IT's the Duty of all Writers of History, whether they Treat of the Actions of Kings,or of particular Cities, to relate the Whole from the Beginning to the Conclusion. For we conceive that hereby the History is both better remembred, and more clearly Understood. For imperfect Relations, without Knowledge of the Issue of what is begun, gives an unpleasant Check to the Diligent Reader's eager Expectation. But where the Matter is drawn down by a continu'd Thred to the end of the Narration; such Writings make the History compleat in all its Parts, but more especially, if the Nature of things done, do lead the Writer, as it were, by the Hand: This Course is by no means to be neglected.
Since therefore we are now come to the Affairs of Philip, Son of Amyntas, we according to the former Rule shall endeavour to comprehend in this Book all the Actions of this King. For he reign'd as King of Macedon Two and Twenty Years, who making use at the first but of small means, at length advanc'd his Kingdom to be the Greatest in Europe; and made Macedon (which at the time of his coming to the Crown was under the servile Yoke of the Illyrians) Mistress of many potent Cities and Countries. And through his Valour the Grecian Cities voluntarily submitted themselves to him, and made him General of all Greece. And having subduedthose that Robb'd and Spoil'd the Temple at Delphos, coming in aid of the God there, he was made a Member of the Senate of the Amphictyons; and for a Reward of his Zeal to the Gods, the Right of Voting in theSenate which belonged to the Phocians (whom he had overcome) was allotted to him.
After he had overcome the Illyrians, Paeones, Thracians, Scythians, and the Countries adjoyning to them, his Thoughts were wholly imploy'd how to destroy the Persian Monarchy: But after he had set free all the Grecian Cities; and was promised Forces to be raised for the Expedition into Asia, in the midst of all his preparations he was prevented by Death: But he left those, and so many more Forces behind him, that his Son, Alexander, had no occasion to make use of the Assistance of his Confederates in the Overturning of the Persian Empire. And all those things he did not so much by the Favour of Fortune, as by the Greatness of his own Valour. For this King excell'd most in the Art of a General, Stoutness of Spirit, and Clearness of Judgment and Apprehension. But that we may not in a Preface set forth his Actions before hand, we shall proceed to the orderly Course of the History, making first some short Remarks of the Times that went before.
Philip, an Hostage at Thebes, makes his Escape; Beats the Athenians; After makes Peace with them: Subdues the Paeones, and routs the Illyrians and makes Peace with them.
WHEN Callimedes was Archon at Athens, in the Hundred and Fifth Olympiad (in which Porus the Cyrenian was Victor) Cneius Genucius, and Lucius Aemilius, Roman Consuls, Philip the Son of Amyntas, and Father of Alexander, (who conquer'd the Persians) came to the Crown in the manner following.
Amyntas being brought under by the Illyrians, was forced to pay Tribute to the Conquerors; who having taken his youngest Son Philip as an Hostage, deliver'd him to be kept by the Thebans; who committed the young Youth to the Care of the Father of Epaminondas, with order to look to his Charge with all Diligence, and honourably to Educate and Instruct him.
Page 478 A Pythagorean Philosopher was at that time Tutor to Epaminondas, with whom Philip being brought up, he improv'd more than ordinary in the Pythagorean Philosophy. And both these Scholars imploying the utmost of their Parts and Diligence in the Prosecution of their Studies, both by that means became Famous for their virtuous Qualifications. Epaminondas (it's known to all) having run through many Hazards and Difficulties, beyond all expectation gain'd the Sovereignty of all Greece for his Country: And Philip having the same Advantages, shew'd himself nothing inferior to Epaminondas in glorious Atchievements: For after the Death of Amyntas, his Eldest Son Alexander succeeded him in the Kingdom; but Ptolemy Alorites murder'd him and Usurp'd the Government; and he himself was serv'd with the same Sauce by Perdiccas; who being afterwards overcome in a great Battel by the Illyrians, and kill'd in the very time when there was most need of a King, Philip, the Brother, made his escape and took Possession of the Kingdom now in a very shatter'd Condition: For there were above Four Thousand Macedonians kill'd in the Fight, and those that surviv'd were in such Consternation and Fear of the Illyrians, that they had no heart left for the Prosecuting of the War.
About the same time the Paeones, Neighbours to the Macedonians, (in contempt of them) wasted their Country; and the Illyrians rais'd again great Forces, and design'd another Expedition against the Macedonians. And to aggravate the matter, one Pausanias, of the Royal Family, by the assistance of the King of Thrace, endeavour'd to Invade the Kingdom of Macedon, The Athenians likewise (Enemies to Philip) endeavour'd to restore Argaeus to the Kingdom of his Ancestors, and to this purpose had sent away their General Mantias, with Three Thousand well-arm'd Men, and a most excellent well provided Navy. Hereupon the Macedonians, by reason of the late Defeat and the Storm that then threatned them, were in great Fear and Perplexity: However, notwithstanding all the Difficulties and Fear of those things that were at hand, Philip nothing discourag'd with those dreadful Clouds of Mischief that seem'd to hang over his Head, by his Speeches in the daily Assemblies, retain'd the Macedonians in their Duty; and by his Eloquence (wherein he excell'd) stirring them up to be courageous, reviv'd their drooping Spirits. Then setting upon Reforming the Military Discipline, he compleatly arm'd his Men and Train'd them every Day, teaching them how to handle their Arms, and other Postures of War. He likewise instituted the new way of Drawing up into a close Body, imitating the Heroes at Troy in locking their Shields one within another; so that he was the first that found out the Macedonian Phalange.
He was very Courteous and Gaining in his Converse, and wan the Peoples Hearts both by his Bounty at present, and his generous Promises of future Rewards; very Politickly likewise (as it were by so many Engines) defending himself against the many and various Mischiefs that were pressing upon him. For when he discern'd that the Athenians made it their great business to recover Amphipolis, and that Argaeus was endeavour'd to be restor'd to his Kingdom for that end, he left the City of his own accord, suffering them to govern themselves according to their own Laws.
He sent likewise an Ambassador to the Paeones, and some of them he corrupted with Bribes; others he ensnar'd with fair and winning Promises, and for the Present made Peace with them, He prevented likewise Pausanias from being restor'd, by bribing the King that was ready to assist him for that purpose.
In the mean time Manthias the Athenian Admiral being arriv'd at Methone, there lay; but sent Aegaeus before with a Body of Mercenaries to Aegae. Coming to the City, he endeavour'd to perswade the Aegaeans to allow of his Return, and to appear the first for his Restauration to the Kingdom; but none consenting, he went back to Methone.
Presently after, Philip advancing with a well appointed Army, set upon them, and cut off many of the Mercenaries; the rest, who had fled to a Hill near at hand (having first delivered up to him the Fugitives) he dismiss'd by Agreement.
Philip being now Conqueror in this first Battel, greatly encourag'd the Macedonians, and made them hearty and eager to undergo further Toils and Difficulties.
Whilst these things were acting, the Thracians planted a Colony at Crenides, as it was heretofore call'd, which the King afterwards call'd Philippi, after his own Name, and fill'd it with Inhabitants. From this Time Theopompus of Chi•s begins his History of Philip, and continues it in Fifty eight Books, of which Five are controverted.
Afterwards Eucharist us was Archon of Athens, and Quintus Servilius and Lucius Genucius were Consuls at Rome, when Philip sent Ambassadors to Athens with Proposals of Peace, and prevail'd with the People upon the account that he was content to quit all his Right in Amphipolis.
Page 479 Being therefore thus freed from the War with the Athenians, and hearing that Agis King of the Paeones was dead, he judg'd that a fair Opportunity was offer'd him to invade the Paeones: And to that end he enter'd their Country with a considerable Army, overcame them in Battel, and forc'd them to stoop to the Macedonian Yoke.
But still the Illyrians remain'd an Eye-sore to him, whom his Heart and all his Thoughts were continually at work to bring under. To that end he call'd a General Council, and by a Speech (fitted for the Occasion) having spirited the Soldiers to the War, he led an Army into the Illyrians Country of no less than Ten thousand Foot, and Six hundred Horse.
Bardylis King of the Illyrians hearing of his coming, first sent Ambassadors to Philip to renew the League between them upon these Terms, That both of them should keep those Towns that they then had. To which Philip answer'd, That he was very desirous of Peace; but resolv'd not to admit of it, before that the Illyrians had quitted all the Towns belonging to the Kingdom of Macedon.
The Ambassadors therefore being return'd without effecting any thing, Bardylis (confiding in the Valour of his Soldiers, and encourag'd by his former Victories) march'd forth against his Enemies with a strong Army, having with him Ten thousand choice Foot, and Five hundred Horse.
When the Armies drew near one to another, they suddenly set up a great Shout, and so fell to it. Philip being in the Right Wing with a strong Body of Macedonians, commanded his Horse to wheel about, to the end to charge the Enemy in the Flank; and he himself charged the Front; upon which there was an hot Engagement.
On the other side, the Illyrians drew up in a foursquare Body, and valiantly join'd Battel.
The Valour of the Armies on both sides was such, that the issue of the Battel was doubtful a long time; many fell, but many more were wounded; and the Advantage was now here, and then there, according as the Valour and Resolution of the Combatants gave Vigour and Life to the Business.
At length, when the Horse charg'd both upon the Flank and the Rear, and Philip with his stoutest Soldiers fought like a Hero in the Front, the whole Body of the Illyrians were routed, and forc'd to fly outright, whom the Macedonians pursu'd a long way. After many were kill'd in the pursuit, Philip at length gave the Signal to his Men to retire, and erected a Trophy, and bury'd the Dead.
Then the Illyrians sent another Embassie, and procur'd a Peace, having first quitted all the Cities belonging to Macedon. There were slain of the Illyrians in this Battel above Seven thousand Men. Having thus given an account of things done in Macedonia and Illyrium, we shall now relate the Affairs of other Nations.
The Actions of Dionysius the Tounger in Sicily, and other Parts. Dion's Flight to Corinth, and his Return to Sicily. Andromachus Peoples Tauromenum. The Civil Wars in Euboea. The Social War between the Athenians and other Nations. Philip takes Amphipolis and other Cities. His Policy to gain the Olynthians and other Places in Greece.
IN Sicily, Dionysius the Younger, Tyrant of Syracuse, who came some time before to the Kingdom (being of an unactive Spirit, and much inferiour to his Father) under the Veil of a peaceful and gentle Disposition, endeavour'd to cover his Sloth and Cowardize; and therefore tho' the War with the Carthaginians descended upon him as well as the Kingdom, yet he made Peace with them.
In a careless manner likewise he made War for some time upon the Lucanians; and tho' he had the Advantage in some of the last Fights, yet he was very fond of the Terms and Conditions offer'd for the putting an end to the War.
He built two Cities in Apulia, the better to secure the Passage of his Shipping through the Ionian Sea: For the Barbarians dwelling on the Sea-Coasts, had a great number of Pirates roving up-and-down, whereby the Adriatick Sea was greatly infested and made troublesome to the Merchants.
Afterwards giving himself up to his Ease, he wholly neglected all Warlike Exercises; and tho' he was Lord of the Greatest Kingdom in Europe, and had a Dominion bound Page 480 fast with a Diamond (as his Father was us'd to boast) yet through his effeminate Sloth and Idleness, he lost it on a sudden. How it was taken from him, and how he carry'd himself in every Particular, we shall endeavour now to declare.
At this time Cephisodorus was Lord Chancellor at Athens, and Caius Licinius and Caius Sulpitius were Consuls at Rome, when Dion the Brother of Hipparinus, one of the most Noble Persons among the Syracusians, fled out of Sicily; and afterwards by the Braveness of his Spirit, and excellent Accomplishments, restor'd not only the Syracusians, but other Sicilians to their ancient Liberties: Which was occasion'd thus:
Dionysius the Elder had Issue by both his Wives: By the second Wife, the Daughter of Hipparians (who was in great Esteem among the Syracusians) he had two Sons, Hipparinus and Narsaeus. Dion was the Brother of this second Wife; a Man well skill'd in Philosophy, and the most expert Soldier in his Time of all the Syracusians. The Nobleness of his Birth and Greatness of his Spirit, made him suspected by the Tyrant, because upon that account he seem'd to be a fit Instrument to overturn the Tyranny. Dionysius therefore fearing him, determin'd to send him further off from him, and so to put him to death. Dion foreseeing what was design'd, at first discover'd it to some of his Friends: Afterwards he fled out of Sicily to Peloponnesus, taking along with him Megacles his Brother, and Cariclides the General of the Army under the Tyrant. When he arriv'd at Corinth, he solicited the Corinthians to assist him in the Recovery of the Syracusians Liberty: And presently got together a Band of Mercenaries, and employ'd himself in procuring of Arms: Upon which many Voluntiers coming in to him with all sorts of Arms, he muster'd a considerable Force of Mercenary Soldiers. Then having hind two Ships, he put his Men and Arms on board; and with these only pass'd over from Zacynthus (near adjoining to Cephalenia) to Sicily; and commanded Chariclides to follow him presently after to Syracuse, with some few Gallies, and other Ships of Burden.
While these things were acting, Andromachus of Tauromenum, the Father of Timoeus the Historian, a Man eminent both for his Riches and Wisdom, brought together from all Parts all the Exiles of Naxus (which Dionysius had raz'd) and gave them the Hill call'd Taurus, lying above Naxus. And because he and his Family had continu'd there a long time, he call'd it Tauromenium, from their Residence in Taurus. The Inhabitants afterwards grew very rich, and the City became famous by its prosperous Increases in worldly Blessings. But in our Age the Tauromenians were remov'd out of their Country by Caesar, and the City receiv'd a Roman Colony.
In the mean time, the Inhabitants of Euboea fell a quarrelling one with another, and one Party sought to the Boeotians for Aid, and the other to the Athenians; and so a War broke out throughout all Euboea. But tho' there were many light Skirmishes amongst them, sometimes the Thebans prevailing and at other times the Athenians; yet they never fought any great Battel.
At length the Island being wasted by this Civil War, and many Men destroy'd all over the Land, with much ado (being made more wise by their own Slaughters) they came to an Agreement, and so concluded a Peace: And the Boeotians returning home, laid down their Arms.
The Athenians now fell into a War call'd The Social War (which continu'd three Years) upon the account of the Defection of the Chians, Rhodians, them of Coos, and the Byzantines: To which War Chares and Chabrias were sent with an Army, as Generals: Making against Chius, they found the Chians assisted by the Byzantines, Rhodians, Choians, and Mausolus the petty King of Cana. These Generals dividing their Forces, besieg'd the City both by Sea and Land. Chares commanded the Land-Forces, and assaulted the Walls, and fought with them of the Garrison in the open Field, who made Sallies upon him. But Chabrias was engag'd in a sharp Fight at Sea in the very Harbour; and his Ship being pierc'd through with the Beaks of the Enemy's, he was greatly distress'd: And those who were in the other Ships, thought fit to comply with the Time, and so fairly ran away. But the Admiral chusing rather to die gloriously, than give up all dishonourably, in defending of his Ship receiv'd a Wound, which put an end to his Life.
About the same time, Philip King of Macedon, after his Victory over the Illyrians in that great Battel, having subdu'd all them that dwelt as far as to the Marishes of Lychnitides, and made with them an Honourable Peace, return'd into Macedonia. And having thus by his Valour rais'd up and supported the tottering State and Condition of the Macedonians, his Name became great and famous among them. Afterwards being provok'd by the many Injuries of them of Amphipolis, he march'd against them with a great Army, and applying his Engines of Battery to the Walls, made fierce and continual Assaults, Page 481 and by the Battering Rams threw down part of the Wall, and entred into the City through the Ruins, with the slaughter of many that oppos'd him; and forthwith banish'd those that were his chiefest Enemies, and graciously spar'd all the rest.
This City, by reason of its commodious Situation in Thrace, and Neighbourhood to other Places, was of great advantage to Philip: For he presently after took Pydna; but made a League with the Olynthians, and promis'd to give up to them Potidaea, which they had a long time before much coveted. For in regard the City of the Olynthians was both Rich, Potent, and Populous, and upon that account was a Place of great advantage in time of War, therefore those that were ambitious to enlarge their Dominion, strove always to gain it: So that both the Athenians and Philip earnestly contended which of them should prevail to have them for their Confederates. But however, Philip having taken Potidaea, drew out the Athenian Garrison, and us'd them with great Civility, and suffer'd them to return to Athens: For he bore a great Respect to the People of Athens, because that City was eminent and famous for its Power and Grandeur.
He deliver'd up likewise Pydna (which he had subdu'd) to the Olynthians, and gave them all the Grounds and Territories belonging to it. Thence he march'd to Crenidas, which he enlarg'd, and made more populous, and call'd it after his own Name Philippi. Besides, he so improv'd the Gold-Mines that were in those Parts (which before were but inconsiderable and obscure) that by building of Work-houses he advanc'd them to bring in a yearly Revenue of above a Thousand Talents. So that heaping up abundance of Riches, in a short time, by the confluence of his Wealth, he advanced the Kingdom of Macedonia to a higher Degree of Majesty and Glory, than ever it was before: For he coin'd Pieces of Gold (call'd of him Philippicks) and by the help thereof, rais'd a great Army of Mercenaries, and brib'd many of the Grecians to betray their Country. Of all which, a particular Account shall be given hereafter, in the Course of the History. And now we shall bend our Discourse to what follows.
Dion's March and Entry into Syracuse. Dionysius comes to the Island, part of Syracuse: Assaults the Wall erected from Sea to Sea: Is beaten by Dion. Alexander of Phaerea murdered by his Wife and his Two Brothers. Philip relieves the Thessalians from the two Brothers.
A Gathocles was Archon at Athens, and Marcus Fabius and Caius Publius, or Poetelius, were Consuls at Rome, when Dion the Son of Hipparinus landed in Sicily, to pull down the Tyranny of Dionysius. This Dion to admiration overturn'd the greatest Dominion in Europe, with the most inconsiderable Force that ever any did before him: For who would ever believe, that a Man who landed only with Two Ships of Burden, should overcome a King who was furnish'd with Four hundred Gallies; had an Army of an Hundred thousand Foot, and Ten thousand Horse; and was provided with Arms, Money, and Provision, suitable and sufficient to supply so many and great Forces as we have related? And who (over and besides all that we have said) was possess'd of the Greatest of all the Greek Cities; so many Ports and Arsenals, Castles so strongly fortify'd and unexpugnable, and such a number of potent Auxiliaries? But that which much forwarded the Successes of Dion, was his great Spirit and valorous Resolution, and the Good will and Kindness the People, whom he came to set free, bare towards him. And that which was more than all these, the Sloth and Esseminateness of the Tyrant, and the Hatred of his Subjects. All these things concentring in one Moment of Time, they produc'd incredible Effects, not to have been imagin'd: But to leave off Prefacing, we shall now come to relate Affairs more particularly.
Dion therefore loosing from Zazynthus, near to Cephalenia, arriv'd at Minoa (as it's call'd) in the Territory of Agrigentum. This City was built by Minos, formerly King of Crete, at such time as he was entertain'd by Cocales, King of the Sicanians, in his seeking after Daedalus.
At this time this City was in the hands of the Carthaginians, whose Governour Paralus, Dion's Friend, was chearfully receiv'd by him. Upon this Encouragement he unloaded his Ships of Five thousand Arms, and intrusted them with Paralus, desiring him to furnish him with Carriages to convey them to Syracuse: And he himself, with a thousand Mercenaries Page 482 that had join'd him, makes to the same Place. In his March he prevail'd with the Agrigentines, Geloans, some of the Sicanians, and the Sicilians that inhabited the midland, the Camarineans likewise and Madinaeans, to join with him in freeing the Syracusians from their Slavery; and with these he march'd forward to give a Check to the Tyrant. In his March arm'd Men flocking in to him from all Parts, in a short time he had an Army of above Twenty thousand Men. And besides these, many Grecians and Messenians were sent for out of Italy, and all with great chearfulness came readily to him.
As soon as Dion came to the Borders of the Syracusian Territories, a Multitude of unarm'd Men, both out of the City and Country, met him: For Dionysius, out of Fear and Jealousie of the Syracusians, had disarm'd many.
He was by chance at that time at the Cities he had lately built in Adria with a great Army: In the mean time, the Officers that were left to guard the City, endeavour'd, in the first place, to retain the Citizens in their Duty, and to prevent their Defection; but when they saw they could not, by all the means they could use, bridle the impetuous Rage of the People, they got together all the foreign Soldiers, and all others within the City that favour'd the Tyrant's Party; and having compleated their Regiments, resolv'd to fall upon the Rebels. Then Dion distributed the 5000 Arms among the Syracusians that were unarm'd, and the rest he furnish'd as well as he could, as Arms came to his hands. He then call'd them all together to a Publick Assembly, and told them that he was come to restore the Sicilians to their Liberty; and to that end commanded such Officers to be created, as were fittest to be made use of for that purpose, and for the utter ruin of the Tyranny. Upon which, they all cry'd out with one unanimous Voice, That Dion and his Brother Megacles should be chosen Generals, and invested with absolute Power and Command. And so without delay, from the Assembly (having first dispos'd the Army in order of Battel) he march'd streight to the City; and none appearing in the open Field to oppose him, he confidently entred within the Walls, and through Achradina march'd on into the Forum, and there encamp'd, none daring to oppose him: For there were no fewer with Dion in his Army than Fifty thousand Men. And all these with Coronets upon their Heads entred into the City, led by Dion, Megacles, and Thirty Syracusians, who alone of all the Exiles in Peloponnesus were willing to run the same common Fate with their Fellow-Citizens.
At this time the whole City exchang'd Slavery for Liberty, and Fortune turn'd Sorrow, the Companion of Tyranny, into pompous Mirth and Jollity: And every House was full of Sacrifices and rejoicing; and Men burnt Incense every one upon his own Altar, thanking the Gods for what at present they enjoy'd, and putting up Prayers for an happy Issue of Affairs for the time to come. Then were heard many Shouts of Joy by the Women all over the City, for their sudden and unexpected Happiness, and the People rejoicing through all Corners of the Town. There was then neither Freeman, or Servant, or any Stranger, but all were earnest to see Dion, who for his Valour and Courage was cry'd up by all above what was fitting for a Man. Yet was it not altogether without some Reason, the Change was so great and so unexpected: For having liv'd Fifty Years as Slaves, through so long a time they had almost forgotten what Liberty meant, and now by the Valour of one Man they were on a sudden deliver'd from their Calamity.
About that time Dionysius staid at Caulonia in Italy; but sent to Philistus his Admiral, who was then with the Fleet about the Adriatick Coasts, and commanded him to sail away streight for Syracuse. And both of them speeding away to the same Place, Dionysius came to Syracuse the seventh Day after the return of Dion: And now thinking to put a Trick upon the Syracusians, he sent Ambassadors to treat of Peace, by whom he made use of many Devices, to persuade them that he would restore the Democracy, if he might but have some remarkable Honours conferr'd upon him by the Government. He desir'd therefore that Ambassadors might be sent to him, with whom calling together a Senate, he might put an end to the War.
The Syracusians having their Expectations rais'd to so high a Pitch, sent some of the Chief of their Citizens to him as Ambassadors, who had Guards presently put upon them, and Dionysius one day after another put off their Audience. In the mean time, perceiving that the Syracusians in hopes of Peace neglected their Guards, and were unprepar'd for an Encounter, he opens the Gates of the Acropolis in the Island, and suddenly Sallies out with a strong well appointed Party.
The Syracusians had there drawn a Wall from Sea to Sea, which the Dionysians terribly assaulted with a great Shout. And having entred it with the Slaughter of many of the Guard, they engag'd with the rest that came in to defend it. Dion therefore being thus Page 483 deluded, (against the Articles of the Truce) comes down with a stout Party to oppose the Enemy, engages them, and makes a great Slaughter within a small Compass of Ground: For although the Fight was but a small distance from the Walls within the Town, yet a vast Number of Men were got together within this little spot; so that the stoutest Men on both sides were hotly Engag'd. The large Promises egg'd on the Dionysians on one side, and hopes of Liberty stirr'd up the Syracusians with a Resolution for Victory on the other: The Obstinacy therefore on both sides being equal, the Fight was a long time doubtful: Many fell, and as many were wounded, receiving all their Wounds upon their Breasts: For those that first led on courageously, died to preserve those that follow'd; those that were next, cover'd the Heads of them that were tir'd out with their Shields, and valiantly underwent all manner of Dangers, and endur'd the Utmost that could befall them, out of their Heat and Zeal to come off Conquerors. But Dion resolving to do something remarkable in this Engagement, and that by his own Valour he might gain the Day, broke violently into the thickest of his Enemies; and laying about him Herolike hew'd down multitudes, and wholly broke in pieces the Body of the Mercenaries, and was left alone standing in the midst of his Enemies Troops; and though he was pelted with abundance of Darts receiv'd upon his Buckler and Helmet, yet by the Strength and Goodness of his Arms he avoided the Danger; but receiving a Wound upon his Right Arm (through the Greatness and Extremity of the Pain) he began to faint, and was not far from falling into the Hands of the Enemy, but that the Syracusians (highly concern'd for the Preservation of their General) charg'd in a full Body upon the Dionysians, and rescuing Dion (now almost spent) put the Enemy to flight. And the Citizens prevailing at another part of the Wall, the Foreign Forces of the Tyrant were forced to fly into the Castle in the Island.
The Syracusians now having gain'd a glorious Victory, and confirm'd their Liberty by Conquest, set up a Trophy in defiance of the Tyrant, who being thus beaten, and now perceiving that all was lost, and an End put to his Sovereignty, fortify'd the Castle with a strong Garison; then being permitted to carry off the dead Bodies of those that were slain, to the number of Eight hundred, he buried them honourably, crowning them with Crowns of Gold, and richly clothing them in Purple Robes: By this extrarordinary Honour and Respect shewn to the Dead, he hop'd to draw in others more readily and Chearfully to venture their Lives for the support of his Principality. Then he bountifully rewarded them that had valiantly behav'd themselves in the late Engagement: And sent some to the Syracusians to Treat upon Terms of Peace. But Dion study'd excuses to delay the Business; And in the mean time finish'd the rest of the Wall without any interruption.
Thus having deceiv'd the Enemy with an Expectation of Peace, as they had done him before, he admitted the Ambassadors to Audience; Upon which they making proposals for Peace, Dion answer'd, that there was only one way left for the obtaining of a Peace; and that was for Dionysius to lay down his Government, and be contented only with some Honours to be conferr'd upon him. Which answer the Tyrant taking in disdain, as Haughty and Peremptory, he call'd a Council of War to consult with his Officers how he might be reveng'd of the Syracusians.
He abounded with all things except Corn, and was likewise Master at Sea: Therefore he infested the Country with Depredations, and by Foraging for some time got Provisions, but with great difficulty; at length he sent forth Transport Ships and Money to buy Corn and other Provisions: But the Syracusians tho' they had but few Gallies, yet at fit Times and Places they surpriz'd the Merchants, and a great Part of the Corn that they imported. And thus stood the Affairs of Syracuse at this time.
But in Greece, Alexander the Tyrant of Phaerea, was murder'd by his Wife, a Theban, and his two Brothers, Lycophrones and Tisiphonus. They were at first in great repute for killing of the Tyrant; but afterwards growing Ambitious, and having hir'd many Foreign Soldiers, they set up for themselves; and put to death many that were averse from their Designs; and having got together a strong Party, they kept the Soverejgnty by force of Arms.
But the Aleuadae (as they are call'd) Persons famous for the Nobleness of their Birth, conspir'd to oppose the Tyrants: But not being able to perfect so great a Business of themselves, they procur'd the Assistance of Philip King of Macedon, who return'd into Thessaly, and subdu'd the Tyrants, and restor'd the Cities to their Liberty, and carried himself with the greatest demonstrations of Kindness imaginable towards the Thessalians; so that ever after in all his Wars, not only he but his Son Alexander had them to be their constant Friends and Confederates.
Page 484 Among the Writers Demophilus, the Son of Ephorus the Historian (who continu'd the History of the Sacred War, left imperfect by his Father) began at the time when the Temple of Delphos was seiz'd and robb'd by Philomele the Phocian.
That War continu'd Eleven Years, till such time as the Sacrilegious Robbers of that Temple were miserably destroy'd.
Calisthenes likewise comprehended in ten Books the Affairs of the Graecians, bringing down his History in a continual Thred, to the Spoiling of the Temple by the Wickedness of Philomele: And Dyillus the Athenian, begins his History from this Sacrilege, and gives an Account of the Affairs of Greece and Sicily in those Times, in Seventeen Books.
The first Rise of the Brutii in Italy. Dionysius his Admiral invades the Leontines. A Fight at Sea between Heraclides and Philistus, Admirals; one of Dionysius, the other of Dion. A Faction in Syracuse. Dion leaves the Syracusians. Their sad Condition. Reliev'd by Dion.
WHen Elpinus bore the Chief Magistracy of Athens, and Marcus Popilius Laenos, and Cneius Manlius Imperiosus were invested with the Consular Dignity at Rome, the Hundred and Sixth Olympiad was celebrated, in which Porus of Malia was crown'd with Victory.
In Italy a promiscuous Multitude got together about Lucania * from several parts of the Country, most of them Servants that had run away from their Masters. At first they employed themselves in Robbing and Stealing, presently by a common Practice of skulking in the Fields, and making Incursions, they learnt the Use and Exercise of Martial Discipline and Feats of War. And prevailing in several Encounters against the Inhabitants, they increas'd to a vast Body and Number of Men.
In the first Place they took and plunder'd the City Trojana; then seizing upon Arponius and Thurium, and many other Cities, they formed themselves into a Common-wealth; and because they had many of them been Servants, they assum'd the Name of * Brutii. And thus the Nation of the* Brutii grew up in Italy.
At this time in Sicily, Philistus, Dionysius his General, Sailed to Rhegium, and transported above Five hundred Horse to Syracuse: And joining to these a greater Body of Horse, and Two Thousand Foot, he invaded the Leontines, who had fallen from Dionysius.〈…〉 Surprizing therefore the Walls secretly in the Night, he possess'd himself of part of the City; upon which follow'd an Hot Engagement, and by the help of the Syracusians, who came into the Aid of the Leontines, Philistus over-power'd with number, was forc'd out again.
In the mean time, Heraclides, Dion's Admiral, being left in Peloponnesus, and hinder'd by Storms and contrary Winds, (so that he could not arrive at Sicily time enough to be assistant to Dion in his return into his Countrey, and to be helpful in rescuing the Syracusians from Slavery) arriv'd at length with Twenty Sail of Galleys and Fifteen hundred Soldiers: Who being a Man of Noble Birth and of great Esteem, and judg'd worthy of so great a Trust, he was declar'd Admiral by the Syracusians, and he and Dion joining Head and Hand together, manag'd the War against Dionysius.
About the same time Philistus being made Lord High-Admiral by Dionysius, and having a Fleet of Sixty Sail well provided, entred the Lists in a Sea-fight with the Syracusians, who had a Navy not fewer in number than the Dionysians. Whereupon there was a sharp Fight, in which the Valour of Philistus at the first prevail'd: But at length being surrounded by the Enemy, the Syracustans from all parts making it their great business to take him alive, he to avoid the Disgrace and Miseries usually attending upon a State of Captivity, kill'd himself, after he had serv'd the Tyrant to the utmost of his Power, and had signaliz'd his Faithfulness above all the rest, and chiefest of his Friends. The Syracusians being Victors drew the mangled Body of Philistus through the whole City, and at length cast it out to the open Air without Burial.
Dionysius having now lost the most Valiant of all his Friends, and knowing not where to find another fit for the Place, sent Ambassadors to Dion, with an Offer at first of half the Kingdom; and presently after consented to give up the Whole. But when Dion answer'd, That it was but just he should surrender the Castle to the Syracusians, upon having only some Money, and some marks of Honour conferred upon him: The Tyrant hereupon said, He was ready to deliver up the Castle to the People, upon Condition that he and Page 485 the Mercenaries, with all the Treasure they had got, might pass over to Italy. Dion's Advice was, That the Terms should be accepted: But the People being wrought over to a contrary Opinion by the importunate Orators, opposed Dion, for that they doubted not but to take the Castle by Storm. Dionysius hereupon committed the Custody of the Castle to the Stoutest of the Mercenaries; but he himself having brought aboard all his Treasures and Houshold-Goods, without being discover'd, set sail and Landed in Italy.
In the mean time the Syracusians were divided into Factions, while some were for Heraclides to have the Chief Command in the Army, and likewise the Sovereign Power, because he was judg'd a Person that was not ambitious of the Tyranny: But others were for intrusting the Chief Power and Authority in the Hands of Dion. Moreover, there were great Arrears due to the Soldiers that came out of Peloponnesus to the Assistance of the Syracusians: The City therefore being very low in Money, and the Soldiers defrauded of their Pay, they gather'd themselves into a Body, being Three thousand valiant Men, all old and expert Soldiers, far excelling the Syracusians in Courage: These mov'd Dion to go along with them, and leave the Syracusians, that they might be revenged of them in due time as a Common Enemy: Which he at first deny'd; but the present Exigency of Affairs requiring it, he at length took upon him the Command of the Foreigners, and joining himself to them, marched to the Leontines: But the Syracusians getting into a Body, pursu'd the Mercenaries, and engag'd them in their march, but were forc'd to retire with the loss of a great Number of their Fellow Citizens.
But Dion, thô he had obtain'd a great Victory, yet he was willing to forget the Injuries offer'd him by the Syracusians. For when they sent a Trumpet to him to have Liberty to carry off the Bodies of the Dead, he not only agreed to that, but freely discharg'd many Prisoners without Ransom. For many when they were ready to be knock'd on the Head in the Pursuit, declar'd they were Favourers of Dion's Party; and by that means escaped present Death.
Afterwards Dionysius sent Nypsius, a Citizen of Naples, a Valiant and expert Soldier, as his General, and with him Transport-Ships loaden with Corn and other Provision, who loosing from Locris, made straight for Syracuse.
In the mean time, the Garison-Soldiers of the Tyrant in the Castle, tho' they were driven then to the utmost Extremity for want of Bread, yet endur'd Famine for some time with great Resolution. But at length Nature stooping to Necessity, and having no prospect of Relief any other way, they call'd a Council of War in the Night, and resolv'd to surrender the Castle and themselves to the Syracusians the next Day. Night therefore being now ended, the Mercenaries sent Trumpets to the Townsmen to treat of Peace, which was no sooner done, but presently Nypsius at spring of day arrives with the Fleet, and anchor'd in the Port of Arethusa. Whereupon, on a Sudden their present Necessities were turn'd into large and plentiful Supplies of all sorts of Provision. Then the General having landed his Men, call'd a Council of War, and in an Oration, fitted for the present Occasion, so spoke to 'em, that he wrought 'em to a Resolution chearfully to undergo all future Hardships to the utmost Extremity. And thus the Acropolis ready to be deliver'd into the Hands of the Syracusians, was unexpectedly preserv'd. Hereupon, the Syracusians with all speed Mann'd out as many Gallies as they had at hand, and on a sudden fell upon the Enemy, while they were discharging their Vessels of their Corn and Provision: And although this Incursion was Sudden and Unexpected, and that the Garison in the Castle oppos'd the Enemies Galleys in a tumultuous and disorderly Manner, yet it came to a formal Sea-fight, in which the Syracusians got the Victory, and sunk some of the Enemy's Ships, took others, and forc'd the rest to the Shore. Being encourag'd with this Success, they offer'd to the Gods abundance of Sacrifices for the Victory: But giving themselves in the mean time to Quaffing and Drinking, and likewise Slighting and Despising them in the Castle as a beaten Enemy, they were careless in their Guards: So that Nypsius desirous to repair his late Loss by a new Engagement, orders a select Body of his Men in the Night, and on the sudden assaults the Wall lately built; and finding the Guard, through overmuch Confidence, and their Surfeiting and Drunkenness, fallen fast asleep, set Scaling-Ladders (made for the purpose) to the Walls: By which means some of the stoutest Fellows of the Garison mounted the Wall, kill'd the Centinels, and open'd the Gates. This sudden Assault being made upon the City, the Syracusian Commanders not yet recover'd of their drunken Fit, endeavour'd to help their Fellows as well as they could. But through their Wine not knowing how to use their Hands, some were knock'd on the Head, others took to their Heels. And now the City being taken, and almost all the Soldiers issu'd out of the Castle and entred within the Walls, and the Citizens by reason of this sudden and unexpected Surprize, and the Confusion that was amongst them, Page 486 being even at their Wits end, all places were fill'd with Slaughter and Destruction: For the Tyrant's Soldiers being above Ten thousand Men, and in good Order and Discipline, none were able to withstand them, but through Fear and Confusion, and the Disorder of an ungovernable Multitude, through want of Officers, all went to wrack. When they came into the Forum, being now Conquerors, they presently rush'd into the Houses, and Ransack'd and Plunder'd all to a vast Value of Wealth, and made Captive a great Multitude of Women, Children and Servants. In the straight and narrow Passages and some other Places, the Syracusians made Resistance, and never ceas'd fighting; Multitudes being kill'd and as many wounded. And even all the Night long they kill'd one another as they fortun'd to meet in the Dark; and there was no place in the City but what was cover'd and strew'd with Dead Carcasses.
As soon as it was Day, the Light discover'd the Greatness of the Calamity and Misery. The Citizens having now no means left to be deliver'd, but by the Aid and Assistance of Dion, sent forth some Horsemen with all speed to the City of the Leontines, earnestly to intreat him, that he would not suffer the Country to be a Prey to the Enemy, but that he would pardon their former Miscarriages, and commiserate them in their present Distress, and relieve and raise up their Country from that low and despicable Condition wherein they then were.
Dion who was a Man of a brave Spirit, and had a Soul well principled with the Rudiments of Philosophy, and so was mild and easie to be Persuaded, remember'd not the former Injuries of the Citizens, but hir'd his Soldiers to march away to the Expedition, and with these he made a swift March to Syracuse, and came to the Hexapylae. There he drew up his Army, and march'd forward with all speed; and there met him above Ten thousand Women and Children, and old People, who fled out of the City; who all prostrated themselves at his Feet, and beseech'd him with Tears that he would rescue them from their wretched and miserable Condition. The Soldiers of the Castle having now accomplish'd what they aim'd at, after they had plunder'd all the Houses about the Forum, set them on fire, and then breaking into the fest made a Prey of all they found in them, at which very nick of time in the very height of their Rapines, Dion forcing into the City in many places at once, sets upon the Enemy now eager in plundering, and kill'd all he met as they were carrying away all sorts of Houshold-Goods bundled upon their Shoulders. For coming upon them on the sudden, as they were Scatter'd and Dispers'd here and there bringing away their Prey, they were all easily knock'd on the Head. After Four thousand and upwards were slain, some in the Houses and others in the Streets and High-ways, the rest fled into the Castle and clapt the Gates upon them, and so escap'd.
Dion, when he had perform'd this Exploit (the most Glorious of any ever before) quench'd the Fire, and so preserv'd the Houses that were all on a Flame, and firmly repair'd the Wall that fronted the Castle; and so by one and the same piece of Work, he both defended the City and strengthned the Garison within the Acropolis. Then he cleans'd the Town of the Dead Bodies, erected a Trophy, and Sacrific'd to the Gods for the Deliverance of his Country.
On the other hand, the People to testifie their Gratitude to Dion, call'd a General Assembly, and by an unanimous Vote made him chief Governor, with full and absolute Power, and conferr'd upon him the Honours due to a Demy-god.
Afterwards, agreeable to the Glory of his other Actions, he freely pardon'd all that had maliciously injur'd him, and by his frequent Admonitions brought the People to mutual Peace and Concord: For all the Citizens of all Ranks and Degrees highly honour'd and applauded him, as their great Benefactor, and as the only Saviour of their Countrey.
The Continuance of the Social War. Iphicrates and Timotheus join'd Admirals with Chares, by the Athenians. Iphicrates and Timotheus accus'd by Chares, and fin'd and remov'd. Chares joins with Pharnabasus, and routs the Persians. The End of the Social War. Philip subdues the Confederates.
IN Greece the Social War growing on apace, wherein the Chians, Rhodians, Coons, and Byzantines join'd together against the Athenians, great Preparations were made on both sides, to make a Decision of the Quarrel by a Sea-Fight. The Athenians, tho' they had rigg'd out a Fleet of Sixty Sail, under the Command of Chares; yet they sent out others for the further strengthening of them that were employ'd before, under the Commands of Two of the most Eminent of their Citizens, Iphicrates and Timotheus, who were invested in equal Power of Command with Chares, to carry on the War against their rebellious Confederates.
On the other side, the Chians, Rhodians, and Byzantines, being furnish'd with an Hundred Sail from their Confederates, waste and spoil the Islands Imbrus and Lemnos, belonging to the Athenians: Thence they made for Samos with a great Army, and harass'd the Country, and besieg'd the City both by Sea and Land. Many other Islands likewise under the Government of the Athenians they wasted and spoil'd, and by that means got together a Treasure for the carrying on of the War.
The Athenian Generals therefore joining their Forces, resolv'd in the first place to besiege Byzantium: But the Chians and their Confederates raising their Siege at Samos, and preparing to relieve Byzantium, the Fleets on both sides met in the Hellespont. And now just as they were ready to join Battel, there arose suddenly a violent Tempest which prevented their Design. However, Chares was resolv'd to fight, tho' Nature herself, with the Wind and Seas, conspir'd against him; but Iphicrates and Timotheus, by reason of the Storm, refus'd. Chares (attesting the Faithfulness of the Soldiers) accus'd his Colleagues of Treason, and wrote Letters to the People of Athens, whereby he inform'd them that they wav'd fighting purposely out of Design. At which the People were so incens'd, that they condemn'd them both; and having fin'd them in many Talents, revok'd their Commissions.
Chares now having the sole Command of the Fleet, designing to free the Athenians from Charge and Expence, did a very rash Act: Pharnabasus had revolted from the King, and was now ready to engage with a very small Force the Persian Lord-Lieutenants, who had in their Army Seventy thousand Men: Chares joins this Man with all his Forces, so that they totally routed the King's; and Pharnabasus in Gratitude for the Service, gave him as much Money as was sufficient to pay all his Soldiers. This Act of Chares was at first very grateful and acceptable to the Athenians; but after that the King, by his Ambassadors, complain'd of the Injurie done him by Chares, they altogether chang'd their Notes, and were as far the other way: For a Rumor was spread abroad, that the King had promis'd Three hundred Sail for the Aid and Assistance of the Athenians Enemies: Upon which the People were so terrify'd, that they decreed to agree Matters with the Revolters; and finding them as willing to embrace Terms of Peace as themselves, the Business was easily compos'd. And this was the end of the Social War, after it had continu'd four Years.
In the mean time, in Macedonia Three Kings; that is to say, of Thrace, the Paeones, and Illyrians, confederated against Philip. These Princes, being Borderers upon the Macedonians, could not brook without Envy his growing Power: And though they had had Experience that they were not his equal Match singly (being not long before conquer'd by him) yet by joining their Forces together, they confidently concluded, that they should be able to deal with him. But Philip coming suddenly upon them while they were raising their Forces, and as yet without any form'd Troops being in readiness; in this Surprize he broke them in pieces, and forc'd them to stoop to the Yoak of the Macedonian Kingdom.
The Beginning of the Sacred or Phocian War. Philomelus seizes the Temple at Delphos, after he had routed the Locrians. How the Oracle at Delphos was first discover'd; and the Beginning of the Tripode. The Athenians and others join with Philomelus.
AFter Callistratus was created Archon at Athens, and Marcus Fabius and Caius Plotius Consuls of Rome, the War call'd The Sacred War broke forth, which continu'd Nine Years: For Philomelus the Phocian (inferior to none in Impudence and Wickedness) having seiz'd the Temple at Delphos, occasion'd the Sacred War, on the Account following.
After the Lacedaemonians were routed by the Thebans at the Battel of Leuctra, the Thebans made great Complaints against them in the Court of the Amphictyons, for their seizing of Cadmea: Upon which, they were adjudg'd to pay to them a great Sum of Money. The Phocians likewise were accus'd, and condemn'd by the same Court to pay many Talents to the Use of the Oracle at Delphos, because they had intruded into a large Piece of Land, call'd Cirrhaea, belonging to the Oracle, and had till'd and plough'd it.
But the Mu•ct being neglected to be paid, the Hieromemones accus'd the Phocians in the Senate of the Amphictyons, and pray'd them if the Money were not paid, that the Lands of the sacrilegious Persons might be confiscated, and devoted to the Deity. They requird likewise, that the rest that were condemn'd (among whom were the Lacedaemonians) should pay what was due upon that account; and pray'd, That if they did not observe what was so order'd, that then they should be prosecuted as hateful Enemies by all the Grecians. This Decree of the Amphictyons being ratify'd and approv'd of by all the Greeks, the Country of the Phocians was upon the point of being devoted to those Sacred Uses. Philomelus, who was in greatest Esteem at that time amongst them, told the People, That the Fine was so excessive, that it could not possibly be paid; and to suffer their Country to be sacrific'd, it would not only argue them to be cowardly and poor spirited, but be dangerous to that degree, that it would tend to the utter Ruin of them and their Families: And he did all he could to make it out, that the Decree of the Amphictyons was most unjust, and highly injurious, inasmuch as for a little and inconsiderate Spot of Land, they had impos'd a Mulct far exceeding the Proportion and Merit of the Offence; and therefore advis'd them to rescind the Decree, and that there were Reasons sufficient to justifie their so doing: And among others he alledg'd, That heretofore the Oracle was under their Power and Protection; and cited the Verses of Homer, the most ancient and famous of all the Poets, as a Witness of the Truth of what he said, who speaks to this effect:
Therefore the Contest is to be for the Custody and Patronage of the Temple, which he said belong'd to the Ancestors of the Phocians; and that if they would commit to him the absolute Power, as Chief Commander in this Affair, he promis'd to manage it with the utmost Care and Dexterity.
Upon which, the Phocians (out of fear of the Mulct impos'd upon them) created Philomelus sole and absolute General. Hereupon Philomelus diligently pursu'd the Performance of his Promise; and to that end presently made a Journey to Sparta, and had private Conference concerning the Business with Archidomus, King of the Lacedaemonians, alledging, That it was as much the Interest and Concern of Archidomus, as his, to have the Decrees of the Amphictyons rescinded; for that the Amphictyons had injur'd likewise the Lacedaemonians unjustly, by giving Judgment against them. He thereupon discover'd to him his Design of seizing upon the Temple at Delphos; and that if he prevail'd inbringing the Oracle under his Care and Patronage, he would make void all the Decrees of the Amphictyons. Page 489 Archidomus approv'd well of what he said; but for the present would not appear openly to be aiding in the matter, but assur'd him that he would join in all things privately, in supplying him with Money and mercenary Soldiers. Philomelus then having receiv'd from him Fifteen Talents, and adding as many more to them of his own, rais'd Soldiers from all Parts: A thousand he listed from among the Phocians, whom he call'd Peltastates. And after he had got together a considerable Force, he set upon the Temple: Some of the Delphians call'd Thracidae oppos'd him; but those he slew, and gave up all they had to the Plunder of the Soldiers. He commanded the rest (whom he perceiv'd to be in no small Fright) to be of good Courage, for they should suffer no prejudice.
And now the Report of seizing the Temple was spread far and near; upon which, the Locrians, who were next Borderers, march'd against Philomelus with a considerable Army, and fought him near Delphos, but were routed; and after a great Slaughter made amongst them, fled, and made back to their own Country.
Philomelus puff'd up with this Victory, cut the Decrees of the Amphictyons out of the Pillars, and destroy'd all the Records concerning them that were condemn'd. In the mean time, he caus'd Reports to be spread abroad in every place, that he neither design'd to rob the Temple, nor commit any other Mischief, but only to recover an ancient Right descended to them from their Ancestors; and to that end had a desire to make void the unjust Decrees of the Amphictyons, and so to defend the ancient Laws of the Phocians. But the Boeotians assembled in Council made a Decree to relieve the Temple, and forthwith rais'd an Army.
Philomelus in the mean time drew a Wall round the Temple, and rais'd many Soldiers, and added to their Pay half as much more as their Due amounted unto; and making choice of the best Soldiers among the Phocians, he enroll'd them; and in a short time got together so great an Army, as amounted to no less than Five thousand Men: So that possessing himself of all the Passages to Delphos, he became formidable to his Enemies. Then marching into the Territories of the Locrians, he wasted a great part of the Country; and at length encamp'd near a River that ran close by a very strong Fort, which he besieg'd; but after some Assaults, not being able to take it, he rais'd the Siege, and engag'd with the Locrians, in which he lost Twenty of his Men; whose Bodies not being capable to recover by Force, he sent a Trumpeter to have them deliver'd.
The Locrians deny'd the Bodies, and made answer, That there was a general Law among all the Grecians, that sacrilegious Persons should be cast forth, and not allow'd any Burial. Highly provok'd with this Repulse, he fought again with the Locrians, and with great Valour and Resolution slaughter'd some of his Enemies, and possess'd himself of their Bodies; and so forc'd the Locrians in exchange to deliver the Dead.
And now being Master of the Field, he rang'd up and down, and wasted the Country of Locris; and loading his Soldiers with Plunder, return'd to Delphos.
Afterwards desiring to know from the Oracle what would be the Issue of the War, he forc'd Pythia the Prophetess to ascend the Tripode, and give him an Answer. Since that mention is here made of the Tripode, I conceive it not unseasonable to give an account of what has been handed down to us concerning it from ancient Times. It is reported, that this Oracle was first discover'd by some Goats; for which reason such Creatures are most commonly sacrific'd by the Delphians, when they come to enquire of the Oracle. The Discovery is related in this manner: There was an Opening or Gulf in the Earth in that Place, now call'd the Adytum of the Temple; about this the Goats straggled as they were feeding: For at that time they of Delphos had no Religious Regard to the Place. It often happen'd, that when any Goat came near the Gulf, and look'd down, it would fall a leaping and dancing in a wonderful manner, and make an unusual Noise, far different from that at other times. A Shepherd wondring at the Novelty of the thing, drew towards the Place to learn what was the Cause; and looking down, he acted the same Part with the Goats: For as they were moved and acted as by some Enthusiasm, so he likewise was inspir'd with a Spirit of Prophecy. The News presently spreading abroad among the Inhabitants, how wonderfully they were affected that look'd down into the Chasm, many flock'd to the place, and out of Curiosity made Experiments; and as many as came near, were always acted with a Spirit of Divination. For these Reasons, the Place was counted the Residence of some Oracle: For some time therefore it was a practice, that those who had a desire to know Future Events, would approach to this Denn, and there return Answers of things that were to come one to another. But whereas many through an Excess and Transport of Mind would leap into the Gulf, and so were never seen more; it was judg'd adviseable by the Inhabitants (to avoid the like danger for the future) that some one Woman should be consecrated Prophetess, and that by her the Page 490 Answer of the Oracle should be deliver'd; and that an Engine should be made for her whereon she might sit; and by that means be inspir'd without any danger, and give Answers to them that consulted with her concerning Future Events.
This Machine had three Feet, from whence it was call'd the Tripode, whose Figure and Shape almost all the Tripodes of Brass made to this day do imitate. But sufficient, we conceive, is said concerning the manner of finding out the Seat of the Oracle, and for what Reasons the Tripode was made,
It's reported, That at the first, Virgins were assign'd to this Office, because that in their Nature they are more pure and harmless, and of the same Sex with Diana: And besides, for that they were judg'd fittest to keep the Secrets of the Oracle. But it's said, that of latter time, one Thessalus Echecrates coming to the Oracle, upon sight of the Virgin-Prophetess, for her admirable Beauty, fell in love with her, and ravish'd her: Which wicked Fact caus'd the Delphians to make a Law, That no young Virgin, for the future, but a grave Woman of fifty Years of Age (in a Virgin's Dress, to keep up the Memory of the ancient Mode in Divination) should preside, and return the Answers. These are the old fabulous Stories that are told concerning the first discovery of the Oracle.
But to return to the Acts of Philomelus; who being now Lord of the Temple; commanded Pythia to answer him from the Tripods, according to the ancient Rite and Custom of the Country. When the Prophetess answer'd him, saying, This is the Custom of the Country; he commanded her with Threats to ascend the Tripode: Whereupon she submitting by force to the Authority of the Imposer, answer'd him, That it was lawful for him to do what he list. At which he was very jocund, and said he had receiv'd an Answer fit for his Purpose: And thereupon presently caus'd the Answer to be recorded, and expos'd to be read; that so it might be evident to all, that the God had given him liberty to do what he pleas'd. Then he call'd a General Assembly, and rehears'd to them the Divine Oracle, and bid them all to be constant and courageous; and then betook himself again to the Business of the War. Moreover, a Prodigy appear'd to him in the Temple of Apollo; for an Eagle hovering over it, and at length casting her self down to the ground, pursu'd the Pigeons (that were fed and kept in the Temple) from place to place, so that she snatch'd away some even from the Altars themselves. Those that were vers'd in interpreting things of this Nature, declar'd that this portended that Philomelus and the Phocians should possess themselves of all the Treasures of the Temple. Being greatly puff'd up with this Encouragement, he singles out the choicest of his Friends to send as Messengers abroad, some to Athens, others to Lacedaemon, and others to Thebes, and other most remarkable Cities of Greece, with this Apology: That he had seiz'd upon Delphos, not with any design to commit any Sacrilege, but to regain the Patronage of the Temple for his Country; and declar'd that he was ready to give an exact account to all the Greeks of the Money, and all the dedicated Gifts there, both for weight and number, whoever should require the same. At length he desir'd, that if any, out of Envy or Malice, should make War upon the Phocians, that they would rather join with him against such, or at least stand Neuters. The Ambassadors quitting themselves with all diligence in this matter, the Athenians, Lacedaemonians, and some others, entred into the Confederacy, and promis'd them assistance: But the Boeotians, with the Locrians, and some others, were of a contrary Mind, who took up Arms in defence of the Oracle against the Phocians. These were the things done in the Course of this Year.
The Battel at Phaedra between Philomelus and the Locrians. The Parties engag'd in the Phocian War. The Battel between the Boeotians and Phocians. Philomelus kill'd. Onomarchus made General: His Dreams, Successes and Death.
NOW Diotinus executed the Office of Archon at Athens, and Cneius Manlius, and Caius Martius of Consuls at Rome; when Philomelus having a prospect of the Storm of War that was rushing in upon him, hir'd a great number of Soldiers, with whom he join'd the most expert and choicest of the Phocians. But tho' he was in want of Money, yet he still forbore to meddle with the Sacred Treasures; but got sufficient to pay the Mercenaries out of the Estates of the greatest men among the Delphians. When he had rais'd a considerable Army, he march'd into the Field, that all might take notice that he was Page 491 ready to fight with any Enemy that appear'd against the Phocians. Upon this the Locrians made out against him, and fought with him at a Place call'd, The Rocks of Phaedra, whom he routed; and kill'd multitudes of them, and took many Prisoners, and forc'd some of them to cast themselves down headlong from the Top of the Rock.
After this Battle, the Phocians grew very high crested upon the account of their prosperous Success. The Misfortune on the other hand, greatly discourag'd the Locrians; they sent therefore an Ambassador to Thebes, to desire them to afford their assistance both to them and the Oracle. The Baeotians both out of their Piety towards the Gods, and for Confirmation of the Decrees of the Amphictyons (wherein they were greatly concern'd) solicited by their Ambassadors, the Thessalians, and others of the Amphictyons to join with them in the War against the Phocians. Upon which (after that the Amphictyons had decreed War to be made upon the Phocians) there arose great Uproars and Factions throughout all Greece. Some were for assisting the Oracle, and for prosecuting the Phocians with Revenge as Sacrilegers; others were for defending them. And while both the Cities and Countries were thus distracted in their Councils, the Baeotians, Locrians, Thessalians, Perrhabeans, the Doreans, Delopians, Athamanes, Achaians, Phthiots, Magnesians, Aenianeans, and some others, resolv'd to assist the God. The Athenians and Lacedemonians, and some other of the Peloponnesians, join'd as Confederates with the Phocians. The Lacedemonians, with some others, readily join'd for these Reasons, viz. When the Thebans had overcome them in the Battel at Leuctra, they prosecuted the Spartans in the high Court of the Amphictyons, because Phaebidas the Spartan had seiz'd upon Cadmea, and demanded Five hundred Talents in compensation of the Injury; but the Lacedemonians being fin'd so much, and not paying the Mulct impos'd, at the time limited by the Law, the Thebans exhibited a new Complaint against them for the double Injury.
The Lacedemonians therefore being condemn'd by the Amphictyons in a Thousand Talents, and being much indebted and behind-hand, made use of the same Pretence the Phocians did before, (that is) That the Amphictyons had pronounc'd an unjust Sentence against them. And therefore (though it was for the Publick Good) yet they forbore to undertake the War of themselves upon the Quarrel of the Condemnation; but judg'd that it might carry a better Face, if they could avoid the Decree of the Amphictyons, under the Covert of the Phocians. For these Reasons they were very forward to Patronize their Cause; and in the mean time contriv'd to gain the Tutelary Right of the Temple to themselves.
And now upon certain Information, that the Thebans had prepar'd a very great Army against the Phocians, Philomelus resolv'd to strengthen his Forces with more Mercenaries: But in regard more Money was requisite for carrying on of the War, he was necessitated to make use of the Sacred Treasures, and therefore rifl'd the Temple. And because he promis'd half as much more as their ordinary Pay to the Mercenaries, a vast Number of Men flock'd in to him, and for the sake of the Largeness of the Pay, multitudes listed themselves: But no moderate and sober Man gave up his Name to be inroll'd in the Lists of the Army, out of a Pious and Religious respect to the Oracle. In the mean time every base Fellow, that for the sake of Gain valu'd not the Gods a pin, but flock'd eagerly to Philomelus: And so in a short time he got together a strong Body of Men, greedy to share in the Sacred Treasures of the Temple. And thus abundance of Wealth was the Means whereby Philomelus presently form'd a compleat Army; and without delay march'd into the Country of Locris, with above Ten thousand Horse and Foot. The Locrians being join'd with the Baeotians, met him; whereupon there hapned a Fight with the Horse on both sides, in which the Phocians were Conquerors.
Not long after, the Thessalians, with the Assistance of them that border'd upon them, to the Number of Six thousand, march'd into Locris, and engag'd with the Phocians at an Hill call'd Argola, and were worsted. Afterwards the Baeotians coming in to their assistance with Thirteen thousand Men, and the Actaeans out of Peloponnesus, in assistance of the Phocians with Fifteen hundred, both Armies near unto one and the same place, Encamp'd one over against the other. It then happen'd that a great number of the Mercenaries as they were foraging, fell into the Hands of the Baeotians, and all of them being brought before the Walls of the City, they commanded a Proclamation to be made, that those Men who had join'd in Arms with the Sacrilegers, were adjudg'd by the Amphictyons to be put to Death, and it was no sooner said but the thing was executed, and all were run through with Spears and Darts. This so exasperated the Mercenaries of the Phocians, that they earnestly press'd Philomelus that the Enemy might be dealt with in the same kind, and would not suffer him by their restless Importunities to be quiet, and presently they took many of the Enemy, as they were dispers'd in the Fields, and brought them Page 492 alive to the General, who deliver'd them up all to the Soldiers to be Darted to Death. By this Retaliation it came to pass, that the Enemy left off this Insulting and Cruel kind of Execution.
Afterwards, both the Armies moving into another part of the Country, and in their march passing through Woods and rough Places, on a sudden, and unexpectedly, the Forelorn-Hopes of both met one another, upon which they at first Skirmish'd, and at length it came to a fierce and bloody Battel, in which the Baeotians over-pow〈…〉ing the Phocians in number, totally routed them; and multitudes both of the Phocians and Mercenaries were slain in the pursuit, by reason of the rough and difficult Passes out of the Woods. Philomelus, in these Streights and Exigencies, behav'd himself with great Courage and Resolution, and after many Wounds receiv'd, was forc'd to an high Precipice; and seeing no possible way and means how to escape, and fearing the Punishment and Torments Prisoners used to undergo, cast himself down headlong from the Rock; and thus (meeting with the due Reward of his Sacrilege) he ended his days: But his Collegue, Onomarcus, taking upon him the Command of the Army, marched back with those that had escap'd the Slaughter, and receiv'd those that fled as they came stragling in to him.
In the mean time, while these things were doing, Philip of Macedon took Methone, pillag'd it, and laid it equal with the Ground; and forc'd all the Villages and Countries to submit to the Macedonian Yoke.
In Pontus, Leucon, King of Bosphorus, dy'd after he had Reign'd forty years: And Spartacus his Son succeeded him, and Reign'd five years. And in the mean time, the War began between the Romans and the Falisci, in which there was nothing done worth taking notice of, but only harrassing the Country of the Falisci by Incursions.
In Sicily, Dion, the General of the Army, was Murder'd by the Mercenaries of Zacynthus; and Callippus, who instigated them to the Fact, was made Chief Commander in his place, and enjoy'd it for the space of Thirteen Months.
When Eudemus executed the Office of Archon at Athens, and the Romans intrusted the Consular Dignity with Marcus Fabius and Marcus Popilius, the Baeotians, after the Victory gained over the Phocians, return'd with their Forces into their own Country, supposing that Philomelus, the Author and Ring-leader of the Sacrilege (being justly punish'd both by the Gods and Men) by his remarkable End, would deter others from the like piece of Wickedness. But the Phocians having at present some respite from War, went again to Delphos, and calling together a General Council of all their Confederates, they consulted concerning the Renewing of the War. Those that were Lovers of Justice were for Peace; but the Prophane and Impious, and such as minded only their Gain and Advantage were for War, and us'd their utmost Endeavours to find out some or other that would Patronize their wicked Designs.
Onomarchus therefore, in a premeditated Speech (the chief End of which was to advise them to stick to what they had before resolv'd) stirr'd up the People to renew the War; not so much for the Advancement of the Publick Good, as to promote his own private Advantage. For he had many Mulcts as well as others, impos'd upon him by the Amphictyons; which not being able to pay, and therefore judging that War was more desirable than Peace as to his Circumstances, by a plausible Speech he incited the Phocians to persist in what Philomelus had begun. Upon which, being then created General, he inforc'd himself with many Foreign Soldiers, and recruited his broken Troops; and having augmented his Army with a Multitude of Foreign Mercenaries, he made great preparation to strengthen himself with Confederates, and other things necessary for the carrying on the War. And he was the more encourag'd in his Design by a Dream which he had, which did presage (as he thought) his future Greatness and Advancement: In his sleep it appear'd to him as if the Brazen Colossus, Dedicated by the Amphictyons, and standing in the Temple of Apollo, had by his own Hands been made Higher and much Bigger than it was before. Hence he fancy'd, that the Gods portended that he was to become famous in the World for his Martial Exploits. But it fell out quite otherwise, for on the contrary it signify'd, That the Mulct impos'd by the Amphictyons upon the Phocians, for their Sacrilege and Violating the Treasures of the Temple, would be much Enlarg'd and Advanc'd to a greater Sum by the Hands of Onomarchus; which at length came to pass.
Onomarchus therefore, after he was created General, caus'd a great Number of Arms, both of Iron and Brass to be made; and Coin'd Money both of Gold and Silver, which he sent abroad here and there to the Consederate Cities; especially he sought to gain the Magistrates by these Baits and Largesses.
Page 493 Moreover he corrupted many of the Enemy, drawing some into the Confederacy, and working upon others to sit still in the mean time. And all this he easily effected, through the Covetousness of those he wrought upon. For by his Bribes he prevailed with the Thessalians, the most considerable of the Confederates on the other side, to stand Neuter. Those among the Phocians that opposed him, he clapt up in Prison, and put them to Death, and expos'd their Goods to publick Sale; He then march'd into the Enemies Country, and took Thronius by Assault, and sold all the Inhabitants for Slaves. The Amphissenians likewise being greatly terrified, he forced to a Submission, and possessed himself also of the Cities of the Doreans, and wasted and spoiled the Country. Thence, he marched into Boeotia, and took Orchomenus, and when he was even ready to sit down before Chaeronea, he was worsted by the Thebans, and so returned into his own Country.
About this time Artabazus, who had rebelled against the King, still continued his War with those Lord Lieutenants of the Provinces that were ordered out against him. At the first, while Chares the Athenian General assisted him, he vallantly stood it out against the Enemy. But when he left him, wanting aid, he made his Application to the Thebans for Relief; who thereupon sent Pammenim General with Five thousand Men over into Asia; who joining with Artabazus, routed the Royalists in two great Fights, and thereby advanced both his own Reputation, and the Glory and Honour of his Country. For it was the Admiration of all Men, That the Boeotians, at the very time when they were deserted by the Thessalians, and in eminent Danger by the Phocian War, which then threaten'd them, should transport Forces into Asia, and be Conquerors in all their Engagements.
In the mean time a War broke out between the Argives and the Lacedemonians, who beat the other at Orneas, and took the Town, and then returned to Sparta. Chares likewise, the Athenian General, with his Fleet entred the Hellespont, and took Sestos, the most considerable Town upon that Coast, and put all the young Men that were able to bear Arms, to the Sword, and carried away, the rest as Slaves.
About the same time, Cersobleptes the Brother of Cotys, Enemy to Philip, but in League with the Athenians, delivered up all the Cities in Chersonesus, (except Cardia) to the Athenians, who sent Colonies thither to inhabit the Towns, which were to be divided amongst them by Lot.
Philip therefore discerning that the Methoneans designed to deliver up their City, (which was of great moment in the War) to his Enemy, laid close Siege to it, which the Citizens defended for some time; but being too weak to cope with him, they were forced to surrender it upon these Conditions, That all the Citizens should depart out of Methon with all their Clothes.
Being possess'd of the Place, he raz'd the City to the Ground, and divided the Territory among the Macedonians. During this Siege, Philip lost one of his Eyes by the stroke of a Dart.
Afterwards being sent unto by the Thessalians, he marched with his Army into Thessaly. And in the first place, in Aid of the Thessalians, he fought with Lycophron, Tyrant of Pheraea.
Lycophron then made Application to the Phocians for Assistance, who thereupon sent to him Phayllus, the Brother of Onomarchus, with Seven thousand Men: But Philip routed the Troops of the Phocians, and drave them out of Thessaly. Upon which, Onomarchus thinking to be Lord of all Thessaly, came to the Assistance of Lycophron with his whole Army.
Philip opposed him, both with his own and the Forces of the Thessalians, but Onamarchus overpowering him by Number, routed him in two several Battels, and killed many of the Macedonians; in so much as Philip was brought into very great Streights.
His Soldiers were hereupon so dejected, that they were ready to desert him; but with much ado, and many Perswasions, he at length brought them over to a due Obedience, and within a short time after returned into Macedonia. But Onomarchus made an Expedition into Boeotia, and fought and routed the Boeotians, and possessed himself of Coronea.
In the mean time Philip marches again with his Army out of Macedon into Thessaly, and incamps against Lycophron the Tyrant of Pherea, who being too weak for him, sent for Aid to the Phocians, promising to use his utmost Endeavour to order and dispose of all Things throughout Thessaly for their Advantage. Whereupon Onomarchus came to his Assistance by Land with above Twenty thousand Foot and Five hundred Horse.
Philip having persuaded the Thessalians to join with him, raised above Twenty thousand Foot and Three thousand Horse.
It happened that Chares the Athenian Admiral passed by with a great Navy, at the same instant as a cruel Slaughter was made among the Phocians, and therefore those that fled cast away their Arms, and endeavoured to swim to the Galleys, amongst whom was Onomarchus.
In conclusion, there were slain of the Phocians and Mercenaries above Six thousand, amongst whom was the General himself; and there were taken Prisoners no less than Three thousand.
Philip hanged Onomarchus, and the rest as Sacrilegers he caused to be thrown into the Sea.
Onomarchus thus coming to his End, Phayllus his Brother was created General of the Phocians: And he, to repair the Damage sustained, raised great Numbers of Foreign Mercenaries, doubling the former and usual Pay, and further strengthened himself with Addition of his Confederates; he made likewise a great Number of Arms, and coined both Gold and Silver.
About the same time Mausolus, a Petty King of Caria, died, after he had reigned Four and twenty Years. To whom succeeded Artemesia, (who was both his Sister and Wife,) for the space of Two Years.
At that time likewise Clearchus, Tyrant of Heraclea, when he was going to the Feasts of Bacchus, was Assassinated, in the Twelfth Year of his Reign. Timotheus, his Son, succeeded him, and reigned Fifteen Years.
In the mean time the Thuscans, at War with the Romans, harrass'd and wasted a great part of their Enemies Territory, making Incursions as far as to the River Tiber, and then returned to their own Country.
The Friends of Dion raised a Sedition at Syracuse against Callippus, but being dispersed and worsted, they fled to the Leontines. Not long after, Hipparinus the Brother of Dionysius arrived with a Navy at Syracuse, and fought with Callipppus and beat him; upon which he was driven out of the City, and Hipparinus recovered his Father's Kingdom, and enjoyed it Two Years.
Phayllus continues the Phocian War. Aryca raz'd. Phayllus dies of a Consumption. War between the Lacedaemonians and Megapolitans. Chaeronea taken by Phalaecus. War between the Persians, Aegyptians, and Phaenicians. Salamis in Cyprus besieged. The Cruelty of Artaxerxes Ochus towards the Sidonians. The Calamity of Sidon.
WHEN Aristodamus was Archon at Athens, and Caius Sulpitius bore the Consulship at Rome, the Hundred and seventh Olympiad was celebrated, wherein Smicrinus the Tarrentine was Victor. Then Phayllus the Phocian General, after the Death of his Brother, began to repair the Affairs of the Phocians, now almost at the last Gasp, through the late Rout and Slaughter of the Soldiers. For being possessed of a vast Treasure, he raised a great Army of Mercenaries, and wrought over many to join with him in the War: And being very free of his Purse, he not only brought over private Men to his Party, but prevailed with famous Cities to be his Confederates: For the Lacedaemonians sent him a Thousand Soldiers, the Acheans Two thousand; but the Athenians Five thousand Foot, and Four hundred Horse, under the Command of Naustcles.
Lycophron and Pitholaus, Tyrants of Pherea, after the Death of Onomarchus, being destitute of Succours, delivered up Phera into the Hands of Philip; and though they were discharged, upon their Oaths to be quiet, yet they got together Two thousand Mercenaries, and went over to Phayllus to assist the Phocians: And not a few of the smaller Cities assisted them by their bountiful Contributions of their Money towards the Soldiers Pay. For Gold feeding and enkindling Mens Covetousness, from a Prospect of Gain push'd them forward to grasp at their own Advantage. Upon these Encouragements, Phayllus marches with his Army into Boeotia, but is overcome at Orchomenon, and lost many of his Men.
Page 495 Afterwards there was another Battel at the River Cephisus, wherein the Boeotians had the better, and killed Four hundred, and took Five hundred Prisoners. A few Days after a third Fight was at Coronea, where the Boeotians had again the Advantage, and killed Fifty of the Phocians, and took an Hundred and thirty Prisoners.
But having done at present with the Affairs of the Boeotians and Phocians, we return to Philip, who when he had overcome Onomarchus in so signal a Battel, freed the Pheraeans from the Yoke of Tyranny, and restored the City to its Liberty. And having settled all other Matters in Thessaly, he marched towards Pylas, to fight with the Phocians: But being denied Passage by the Athenians, he returned into Macedonia, which Kingdom he had enlarged both by the help of his Sword, and likewise by his Piety towards the Gods.
In the mean time Phayllus marched with his Army against the Locrians, called Epi•nemidii, and assaulted and took by force some Cities; but one called Aryca he gained in the Night by Treachery, but was presently repulsed and beaten out, with the Loss of Two hundred of his Men. Afterwards encamping at a Town called Abas, the Boeotians surprized the Phocians in the Night, and killed a great Number of them▪ Upon which Success they were so incouraged, that they made Incursions into the Phocians Territories, and harrassing and spoiling the Country round about, heaped together abundance of Plunder. But in their return, coming to relieve Aryca, (which was then besieged,) Phayllus sell suddenly and unexpectedly upon them, and routed them; and then taking the City by Storm, plunder'd it, and raz'd it to the Ground. But at length he fell into a lingering Distemper, and continued a long time, and after great Torments in his Body, (as he justly deserved,) he died, leaving Phalecus the Son of Onomarchus (Incendiary of the Sacred War) to be General of the Phocians, who being as yet but a very raw Youth, he appointed Mnaseas, one of his Friends, to be his Tutor and Governor.
Some time after the Boeotians attack'd the Phocians in the Night, and killed Mnaseas the General, and Two hundred of his Soldiers. Not long after, in an Engagement between a Party of Horse at Chaeronea, Phalecus being worsted, lost many of his Men.
During these Transactions, there were great Commotions in Peloponnesus upon these Occasions. The Lacedaemonians fell out with them of Megalopolis; and therefore Archadamus their General made Incursions into their Borders: With which, the Megalopolitans being highly incensed, and not being able to contend by their own Strength, sought for Relief from their Confederates. Upon which, the Argives, Sicyons, and Messenians, assisted them with all the Force they could make. After them, the Thebans came in to their Assistance with Four thousand Foot and Five hundred Horse, under the Command of Cephisiones. Being thus strengthened, the Megalopolitans made an Expedition, and encamped at the Fountains of Aphaeus. On the other side, the Lacedaemonians were joined with Three thousand Foot from the Phocians, and with an Hundred and fifty Horse from Lycophron and Pitholaus, who were lately deposed from their Government over the Pheraeans. And having got together a considerable Army, they encamped at Mantinea. But marching hence to Orneas, a City belonging to the Argives, they took it before the Enemy could come up to them; for this Place was in League with the Megalopolitans: And though the Argives broke forth upon them, yet they were overcome in the Engagement, and lost above Two hundred Men.
Then the Thebans, double to the Lacedaemonians in Number, but much inferior to them in their Order of Discipline, came upon them; upon which there was a sharp Engagement, and even while the Victory was doubtful, the Argives flag'd, and made away with all their Confederates to their Cities. But the Lacedaemonians entred into Arcadia, and took Elisunta by Storm, and after they had plunder'd the Town, returned to Sparta.
Not long after, the Thebans with their Confederates routed the Enemy at Telphusa, and with the Slaughter of many of them, took Anaxandrus the General, and several others, to the Number of Sixty, Prisoners. Presently after they became Conquerors likewise in two other Battels, and cut off many of their Enemies. At length, after a remarkable Victory gained by the Lacedaemonians, the Armies on both Sides returned to their several Cities; and the Lacedaemonians and Megalopolitans entring into a Truce, the Thebans returned into Boeotia.
In the mean time Phalaecus continuing still in Boeotia, took Charonaea; but upon the Thebans coming into its Relief, he was forced to quit it again. Afterwards the Boeotians entred Phocis with a great Army, and wasted and spoiled a great part of it, and harrass'd all the Country round about, and plunder'd and destroyed every thing that was in their way. They took also some little Towns, and loading themselves with abundance of Plunder, returned into Boeotia.
Page 496 When Thessalus was chief Magistrate at Athens, and Marcus Fabius and Titus Quintius executed the Consulship at Rome, the Thebans wearied out with the Toils of the Phocian War, and brought very low in their Treasure, sent Ambassadors to the King of Persia to sollicit that King to supply them with a Sum of Money; to which Artaxerxes readily consented, and without delay furnished them with Three hundred Talents. However there was little or nothing done this Year worth taking notice of between the Boeotians and Phocians, save some Skirmishes, and harrassing one anothers Countries.
In Asia, the Persian King having invaded Aegypt some Years before with a numerous Army; but miscarrying in his Design, at this time renewed the War against the Aegyptians, and after many worthy Actions performed by his Valour and Diligence, he recovered Aegypt, Phaenicia, and Cyprus. But that the History may be made more plain and evident, we shall first declare the Causes and Grounds of the War, looking back a little to the Times proper for the Occasion.
The Aegyptians having heretofore rebelled against the Persians; Artaxerxes, Sirnamed Ochus, notwithstanding sate still and quiet, being no ways addicted to Arms. And though Armies under the Command of several Captains were set forth, yet through the Treachery and Unskilfulness of the Generals, many times he was Unfortunate and Unsuccessful. Upon which Account, though he was greatly contemned by the Aegyptians, yet his Love to his Ease and Pleasure had that Ascendent over him, as to inforce him patiently to bear the Disgrace. But now when the Phaenicians and Kings of Cyprus, in imitation of this Disloyalty of the Aegyptians, and in Contempt of him, were all running into Rebellion, the King was at length rouz'd, and determin'd to make War upon them. But he judged it not Advisable or Prudent to manage the War by his Deputies and Generals, but resolved to go himself, and try his own Fortune and Conduct in the Defence and Preservation of his Kingdom. To that end he made great Preparation of Arms, Darts, Provision and Forces; and raised Three hundred thousand Foot, and Thirty thousand Horse; and rigg'd out a Fleet of Three hundred Galleys, besides Six hundred Ships of Burden, and other Transport Ships for all sorts of Provision. The War in Phaenicia first broke out upon these Occasions.
In Phaenicia there is a famous City called Tripolis, its Name agreeing with the Nature of the Place; for three Cities are contained within its Bounds, a Furlong distant one from each other, one called the City of the Aradians, the other of the Sidonians, and the third of the Tyrians. It's the most eminent of all the Cities of Phaenicia, being that where the General Senate of all the Phaenicians do usually meet and consult about the weighty Affairs of the Nation. The Kings, Lords Lieutenants and Generals then in Sidon, carrying themselves by their severe Edicts rigorously and haughtily towards the Sidonians, the Citizens being so abused, and not being able longer to brook it, studied how to revolt from the Persians. Upon which, the rest of the Phaenicians being wrought upon by the other to vindicate their Liberty, sent Messengers to Nectanetus the King of Aegypt, then at War with the Persians, to receive them as Confederates, and so the whole Nation prepared for War. And being that Sidon then exceeded all the rest in Wealth, and even private Men by the advantage of Trade were grown very Rich, they built a great Number of Ships, and raised a potent Army of Mercenaries; and both Arms, Darts and Provision, and all other Things necessary for War, were prepared. And that they might appear first in the War, they spoil'd and ruin'd the Kings Garden, cutting down all the Trees where the Persian Kings used to Recreate and Divert themselves. Then they burnt all the Hay which the Lord Lieutenants had laid up for the use of the Horses, At last they seized upon the Persians, who had so insulted over them, and haled them to Punishment. And in this manner began the War of the Persians with the Phaenicians. For the King being informed what the Rebels had so impudently acted, threatned to Revenge it upon all the Inhabitants of Phaenicia, especially upon the Sidonians. To this end he Rendevous'd all his Army, both Horse and Foot, at Babylon, and presently march'd away against the Phaenicians. In the mean time, while the King was upon his March, the Governor of Syria, and Mazaeus Lord Lieutenant of Caelicia, joined together against the Phaenicans: On the other side, Tennes King of Sidon procured for their assistance Four thousand Greek Mercenaries from the Aegyptians, under the Command of Mentor the Rhodian; with these, and a Body of the Citizens, he engaged with the Lord Lieutenants, and got the Day, and expelled them out of Phaenicia.
While these Things were acted in Phaenicia, the War in Cyprus began at the same time, the one depending much upon the other. There were Nine great Cities in this Island, under whose Jurisdiction were all the other smaller Towns. Every one had its several King, who managed all publick Affairs; yet subject to the King of Persia.
Page 497 These all enter'd into a Confederacy, and, after the Example of the Phaenicians, shook off the Yoak; and having made all necessary Preparations for the War, took upon them the Absolute Power and Soveraignty in their own several Dominions.
Artaxerxes being enrag'd at this Insolence, writ to Idrieus Prince of Caria (then lately come to the Throne, a Friend and Confederate of the Persians, as all his Ancestors were before him) to raise him both Land and Sea-Forces, for his Assistance against the Kings of Cyprus. Upon which, he forthwith rigg'd out a Fleet of Forty Sail, and sent on board Eight thousand Mercenaries for Cyprus, under the Command of Phocion the Athenian, and Evagoras, who had been for some Years before King of the Island. As soon as they lander in Cyprus, they march'd then streight to Salamina, the greatest of the Cities, where they cast up a Trench, and fortify'd themselves, and so straitly besieg'd the City both by Sea and Land. The Island had continu'd a long time in peace and quietness, and therefore was grown very Rich; so that the Soldiers who had now the Power to range over the Country, had got together great Booties: Which Plenty and Confluence being nois'd abroad, many sn the opposite Continent, in hope of Gain, came slocking out of Syria and Silisia to the Persian Camp. The Army of Phocion and Evagoras being increas'd to double the number, the Petty Kings were brought into great Straits, and much terrify'd: And in this Condition was Cyprus at that time.
About this time the King of Persia march'd with his Army from Babylon, and made towards Phaenicia: But Mentor, General of the Sidonians, when he heard how great an Army was approaching, and considering how unequal in number the Rebels were, he privately consulted his own Safety: To that end he secretly dispatch'd away from Sidon a faithful Servant of his own, call'd Thessalion, to Artaxerxes, promising to betray Sidon to him; and that he would effectually assist him in subduing of Egypt; he being in that respect more especially able to serve him, for that he was well acquainted with all the Places in Egypt, and knew exactly the most convenient places over the River Nile. The King was wonderfully pleas'd when he heard what Thessalion said, and promis'd he would not only pardon Mentor for what he had done, but would bountifully reward him, if he perform'd what he had promis'd. But Thessalion further added, that Mentor would expect that the King should confirm his Word by giving out his Right Hand. Upon which the King was so incens'd (as being distrusted) that he gave up Thessalion into the hands of the Officers, with Command to cut off his Head. When he was led to Execution, he only said thus: Thou, O King, dost what thou pleasest; but Mentor, who is able to accomplish all I have said, will perform nothing that is promis'd, because thou refusest to give him Assurance on thy part. Upon hearing of which, the King alter'd his Mind, and commanded the Officers to discharge the Man; and so he put forth his Right Hand to the Thessalion, which is a most sure and certain Earnest among the Persians of performance of what is promis'd. Then he return'd to Sidon, and secretly imparted to Mentor what he had done.
In the mean time, the King counting it his greatest Happiness if he could subdue Egypt (which he had before attempted in vain) sent Ambassadors to the chiefest Cities of Greece, to solicit for some Auxiliary Forces from them. The Athenians and Lacedaemonians return'd Answer, That they would continue still Friends to the Persians; but that they could not supply them with Forces. But the Thebans commanded a thousand heavy-arm'd Men to be sent to the Assistance of the King, under the Command of Locrates. The Argives likewise furnish'd him with Three thousand Men; but sent no Captain with them, because the King had expresly by Name appointed Nicostratus to Command them, and they were unwilling to contradict him. He was a Man of great Account, both as to Councel and Execution, having both Valour and Prudence assistant one to another. And because he was of vast Strength of Body, imitating Hercules in his Arms, he carry'd both a Club and a Lion's Skin in every Battel. Neither were the Grecians, who inhabited upon the Sea Coasts of Asia, wanting on their parts, but sent out Six thousand Men: So that all the Auxiliary Forces from the Grecians, amounted to Ten thousand. But before these came up, the King had pass'd through Syria, and enter'd Phaenicia, and encamp'd not far from Sidon.
In the mean time, while the King spent a considerable time in making preparation, the Sidonians had been very active and diligent in furnishing themselves with Arms and Provisions; and besides, had drawn a treble deep and broad Trench, and an high Wall round the City. They had likewise a brave Body of tall, handsom and stout Men of the Citizens, well exercis'd and train'd up in martial Discipline out of the Schools: And this City went far beyond all the rest of the Cities of Phaenicia for Wealth, and all other sumptuous Ornaments, both for State and Grandeur: And that which was not the least Page 498 among the rest, they were furnish'd with a hundred Gallies, of three and five Oars on a Bank.
And now Tennes became a Party with Mentor (who Commanded the Mercenaries out of Egypt) in the Treachery; and left Mentor to keep a certain Quarter of the City, in order to help forward the Execution of the Treason; and himself went out with Five hundred Soldiers, upon pretence to go to the Common Assembly of the Phaenicians: For he had in his Company a Hundred of the Best Quality of the Citizens to be Senators, as was pretended: But these he caus'd to be seiz'd and deliver'd up into the hands of Ariaxerxes, as soon as they came near where the King was, who receiv'd him as his Friend, but order'd the Hundred Noblemen, as Authors of the Rebellion, to be darted to death.
Presently after, when Five hundred more of the Chiefest of the Sidonians came to him with all the Badges of Submission imaginable, he call'd Tennes back, and ask'd him whether he was able to deliver the City into his Hands (for he earnestly desir'd to possess himself of the Place upon any Terms whatsoever, rather than upon Treaty, to the end that the utter Ruin of the Citizens might be a Terror unto the rest) when Tennes assur'd him he was able to effect it, the King being still implacable, caus'd all the Five hundred (who carry'd Olive-Branches before them as Suppliants for Mercy, and as Tokens of Submission) to be shot to death with Darts. Afterwards Tennes readily perswades the Egyptian Mercenaries to receive him and the King within the Walls; and so by this treacherous Contrivance, Sidon came again into the Hauds of the Persians. Then the King judging that Tennes could do him no further Service, caus'd his Throat to be cut likewise.
In the mean time, the Sidonians had burnt all their Shipping before the King came, lest any of the Inhabitants, consulting their own particular Safety, should get away by Sea. At length, when the Sidonians saw that the Enemy was entred, and many Thousands of Men ranging here and there, and dispers'd all over the City, they shut themselves up with their Wives and Children in their Houses, and set them on fire, and so all consum'd together. It's said there were above Forty thousand (with Houshold-Servants) that perish'd in these Flames.
After this Destruction of the Sidonians, by which the whole City and Inhabitants were consum'd to Ashes, the King sold the Rubbish and Relicts of the Fire for many Talents: For being the City was very Rich, there was found a vast Quantity of Gold and Silver melted down by the Flames. Thus sad was the Calamity under which the Sidonians suffer'd. The rest of the Cities being terrify'd with this Destruction, Presently surrender'd themselves to the Persians. A little before this, Artemesia the Princess of Caria died, having govern'd Two Years: Idreius her Brother succeeded in the Principality, and reign'd Seven Years.
In Italy the Romans made a Truce with the Prenestines, and entred into a League with the Samnites; and cut off the Heads of Two hundred and sixty in the Forum, of those that sided with the Tarquins.
In Sicily Leptines and Callipus the Syracusians being furnish'd with a considerable Army, besieg'd Rhegium, which was still held by a Garison of Dionysius the Younger; and having forc'd out the Garison, they restor'd the Rhegians to their own ancient Government.
Evagoras beheaded in Cyprus. Artaxerxes marches against Aegypt, and gains all Aegypt by the Policy of Mentor. Lost many of his Men at the Lake of Sorbon. Mentor advanc'd Mentor's Stratagem to subdue Hemias, Prince of Aterne. Zena raz'd by Philip. The King of Aegypt Abdicates his Kingdom, and flies to Aethiopia.
AFterward,, Apollodorus being Chief Magistrate at Athens, and Marcus Valerius and Caius Sulpitius, Roman Consuls, all the Cities of Cyprus surrender'd themselves to the Persians, excepting Salamis, which was then besieg'd by Evagoras and Phocian, and which Protogoras, King of Salamis, stoutly defended.
In the mean time, Evagoras endeavour'd to regain the Kingdom of his Ancestors, and contriv'd to be restor'd to his Ancient Right by the help of the Persian King. But being afterwards accus'd before Artaxerxes (who thereupon reliev'd Protogoras) he laid aside all hopes of being restor'd, and having afterwards clear'd himself of all that was laid to his Charge, he was intrusted with the Government of a larger Province in Asia, which he so misgovern'd, that he was forc'd to fly again into Cyprus, where being seiz'd he had his Head struck off. But Protogoras voluntarily submitting himself to the Persian King, kept the Kingdom of Salamis without any Rival for the time to come.
In the mean time, the King of Persia, after the Ruine of Sidon, being join'd with the Forces that came from Argos, Thebes, and the ancient Cities, march'd with his whole Army against Aegypt. When he came to the Great Lough or Lake, through ignorance of the Places, he lost part of his Army in the Boggs there, call'd Barrathra. But in regard we have before in the First Book, spoken of the Nature of this Lake, and the strange Things there happening, we shall now forbear to repeat them.
Having pass'd these Gulphs he came to Pelusium, the first Mouth of the River Nile, where it enters into the Sea. Here the Graecians lay close to the City, but the Persians Encamp'd forty Furlongs off.
In the mean while, the Aegyptians (in regard the Persians had given them a long time to prepare all things necessary for the War) had made strong Defences and Fortifications at all the Mouths of Nile, especially at Pelusium, because it was the First and most conveniently situated; where Five thousand Men were in Garison, under the Command of Philophoron. The Thebans, above all the Graecians, had a Desire to evidence their Valour, and to that end they first of all valiantly attempted to force the Trench, which was both Straight and Deep, and carried it; but as soon as they had gain'd it, those of the Garison made a Sally, upon which there was a sharp Engagement; insomuch as the Dispute was very hot on both sides, and continu'd all the Day, the Night scarcely putting an end to the Contest.
The next day the King divided the Greeks into three Brigades; every one had a Greek Commander, with whom was join'd a Persian Officer, such as was most esteem'd for Valour and Loyalty.
The First Brigade was of the Baeotians, under the Command of Lacrates, a Theban, and Rosaces, a Persian. This Rosaces was descended from some of those seven Persians who depos'd the Magi, and was Governor of Ionia and Lydia; He led a great Body both of Horse and Foot, all of Barbarians.
The Second Brigade was of the Argives, Commanded by Nicostratus, with whom was Aristazanes, a Persian, who was employ'd as an Envoy in all the King's special Affairs, and next to Bagoas, the Trustiest and Chiefest of his Friends: He had Five thousand Soldiers, and Fourscore Galleys under his Command.
The Third Brigade was led by Mentor, he who betray'd Sidon, who formerly commanded the Mercenaries: His Collegue was Bagoas, a bold Fellow, and none more ready in of executing any Villany, in whom the King put great Confidence. He commanded the Greeks that were the King's Subjects, and a great Body of Barbarians, besides a considerable Navy. The King kept the rest of the Army with himself, and was very careful in Managing and Overseeing the whole Concern of the War.
The Army of the Persians thus divided, Nectabanus the King of Aegypt, (though he was far short in Number) neither valu'd the Multitude, nor the Division of the Persian Troops: For he had in his Army Twenty thousand Graecian Mercenaries, as many Africans, and Threescore thousand Aegyptians, by them call'd Warriors; and besides these, Page 500 was furnish'd with an incredible Number of River-Boats, fitted to fight in the River Nile. Moreover, he had defended that side of the River towards Arabia, with many Castles and Garisons, exactly fortify'd with Trenches and Strong Walls; and was prepar'd with Plenty of all other things necessary for the War. But through Imprudence and want of good Advice he lost all. The chief Cause of the Miscarriage was his Ignorance how to manage Warlike Affairs, and his security, upon the account he had before beaten the Persians; for at that time of his Success, having had most expert Commanders, Diaphantus the Athenian, and Lanius the Spartan, who were both Valiant and Experienc'd Soldiers, all things succeeded according to his Heart's desire. But being now conceited of his own Sufficiency and Ability, to Command and Order the Army, he would admit of no other Assistant; and therefore through want of Skill and Experience, nothing was manag'd to advantage, as became an Expert-Commander.
Having therefore strongly Garison'd the Towns, he himself, with Thirty thousand Aegyptians, Five thousand Graecians, and half of the Lybians, kept the Passages which lay most open and easie to Invasions.
Things thus ordered on both sides, Nicostratus, who Commanded the Argives (having got some Aegyptian Guides, (whose Wives and Children the Persians kept as Hostages) through a certain Cut or Ditch, pass'd over with his Fleet to a Place as far out of fight as he could, and having landed his Men there, Encamp'd. Those who kept the Neighbouring Aegyptian Garisons, as soon as they came to know where the Enemy were thus Encamp'd, speedily made out against them with no less than Seven thousand Men, under the Command of Cleinius of the Isle of Coos, who drew up his Men in Battalia, in order to fight them: On the other side, those lately Landed, likewise put themselves into a Posture of Defence. Whereupon was a sharp Engagement, in which the Grecians on the Persians side so gallantly behav'd themselves, that they kill'd Cleinius the General, and above Five thousand of the rest of his Army.
Upon hearing of this Defeat, Nectabanus was in a terrible Fright, for that he believ'd the rest of the Persian Troops would easily pass over the River. Being therefore afraid lest the Enemy would bend all his force against Memphis the Seat-Royal, he made his chief Care and Concern to secure this Place, and thereupon march'd away with the Army he had to Memphis, to prevent the Besieging of it.
In the mean time, Lacrates, the Theban, the Commander of the First Brigade, pushes on the Siege of Pelusium; and having drain'd the Water out of the Trench, and turn'd it another way, he rais'd a Mount, and there plac'd his Engines of Battery against the City. And after a great Part of the Walls were batter'd down, the Pelusians rais'd up others in their stead, and speedily made high Wooden Towers.
These Conflicts upon the Walls continu'd for some days, during which time the Graecians that defended the Place, stoutly oppos'd the Assailants. But as soon as they heard of the King's departure to Memphis, they were so afrighted that they sent Messengers to Treat upon Terms of Surrender. Whereupon, Lacrates agreeing with them upon the Sacred Tye of an Oath, That upon delivery up of Pelusium, they should return to Greece with whatever they brought with them out of the Town, they surrender'd the Place. Then Artaxerxes sent Bagoas with a Garison of Persians to take Possession of Pelusium, whose Soldiers as soon as they enter'd the Town, took away from the Grecians as they were going out, many of those things that they brought along with them.
Being thus abus'd they took it hainously, and with great Complaints call'd upon the Gods, as Witnesses and Revengers of Perjury and Breach of Faith.
Lacrates being stirr'd up to just Indignation by this base Dealing, fell upon the Barbarians, and kill'd some of them, and put the rest to flight, and so protected the Greeks thus injur'd, contrary to the Agreement confirm'd by Oath. And though Bagoas, who fled amongst the rest, and return'd to the King, accus'd Lacrates, for what he had done, yet the King adjudg'd, that Bagoas his Soldiers were dealt with according to their desert, and punish'd those Persians that were Authors of the Rapine. And in this manner came Pelusium into the Hands of the Persians.
But Mentor, Commander of the Third Brigade, recover'd Bubastus, and many other Cities, to the Obedience of the Persian King by his own Stratagem. For whereas all these Cities were Garison'd by two sorts of People, Grecians and Aegyptians, Mentor caus'd a Report to be spread abroad, That Artaxerxes would receive all those most graciously, and pardon them, that of their own accord should give up their Cities into the King's Hands; and on the other Hand, That all those that he should take by force, should fare no better than Sidon. He commanded also, That all the Gates should be open'd, and that all that would should be permitted to go away. So that all the Aegyptian Captives Page 501 in the Camp being gone without any Opposition, the Report was in a short time spread abroad through all the Cities of Aegypt. Whereupon all the Towns were presently fill'd with Seditions through Quarrels, and Dissentions between the Aegyptians and the Foreign Auxiliaries. For all Parties strove who should be most Active and Forward in betraying their several Garisons, every one aiming at his own Advantage, by an Interest in the favour of the Conqueror. And the first that began was Bubastus. For as soon as Mentor and Bagoas Encamp'd before the City, the Aegyptians, unknown to the Graecians, promis'd to Bagoas (by one of their own Country sent to him) to Surrender the City, if they might be all Pardon'd. This being smelt out by the Greeks they pursu'd and seiz'd upon him that was sent, and by Threatning and Affrighting him got out the whole from him, as the Thing in truth was. Upon which, being highly enrag'd, they fell violently upon the Aegyptians, kill'd some, wounded others, and drove the rest into a narrow Corner of the City.
They that were thus assaulted, gave intelligence to Bagoas of what was done, and intreated him, tha• without delay he would take Possession of the City, which should be by them deliver'd up to him upon his approach.
In the mean time, the Graecians sent an Herald to Mentor, who secretly advis'd them, to set upon the Barbarians as soon as Bagoas had entred the Town. Bagoas therefore being entred with his Persians, but without the Consent of the Greeks, as soon as part of the Soldiers were let in, the Graecians presently shut up the Gates, and fell on a sudden on the Barbarians, and kill'd 'em every Man, and took Bagcas himself Prisoner, who coming to understand that there was no means left for his Deliverance but by Mentor, he earnestly intreated him to interpose for his Preservation, promising that for the Future he would never undertake any thing without his Advice. Mentor prevail'd with the Graecians to Discharge him, and to Surrender the City, so that the whole Success and Glory of the Action was attributed to him.
Bagoas being thus freed by his means, entred into a Solemn Covenant of Friendship upon Oath with Mentor, and faithfully kept it to the Time of his Death; so that these two always concurring and agreeing, were able to do more with the King, than all his other Friends, or any of his Kindred. For Mentor being made Artaxerxes's Lord-Lieutenant of all the Asiatick Shore, was greatly Serviceable to the King, by procuring Soldeers out of Greece, and by his Faithful and Diligent Administration of the Government.
Bagoas commanding all as Viceroy in the higher Parts of Asia, grew to that degree of Power through his Consultation with Mentor, upon all Occasions, that he had the Kingdom at Command, neither did Artaxerxes any thing without his Consent. And after the King's Death his Power was such, That the Successors were ever Nominated and Appointed by him, and all Affairs of the Kingdom were so wholly manag'd by him, that he wanted nothing but the Name of a King. But we shall speak of these things in their proper Place.
After the Surrender of Bubastus, the rest of the Cities out of fear submitted and deliver'd up themselves upon Articles, into the Hands of the Persians.
In the mean while, Nectabanus, who was now at Memphis, seeing the swift Motions of the Enemy, durst not venture a Battel in defence of his Sovereignty, but abdicating his Kingdom, pack'd up a great deal of Treasure, and fled into Aethiopia. And so Artaxerxes possess'd himself of all Aegypt, and demolished the Walls of all the Cities, especially those that were the Greatest and of most account; and heap'd together an infinite Mass of Gold and Silver, by spoiling of the Temples: He carry'd away likewise all the Records and Writings out of the most ancient Temples; Which Bagoas a while after suffer'd the Priests to redeem for a great Sum of Money. Then he sent home the Greek Auxiliaries with ample Rewards to every one according to their Deserts, for their Services; and intrusting Pherendatus with the Government of Aegypt, he return'd with his Army loaden with Spoil, triumphing in the Glory of his Victory to Babylon.
At the time when Callimachus was Lord-Chancellor at Athens, and Marcus Fabius and Publius Valerius were Roman Consuls, Artaxerxes advanc'd Mentor for the good Services he had done him, especially in the Aegyptian War, above all his Ariends; and that he might put a Mark upon his Valour by a Reward more than ordinary, he bestow'd upon him an Hundred Talents of Silver, and rich Furniture for his House. He made him likewise Prefact of all the Asiatick Shore, and General of his Army, with absolute Power to suppress all Rebellions in those Parts.
Mentor being in near Alliance and Kindred with Actabazus and Memnon (who had not long before made War upon the Persians, and were now fled •at of Asia to Philip in Macedonia) by his Interest with the King procur'd their Pardon, and thereupon sent for them Page 502 both to come to him, with their Families: For Artabazus had by Mentor and Memnon's Sister, Eleven Sons and Ten Daughters; with which numerous Progeny Mentor was greatly delighted, and advanc'd the young Men as they grew up, to high Places of Command in the Army.
The first Expedition which Mentor made was against Hennias, Prince or Tyrant of Atarne, who had rebell'd against Artaxerxes, and was possess'd of many strong Cities and Castles; upon promise made him to procure the King's Pardon he brought him to a Parley; and upon that occasion having surpris'd him, he clapt him up, and possessing himself of his Seal-Ring, he writ Letters in his Name to the several Cities, signifying that through Mentor he was restor'd to the King's Favour; and sent away likewise with those that carry'd the Letters, such as should take Possession for the King of all the Forts and Castles. The Governors of the Cities giving credit to the Letters, and being likewise very desirous of Peace, deliver'd up all the Towns and Forts to the King in every place through the Country.
All the Revolted Cities being gain'd by this Trick of Mentor, without any Hazard or Fatigue, the King was highly pleas'd with him, as having acted the Part of a Brave and Prudent General.
And with no less success, partly by Policy, and partly by force of Arms, he reduc'd in a short time the other Captains that were in Rebellion. And thus stood Affairs in Asia at this time.
In Europe, Philip, King of Macedon, made an Expedition against the * Calcidean Cities, and took Zeira, and raz'd it to the Ground, and brought other Towns (out of Fear) likewise to submit. He set again likewise upon Phaeca, and threw out its Prince Pitholaus. About that time Sparticus, King of Pontus, dy'd, having reign'd Five Years. Parysades his Brother suceeded him, and govern'd Eight and Thirty years.
Philip takes Olynthus, and other Cities in the Hellespont. The Athenians jealous of Philip, and instigated by Demosthenes. Philip's Policies. The Value of the Riches taken out of the Temple at Delphos. Dionysius sent Presents to Delphos, which were taken by the Athenians. His Letter to the Athenians. The Temple burnt. The End of the Phocian War. The Punishments decreed by the Amphictyons against the Phocians. The Miseries of the Sacrilegers. Timoleon sent to Syracuse.
AFter the End of this Year, Theophilus rul'd as Archon at Athens, and Caius Sulpitius and Caius Quintius executed the Consular-Dignity at Rome, at which time was celebrated the Hundred and Eighth Olmypiad, in which Polycles of Cyrene bore away the Crown of Victory. At the same time Philip made an Expedition against the Cities of the Hellespont, of which Micaberna and Torone were betray'd into his hands. Then he made against Olynthus (the greatest City of those Parts) with a very numerous Army, and having first routed the Olynthians in two Battels, he laid Siege to the Town; upon which he made many Assaults, and lost a great number of his Men in their approaches to the Walls. At length by bribing Euthycrates and Lasthenes, the Chief Magistrates of Olynthus, he entred the City by Treachery, and Plunder'd it, and Sold all the Citizens for Slaves, and expos'd to sale all the Prey and Plunder under the Spear. Whereby he furnished himself with abundance of Money for the carrying on of the War, and put all the rest of the Cities into a terrible Fright.
Then he bountifully rewarded such as had behav'd themselves with Courage and Valour, and having exacted vast Sums of Money from the Richest of the Citizens of the Cities round about, he made use of it to corrupt many to betray their Country; so that he himself often boasted that he had enlarg'd his Dominion more by his Gold than by his Sword.
In the mean time, the Athenians being jealous of the growing Greatness of Philip, ever after sent Aid to them whom he invaded by his Arms, and dispatch'd Ambassadors to all the Cities to look to their Liberties, and to put to death such of their Citizens as should be discover'd to go about to betray them, promising withal to join with them upon all Occasions. At length they proclaim'd open War against Philip.
Page 503Demosthenes the Orator (at that time the most Eminent in Politicks and Eloquence of all the Grecians) was the chief Instrument that incited the Athenians to take upon them the Defence of all Greece: But the City could not cure that itch of Treason that infected many of the Citizens; such a shoal of Traitors there was at that time all over Greece. And therefore it is reported, that Philip having an earnest desire to gain that once strong and eminent City, and one of the Place telling him it could never be taken by Force; he ask'd him whether it were not possible that Gold might mount the Walls; for he had learn'd by Experience, That they that could not be subdu'd by Force, were easily overcome by Gold. To this end he had by his Bribes procur'd Traitors in every City; and such as would receive Money, he call'd his Friends and Guests: And thus with Evil Communication he corrupted Men's Manners.
After the taking of Clynthus, he celebrated Olympick Games to the Gods, in Commemoration of his Victory, and offer'd most splendid Sacrifices; and in regard there were a vast number of People got together, he set forth specious Sports and recreating Plays, and invited a great number of Strangers to his Feasts: And in the midst of his Cups would talk courteously and familiarly with them, and drink to many, and reach over the Cup to them with his own Hands. To many he gave rich Gifts, and made large and liberal Promises to all, to the end his Kindness and Generosity might be bruited abroad by them that had had the Experience. During the time of his Feasting, observing Satyrus the Stage-player to look four and knit his Brows, he ask'd him, why heonly would not accept of the Fruits of his Bounty and Generosity? To which he answer'd, That he would very willingly receive a certain Gift from him; but he was afraid if he should ask it openly, he would deny him. Upon which the King fell a laughing, and bid him ask what he would, and he would freely bestow it upon him. Upon which he desir'd that two young Maids, in the flower of their Age, the Daughters of one that was his Host might be given to him from among the Captives, whose Liberties he crav'd not to make any Gain or Advantage of them himself, but really to give them Portions out of his own Estate, and procure them Husbands, and likewise to prevent their being injur'd by any unworthy Attempt. Whose Request the King so approv'd, as that he not only forthwith order'd the Virgins to be deliver'd to Satyrus without Ransom, but bestow'd upon him likewise many other rich Gifts and Presents, as special Marks of his Favour and Bounty; so that many, excited with the Hopes of Reward, strove which should serve Philip most, and be the first that should betray their Country into his Hands.
The next Year Themistocles was Archon at Athens, and Caius Cornelius and Marcus PopiliusRoman Consuls, at which time the Boeotians over-ran the Country of the Phocians with Depredations, and beat the Enemy at Hyampolis, killing about Seventy of them. But not long after, engaging with the Phocians in another Battel, they were routed at Coro•ea, and lost many of their Men. And whereas the Phocians were possess'd of some small Towns in Boeotia, the Boeotians made an Inroad upon them, and shamefully spoil'd and destroy'd all their standing Corn; but in their Return were beaten.
While these things were acting, Phalecus the General of the Phocians, being convicted of Sacrilege, in converting the Sacred Treasure of the Temple to his own use, was depriv'd of his Commission; and three others were created in his room, viz. Democrates, Callias, and Sophanes, who manag'd the Business and Trial concerning the Sacred Treasure, at such time as the Phocians demanded an Account of them that had the disposing of it. The greatest part of the Money was found to be intrusted in the hands of Philon; who not being able to give a clear Account, was condemn'd; and being put upon the Rack, by order of the Generals, he nam'd many of his Accomplices. At length, being tortur'd to the utmost extremity, he died upon the Rack, and so came to an end worthy his Impiety.
The Robbers indeed restor'd the rest of the Monies that were left, but they themselves were put to death as Sacrilegers. The first of the former Generals, Philomelus, forbore to meddle with the Sacred Treasures; but his Brother and Successor Onomarchus, converted much of those Treasures to the use of the War. The third General Phayllus, Brother of Onomarchus, while he executed that Command, made use of many of the consecrated Things of the Temple, for the paying off the foreign Soldiers: For he melted down and coin'd into Money the Hundred and twenty Golden Tiles, dedicated by Croesus King of Lydia. In the same manner he dealt with the 300 Golden Bowls (or Viols) every one weighing Two Minas; and likewise the Lion and Woman of Gold, all which weigh'd 30 Talents of Gold, so that all the Gold according to the value of Silver would amount to Four thousand Talents. And besides these, there were Things in Silver dedicated by Croesus, and others, carry'd away by all the Generals in their several Times, above the value of Page 504 Six thousand Talents; so that the whole Sum, both in Gold and Silver, amounted to above Ten thousand Talents.
There are some Authors that say, that there was as much Treasure sacrilegiously taken away, as Alexander afterwards found in the Treasury of the Persians. Phalecus likewise, with the Officers of the Army, went about to dig up the Pavement of the Temple, because some Person told him that a vast Treasure of Gold and Silver lay under it: For confirmation of the truth of it, he brought in the Testimony of that most ancient and famous Poet Homer, where he says thus:
And just as the Soldiers began to dig near to the Tripode, a sudden Earthquake terrify'd the Phocians; so that the Gods seeming by such manifest Tokens to threaten Vengeance upon the Sacrilegers, they desisted. But the first Author of that Impiety, Philo (of whom we spoke before) in a short time after felt the just Vengeance of the Deity. But notwithstanding the whole Guilt of this impious Sacrilege be imputed to the Phocians, yet both the Athenians and Lacedaemonians who assisted the Phocians, were Partners in the Offence, for they had more Money paid to them than was proportionable to the number of the Soldiers which they sent: For indeed at that very time the Athenians carry'd it but impiously towards the Oracle; for but a little before this Robbery at Delphos, when Iphicrates lay with the Fleet before Corcyra, and Dionysius Prince of Syracuse had sent some Statues of Gold and Ivory to Olympus and Delphos, he by chance intercepting the Vessels which transported them; and having now possession of the dedicated Goods, sent to Athens to know how he must dispose of them; the Athenians bid him never scrupulously examine or make enquiry after those things that were said to belong to the Gods, but to consider how to provide for the maintaining of the Army. In Obedience to which Decree of his Country, he expos'd the Sacred Ornaments of the Gods to sale under the Spear. Upon which, the Prince being highly incens'd against the Athenians, wrote to them in this manner:
It is not fit that I should say Health to you, since ye have been so sacrilogious against the Gods both by Sea and Land; and having intercepted the Images which we had sent, in order to bedevoted to the Gods, you have converted them into Money, and so have prophanely abus'd the Mightiest of the Gods, Apollo at Delphos, and Jupiter at Olympus.
This Affront against the Gods, the Athenians never stuck at, who yet were us'd to boast and glory, that the God Apollo was their Ancestor. The Lacedaemonians also, though they were famous amongst all Nations for the Oracle of Delphos, and in the most weighty Affairs do consult there at this very day; yet they never scrupled to join in the Sacrilege with these impious Robbers of the Temple.
But now the Phocians, who had three Towns strongly fortify'd in Boeotia, made an Inroad into Boeotia; and being join'd with great numbers of Mercenaries, wasted and spoil'd the Enemy's Country; and in several Incursions and Skirmishes got the better, and so return'd. The Boeotians therefore being overpress'd with the Burden of the War, and having lost many of their Soldiers, and besides being in great want of Money, sent Ambassadors unto Philip to crave his Assistance. This was very welcome News to the King to see that they were brought low, having long desir'd to have their Leuctra Courage curb'd and tam'd: However, he sent them a great number of Men meerly upon this account, lest he should be thought to be careless in the matter concerning the spoiling of the Temple. Then the Phocians built a Castle at a Town call'd Abas, near the Temple of Apollo; at which time being attack'd by the Boeotians, some of them presently fled scatteringly into the Neighbouring Cities; others, to the number of 500, got into the Temple, and there perish'd. Many other things happen'd to the Phocians at that time, as by a Divine Hand; but that which is most remarkable was this; They that fled into the Temple, thought themselves safe under the Care and Protection of the Gods; but it fell out quite contrary; for Divine Providence brought condign Punishment upon the Sacrilegers: There Page 505 were many Straw-Beds round about the Temple, and it happen'd that the Fire left in the Tents of those that fled, caught hold of some of them; upon which the Flame so mounted on a sudden, that it consum'd the Temple, with all those that fled into it: For it seems God would not spare the Sacrilegers, notwithstanding all their Supplications.
Archias was then Lord Chancellor of Athens, and Marcus Aemilius and Titus Quinctius were invested with the Consulship at Rome, when the Phocian War (which had continu'd Ten Years) was ended in the manner following: When both the Boeotians and Phocians were brought low with the continual Fatigues of the War, the Phocians, by their Ambassadors, crav'd Aid of the Lacedaemonians, who sent them a Thousand heavy-arm'd Men, under the Command of Archidamus the King of Sparta. In like manner the Boeotians pray'd Assistance from Philip; who thereupon being join'd with the Thessalians, entred Locris with a great Army, where finding Phalecus (restor'd again to his Command) with a considerable Body of Mercenaries, he prepar'd to fight him. Phalecus was then at Nicea, who finding himself not able to engage with Philip, sent Ambassadors to him to treat. Thereupon a Peace was concluded upon these Conditions: That Phalecus, with all those then with him, might march away whither they thought fit. Whereupon Phalecus (after Ratification on both sides) without any further delay, departed with those Forces he had with him, to the number of Eight thousand, into Peloponnesus. And the Phocians now hopeless, gave up themselves into the Power of Philip.
The King having without Fighting unexpectedly put an end to the Sacred War, join'd in a Senate with the Thessalians and Boeotians; in which it was decreed, That the Great Council of the Amphictyons should be assembled, to whose Decision all Matters should be wholly referr'd.
By them afterwards it was decreed, That Philip and his Posterity should be receiv'd as Members into the Council of the Amphictyons, and should have the Privilege of a double Voice, as the Phocians (whom he conquer'd) had before: That the Walls of Three Cities in Phocis should be demolish'd: And, That the Phocians should never after have any thing to do with the Temple, or be Members of the Court of the Amphictyons: That they should never be possess'd of Horse or Arms, until they had made Restitution to the Oracle of the Moneys they had sacrilegiously taken away. Moreover, That the Exiles of Phocis, and whoever they were that were Partners with them in the Sacrilege, should be accounted accurs'd, and driven out of every Place. Likewise, That all the Cities of the Phocians should be ras'd to the Ground, and turn'd into Villages, every one of them not to contain above Fifty Houses, and not to be under one Furlong distant one from another; yet that the Phocians should keep their Lands, but should pay a Tribute to the Oracle every Year of Sixty Talents, 'till they had paid the Sum enter'd in the Registers at the time of the Sacrilege committed: That Philip, with the Boeotians and Thessalians should set forth the Phythian Games, because the Corinthians were Partners in the Impiety with the Phocians: That the Amphictyons, together with Philip, should break in pieces upon the Rocks all the Arms of the Phocians and Mercenaries, and then burn the Remains: And lastly, That they should deliver up all the Horse.
When they had dispatch'd this, they made Laws and Orders for the restoring of the Oracle to its former state, and all other matters relating to Religion and the Publick Peace, and advancing of Amity and Concord amongst the Grecians. All these Decrees of the Amphictyons were allow'd and confirm'd by Philip, who carry'd himself towards them with great Respect in all things, and then march'd back with his Army into Macedonia; and not only purchas'd Honour by his Piety and martial Conduct, but made many Advances towards the future Enlargement of his Dominions: For he had long coveted to gain the Sovereign Command of all Greece, and to make War upon the Persians, which indeed at length happen'd. But of these things we shall hereafter give a particular Account in their due time.
Let us now therefore return to what properly is an Appendant, and in course annex'd to the precedent History: Yet we judge it our Duty first to relate the Judgments inflicted by the Gods upon the Sacrilegious Robbers of the Oracle; for Vengeance overtook all of them in general, not only those who were the chief Ringleaders, but even them that had the least hand in the Sacrilege.
Philomelus, the First and Chief Contriver of seizing the Temple, by a certain Fate of War was brought into such a strait, as that he cast himself headlong from the top a of Rock.
His Brother Onomarchus having taken upon him the Command of the heartless and discourag'd Army, was afterwards, with his Phocians and Mercenaries, totally routed in Thessaly, and he himself taken and crucify'd.
Phalecus, the last of them, having robb'd the Temple of all that was left, wander'd up and down in great Terror, and in divers Hazards and Troubles, for a long time together; not in any Favour to him more than the rest of his Confederates in Wickedness, but that he might be longer tormented, and that the Vengeance executed might be more remarkable to all where-ever he went. After his Flight, whereby he escap'd being a Prisoner, at the first he remain'd with his Mercenaries about Peloponnesus, and maintain'd his Soldiers with the Money he had sacrilegiously got into his hand from the Temple. Afterwards he hir'd some great Transport-Ships at Corinth, and having Four other small Vessels of his own, he prepar'd for a Voyage into Italy and Sicily, hoping either to possess himself of some Citie in those Parts, or that he and his Men should be employ'd by some or other as Mercenaries.
There was at that time a War broken out between the Lucanians and Tarrentines; he pretended to the Soldiers that went along with him, that he was sent for by the Sicilians and Italians: But when he came into the open Sea, some of the Soldiers who were on board in the largest Vessel with Phalecus, discours'd among themselves, and declar'd their Suspicions one to another, That it was but a Pretence, and that none had sent for them: For they saw no Commanders go along with him, that were sent from any that desir'd their Assistance; and they perceiv'd that the Voyage undertaken was long and tedious, and full of Hazards: And therefore concluding that Phalecus was no longer to be credited (dreading the Expedition beyond-sea) they conspir'd, especially the Officers of the Mercenaries, and with their drawn Swords so threatned both Phalecus and the Pilot, that they compell'd them to tack about, and return: The like being done in the other Ships, they all came back, and arriv'd in Peloponnesus. And being rendezvous'd at Malea, a Promontory of Laconia, they there found the Gnosian Ambassadors, who accidently were come hither to list some foreign Soldiers. After some Discourse had past between them and Phalecus and the other Officers, the Pay in hand was so large, that all of them sail'd away with them to Crete; and having landed at Gnosus, they presently took the City Lyctus at first Assault. But unexpected Assistance came in suddenly to the expuls'd Lyctians; for the Tarrentines being at that time engag'd in a War with the Lucanians, sent Ambassadors to the Lacedaemonians, from whom they were descended, to supply them with Auxiliaries; upon which the Spartans, upon the account of their Kindred, were ready to assist them; and to that end had both Naval and Land▪ Forces ready, under the Command of Archidamus the King of Sparta. And being now ready to set sail for Italy, at that very time came some from the Lyctians, earnestly desiring that they would help them in the first place. The Lacedaemonians agreed to it, and pass'd over to Crete, where they routed Phalecus and his Mercenaries, and recover'd the Country for the Lyctians.
Then Archidamus made for Italy, and there assisted the Tarrentines, and was kill'd in Fight, behaving himself with great Valour and Resolution. He was an excellent Commander, and of good Reputation in other respects; but ill spoken of, by reason of his joining with the Phocians, as the principal Promoter and Author of the seizing of the Temple and City of Delphos. He was King of Lacedaemon Three and twenty Years, and his Son Agis succeeded him, and continu'd Fifteen Years.
Afterwards all the Mercenaries under Archidamus, and who were concern'd in the robbing of the Oracle, were killed by the Lucanians. But Phalecus being driven out of Lyctus, besieged Sidon; and while he was preparing his Engines to batter the Walls, and making his Approaches to the City, the Engines were set on fire, and consumed by a Thunderbolt from Heaven, and a great number of the Soldiers who endeavoured to save them, were consumed by Fire from Heaven, amongst whom was Phalecus himself: Though there be some who report, That he was run through the Body by one of his own Soldiers whom he had provoked. Those Soldiers that were left, were hired by the Elean Exiles, and transported into Peloponnesus, who assisted them against their own Countrymen. But the Arcadians, who assisted the Eleans, routed them, and killed a great Number of the Mercenaries, and took Four thousand Prisoners; which the Arcadians and Eleans divided amongst themselves, and the Arcadians sold those under the Spear that fell to their Share: But the Eleans put all theirs to the Sword, for their Impiety in robbing of the Oracle. And in this manner all the Sacrilegers, and those that took part with them, met with their due Punishment for their Wickedness. Likewise the most famous Cities that shared with them in their Impiety, being afterwards conquered by Antipater, lost both their Authority and Liberty at once. Moreover, the Wives of the most principal Page 507 Men of Phocis, who had deck'd themselves with Necklaces of Gold robb'd from Delphos, met with the deserved Punishment of their Impiety. For one that wore the Chain of Helen turning Whore, stain'd all the Glory of her Beauty, by prostituting her self to every filthy Wretch. Another who adorn'd her self with the Ornaments of Eriphyles, in a Fury of Madness and Rage had her House set on fire by her eldest Son, and she and her Habitation consumed together. In this manner (as we said before) those that dared thus to despise and contemn the Deity, were overtaken by Divine Vengeance. On the contrary, Philip, who appeared in defence of the Oracle, ever prospering from that time, for his Piety, was at last declared Supream Governor of all Greece, and gained the largest Kingdom in Europe. And now having given an Account of the Sacred War so far forth as we judged necessary, we shall return to Things of another Nature.
In Sicily the Syracusians labouring under Intestine Seditions, and inslaved under the Tyranny of many that Lorded over them, sent Ambassadors to Corinth to desire a General to be dispatched to them, who might take Charge of the City, and give a Check to the Ambition of such as sought to Tyrannize. Upon which, it seemed very just and reasonable to the Corinthians to help those who were originally descended from them; and therefore they Decreed to send them Timoleon the Son of Timenetus, who was accounted the most valiant and expert Commander among them; in short, he was a Person every way Virtuous: But there was one Thing remarkable happen'd to him, which much forwarded his being chosen General.
Timophanes his Brother, the richest and most daring Man among the Corinthians, had some time before given evident Signs of his Ambition to aspire to the Sovereignty. For about that time having armed and got together a Company of lewd Fellows, and such as were in Debt, and Needy, went up and down the Market-place, seeming not to have the least Thoughts of the Principality, but in truth acting in the mean time as an absolute Tyrant. But Timoleon, who abhorr'd Monarchy, at the first advised his Brother to forbear, and lay aside such Projects and Designs: But he being not only regardless of what was said to him, but rather growing every day more Audacious and Peremptory; Timoleon, because he could not work upon him by Words, killed him in the Market-place. Upon which a great Tumult was raised, and the Citizens upon the Commission of so horrid a Fact running in and flocking together, the Matter came to a Faction and Sedition in the City. For some declared, That Timoleon, who had imbrewed his Hands in the Blood of a Citizen, should undergo the Punishment due for his Offence by the Law. But others were of a contrary Opinion, and that he deserved rather to be commended, as one that had dispatched a Tyrant out of the way.
A Senate therefore was called, and the Matter brought before the Court, where his Enemies most bitterly inveigh'd against him; but those who were more moderate and favourable, consulted together to preserve him. And while the Business remained in Debate, not yet decided, the Ambassadors from Syracuse arrived, and imparting their Embassy to the Court, they very seasonably desired a General to be sent them: Upon which, the Senate determined to send Timoleon, and that he might the better behave himself, a most strange Proposal was offered him, to chuse as he pleased: For they let him know, That if he carried himself well towards the Syracusians in his Command, then they would judge him to be one that had killed a Tyrant; but if he were Covetous and Oppressive, he should be condemned as a Murderer of his Brother.
Timoleon therefore, not so much out of Fear of what was threaten'd by the Senate, as excited by the Principles of his own innate Virtue, managed Affairs in Sicily with great Honour and Reputation to himself, and Advantage to the Sicilians. For he subdued the Carthaginians, rebuilt the Grecian Cities which were destroyed by the Barbarians, and restored all Sicily to its Liberty. Lastly, having gained Syracuse, and the Greek desolated Cities, he filled them all with Inhabitants, and made them very Populous. But we shall treat of these Matters in their proper Place, and come to that part which is coherent to the History.
Timoleon's Expedition into Sicily. The Carthaginians Army in Sicily. Dionysius returns into Syracuse, is beaten by Hicetas; Hicetas gains Syracuse. Timoleon's Escape from Rhegium. Timoleon routs Hicetas, and gains Syracuse. Philip invades the Illyrians. Dionysius expell'd. Timoleon makes good Laws. Philip invades Thrace.
NOW Eubulus was chief Magistrate at Athens, and Marcus Fabius and Serulius Sulpitius were Consuls at Rome; at this time Timoleon the Corinthian, advanced by the Syracusians to the Sovereign Command of all their Forces, prepared for his Voyage into Sicily, and loosed from Corinth with Four Gallies, mann'd with Seven hundred Mercenaries, and attended with Three Skiffs. In his Passage he was joined by Three Vessels more from the Leucadians and Corcyrians, and so with Ten Sail passed over the Ionian Sea. In this Voyage an unusual and remarkable Thing happened to Timoleon, the Providence of the Gods seeming to favour his Undertaking, and thereby to point out the future Fame and Glory of his Actions. For all the Night, a Light like a burning Torch in the Heavens went before him, till the Fleet came to the Coasts of Italy. For he was before told at Corinth by the Priests of Ceres and Proserpina, that in the Night the Goddesses appeared to them, and told them, that they would sail along with Timoleon to the Island that was peculiarly Consecrated to them. Timoleon therefore, and all those with him, were very chearful, upon the Apprehension that the Gods favoured their Enterprize; and thereupon Timoleon dedicated one of the best of his Ships to the Goddesses, and ordered that it should be call'd the Sacred Ship of Ceres and Proserpina. And now when the Fleet came safe as far as Metapontum in Italy, there arrived a Galley which had the Carthaginian Ambassadors on board; who upon a Conference with Timoleon, charged him upon his Peril not to begin any War, or so much as set his Foot upon Sicily. But he being incouraged by them of Rhegium, who promised to join with him, loosed with all hast from Metapontum, designing by his speed to prevent the Report of his Coming. For he was in a great Fear, left the Carthaginians, who were much stronger at Sea, should block up his Passage into Sicily. Therefore he made away with all speed to Rhegium.
The Carthaginians having a little before received Intelligence, that a great War was likely to break out through all Sicily, carried themselves with all Civility towards the Confederate Cities; and putting an end to all Quarrels, entred into Leagues of Amity and Friendship with the Princes of the Island, especially with Hicetas General of the Syracusians, who was the most Potent. At length the Carthaginians having raised great number of Forces both by Sea and Land, transported them into Sicily under the Command of Hanno their General. They had with them a Hundred and fifty Sail of Long Ships, a Land Army of Fifty thousand Men, Three hundred Chariots, and Two thousand Carts or Carriages drawn by two Horses apiece; and besides these, a great number of Arms of all sorts, and Engines of Battery, and an infinite Store of Corn, Provision, and all other Things necessary for War. The first City they set upon, was Entella; and having wasted and spoiled the Lands round about, they shut up the Inhabitants by a close Siege. The Campanians possessed the City at that time, and being terrified with the Multitude of their Enemies, sent for Aid to the other Cities, who hated the Carthaginians; but none of them came in to them, except them of Galeria, who sent them a Thousand Armed Men; who were intercepted by the Carthaginians, and cut off every Man. The Campanians, who inhabited Aetna, at first prepared to help them of Entella, upon the account of their Consanguinity; but hearing of the Slaughter of the Galerians, they judged it more Adviseable to sit still. Dionysius at that time had regained his former Sovereignty over the Syracusians. Hicetas therefore led a great Army thither, and encamped at Olympus, fortifying himself with a Breast-work and a Trench, and drew up against Dionysius, then playing the Tyrant in the City. But he protracted the Siege for some time through want of Provision, and marched away to Leontum, from whence he first moved. But Dionysius pursued him, and fell upon his Rear, which occasioned the whole Army to ingage. For Hircetas wheeled about, fought and routed him, killing Three thousand of his Mercenaries upon the Spot, and put the rest to Flight; and pursuing them so hotly, that he fell pell-mell with him into the City, and so possessed himself of the whole City of Syracuse, except the Island. And thus went Matters between Hicetas and Dionysius at that time.
Page 509 But Timoleon arriving at Rhegium the third Day after the taking of Syracuse, lay with his Fleet in the Port next to the City. At that time came into Port Twenty Carthaginian Gallies: The Rhegians favouring Timoleon, called an Assembly, and proposed Terms of Compounding Matters; so that the Carthaginians supposing Timoleon would be persuaded to return home; were not careful to place sufficient Guards, Timoleon therefore himself (not giving the least Ground to suspect his Flight) kept close to the Court, but ordered, that Nine of his Ships should set Sail, and make away with all the hast they could. In the mean time, while the Thoughts of the Carthaginians were intent upon the Speeches of the Rhegians, which were lengthen'd out of Purpose and Design, Timoleon privately withdraws himself, and makes to the Ship that was left, and hoises up Sail and away he goes. The Carthaginians thus deluded, endeavoured to pursue him; but because he was got too far off, and Night approached; Timoleon with his whole Fleet arrived safe at Tauromenum. Andromachus the Prince of that City, (who always was a Friend to the Syracusians,) courteously received the Refugees, and was greatly serviceable to them in their avoiding of the Pursuers. Hicetas afterwards with an Army of Five thousand Men came against Adriana, and encamped near the City. But Timoleon drawing some Regiments out of Tauromenum, marched from thence, having with him at the most but a Thousand Men. And going out of the Town in the Twilight, he reached Adriana the next Day; there he set up the Hicetians at the very time they happened to be at Meat, and broke in upon their Camp, and killed Three hundred, and took Six hundred Prisoners, and possessed himself of the Camp. To this Stratagem he added another, for he made straight away with all speed to Syracuse, and dispatching his March with all speed, he broke into the City on a sudden, and by the swiftness of his March came there before those that fled. And these were the Transactions of this Year.
Lycisco executed the Office of Archon at Athens, and Marcus Valerius and Marcus Popilius were created Roman Consuls when the Hundred and Ninth Olympiad was celebrated, wherein Aristolocus the Athenian won the Course. This was likewise the first time that the Romans entred into a League with the Carthaginians. In Caria, Idreius Prince of the Carians died, after he had reigned Seven Years, whom Ada (both his Wife and Sister) succeeded, and governed Four Years.
In Sicily, Timoleon being strengthened with the Confederacy of them of Adranita and Tynderita, greatly increased his Army. In the mean time there were great Confusions in Syracuse, by reason that Dionysius had got Possession of the Island Hicetas, Achradina, and the new City, and Timoleon the rest of the City; and lastly, the Carthaginians had entred the great Harbour with a Fleet of an Hundred and fifty Sail, and lay near, encamped with an Army of Fifty thousand Men. And now Timoleon was in great Perplexity, being invironed by so many Enemies; when on a sudden the Tables were turned. First Marcus, Prince of Catana, with a great Army came in to the Assistance of Timoleon. Afterwards many of the Forts and Castles (out of love of Liberty) sided with him, and presently the Corinthians sent Ten Gallies full of Soldiers, and Pay for them, to Syracuse.
By these Supplies Timoleon took Heart, and the Carthaginians were so discouraged and affrighted, that very imprudently they sailed out of the Harbour, and drew off their whole Army, and marched away into their own Territories. Hicetas being thus stripp'd of all Assistance, Timoleon, now stronger than the Citizens, possessed himself of all Syracuse. Presently after he received Messina (who had sided with the Carthaginians) into his Protection. And this was the State of Sicily at the time.
In Macedonia, Philip, who bore an Hereditary Hatred against the Illyrians, and had with them an everlasting Controversy, invaded their Country with a powerful Army, and wasted and spoiled their Lands, and after the taking of many Towns, returned with rich, Booty into Macedonia. Afterwards making an Expedition into Thessaly, he cast all the Tyrants out of the Cities; and by this means gained the Hearts of the Thessalians: For by gaining them to be his Allies, he hoped easily to procure an Interest in all Greece; and by the Issue it appeared so afterwards. For the bordering Grecians presently, in imitation of the Thessalians, very readily entred into a League with Philip.
Pythodorus was now Lord Chancellor of Athens, and Caius Plautius and Titus Manlius executed the Consular Dignity at Rome. At this time Dionysius being brought into extremity of Danger, and in a terrible Fright, was wrought upon by Timoleon to surrender the Castle, and upon Condition of Abdicating the Government, had Liberty safely to depart to Peloponnesus, with all his Goods and Movables.
And thus he, through Sloth and Cowardise, lost this so eminent and famous a Principality, bound fast (as they used to term it (with an Adamant, and spent the rest of Page 510 his Days in a poor and mean Condition. Whose change of Fortune, and course of Life, exhibit a clear Example to those, who like Fools boast in the Times of Prosperity, For he, who a little before had Four hundred Gallies at Command, not long after in a small Skiff was conveyed to Corinth, and became a Spectacle to Admiration of a wonderful Change. Timoleon having possessed himself of the Island and Castles lately held by Dionysius, demolished all the Forts and Palaces of the Tyrants through the Island, and freed all the Towns from the Garisons. And continually employed himself in framing of Laws, and instituted such as were most proper for the Administration of the Democracy. And in his making such as related to private Contracts, he had a special Regard to Equality and mutual Recompence. Moreover he appointed a chief Magistrate to be Yearly chosen, whom the Syracusians call the Amphipolus of Jupiter Olympus, and the first Amphipolus was Callimenes. From hence arose the Custom amongst the Syracusians, to note their Years with the respective Governments of these Magistrates, which continues to this very time of writing this History, and though the Frame of the Government be now chang'd. For since the Romans imparted the Laws of their City to the Sicilians, the Office of the Amphipolus has still continued, being now grown old, having been executed above Three hundred Years. And thus stood the Affairs of Sicily at that time.
In Macedonia, Philip having persuaded all the Greek Cities in Thrace to Concord amongst themselves, made an Expedition against the Thracians. For Cersobleptes the Thracian King was continually destroying the Greek Cities in the Hellespont, and harrassing and spoiling the Country. Therefore Philip, to put a Check to the Designs and Progress of the Barbarians, invaded them with a great Army, and was so Victorious, that he forced them to pay a Tenth, as a Tribute to the Kingdom of Macedonia. And by building of strong Towns in convenient Places, he curb'd the Insolency of the Thracians. The Greek Cities therefore being freed from their Fears, with great Eagerness enter'd into a League of Confederacy with Philip.
As to Writers, Theopompus of Chius composed an History of the Acts of Philip, in Three Books, in which are interwoven the Affairs of Sicily. For beginning with the Sovereignty of Dionysius the Elder, he comprehended an Account of the Transactions of Fifty Years, and ended with the Expulsion of Dionysius the Younger. These Three Books are from the Forty first to the Forty third Year of the Fifty Years.
The Acts of Timoleon in Sicily. The Preparations of the Carthaginians against Timoleon. The remarkable Siege of Perinthus by Philip. Pexodorus expells his Brother Adam from the Principality in Caria. Byzantium be•ieged by Philip.
WHEN the chief Magistracy of Athens was in the Hands of Sosigenes, and Marcus Valerius and Marcus Publius executed the Office of Consuls at Rome, Arymbas King of the Molossians died, after he had reigned Ten Years, leaving his Son Aeacidas the Father of Pyrrbus: But by the Help of Philip of Macedon, Alexander the Brother of Olympias succeeded Arymbas.
In Sicily, Timoleon marched against the Leontines, (to whom Hicetas had joined himself with a great Army,) and in the first place besieged the new City (as it was called). But the Garison being very strong, they easily repulsed the Assailants, and thereupon he raised his Siege without effecting any thing. Then he made for Engya, (at that time under the Tyranny of Leptines,) and ply'd it with continual Assaults, being very earnest and intent to set them free by the Expulsion of Leptines.
While Timoleon was thus employ'd, Hicetas marches away from Leontium with all his Forces, and besieg'd Syracuse; but having lost there a great part of his Army, he hasted back to Leontium. Timoleon at length so terrifi'd Leptines, that under the Terms of safe Conduct, he was sent away to Peloponnesus, and by these Banishments Timoleon expos'd to the Graecians the Trophies of his Victory over the Tyrants. And forasmuch as the Apolloniates were likewise under the Power of Leptines, he receiv'd Apollonia into his Protection, and restor'd them, as well as the Engyans, to their Liberty. But being in great want of Money, so that he knew not how to pay the Soldiers, he order'd a Thousand Arm'd Men, commanded by Expert Officers, to make Incursions into the Carthaginian Territories. These Page 511 harrass'd the Country far and near, and got together abundance of rich Plunder and Spoil, and brought it to Timoleon, who expos'd all to publick Sale, and rais'd a vast Sum of Money, whereby they paid the Soldiers for a long time before-hand. Presently after he possess'd himself of Entella, and put to Death Fifteen of the Citizens, who adher'd to the Carthaginians, and restor'd the rest to their Liberties. Timoleon growing every Day in Reputation for his Valour and Conduct, all the Greek Cities through Sicily readily submitted to him, and he as readily set them at Liberty to govern by their own Laws. Many Cities likewise of the Sicani, Sicilians, and other Countries subject to the Carthaginians, sent presently their Ambassadors to him, in order to be receiv'd into a League, and be his Confederates.
But the Senate and People of Carthage perceiving, that their Officers were sluggish and unactive in the Management of the War, determin'd to send over others with a considerable Additional Force. And to that end, with all Dispatch, they rais'd out of their own City, and from among the Africans, all such as they judg'd able to bear Arms for this Expedition. And besides, they took care to be provided with a sufficient Stock of Money, and listed Mercenaries out of Spain, Gaul, and Ligurla. They fitted out likewise a great Navy, both of Long Ships and others, for carrying Provision, and in all other Respects were so careful and diligent, that nothing was wanting that was necessary.
At the time when Nichomachus was chief Magistrate at Athens, and Caius Martius and Titus Manlius Torquatus were Roman Consuls, Phocion the Athenian subdu'd and expuls'd Clitarchus Prince of * Eretria, whom Philip had set over that City.
In Caria, Pexodorus, the youngest Brother, expell'd Adam out of the Principality, and reign'd Five Years, to the time of Alexander's Expedition into Asia. But the Power of Philip still encreasing, he march'd with an Army against Perinthus, which favour'd the Athenians, and much obstructed him in his Designs. He push'd on the Siege therefore with all Eagerness, and to that end incessantly batter'd the Walls with his Engines, from time to time relieving those that were tir'd with fresh Men: He made likewise Approaches with Towers of Fourscore Cubits high, mounting much above the Walls, whereby he greatly annoy'd the Besieg'd, being so high above them: He so ply'd them likewise with his Battering Rams, and undermin'd the Foundations of the Walls to that degree, that a great part of them tumbled down. But the Perinthians defended themselves with that Valour, that they speedily rais'd up a new Wall, upon which there were such Disputes and Fighting, the one to gain, and the other to defend the Wall, that it was to be admir'd.
In the mean time, while they were thus eagerly contending on both Sides, Philip being well furnished with Shot, mightily gall'd them upon the Wall. But the Perinthians, though they lost many Men every Day, were reinforc'd with Supplies of Men, Darts, and Shot, from Byzantium; so that hereby becoming of equal Force with the Enemy, they took Courage, and valiantly stood to it for the Preservation of their Country.
However the King remitted nothing of his former Heat and Diligence; and dividing his Army into several Battalions, girt the City round, and relieving his Men by Turns, assaulted the Walls continually Night and Day. He had an Army of Thirty thousand Men, and a vast Multitude of Darts and Engines, both for Battery and other Purposes; so that the Besieged were very sorely press'd. The Siege having now continued long, and many of the Townsmen killed and wounded, and Provision growing scanty, the Town was upon the Point of being surrender'd; when Fortune favouring the Distress'd, handed to them an unexpected Deliverance. For the growing Power of the King being nois'd abroad throughout Asia, the King of Persia, who now began to suspect the Greatness of Philip, commanded by his Letters the Lords Lieutenants of the Sea-Coasts to assist the Perinthians with what Forces they could. Upon which, they all unanimously sent to Perinthus a great Number of Mercenary Soldiers, Plenty of Coin, sufficient Provision, Weapons, and all other Things necessary for War. The Bizantians likewise sent thither a Commander, and the best of their Soldiers. The Forces now equal on both sides, and the War reviv'd, there was now again so sharp an Encounter, both to gain and defend the City, as that none could possibly exceed: For Philip, by the continual Batteries of the Rams, brought down part of the Wall, and by his Shot forc'd the Besieg'd from the Bu•warks, so that he made his way with a strong Body of Men through the Ruins of the Wall, and scal'd the Bulwarks that were before clear'd of them that should have defended them. The matter being disputed hand to hand at the Swords point, Death and Wounds follow'd, inasmuch as the Rewards of Victory put Life into the Valour of both Parties: For the Macedonians being assur'd they should have the Plunder of a rich City, and likewise be honourably rewarded by Philip, were resolv'd valiantly to undergo all Hardships whatsoever. The Besieged, on the other hand, having as it were before their Eyes the Page 512 Miseries attending a Place taken by Storm, with generous and undaunted Resolutions, shunn'd nothing of Hazard, for their own and the Preservation of their Country. The Situation of the Place contributed much all along to the Besieged for the Batteling the Enemy: For Perinthus is situated on the Sea-side, upon a rising Neck of Land, in a Peninsula stretch'd out a Furlong in length: The Houses are close together, and very high; for one stands above another, according to the Ascent of the Hill; and the Form of the City represents, as it were, a Theatre. And therefore though a large Breach was made in the Walls, yet they within were but little prejudic'd thereby; for the strait and narrow Passage being barricado'd, the higher Houses were instead, and as advantageous as a Wall. Philip therefore having gain'd the Wall, after much Toil and Hazard, found another far stronger made by the Situation of the Houses: And besides all these Disadvantages, he saw that every thing necessary for War was readily and in great abundance sent to them from Byzantium; therefore he divided his Army into two Bodies; the one half he left with the best of his Commanders to carry on the Siege, and with the rest he marches speedily away to Byzantium, and lays close Siege to it on a sudden. Upon whick, the Townsmen were put into great fear and perplexity, having before sent away their Soldiers, Arms, and other things necessary for War, to the Perinthians. These were the things done at Perinthus and Byzantium at that time. Here Ephorus, one of the Writers, ends his History with the Siege of Perinthus. In his Memoirs he comprehends the Affairs both of the Greeks and Barbarians, from the return of the Heraclide, for the space of almost Seven hundred and fifty Years; and divides his History into Thirty Books, to every one of which he adjoins a Preface. Diyllus the Athenian continues this History of Ephorus, treating of the Actions of the Grecians and Barbarians to the Death of Philip.
The Athenians aid Byzantium. Philip raises the Siege. The Carthaginians transport Forces into Sicily. The remarkable Victory of Timoleon over the Carthaginians. The Acts of Timoleon in Sicily. The Works of Hiero in Sicily.
WHen Theophrastus was Lord Cancellor at Athens, and Marcus Valerius and Aulus Cornelius Roman Consuls, The hundred and tenth Olympiad began, in which Anticles the Athenian was Victor. Philip then besieging Byzantium, the Athenians judging he had broken the Peace they had made with him, forthwith fitted out a great Fleet against him in aid of the Byzantians; whose Example they of Chius, Coos, and Rhodes, and other Gracians follow'd, and sent Auxiliaries to the same Place. Whereupon Philip being startled at the Forces of the Grecians, rais'd both his Sieges, and made Peace with the Athenians and the rest of the Grecians that were in Arms against him.
In the mean time, the Carthaginians, after their great Preparations, transport their Forces into Sicily, which with those that were before in the Island, amounted to Seventy thousand Foot; and Horse, Chariots, and Waggons, no fewer than Ten thousand. They had also a Navy of Two hundred Men of War; and Transport-Ships for the conveying of Horses, Arms, and Provision above a Thousand. Timoleon, though he was inform'd of this great Preparation, yet was not at all afrighted with the Barbarians, tho' his Army was but small. He was at this time engag'd still in War with Hicetas, but at length agreed the matter, and by the accession of his Forces greatly increas'd his Army. And now he judg'd it most for his advantage to transfer the War with the Carthaginians into their own Territory; by this means to preserve the Country of his Confederates, and, on the other side, by Waste and Spoil to weaken the Enemy: To this end he forthwith muster'd his Army, consisting of Syracusians, Mercenaries, and other Confederates; and in a General Assembly, by a pithy Oration, advis'd them to be Courageous, for that all now lay at stake: Which was receiv'd with general Acclamation, and all prest him without delay to be led forth against the Enemy. Whereupon he advanc'd, not having with him above Twelve thousand Men: But as soon as he came into the Confines of Agrigentum, there arose a sudden Mutiny in his Camp; for a Mercenary Soldier, call'd Thracius, a bold and impudent Fellow, none exceeding him in that respect (lately a Companion of those Phocians who robb'd the Temple of Delphos) committed a Fact agreeable to his former Villanies: For whereas most of them who had an hand in that Sacrilege were overtaken by Divine Vengeance (as before related) this only Fellow seem'd to have Page 513 escap'd; and at that time endeavour'd to persuade the Mercenaries to a Defection: For he bawl'd it out that Timoleon was craz'd and distracted, and that he was leading the Soldiers to certain and unavoidable Destruction: The Number of the Carthaginian Army (he said) was six times more than they; and so well furnish'd with all things necessary for War, that none could compare with them; and yet he assur'd them of Victory, playing away the Lives of the Soldiers, as it were, at Dice, because he was not able to pay them their Arrears, which had been advancing for a long time together: He persuaded them therefore to return to Syracuse, and demand their Pay, and not follow Timoleon in that desperate Expedition.
This Discourse was not unpleasant to the Mercenaries; and while they were just ready to revolt, Timoleon, by Intreaties and large Promises, at length prevail'd, and put an end to the Mutiny. However, a Thousand Men follow'd Thracius, whose Punishment was deferr'd for the present. And in the mean time Timoleon writ to his Friends at Syracuse to receive the Deserters courteously, and pay the Mercenaries their Wages; and so by this means he altogether extinguish'd the Fire of Sedition; but excluded those obstinate Mutineers from the Glory of a famous Victory.
In the mean time, having with fair Words reduc'd the rest to their former Obedience, he march'd towards the Enemy, which lay encamp'd not far off. Then he call'd the Army together, and encourag'd them to the Battel, by setting forth and aggravating the Sloth and Cowardize of the Carthaginians, and putting them in mind of the Successes of Gelon. And when all with one Voice cry'd out for Fighting without delay with the Barbarians, at that very time pass'd by some Carriage-Horses loaden with Bundles of Persley to strew in the Tents. Timoleon thereupon declar'd, that it was an Omen of Victory; for (as he said) the Crown at the Istmian Games was made up of the same Herb. Hereupon the Soldiers, by the Command of Timoleon, made themselves Crowns of Parsley; and with these round their Heads, with great Joy march'd against the Enemy, as if the Gods had assur'd them of certain Victory; as by the Issue it appear'd so to be: For beyond all expectation they overcame their Adversaries, not only by their own Valour, but by the special Help and Assistance of the Gods. For Timoleon, with a well-appointed Body of Men, march'd down from the Tops of certain Hills to the River; and upon a sudden, being himself in the middle of the Battel, attack'd Ten thousand of the Barbarians that were but newly pass'd over. Upon which, there was a very sharp Engagement, in which the Valour and Activity of the Greeks so far prevail'd, that a mighty Slaughter was made among the Barbarians. Whilst those that first pass'd over took their Heels and fled, the whole Carthaginian Army came over the River, in order to repair their Loss. Hereupon the Battel was renew'd; and while the Carthaginians were with their Multitude hemming in the Grecians round, on a sudden there arose such a violent Storm of Hail, Thunder, and Lightning, with a raging Tempest of furious Winds, which beat upon the Backs of the Grecians, but fell foul upon the Face of the Barbarians: So that Timoleon's Army with ease endur'd this tempestuous Shock; but the Carthaginians not able to bear the pressure of so many Adversaries, being at the same time hewn down by the Grecians, quit the Field and fled: And the whole Body made to the River, where both Foot, Horse, and Chariots were in that confusion mix'd one amongst another, and trodden under-foot one by another, and pierc'd through their Bodies by one another's Swords and Spears, as that a miserable Slaughterwas made without all possibility of Relief. Others being forc'd in heaps into the River by the Enemy's Horse, and pursu'd close at their backs, after receiving many Wounds, there perish'd. And many, though they were never toutch'd by the Enemy's Sword; yet through Fear, and the Throng and Difficulties of passage over the River, being press'd, in heaps one upon another, there breath'd out their last. And that which contributed no little to the common Destruction, the River was swollen to that excessive heighth, that many (especially such as attempted to swim over the Water with their Arms) were drown'd. In conclusion, Two thousand and five hundred, who made up the Sacred Brigade of the Carthaginians, and for Valour and the Glory of their Arms, and greatness of their Estates, excell'd all the rest, fought valiantly, and were cut off every Man. Of the rest of the common Soldiers there were slain at least Ten thousand, and above Fifteen thousand taken Prisoners. Many of the Chariots being broken in pieces in the Fight, only Two hundred fell into the hands of the Grecians; but all the Bag and Baggage. The greatest part of the Arms were lost in the River: But a Thousand Brigandines and Ten thousand Shields were brought into the Tent of Timoleon; of which some were hung up in the Temples at Syracuse, and others distributed among the Confederates; others were sent to Corinth, and order'd to be dedicated to Neptune. And although very rich Spoils were taken (for that the Carthaginians abounded in Gold and Silver, Plate, and other Furniture of great value, according to Page 514 the Grandeur and Riches of their Country) yet he gave all to the Soldiers, as the Reward of their Valour. The Carthaginians that escap'd, with much ado got to Lilibeum, in such Fear and Consternation, that they durst not go on board their Ships, in order to return to Africa; as if through the Anger of the Gods, they should be swallow'd up by the Libean Sea.
As soon as the News of this Overthrow was brought to Carthage, their Spirits were mightily broken, and they expected that Timoleon would invade them with his Army upon the first Opportunity: Therefore they forthwith recall'd Gescon, the Brother of Hanno, from his Banishment, and being a stout Man, and an experienc'd Soldier, created him General. But looking upon it not Adviseable for the future to venture the Lives of the Citizens, they resolv'd to hire Soldiers out of other Nations, and especially from among the Graecians, not doubting but that many would List themselves, by reason of the large Pay promis'd by the rich Carthaginians. They sent likewise Ambassadors into Sicily, with Orders to strike up a Peace upon any Terms whatsoever.
After the end of this Year Lysimachides was created chief Governor of Athens, and Quintus Servilius and Marcus Rutilius bore the Office of Consuls at Rome. Then Timoleon, as soon as he return'd to Syracuse, in the first place expell'd those as Traytors out of the City, who had deserted him through the Instigation of Thracius. These being transported into Italy, they seiz'd upon a Sea-Port Town of the Brettians, and plunder'd it. Upon which the Brutians were so enrag'd, that they forthwith came against them with a great Army, took the Town by Storm, and put every Man of them to the Sword. And such was the miserable End of these Deserters of Timoleon, as the just Punishment of their former Villany.
Afterwards he took Posthumius the Tyrant, and put him to Death, who had infested the Seas with his Piracies, and came at that time into the Port of Syracuse as a Friend. He receiv'd likewise with all Demonstrations of Kindness Five thousand Persons, whom the Corinthians had sent over to plant new Colonies. The Carthaginians now by their Ambassadors having earnestly su'd to him for Peace, he granted it to them upon these Terms; That all the Greek Cities should be set free; That the River Lycus should be the Bound between the Territories of both Parties; and, That the Carthaginians should not for the future assist any of the Tyrants against the Syracusians. Having afterwards subdu'd Hicetas, he order'd him an Honourable Burial; and took Aetna by Storm, and put all the Campanians to the Sword. And he so terrifi'd Nichodemus the Tyrant of the Centorippians, that he fled out of the City. Then he forc'd Apoilonides, who Lorded it over them of Agyra, to Abdicate the Government, and the Inhabitants thus freed, he inroll'd them as Citizens of Syracuse. To conclude, having rooted up all the Tyrants throughout the whole Island, and freed the Cities from their Oppression, he receiv'd them all into his Protection, and they became his Confederates. Then he caus'd Proclamation to be made throughout all Greece, That the Senate and People of Syracuse offer'd Houses and Lands to all who were willing to be Members of the Commonwealth of Syracuse: Upon which, many came flocking over as to the Possession of a new Inheritance. At length Forty Thousand new Planters had their Shares by Lot in those Lands that yet remained undivided within the Territories of Syracuse; and Ten thousand were allotted to Agyra, being a very large and pleasant Country.
Not long after, he caus'd all the ancient Laws of Diocles for the Government of the Syracusians, to be review'd, and amended. Such part of them as concern'd private Commerce and Inheritances he alter'd not; but those that related to the Administration of the Publick Government, and the Commonwealth, he amended as he thought most expedient. Cephalus a Corinthian, a Learned and Prudent Man, was chiefly concerned in this Emendation and Correction of the Laws. When this Business was finish'd, he translated the Leontines into Syracuse, and greatly enlarg'd Camarina with Multitudes of Inhabitants. And to sum up all, he brought Things to that pass throughout all Sicily, (now through his Care in perfect Peace and Tranquility,) as that the Cities in a very short time abounded in Wealth, and all Earthly Blessings. For through the Seditions and Intestine Wars, (which Sicily labour'd under for a long time together,) and the many Tyrants that set up for themselves, it was brought to that miserable Condition, that the Cities were depopulated, and the Lands lay wast and untill'd, and no Crops to be had for the Supply of Daily Food. But now that there were many Plantations of Colonies bless'd with a constant Peace, and the Land was every where manur'd and improv'd by the Labour of the Husbandman, it began to yield all sorts of Fruits, which being vented (with great Advantage) to the Merchants, the Inhabitants grew exceeding rich in a very short time. And this abundance of Wealth occasion'd in that Age many stately Page 515 Structures to be erected up and down in Honour of the Gods. As one among the rest near to the Island of Syracuse, called The House of Sixty Beds, built by Agathocles, for Greatness and Beauty excelling all the Works in Sicily; and because (as it were in Contempt) it overtop'd all the Temples of the Gods, (as a manifest Indication of their Anger,) it was beaten down by a Thunderbolt. At the lesser Haven likewise there were Towers built of Outlandish Stone, in which were Inscriptions cut, and the Name of Agathocles, who rais'd them. Besides these, not long after were built by Hiero the King an Olympus in the Market-place, and an Altar near the Theatre a Furlong in length, and in height and breadth proportionably.
In the lesser Cities likewise, as in Agyra, (which by reason of the Richness of the Soil as aforesaid received new Colonies,) he built a Theatre, (the most Glorious of any in Sicily next to that at Syracuse,) and erected Temples to the Gods, built a Court, a Market-place, and stately Towers, and rais'd over the Tombs and Monuments many large Pyramids of admirable Workmanship.
Elatea taken by Philip. Great Consternations in Athens for fear of Philip. The Boeotians join with the Athenians through the Sollicitation of Demosthenes. Python, a famous Orator. The Battel at Cheronaea between Philip and the Athenians. Lycides the Athenian General put to Death. Philip rebuk'd by Demades, made General of Greece. Timoleon dies.
WHEN Charondas executed the Office of Lord Chancellor of Athens, and LuciusAemilius and Caius Plotius were Roman Consuls, Philip King of Macedon being in Amity with many of the Graecians, made it his chief Business to bring under the Athenians, thereby with more ease to gain the Sovereignty of Greece. To that end, he presently possess'd himself of Elatea, and brought all his Forces thither, with a Design to fall upon the Athenians, hoping easily to overcome them, in regard they were not (as he conceiv'd) prepar'd for War, by reason of the Peace lately made with them; which fell out accordingly. For after the taking of Elatea, some hasted in the Night to Athens, informing them, that Elatea was taken by the Macedonians, and that Philip was designing to invade Attica with all his Forces. The Athenian Commanders surpriz'd with the Suddenness of the Thing, sent for all the Trumpeters, and commanded an Alarm to be sounded all Night: Upon which, the Report flew through all the Parts of the City, and Fear rouz'd up the Courage of the Citizens. As soon as Day appear'd, the People, without any Summons from the Magistrate, (as the Custom was) all flock'd to the Theatre. To which Place, as soon as the Commanders came, with the Messenger that brought the News, and had declar'd to them the Business, Fear and Silence fill'd the Theatre, and none who were us'd to influence the People, had a Heart to give any Advice. And although a Crier call'd out to such as ought to declare their Minds, what was to be done in order to their Common Security, yet none appear'd who offer'd any thing of Advice in the present Exigency. The People therefore in great Terror and Amazement cast their Eyes upon Demosthenes, who stood up and bid them be Couragious, and advis'd them forthwith to send Ambassadors to Thebes, to Treat with the Boeotians to join with them in Defence of the Common Liberty; for the shortness of Time (he said) would not admit of an Embassy of Aid from the other Confederates, for that the King would probably invade Attica within Two Days; and being that he must march through Boeotia, the main and only Assistance was to be expected from them. And it was not to be doubted, but that Philip, who was in League with the Boeotians, would in his March sollicit them to make War upon the Athenians. The People approv'd of his Advice, and a Decree was forthwith Recorded, that an Embassy should be dispatch'd as Demosthenes had advis'd. But then it was debated, who was the most Eloquent Person, and so most fit to undertake this Affair. Whereupon Demosthenes being pitch'd upon to be the Man, he readily comply'd; forthwith hasted away, prevails with the Boeotians, and returns to Athens. The Athenians therefore having now doubled their Forces by the Accession of the Boeotians, began again to be in good Heart; and presently made Charetes and Physicles Generals, with Command to march with the whole Army into Boeotia. All the Youth readily offer'd themselves to be Listed, and therefore the Army with a swift Page 516 March came suddenly to Cheronaea in Boeotia. The Boeotians wondred at the quickness of their Approach, and were thereupon as diligent themselves, and hasting to their Arms, march'd away to meet the Athenians, and being joined, they there expected the Enemy.
Philip indeed had first sent Ambassadors to the Council of the Boeotians, amongst whom the most famous was Python; for he was so Eminent for Eloquence, that in the Senate he was set up to encounter Demosthenes in the Business relating to the Confederacy, excelling indeed the rest by far, but judged inferior to Demosthenes. Demosthenes himself, in one of his Orations, glories (as if he had done some mighty Thing) in a Speech of his against this Orator, in these Words:
However, though Philip could not prevail with the Boeotians to be his Confederates, yet he resolv'd to fight with them both. To this end, (after a stay for some time for those Forces that were to join him,) he march'd into Boeotia with an Army of at least Thirty thousand Foot, and Two thousand Horse. Both Armies were now ready to ingage, for Courage and Valour neither giving Place to the other; but as to Number of Men, and Skill in Martial Affairs, the King was far Superior. For having fought very many Battels, and for the most part coming off a Conqueror, he had gain'd much Experience in Matters of War; on the other hand, Iphicrates, Chabrius, and Timotheus, (the Athenians best Commanders) were now dead; and Chares, the chief of them that were left, differ'd but little from a common Soldier, as to the Wisdom and Conduct of a General. About Sun-rising the Armies on both Sides drew up in Battalia. The King order'd his Son Alexander (who was then newly come to Man's Estate; and had even at that time given evident Demonstrations of his Valour, and the Sprightliness of his Spirit in managing Affairs) to Command one Wing, joining with him some of the best of his Commanders. He himself with a choice Body of Men commanded the other Wing, and plac'd and dispos'd the Regiments and Brigades in such Posts and Stations as the present Occasion requir'd. The Athenians marshall'd their Army according to the several Nations, and committed one Part to the Boeotians, and commanded the rest themselves. At length the Armies engag'd, and a fierce and bloody Battel was fought, which continu'd a long time with great Slaughter on both sides, uncertain which way Victory would incline, until Alexander earnest to give an Indication of his Valour to his Father, charg'd with a more than ordinary Heat and Vigour, and being assisted with many stout and brave Men, was the first that broke through the main Body of the Enemy next to him, with the slaughter of many, and bore down all before him: And when those that seconded him did the like, then the Regiments next to the Former were broke to pieces. At length, the Earth being strew'd with heaps of Dead Carkasses, those with Alexander first put the Wing oppos'd to them to flight. The King himself likewise in the Head of this Regiment, fought with no less Courage and Resolution; and that the Glory of the Victory might not be attributed to his Son, he forc'd the Enemy, oppos'd to him, to give ground, and at length put them to a total Rout, and so was the chief Instrument of the Victory. There were above a Thousand Athenians killed in this Battel, and no fewer than Two thousand taken Prisoners. A great Number likewise of the Boeotians were slain, and many fell into the Hands of the Enemy
After the Battel Philip set up a Trophy, and having given Liberty for the burying of the Dead, he Sacrific'd to the Gods for the Victory, and distributed Rewards to the Soldiers, who had signaliz'd their Valour according as every one had deserv'd.
Some report, that Philip having appointed a Wanton and Luxurious Banquet with his Friends, in Ostentation of his Victory, in his Cups passing through the Throng of the Prisoners, most contumeliously taunted the miserable Wretches with their Misfortune. Whereupon Demades the Orator, one of the Captives, spoke boldly to him, and fram'd a Discourse in order to curb the Pride and Petulancy of the King, in Words to this effect:
With this sharp Reproof, they say, Philip was so startled, that he wholly chang'd his former Course, and not only laid aside the Coronets, and all other Badges of Pride and Wantonness that attended his Festivals, but with Admiration releas'd the Man that had reprehended him, and advanc'd him to Places of Honour. In conclusion, he became so far Complaisant, and moulded into the Civilities of Athens through his Converse with Demades, that he releas'd all the Captives without Ransom. And remitting his Pride and Haughtiness, (the constant Attendant upon Victory,) he sent Ambassadors to Athens, and renew'd the Peace with them: And placing a Garison in Thebes, made Peace likewise with the Boeotians. After this Overthrow, the Athenians put to Death Lysides, the General of the Army, upon the Accusation of Lycurgus, who was the most Page 517 highly preferr'd of any of the Orators of that Age; he had executed the Office of Lord-Treasurer of the City, (with great Commendation) for the space of Twelve years, and all his Life long had been in great Reputation for his Virtue and Honesty: But a most bitter Accuser. The Excellency and Sharpness of whose Speech, if any desire to know, he may best judge by his words us'd against Lycides, which follow.
A thing very remarkable hapned at this time. For when this Battel was fought at Cheronea, the same Day and Hour another was fought in Italy between the Tarentines and Lycanians, in which Archidamus the King of Lacedaemon was slain, who had reign'd Three and twenty years. Agis his Son succeeded him, and Govern'd nine years. About that time likewise dy'd Timotheus, Prince of Heraclea in Pontus, in the Fifteenth year of his Principality, whose Brother Dionysius succeeded, and reign'd Two and thirty years.
Phrynichus bore the Office of chief Magistrate of Athens, and Titus Manlius Torquatus, and Publius Decius were invested with the Consular Dignity at Rome; when Philip bearing his Crest high upon the account of his Victory at Cheronea, and having struck a Terror into the most Eminent Cities of Greece, made it his great Business to be chosen Generalissimo of all Greece. It being therefore nois'd abroad, that he would make War upon the Persians, for the Advantage of the Graecians, and that he would revenge the Impiety by them committed against the Sacreds of the Gods, he presently wan the Hearts of the Graecians.
He was very Liberal and Courteous likewise to all, both private Men and Communities; and publish'd to the Cities, that he had a Desire to Consult with them concerning Matters relating to the Publick Good. Whereupon, a General Council was call'd, and held at Corinth, where he declar'd his Design to make War upon the Persians, and what probable grounds there were of Success, and therefore desir'd the Council to join with him, as Confederates in the War.
At length he was created General of all Greece, with absolute Power, and thereupon he made mighty preparation for that Expedition, and having order'd what Quota of Men every City should send forth, he return'd into Macedonia. And thus stood the Affairs and Concerns of Philip.
In Sicily, Timoleon, after he had settl'd all things in right and due Order in Syracuse, dy'd, having govern'd Eight years. The Syracusians who highly honour'd him for the many great Services done to their Country, bury'd him in great State and Pomp, and when the Body was to be brought forth, great multitudes were got together, and the Syracusians publish'd a Decree, that Two hundred Mina's should be expended upon the Charge of his Funeral, and that his Memory should be honour'd yearly for ever with Musick, Horse-Coursing, and Gymnick Sports, for that he had subdu'd the Barbarians, planted Colonies in the greatest Greek City in Sicily, and rescu'd the Sicilians from Slavery.
About this time Ariorarxanes dy'd in the Twenty sixth year of his Reign, and was succeeded by Methridates, who Reign'd Five and thirty Years. At the same time, the Romans fought with the Latins and Campanians, near the City Suessa, and routed them, and confiscated part of their Lands. And Manlius the Consul, who gain'd the Day, triumph'd for the Victory.
Philip consults the Oracle at Delphos. Marries his Daughter Cleopatra, to the King of Epirus. Encourag'd to the Persian War by Neoptolemus his Verses. Philip's Pride. His Murther. The Cause of it, and how it was done, and by whom.
WHen Pythodorus was chief Governor of Athens, and Quintus Publius and TiberiusAemilius Mamercus were Roman Consuls, the Hundred and Eleventh Olympiad was celebrated, wherein Cleomentis Cletorius wan the Prize. In this Year Philip began the Page 518 War against the Persians, and forthwith sent A ta•us and Parmenio before into Asia to free the Greek Cities there from Slavery. He himself intending to have the Concurrence of the Gods, consulted the Oracle at Delphos, whether or no he should be victorious over the King of Persia. The Answer was thus,
This doubtful Answer, Philip constru'd to his own advantage, as if the Oracle had expresly foretold, that he should lead away the Persian King as a Victim to the Sacrifice. But in truth, it fell out quite otherwise, and by the effect it appear'd, that it had a contrary Signification, to wit, that Philip in a Throng, at the time of a Sacred Festival was to be knock'd on the Head like a Bullock crown'd with a Garland, for Sacrifice.
In the mean time, he was very jocund, as if he had conquer'd Asia already, and concluded the Gods were engag'd with him in the Expedition. Without delay therefore he offer'd most costly and magnificent Sacrifices, and at the same time, solemnized the Marriage of his Daughter, Cleopatra, by Olympias: He Marry'd her to Alexander, King of Epirus, Brother of Olympias. Having therefore a desire of a considerable Appearance of the Graecians at this Nuptial Festivity, conjoin'd with his Religious Sacrifices, he made most pompous Preparation for the Entertainment of his Friends and Guests, both with Musick, Dancing, and Feasting.
To this End, he Invited those that were his special Friends and Familiars, all over Greece, and commanded his Servants and Attendants that they should invite as many Strangers from all Places as were of their own Acquaintance. And his main design in all this, was, that he might assure all the Graecians of his Kindness towards them, and testify his Gratitude by these Friendly Entertainments, for the Honours conferr'd upon him. A vast Concourse of People therefore were got together from all Places, to the Solemnity of these Nuptials, which were magnificently Solemniz'd at Aeges in Macedonia, with all sorts of Sports and Plays; so that not only Noblemen and Persons of Quality, but even many great Cities presented Philip with Crowns of Gold. Among the Cities, Athens made one; and when the Common Cryer with a loud Voice presented the Crown sent from them to Philip, he clos'd with this, That if any Plotter of Treason against Philip, should hereafter slee to Athens for shelter, he should be forthwith deliver'd up. By this accidental Publication of this Cryer, it seem'd to be intimated (as it were by some Divine Providence) that some piece of Treachery was near at hand to be executed.
There were several other the like Words (as by a Divine Instigation) uttered, which portended the King's Death. There was then at the Festival, Neoptolemus the Tragedian, remarkable above all others for the Loudness of his Voice, and Famous and Eminent in other respects. He had commanded him to repeat some Verses which he was ordered to compose, especially relating to the Persian Expedition. Whereupon, he began to recite a Witty Poem, proper (as he thought) to Philip's intended Passage into Asia, wherein he set forth the Glory and Greatness of the Persian King; and though he was so Famous all the World over, yet that Fortune would some time or other bring him down. The Poem was thus,
Page 519 He added likewise other to the same Sense with these. But Philip resting wholly upon these recited, his Thoughts were altogether, full of his Conquering the King of Persia. And he much revolv'd in his Mind the Answer given him by the Oracle, which agreed in all Points with the Words of the Tragedian.
After the Feast for that time was ended, and the Sports were to be renew'd the next Day, a great number of People in the Night-time flock'd into the Theatre. And whereas twelve Images of the Gods (amongst other sumptuous Preparations) most curiously wrought and richly adorn'd, were brought forth in pompous Procession, the Image of Philip cloth'd like the Gods in every respect, made the Thirteenth, hereby arrogating to himself a Place, as if he would be inthron'd among the Gods. The Theatre being now full; he himself came forth cloathed in a white Robe, his Life-Guard following him at a great Distance, designing thereby to evidence it to all, that he judg'd himself secure in the Hearts and Affections of the Grecians, and therefore stood not in need of the Guard of his Halberteers. While he was thus with, loud and joyful Acclamations cry'd up (as it were) to the Stars, and the whole Multitude resounded his Praise, upon a sudden, and beyond all Mens expectation, he was treacherously murther'd.
But for the Clearer and more distinct Understanding of the History in this matter, we shall first relate the Causes and Grounds of this Assassination.
There was one Pausanias, a Macedonian, of the City call'd Oristis, one of the King's Esquires of the Body, and for his Beauty dearly belov'd of him. This Man taking notice how much another young Youth of the same Name was doted on by Philip, fell upon him with very foul and opprobrious Language, telling him he was an Hermaphradite, for that he prostituted himself to the Lust of every one that would. He resented this Disgrace very ill, but conceal'd it for a while. Afterwards consulting with Attalus what was to be done for the future, he determin'd presently after, in an unusual manner, to put an end to his own Life. For within a while after, in a Battel wherein Philip was engag'd against Plurias, King of the Illyrians, Pausanias in the heat of the Fight interpos'd himself between the King and the Enemy, and receiv'd all the Darts upon his own Body that were cast at him, and so dy'd upon the Spot. The manner of his Death being nois'd abroad, Attalus one of the Courtiers, and in great esteem with the King, invited the other Pausianas to a Feast, and after he had made him drunk, expos'd his Body, thus over-charg'd with Wine, to be abus'd by the Filthy Lusts of a Company of base Sordid Fellows. When he was Sober, he was highly enrag'd at the abominable Abuse, and complain'd against Attalus to the King; who though he was much offended at the Wickedness of the Fact, yet by reason of his Relation to him, and that he had present occasion to make use of him in his Service, he would not punish him. For he was Uncle to Cleopatra, whom the King had marry'd as his Second Wife, and was design'd General of the Army sent before into Asia, being a very stout and valiant Man. To pacify therefore Pausanias, whose Spirit was highly Exasperated for the intolerable Injury offer'd him, he bestow'd on him many rich Gifts, and advanc'd him to a more Honourable Post in his Guards. But Pausanias's Anger was implacable, and therefore determin'd not only to revenge himself upon the Author of this Abuse, but upon him that wav'd doing him Justice by the inflicting of Punishment. And Hermocrates, the Sophist, greatly confirm'd him in this his Resolution. For Pausanias conversing with him, and in Discourse asking him, by what means a Man might make himself most famous? The Philosopher answer'd, by killing him that has done the greatest things; for whenever he is nam'd, then he likewise that kill'd him will be sure to be remember'd. Pausanias making use of this Answer, as an incentive to his Rage, the Restlessness of his disturb'd Spirit would admit of no further delay, but laid his Design in the time of the Festivals in this manner. He first plac'd Horses at the Gates of the City, then he himself return'd and stood at the Entrance into the Theatre, with a Gallick Sword hid secretly under his Coat. Philip commanded his Friends that came along with him, to go before him into the Theatre, and his Guard were at a considerable distance from him. Whereupon, the Traytor perceiving that the King was alone, ran him into the side through the Body, and laid him dead at his Feet, and forthwith fled to the Horses that were prepar'd for him at the Gates. Hereupon presently some of the Life-Guard ran in to the Body, others pursu'd the Assassinate, amongst whom were Leonnatus, Perdiccas and Attalus. Pausanias made so swiftly away, and nimbly mounted his Horse, that he had certainly escap'd, but that a Branch of a Vine caught hold of the Heel of his Shoe, and so entangl'd him that down he fell: Upon which Perdiccas with his Fellows fell upon him as he was endeavouring to rise, and after many Wounds Page 520 given him, there slew him. And thus Philip, (the most Potent of all the Kings in Europe in that Age, and who for the Greatness of his Dominion associated himself for Majesty into the number of the Twelve Gods) came to his end, after he had Reign'd about Four and twenty Years.
This King from very small Beginnings, gain'd the largest Dominion in Greece; and is judg'd to have enlarg'd the Bounds of his Kingdom, not so much by Arms, as by his fair Tongue, and his complaisant and courteous Demeanour towards all he had to deal with: For it is reported, That Philip himself would often boast more of his Military Art and Policy, and of the gaining of his Enemies by fair Words, than in the Strength and Valour of his Soldiers. For he was us'd to say, That the Honour of winning of Battels was common and due to the rest of the Army with himself; but the Praise and Commendation due to Affability and a pleasant Converse, was peculiar to himself alone.
And thus being now come to the Death of Philip, we shall end this Book, as we at first design'd. The following we shall begin with the Succession of Alexander into his Father's Kingdom, and endeavour to comprehend all his Actions in one Book.
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Bible Study The King James Bible (kjv), World English Bible (web) and Bible in Basic English (bbe) are all examples of public domain books. The King James Bible (kjv) online uses the content from these books and open source software to enhance Bible study capabilities. The site includes the verse of the day, search tools, christian literature and links to related content. It demonstrates the use of open source to create a valuable service.