ancient Kindred, and promis'd to perform all Offices of Respect and Kindness, as became so near Relations; and seal'd and confirm'd what they said with extraordinary rich Presents. Page 563 The King receiv'd them very graciously, and in return freed all their Cities to govern according to their own Laws.
Thence he mov'd towards the bordering Nations, amongst whom he found the Agalassians had rais'd an Army of Forty thousand Foot, and Three thousand Horse: Alexander fought 'em, and routed 'em; many were kill'd upon the spot, and the rest fled into Holes and Dens, and the neighbouring Towns and Villages; which being afterwards taken, they were all sold for Slaves. There were 20000 of the rest of the Inhabitants that got together for shelter into a great City, which he took by Storm; though the Indians blocking up all the strait Passages, fought resolutely from the Tops of their Houses, and kill'd multitudes of the Macedonians, which put him into such a Rage, as that he set the Town on fire, and burnt most of them in it; so that only Three thousand remain'd, who fled into the Castle, and su'd for Pardon, and had it.
Then he with his Friends went on board again, and sail'd down the River to the place where the two Rivers (as was said before) and likewise Indus, now met together. But these great Rivers rushing in one upon another in one and the same place, there were most terrible Whirlpools, where the Ships that fell into them were so whirl'd about, that there they perish'd. And the Stream was so fierce and violent, that no Pilot could govern their Ships; so that two long Ships were sunk, and many of the rest driven upon the Shoar. The King's Ship was likewise catch'd in a Whirlpool, and he himself now in the utmost Extremity and Danger of losing his Life; which he perceiving, stript himself naked, and prepar'd for the last Remedy. Whereupon his Friends came round the Ship, endeavouring with all their Might to take in the King, in case his Ship pérish'd. A great Hurry and Confusion there was, while the Men strove with the Violence of the Waves, but the River overmatch'd both their Strength and Skill. Yet the King with great difficulty by the help of the Ships was at length brought to land. Being thus unexpectedly preserv'd, he sacrific'd to the Gods for his Deliverance, and that he had, like another Achilles, conquer'd the River it self. Thence he march'd against the Oxydracans and Mallians, populous and warlike Nations of India, whom he found ready prepar'd with an Army of above Fourscore thousand Foot, and Ten thousand Horse, and Seven hundred Chariots. These People were at War amongst themselves, before the King came amongst them; but being terrify'd at his approach, they were forc'd to agree and confederate against him. And in Confirmation of their League, they mutually dispos'd of Ten thousand Virgins in Marriage, and thereby entred into Affinity one with another. However, they came not against him with their Armies into the Field, but afterwards fell at variance one with another concerning the Chief Command, and slipt away here and there into the Neighbouring Cities. Alexander approaching to the Capital City, design'd without any further delay to assault it: But one Demophoon a Soothsayer, disswaded the King from his Purpose, alledging, That by certain Signs and Prodigies (by him observ'd) were portended, that the King would be in extream danger by a Wound receiv'd in this Siege; and therefore intreated him that he would wave this Town, and apply himself to some other Affair. Upon this, the King was very angry, because he discourag'd the Soldiers; therefore preparing all things necessary for an Assault, he himself led up his Men to the Walls, with an undaunted Spirit, eager to gain the Place by force. His Men being slow in fixing the Engines (as he thought) he was the first that broke through the Gate into the City, upon which many were hewn down, and the rest fled, whom he pursu'd to the very Castle. And because the Macedonians came not on so roundly to make the Assault as he expected, he took a Scaling-Ladder himself, and set it to the Castle-Wall, and holding his Buckler over his Head, mounted the Ladder; and was so quick, that before they within could force him back, he had gain'd the Top of the Wall. None of the Indians durst engage him hand to hand; but they so ply'd him with Darts and Arrows at a distance that he was overprest.
In the mean time, the Macedonians had apply'd two Scaling-Ladders; but two many thronging up at once, the Ladders broke, and down they all fell to the Ground. The King being then left without all hope of Relief, was so desperate, as that he did that which is worth special remark, and almost incredible: For looking upon it as a diminution of his Glory to make back down amongst his own Soldiers, he leapt off the Wall with his Arms in his hand into the Town. Then the Indians came rushing upon him in droves, and he receiv'd their Assault with great Resolution: For having a Tree which grew near to the Wall on his right hand, and the Wall on his left, he more easily defended himself, standing his ground with that Courage and Resolution as became a King that had perform'd such Noble Acts, coveting to end his Days by a glorious and honourable Death. Having now receiv'd many Cuts upon his Helmet, and as many on his Page 564 Sh•eld: At length he receiv'd so grievous a Wound under one of his Paps, that it brought him down upon his Knees. Upon which, the Indian that wounded him ran (heedlesly) upon him to give him another Blow; but the King thrust his Sword through his Body, and there he fell down dead. Then raising himself up by the help of a Bough of the Tree, he challeng'd any of the Indians that had a mind to fight with him.
And now came in to his relief Peucestes, one of his Guard, being one of the first that by other Ladders had scal'd the Wall, and after him came several others; so that the Barbarians being now in a fright, Alexander was at length preserv'd and rescu'd.
The City being thus taken, the Macedonians (being enrag'd upon the account of the King) put all the Men they sound to the Sword, and fill'd every place with dead Carcasses.
In the mean time, while the King lay ill of his Wound, the Grecians that were distributed into several Colonies throughout Bactria and Sogdiana (having for a considerable time before grudg'd their Plantations amongst the Barbarians, and now encourag'd upon the Report that Alexander was dead of his Wound) rebell'd against the Macedonians, and got together to the number of about Three thousand, and endeavour'd with all their Might to return into their own Country; but were every Man cut off, after the Death of Alexander.
The King, after he was recover'd of his Wound, appointed a solemn Sacrifice to the Gods, in order to give Thanks for his Recovery, and sumptuously feasted all his Friends. In his Feasting and Drinking there happen'd a Passage very remarkable, and fit to be taken notice of: Amongst other Friends, there was one Coragus a Macedonian invited, a strong body'd Man, and one that had often behav'd himself with great Gallantry in several Encounters. This Man in his Cups challeng'd one Dioxippus an Athenian to fight a Duel; who was a Champion, and had won many Noble Prizes and Victories. The matter was push'd on forward by the Guests, as is usual at such times. Dioxippus accepted the Challenge, and the King appointed the Day.
As soon as it was day, many thousands of People slock'd together to see the Combat. The King, with his Macedonians, favour'd Coragus; the Grecians. wish'd well to Dioxippus. The Macedonian came into the List neatly accoutred, glittering in his Arms. The Athenian presented himself stark naked all over anointed with Oil, with a Cap upon his Head. Their Persons were both so admirable for Strength of Body, and Presence of Mind, that it seem'd as if two of the Gods were to fight a Duel: For the Macedonian for his Stature and Brightness of his Arms, look'd like Mars. Dioxippus (besides his being the stronger Man) in his carrying of a great Club, and Activity in Feats of Arms, resembled Hercules. And now both advanc'd one towards another: The Macedonian, when he came near, cast his Javelin at Dioxippus, which he declin'd by a little motion of his Body. Then Coragus presently made at him with his MacedonianSarissa, which the other (advancing forward) broke in pieces with his Truncheon. The Macedonian thus twice defeated, betook to his Sword; but while he was drawing it, his Adversary made a Sally up to him, and prevented him; catching hold on his Arm with his left hand, and gave him such a Blow with the other, as that he laid him at his feet. When he had him upon the Ground, he set his Foot upon his Neck, and lifting up himself, he turn'd about to the Spectators: Upon which, all the People set up a great Shout, in admiration of what was done, and at the Strength and Valour of the Man. But the King order'd him that was foil'd to be let go, and then Broke up the Assembly; and departed, not very well pleas'd at the Misfortune of his Country-man.
But Doxippus having now discharg'd his Adversary, went off the Ground, and for his famous and remarkable Victory, his Country-men set a Coronet upon his Head, as One that had advanc'd the Honour and Reputation of the Grecians. But Fortune suffer'd not the Man to rejoice long in his Victory; for the King ever after bore a Grudge to him, and the King's Friends and all the Courtiers envy'd him: Therefore they persuaded one that waited at the Table, to put a golden Cup under his Cushion; and in the middle of the Feast a Complaint was made that the Cup was stollen; whereupon search was made, and the Cup pretended to be found with Dioxippus: By which he was greatly disgrac'd, and put out of Countenance: And seeing the Macedonians came •locking about him, he arose from the Table, and left the place, and went to his Lodging. But shortly after, he wrote a Letter to Alexander, complaining of the foul Contrivances of his Enemies against him; and after he had deliver'd it to his Servants, to be handed carefully to the King, he murder'd himself.
Page 565 It was certainly an imprudent Act in him to fight with a Macedonian, but far more Folly in him to destroy himself: Therefore many who blam'd him for this piece of Madness, added this to his further Disgrace: That a great Body and a great Wit seldom meet together. When the King read the Letter, he was exceedingly troubled at his Death, and would often commend him for his Valour: And he who undervalu'd him when he was alive, now in vain wish'd for him when he was dead; and came perfectly to understand the Honesty of the Man, by the Knavery of his Accusers and Slanderers.
And now the King order'd his Army to march along the Bank of the River, over against his Fleet, and began again to sail down into the Ocean, and in his Passage arriv'd at the Country of the Sambestans. These People for Number and Courage are nothing inferior to any of the Indians, and their Cities are Democratical in their Government.
Having intelligence of the approach of the Macedonians, they brought into the Field Threescore thousand Foot, Six thousand Horse, and Five hundred Chariots. But when the Fleet drew near, they were so terrify'd with the strangeness of the Sight, and the Fame and Glory of the Macedonians which was nois'd abroad in all Places, that the Old Men among them dissuaded them from vent'ring a Battel; whereupon they sent Fifty of the best Qua•ity, as Ambassadors to Alexander to pray his Favour. The King (upon the Address made to him) granted them Peace as they desir'd, and receiv'd large and honourable Presents (becoming a Demy-god) from the Inhabitants. Then he receiv'd the Submission of the Sodrans and Massanians, who border'd on both sides the River. Here Alexander built another City call'd Alexandria, near the River, and furnish'd it with a Thousand Inhabitants. Afterwards he arriv'd at the Kingdom of Musicanus, whom he took and kill'd, and subdu'd his Country. Then he came to the Territory of Porticanus, and took two Cities upon the first Assault, and gave the Spoil of them to his Soldiers, and then burnt them. Porticanus who had fled for shelter into the Castle, was kill'd fighting in his own Defence. Then he took all the Cities within his Dominion by Assault; and raz'd them to the Ground, which struck a great Terror into the Neighbouring Inhabitants. Next he wasted the Territories of Sambus, razing many of the Cities, and selling the Citizens for Slaves, and put to the Sword above Fourscore thousand Barbarians. These were the Plagues the Brachmans suffer'd. All the rest who submitted (except such as were the Authors and Ring-leaders of the Defection) he Pardon'd. In the mean time, King Sambus got away with Thirty Elephants, into the furthest Parts beyond the River Indus, and so escap'd.
Amongst the Brachmans the last City attempted was Harmatelia, which greatly confided in the Valour of its Inhabitants, and the Strength of its Situation. Here the King commanded some few of his Party to go up near to the Place, and provoke the Citizens to fall upon them, and then to make as if they fled; thereupon Five hundred approach'd to the very Walls, who for their inconsiderable Number were contemn'd by the Enemy: Three thousand therefore made a Sally out of the Town upon them; whhreupon they took to their Heels as if they had been in a great Fright. But the King with some few of his Troops, fell upon the Backs of the Pursuers, upon which there was a smart Engagement, and many of the Barbarians were kill'd and taken. But a great number of those that were kill'd and wounded on the King's side, were in a desperate Condition; for the Barbarians had poyson'd the Heads of their Weapons with a deadly Poyson, which made them more Courageous and forward to Engage with the King. This strong Poyson is made of certain Serpents taken by Hunting, which after they are kill'd, they lay out and expose to the Heat of the Sun; where the Heat does so fry their Flesh as if it were melting away, from which distills a sweaty Moisture, wherein the Poyson of the Beast is convey'd, and may be discern'd. The Working of this Poyson is such, that a Benumm'dness and Stupidity presently seizes upon the Body of him that is wounded; and in a short time after follows most tormenting Pains, Convulsions and Trembling, wrecking every Member of the Body. The Skin grows excessive Cold and Black, and the Party vomits black Choler: Moreover, a black frothy Matter flows from the Wound, which causes Putrefaction, and presently spreads all over the principal Parts of the Body, and so the Party dies in a most Miserable manner. And hence it was, that he that was never so slightly touch'd, was as much tormented, as he that had the greatest Wounds. After all that were thus wounded were dead, the King griev'd for none so much, as he did for the Misfortune of Ptolemy (who Reign'd afterwards) and whom at that time he dearly lov'd. There happen'd at this time something extraordinary remarkable in reference to Ptolemy, which some ascribe to the special Providence of God. He was a Man that was belov'd of all, both for his Valour and his wonderful obliging Carriage to every one, and therefore met with a Cureworthy his kind and gracious Disposition. The King dreamt Page 568 that he saw a Serpent with an Herb in his Mouth, which told him the Nature and Efficacy of the Plant, and where it grew: When he awoke, he presently search'd for the Herb and found it, and when he had bruis'd it made a Pultice of it, and apply'd it to Ptolemy's Body, and gave him a Potion of the Juice of the Plant, and so restor'd him to perfect Health. Others also, when they came to know the Sovereign Use of the Herb, were cur'd by the same means. But when Alexander now began to apply himself to the Siege of Harmotelia, a strong and well fenc'd City, the Inhabitants came all forth to him and begg'd his Pardon, and deliver'd up themselves and their City into his Hands, and so escap'd Punishment.
Then sailing with his familiar Friends into the Main Ocean, he found two Islands, where he offer'd most magnificent Sacrifices, and threw many Golden Cups of a great Value, together with the Drink-Offerings into the Sea. At length, having rear'd up Altars to the Honour of Tethys and Oceanus, (supposing now he had finish'd the Voyage he intended) he return'd with the Fleet up his River, and arriv'd at the famous City Hyala. This City is under the same form of Government with that of Lacedaemon: For there were two Kings of two several Families, succeeding in a time, who had the Management and Administration of their Wars. But the chief Authority in Civil Affairs resided in the Senate. Here Alexander burnt all the Ships that were Leaky and Defective, and deliver'd the rest of his Fleet into the Hands of Nearchus and some other of his Friends, with a Command to sail all along the Sea-coast, and diligently observe every Place, till they came to the Entrance into the River Euphrates. He himself rais'd his Camp, and march'd a long way into the Country, subduing all that oppos'd him, and using them kindly that submitted to him: For the Inhabitants of Abitra and Gedrosia he brought to Submission, without any Hazard or Difficulty.
Afterwards, marching through many Tracts of Land destitute of Water, and as many Desarts, he came to the Borders of Neoridis. There he divided his Army into three Brigades; the one he gave to Ptolemy, the other to Leonatus; the former he comanded to harrass the Sea Coasts, and the other the Midland and Champian part of the Country. He himself wasted and spoiled the Hill Country and Mountanous Parts, and the Places thereunto adjoyning: So that many Countries being Invaded all at one and the same time all Places were fill'd with Rapine, Fire, and Sword; whence the Soldiers were loaded with rich Booty, and many Thousands perish'd by the Sword.
The bordering Nations being terrify'd by this Destruction of People, all deliver'd themselves up into the Power of the King . Here the King having a desire to build a City near to the Sea, and having found a safe Harbour, and a convenient Place near to it, built one accordingly, and call'd it Alexandria. Then he entred through ways made by his Pioneers, into the Country of the Neoritans, and presently forc'd them all to submit.
These People are like all the rest of the Indians, both for Laws and Manners, except in one thing, which is almost Incredible: For the Kindred and Relations of those that are Dead (all stark Naked with their Lances in their Hands) carry forth the Dead Bodies into some Wood or other belonging to the Country, and there strip the Dead of all his burying Clothes and other Ornaments, and leave the Body to be Food for the Wild Beasts: Then they divide his Garments, and Sacrifice to the Subterraneous Heroes, and Feast all their Friends.
Alexander afterwards marched into Gedrosia, all along the Sea Coast, and came at length among a most rude and savage People. From their very Birth to their old Age they never cut their Nails, but suffer them still to grow; and the Hair of their Heads all grow in Locks, never comb'd out. They're of a swarthy Complexion, (through the parching Heat of the Sun) and cloath themselves with the Skins of Wild Beasts. They feed upon the Flesh of Whales cast up by the Sea. In building of their Houses and Cottages, they raise up their Walls as is usual, but the Roofs are laid with the Rib-bones of Whales, of which they have Summers and Beams eighteen Cubits in length, and for Tiles they use the Whales Scales.
When Alexander with great Toil had march'd through this Country, he came into a desolate Wilderness, where nothing at all was to be had for the support of Man's Life. So that many dying for want of Food, the whole Army was not only altogether discourag'd, but the King himself was then over-whelm'd with unusual Sorrow and Anxiety of Mind: For he look'd upon it as a most Miserable thing that those who by the Valour of their Arms, had conquer'd all where ever they came, should now ingloriously Perish for want of Bread in a Barren Wilderness. Therefore he sent away the swiftest Courriers he could find into Parthia, Drangina, Aria, and other bordering Countries, with order, that with all Page 567 speed they should meet him upon the Border of Carmania, with Dromedary Camels, and other Beasts of Burden, loaden with Bread, and all other necessary Provisions; who hasted away as they were commanded, and procur'd the Governors of the Provinces to dispatch abundance of Provision to the Place appointed. By this extream Scarcity Alexander lost many of his Men, and this was the first Mischief he met with in this Expedition. Afterwards, as they were marching, some of the Mountaineers fell upon Leonatus his Squadron and cut off many of them, and then made back to their Countrymen, and this was another Loss.
When they had at length, with very great Difficulties and Hardships past through this Desart, they came into a Rich and Populous Country ; Here he randezvous'd his whole Army, and after they had refresh'd themselves celebrated a Feast to Bacchus, and dress'd up to make a shew like a Pageant, he led the Darice before his Army (who march'd likewise in great Pomp and State) for the space of Seven days together, spending all that time in Revelling and Drunkenness all along the way as he went.
When this was over, hearing that many of his Officers and Governors of Provinces had abus'd their Power, to the Oppression and Injury of many, he punish'd them according to their Demerits. Which Severity of the King's being spread abroad, many who were conscious of being guilty of the same Crimes, began to fear the same Punishment, and therefore some who commanded the Mercenaries, made a Defection; others pick'd up what Moneys they could, and fled: Of which the King receiving intelligence, he writ to all the Governors and Lord-Lieutenants of Asia, that as soon as they had read his Letters they should without further delay disband all the Mercenaries.
About the same time, while the King was at Salmuntes, a Sea port Town, busie in making Stage Plays: Those who were sent to examine all the Sea Coasts, arriv'd with the Fleet, who forthwith went into the Theatre and address'd themselves to the King; and after they had made their Obeysance, they acquainted him with what they had done. The Macedonians so rejoic'd at their Return, that as a Testimony of their joy they set up a great Acclamation, and fill'd the whole Theatre with Exultations. Those that return'd from the Voyage, told him, There were wonderful Tides of Ebbing and Flowing in the Ocean, and that at low Water in the furthest Parts of the Sea Coasts there appear'd very many great Islands, which at the return of the Tide are all again laid under Water, while a most Fierce and violent Wind comes off from them to the Continent, and causes the Water to be all over on a Foam: And as the greatest Wonder of all, they declar'd they met with Whales of an incredible Magnitude; which at the first so terrify'd them, that they look'd upon themselves as lost, and that they and all their Ships must in a Moment perish together: But all of them at once setting up a great shout, and making a Noise by striking upon their Arms, and sounding of Trumpets, the monstrous Creatures were so terrify'd with a thing so unusual, that they made to the Bottom of the Deep.
After the King had heard the Relation, he order'd the Sea Officers to sail with the Fleet to Euphrates, And he himself in the mean time, marching through many Countries with his Army, came at last to the Borders of Susiana. At which time Calanus, an Indian, a great Philosopher, and much honour'd by the King, ended his days in a wonderful manner. Having now liv'd to be Seventy three years old; and during all that time never knew what Sickness or the least Distemper meant, he purpos'd to put an end to his own Life; supposing that now both Nature and Fortune had brought him to the utmost Bounds of his Felicity and well-being in the World. Being seiz'd upon therefore with Sickness, which grew upon him more and more every day, he desir'd the King that he would order a great Funeral Pile to be made, and that when he had plac'd himself upon it, some of his Servants should set it on fire. The King at first endeavour'd to dissuade him from this Purpose; but when he saw he would not be mov'd, he promis'd it should be done as he had desir'd.
The thing presently spread abroad, and when the Pile was finish'd, multitudes of People flock'd to see this strange Sight: And there Calanus (according to the Rules and Dictates of his own Opinion) with great Courage ascended the Pile, and both he and it were consum'd together. Some that were present judg'd this Act to be an effect of Madness, others nothing else but a piece of Vain-glory: Though some there were that admir'd his Noble Spirit, and Contempt of Death; And the King caus'd him to be honourably bury'd.
When Alexander came to Susa, he marry'd Statira, Darius his Eldest Daughter. Drypetis, the Younger, he marry'd to Hephestion: He gave also Wives to the Chiefest of his Friends, and marry'd them to the Noblest Ladies of Persia.
Page 568 About this time Thirty thousand Persians (very Proper and handsom young Men, and of strong Bodies) came to Susa. These, according to the King's Command, had for some considerable time been getting together, and had been train'd up by their Tutors and Governors in Martial Discipline; and all of them compleatly furnish'd with Macedonian Arms encamp'd before the City; where they Train'd and Exercis'd before the King, and approv'd themselves so expert in the Management and Handling of their Arms, that they were honour'd by him with large and rich Gifts. For because the Macedonians refus'd to pass over the River Ganges, and in the common Assembly would many times with a great Bawling and Noise oppose the King, and mock at his Descent from Hammon, he got this Body of Persians (who were all about the same Age) to be as a Curb upon the Macedonian Brigade. And these were the things wherein Alexander employ'd himself at that time.
During this Indian Expedition, Harpalus, who was made by Alexander Lord High-Treasurer of Babylon, almost as soon as the King, had begun his march (hoping he would never return) gave up himself to all manner of Luxury and Excess: For he was Governor of a very large Province. In the first place, he follow'd a lewd Course of Forcing and Ravishing of Women, and committing all sorts of abominable Acts of Uncleanness with the Barbarians, by which Luxurious pranks of Wickedness he wasted the Treasure committed to his Charge. He order'd great multitudes of Fish to be brought to him from far Countries, as far as from the * Red Sea: And was so profuse in his daily Provisions for his Table, that all cry'd shame of him, and none gave him a good Word. He sent likewise for a famous Strumpet from Athens, call'd Pythonices, to whom he gave most Princely Gifts whilst she liv'd, and buried her with as much state when she was dead, and built for her a most magnificent Monument in Athens.
After her death he sent for another Curtesan out of Attica, call'd Glycera, with whom he liv'd at such a height of Voluptuousness and Expence, as exceeded all bounds: But that he might have a Refuge to fly unto, in case of the cross and destructive Blasts of Fortune, he made it his business chiefly to oblige the Athenians. And therefore when Alexander return'd from his Indian Expedition, and had cut off the Heads of many of the Provincial Governors for their Male-administrations; Harpalus fearing the same Punishment, bagg'd up Five thousand Talents of Silver, and rais'd Six thousand Mercenary Soldiers, and so left Asia and sail'd for Attica. But when he perceiv'd none were forward to come in to him, he left his Soldiers at Tenarus in Laconia, and taking part of the Money with him fled to the Athenians for Protection: But being demanded to be be deliver'd up by Letters from Antipater and Olympias, (having first distributed large Rewards amongst the Orators that had pleaded for him, and manag'd his concern with the Athenians) he withdrew himself and fled to his Soldiers at Tenarus. Thence he sail'd to Creet, and there was Murther'd by Thimbro, one of his Friends.
The Athenians likewise (examining the matter concerning the Money given by Harpalus) condemn'd Demosthenes, and several other Orators, for being corrupted by him with Bribes.
About this time, Alexander, at the Celebration of the Olympick Games, caus'd publick Proclamation to be made by an Herald, That all Exiles (except Robbers of Temples and Murderers) should return to their several Countries: And he himself pick'd out Ten thousand of the Oldest Soldiers in his Army, and discharg'd them from further Service; and being inform'd that many of them were in debt, he paid the whole in one Day, to the value of no less then Ten thousand Talents. The rest of the Macedonians carrying themselves with great Malepartness towards him, and in a General Assembly with Bawling and Noise contradicting him, he was so enrag'd and sharp in his returns upon them, that they were all put into a great Fright; and in that Rage was so daring, that he leap'd down from the Tribunal, and seiz'd upon some of the Ring leaders of the Mutiny with his own hands, and deliver'd them to the Lictors to be Executed. At length, when he saw that the Disorders and Mutiny still encreas'd, he made such of the Persians Officers as he thought fit, and preferr'd them to the chiefest Commands. Upon which, the Macedonians recollected themselves, and had much ado to regain Alexander's favour, though they address'd themselves to him both with Petitions and Tears.
Alexander mixes Twenty thousand Persian Darters with his Army. Marches from Susa. Bagistames breeds abundance of Horses. Hephestion dies at Ecbatane. The Lamian War. He invades the Cosseans. Marches towards Babylon. The Caldean Astrologers dissuade him from coming thither. He enters Babylon.
AFterwards when Anticles was chief Magistrate of Athens, and Lucius Cornelius and Quintius Publius were Consuls at Rome, Alexander supply'd the Room of those he had discharg'd with Persians, and chose a Thousand of them to be Squires of the Body, conceiving he might altogether as safely trust them as the Macedonians.
About this time Peucestes came with Twenty thousand Persian Darters and Slingers, these Alexander intermix'd amongst his other Soldiers, by which means the whole Army was brought into that due Constitution, as that they were readily obedient to his Command. There were some of the Macedonians that had Sons by the Captives, whom upon diligent Enquiry he found to be Ten thousand, and appointed them Masters to instruct them in all sorts of Learning, and allow'd sufficient Stipends for their Liberal Education.
Then he Rendevouz'd his Army, and march'd away from Susa, and passing the River Tigris, came to the Villages call'd Carrae, and there encamp'd. Thence in Four Days March he pass'd through Sitta, and came to Sambea. Here he rested Seven Days, and refresh'd his Army. Thence in Three Days he march'd to the Towns call'd Celonae: In which Place the Posterity of the Boeotians settl'd themselves in the time of Xerxes his Expedition, and there remain unto this Day, having not altogether forgot the Laws of their Country: For they use a double Language, one learnt from the Natural Inhabitants, and in the other they preserve much of the Greek Tongue; and observe some of their Laws and Customs. Thence, when it grew towards Evening, he decamp'd, and turn'd aside and march'd to Bagistames to view the Country. This Country abounds in all manner of Fruit-Trees, and whatever else conduces either to the Profit or Pleasure of Mankind; so as that it seems to be a Place of Delight both for Gods and Men. Afterwards he came into a Country that breeds and pastures an innumerable Company of Horses; for they say, That there had been here an Hundred and sixty thousand Horses that ran at Pasture up and down in the Country; but at the coming of Alexander there were only Sixty thousand. He encamp'd herefor the space of Thirty Days: Thence in seven Encampments he came to Echatana in Media. This City is Two hundred and fifty Furlongs in compass, and is the Metropolis of all Media, where abundance of Treasure was laid up. Here he staid some time, and refresh'd his Army, and spent his time in Feasting, Drinking, and Stage-Plays; at which time Hephestion (one that he lov'd above all others) fell sick of a Surfeit, and died: Whose death the King bore very grievously, and committed his Body to Perdiccas to be carry'd to Babylon, because he intended to bury him with great Pomp and State.
While these things were acting in Asia, Greece was full of Tumults and Seditions, whence broke out the War call'd the Lamian War, upon this occasion: After the King's Order to the Lords Lieutenants of the Provinces to disband all Mercenary Soldiers, and the execution of those Commands, many Foreiguers that were cashier'd, went stragling over all Asia, and for want of Subsistence, robb'd and spoil'd the Country till they all came into one Body, at Tenarus in Laconia: So likewise all the Governors and Commanders of the Persians that were left, got together what Men and Money they could, and came all to Tenarus, and there join'd their Forces together: There they created Leostenes an Athenian (a brave Spirited Man) General of the Army; who then call'd a Council of War; and after Consultation had concerning the Management of the War, dispos'd of Fifty Talents to pay the Mercenaries, and provided Arms sufficient for the present occasion. He sent likewise Ambassadors to the Aetolians (who were disaffected to the King) to join with them in Arms. And thus Leostenes was altogether taken up in necessary Preparations for a War, of the greatness of which, he had then a clear and evident Prospect.
Alexander now march'd against the Cosseans, who refus'd to submit to his Government. This People are a very Warlike Nation, and inhabit the hilly and mountainous Parts of Media; and therefore confiding in their own Valour, and the Fastnesses of their Coun-Country, never would be brought of admit to any foreign Prince to reign over them; Page 570 and were never subdu'd, during all the time of the Persian Empire. And at that time they were so very high, that they slighted the Valour of the Macedonians.
The King first gain'd the Passes, and then wasted a great part of the Country of Cosea; and getting the better in every Engagement, kill'd many of the Barbarians, and took many more Prisoners. At length, the Cosseans being worsted and beaten in every place, and greatly concern'd at the multitude of the Captives, were forc'd to redeem their Country by the loss of their own Liberty; and so giving up themselves to the Will of the Conqueror, they obtain'd Peace, upon condition they should be Loyal and Obedient for the time to come. Thus Alexander conquer'd this Nation in the space of forty Days; and after he hadbuilt some Cities atthe most difficult Passes in the Country, he march'd away.
Socicles was now Archon at Athens, and Cornelius Lentulus and QuintusPopilius Roman Consuls, when Alexander, after the Conquest of the Cosseans, march'd thence towards Babylon: He always rested a while between every Decampment; and to ease his Army, mov'd very slowly. When he was about Three hundred Furlongs from Babylon, the Caldeans (as they are call'd) who were famous for Astrology, and us'd to prognosticate future Events by the Observation of the Stars (and by that means knew that the King would die presently after he enter'd into Babylon) pick'd out some of the most ancient and expert of those of their Profession, and order'd them to signifie the Danger to the King, and with all the Arguments they could use to dissuade him from entring into the City; and to let him know that he might avoid the Danger, if he would rebuild the Sepulchre of Belus, which the Persians had destroy'd, and alter his Purpose, and pass by the City.
Belephentes was the leading Man of the Caldeans that were sent away; but he was afraid to address himself to the King, and therefore privately imparted all to Nearchus (one of the King's familiar Friends) and desir'd him that with all speed he would acquaint the King with the whole Business. Alexander was much concern'd when Nearchus told him what the Caldeans had prognosticated; and more and more considering and pondering in his Thoughts the Skill and Reputation of the Man, was in no small Consternation. At length he sent away many of his Friends to the City, but he himself turn'd aside another way, and pass'd by Babylon; and encamping Two hundred Furlongs distant from the place, he there rested. At this all were in admiration; whereupon many Philosophers came to him, as well those that were Followers of Anaxagoras as other Grecians. When they came to understand the cause of his Fear, they earnestly oppos'd what was said, with many Philosophical Arguments; by which he was so convinc'd and chang'd, that he contemn'd all sorts of Divination whatsoever, and especially that of the Caldeans, that was every where so famous. Therefore now, as if his Spirit before wounded had been cur'd by the Arguments of Philosophers, he entred Babylon with his Army, where (as before) the Soldiers were kindly entertain'd by the Citizens; and the Plenty of Provision was such, that all gave up themselves to Ease and Voluptuousness. And these were the things acted this Year.
Ambassadors come to Alexander from all Parts. He buries Hephestion with great State. The Prodigies before Alexander's Death. His Death. Darius's Mother starves her self.
AGesias was now Chief Magistrate of Athens, and Caius Poetelius and Lucius Papirius Consuls at Rome, when the Hundred and fourteenth Olympiad was celebrated, in which Micinas of Rhodes was Victor. At this time Ambassadors came to Alexander almost from all Parts of the World; some to congratulate his Victories; others to tender him Crowns; others to make Leagues and Alliances with him; and many brought him very Rich and Noble Presents. And some there were that came to clear themselves from false Accusations: For besides those sent from the Cities, States, and Princes of Asia, many Ambassadors addrest themselves to the King from Europe and Africa. Out of Africa the Carthaginians and the Phoenicians of Lybia, and all bordering upon the Sea Coasts as far as Page 571Hercules-Pillars. Out of Europe, the Grecian Cities: The Macedonians: The Illyrians; many inhabiting Adria: The Thracians; and the Galatians, a People that then first began to be known to the Grecians. These all sent their Ambassadors; of whom the King having a Catalogue in writing, he appointed in what Order they should be severally admitted to their Audience. And in the first place those were introduc'd that came about Matters of Religion; then those who brought Presents; next, they that were at variance with the People bordering upon them: Then those were admitted, in the fourth place, who came to treat upon Concerns relating to their own Country: And lastly, those whose Instructions were to oppose the Restauration of the Exiles. And among the Religious, he first heard them of Elis; after them the Hammonians, Delphians, and Corinthians; the Epidaurians likewise, and others; giving to them the Preheminence out of Reverence and Veneration to the Temples. He made it his great Business to return such grateful Answers to all the Ambassadors, as that he might gain the Good-will and Affection of every one of them.
When all this was over, he apply'd himself to the celebrating the Funerals of Hephestion; and contriv'd (all that possibly he could) so far to grace it with Funeral Pomp, as that it should not only exceed all that were before it, but likewise that it should never be exceeded by any that was to come: For he most dearly lov'd him (as much as the dearest Friends that we have heard of ever lov'd one another) when he was alive, and honour'd him beyond compare when he was dead. He honour'd him more than any of his Friends while he liv'd, altho' Craterus seem'd to vie with him for Alexander's Affection: For when one of the Servants said, that Craterus lov'd Alexander as well as Hephestion did; Alexander answer'd, That Craterus was theKing's Friend, and Hephestion Alexander's. And at that time, when the Mother of Darius (through a mistake upon the first view of the King) prostrated her self at the Feet of Hephestion, and coming to discern her Errour, was much out of Countenance: Be not troubled, Mother (says Alexander) for even he is another Alexander. To conclude, Hephestion had such Interest in Alexander, and such free access and liberty of Converse, that when Olympias (who envy'd him) accus'd him and threatned him by her Letters, he writ to her back again with severe Checks; and added these Expressions: Forbear your Slanders against me, and bridle your Anger, and surcease your Threats: But if you will not, I value them not of a pin; for you are not ignorant that Alexander must be Judge of all.
The King therefore taken up with the Preparations for the Funeral, commanded the neighbouring Cities to assist as much as possibly they could towards its Pomp and Splendor; and commanded all the People of Asia, that the Fire which the Persians call the Holy Fire should be put out, till the Exequies of this Funeral were fully finish'd, as was us'd to be done in the Funerals of the King's of Persia; which was taken to be an ill Omen to the King himself, and that the Gods did thereby portend his Death. There were likewise other Prodigies happen'd that did clearly point out that Alexander's Life was near at an end; which we shall presently give an account of, when we have finish'd our Relation of the Funeral. In order to this Funeral, all his Chief Commanders and Noblemen (in compliance to the King's Pleasure) made Medals of Hephestion graven in Ivory, and cast in Gold and other rich Metals. Alexander himself call'd together a great number of the most exquisit Workmen that could be had, and brake down the Wall of Babylon ten Furlongs in length, and took away the Brick of it; and then levelling the place where the Funeral Pile was to be rais'd, built thereon a Foursquare Pile, each Square taking a Furlong in length: The Platform he divided into Thirty Apartments, and cover'd the Rooss with the Trunks of Palm-Trees. The whole Structure represented a Quadrangle: Afterwards he beautify'd it round with curious Adornments: The lower part was fill'd up with Two hundred and forty Prowes of Gallies of five Tire of Oars burnish'd with Gold; upon whose Rafters stood two Darters, one on each side the Beaks, of four Cubits high, kneeling upon one Knee; and Statues of Men in Arms five Cubits high: All the Divisions and open Parts were vail'd with Hangings of Purple. That part next above this was set with Torches, of fifteen Cubits high, in the middle part of every one of which (where they were us'd to be held) were plac'd Crowns of Gold; at the top whence the Flame ascended, were fix'd Eagles with their Wings display'd, and their Heads stooping downwards. At the bottom of the Torches were Serpents, facing and looking up at the Eagles. In the third Range were expos'd all sorts of wild Beasts hunted: In the fourth Centaurs all in Gold combating one with another: The fifth presented alternately to the view Lions and Bulls in massie Gold. In that part above these were plac'd the Arms both of the Macedonians and Barbarians; the one signifying the Victories over the Conquer'd Nations, and the other the Valour of the Conqueror. In the highest and last part Page 572 of all, stood Sirenes, contriv'd hollow, wherein secretly were plac'd those who sang the Mourning Song to the Dead. The heighth of the whole Structure mounted up above a hundred and thirty Cubits. To conclude, both Commanders and Common Soldiers; Ambassadors and the natural Inhabitants, so strove to outvy one another in contributing to this stately Funeral, that the Charge and Cost amounted to above Twelve thousand Talents. And to grace it more, and make it more splendid, he con•err'd several other Honours upon these Exequies. At length he commanded all to sacrifice to him as a Tutelar God: For it hapned that Philip, one of his Nobility, at that time return'd from the Temple of Haminon, and brought word from the Oracle there, That Hephestion might be sacrific'd unto as a Demi-God: Whereat Alexander was wonderfully glad, hearing that the Oracle it self was an Approver of his Opinion; and thereupon he himself was the first that offer'd, sacrificing Ten thousand Beasts of all kinds, and making a magnificent Feast for all the Multitude.
When all the Solemnity was over, Alexander gave up himself to Ease and a Revelling Course of Life: And now when he seem'd to be at the Heighth of Worldly Greatness and Prosperity; that Time and Space of Life which he might have run through by the Course of Nature, was cut short by the Determination of Fate; and God himself, by many Signs and Prodigies shewn in several Places, foreshew'd his Death. For when he was anointing himself, and his Royal Robes and Crown that while laid upon the Throne, the Fetters of one of the Natural Inhabitants, that was then in Chains, fell off, and unloos'd of their own accord, and the Person not being discern'd by any of the Watch, pass'd through the Court-Gates without any Opposition, and made streight to the Throne, and put on the Royal Robes and Crown upon his Head, and sate upon the Throne without any disturbance. Which Fact being nois'd abroad, the King was amaz'd at the strangeness of the Thing, and went to the place, and without any Rebuke, calmly ask'd the Man, Who he was, and who advis'd him to do so? Who plainly and simply answer'd, He knew nothing at all. This strange Accident was referr'd to the Consideration of the Augurs; by whose Advice the poor Wretch was put to death, that the Evil portended (if any were) might fall upon his own Head.
The King having now got his Robes again, sacrific'd to the Gods his Protectors: But however he continu'd much disturb'd and perplex'd in his Mind; and then began to reflect upon what the Caldeans had foretold; and fretted against those Philosophers that persuaded him to enter into Babylon; but admir'd the Art and profound Wisdom of the Caldeans. To conclude, he curst those, who by subtil Arguments, had disputed against the Necessity of Fate.
Not long after, God shew'd another Prodigy concerning the Change of the Kingdom: The King had a desire to see the Haven at Babylon; and being come there, they went on board with some of his Nobles that attended him; and while they were sailing, the King's Ship was separated from the rest, and tossed to and fro for several Days together, so as that he wholly despair'd of his Life; and being at length carry'd through a narrow Creek, where Bushes and Trees grew thick upon both sides, his Turbant or Diadem, by one of the Boughs was pluck'd off from his Head, and hurl'd into the Water; which one of the Mariners spying, swam to it; and for the better securing of it, clapt it upon his own Head, and swam back to the Ship. After he had wander'd up and down three Days and three Nights, he return'd at length safe with his Diadem to his Friends, and again consulted the Soothsayers concerning this Prodigy; who advis'd him immediately, with all diligence, to offer splendid Sacrifices to the Gods.
But at the time of these Sacrifices, he was invited by one Medius a Thessalian, one of his Friends, to a Banquet; where when he was in his Cups, and even drunk with Wine, he quaft off the Great Bowl call'd Hercules his Cup: Whereupon, as if he had been struck with a Thunder-bolt, he fetch'd a deep Sigh, and was then presently led out by his Nobles, and so left the place. Those who had him in their Charge forthwith laid him upon his Bed, and there diligently attended him. His Distemper increasing, his Physicians were call'd in; but they were not able to administer any thing for his Relief.
At length, his Sickness was so violent, and his Pains so great, that he himself despair'd of Life, and in that Condition drew off his Ring from his Finger, and deliver'd it to Perdiccas. His Commanders then ask'd him, To whom, Sir, do you leave the Kingdom? He answer'd, To the most Deserving. And when he utter'd his last Words, he told them, That the Chiefest of his Friends and Commanders would solemnize his Funeral, when he was gone, with Blood and Contention. And thus died Alexander, when he had reign'd Twelve Years and Seven Months, having perform'd such Mighty Acts, as no King ever did before him, nor any since to this day.
Page 573 But because some Writers differ as to the Cause and Manner of his Death, affirming that he was poison'd by a deadly Potion given him; it's necessary to relate what they have reported concerning this matter. They say that Antipater, whom Alexander had made his Viceroy in Europe, fell out with Olympias the King's Mother, of which at first no great matter was made, because the King would not hear any of the Accusations against him. But afterwards the Quarrels and Heart-burnings growing higher and higher, the King, out of his Piety and Awe to the Gods, conceiv'd it his Duty to gratifie his Mother; whereupon he gave many apparent Signs and Tokens of the Alienation of his Affections from Antipater. And as further Fuel to the Flame, the putting to death Parmenio and Philotas, did not a little terrifie and afright the Nobility. And therefore it's said he order'd his Son, who was Alexander's Cupbearer, to put Poison into his Wine: But because he was a Man of great Power in Europe after the Death of Alexander, and that Cassander his Son succeeded him in the Kingdom, many Historians durst not say any thing in their Writings of Poison. However, it's very apparent that Cassander was a great Enemy to the Concerns of Alexander: For he suffer'd the Body of Olympias, after she was murder'd, to lie with Disdain unbury'd; and he made it his great Business to re-edifie Thebes, which Alexander had raz'd to the Ground.
When the King was dead, Sisigambris, the Mother of Darius, with abundance of Tears bewail'd the Death of Alexander, and her own desolate Condition upon that account; insomuch, as to the last Minute, she would neither eat, nor see the Light; and so the Fifth Day after died of Hunger in extream Sorrow, but with as much Glory and Reputation.
Having now brought down our History to the Death of Alexander, as we design'd in the Beginning of this, we shall proceed to give an Account of the Acts of his Successors in the following Books.
The Histories of Herodotus written in 440 BC is considered to be the founding work of history in Western literature. His history included stories and fables but he claimed to have traveled extensively and learned about many countries through direct observation.
The thesis of Stolen Legacy is that the Egyptians created what is wrongly called Greek philosophy. Dr. James argues that the African origin of Greek Philosophy is well known but rarely discussed. Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus the Sicilian wrote in significant detail about the contributions of Egypt. Egyptian technology and libraries were unmatched and Greek philosophers such as Pythagoras and Plato studied there. The contribution of Africa to the intellectual foundation of modern knowledge is tremendous but unacknowledged.
The Library of History by Diodorus the Sicilian is one of the most highly regarded universal histories in antiquities. His work includes the history of Egypt, Asia, Africa, Greece and Europe. His book is a must read for research of ancient history.
Bible Study The King James Bible (kjv), World English Bible (web) and Bible in Basic English (bbe) are all examples of public domain books. The King James Bible (kjv) online uses the content from these books and open source software to enhance Bible study capabilities. The site includes the verse of the day, search tools, christian literature and links to related content. It demonstrates the use of open source to create a valuable service.