THE Book next before this, being the Tenth in the whole Composure of our History, ends with things done in the Tear immediately before the Descent of Xerxes into Europe, and with those Debates in the General Assemblies of the Grecians at Corinth, concerning the admission of Gelo into the Grecian Confederacy.
In this to proceed (as things were done) in a continued Series of the History, we shall begin with Xerxes's Expedition into Greece, and end the Year immediately before the Army of the Athenians, under Cymon their General, invaded Cyprus.
Of Xerxes his Expedition into Greece, and the Battel of Thermopyle, and the Sea Fight at Salamis.
CAllias being Archon or chief Magistrate of Athens, Spurius Cassius, and Proclus Virginius Tricostus, Consuls at Rome, in the Seventy Fifth Olympiad, celebrated at Elis, (in which Asylus the Syracusian was Victor) Xerxes (for the reason after mention'd) rais'd an Army against the Grecians.Mardonius the Persian was Cousin German, and by Marriage likewise nearly related to Xerxes, of great esteem among the Persians for his Valour and Prudence. This Man prompted forward by the greatness of his Spirit, and the heat of his Youth, burned with Ambition, to be General of so great an Army as that Expedition requir'd; and therefore persuaded Xerxes that he would bend all his power to subdue the Grecians, those implacable Enemies of the Persians.
Being brought over to close with this Advice, he determin'd utterly to destroy and root them up: And to that end sent Embassadors to Carthage, to treat with them concerning the joining of their Forces together: Whereupon it was thus Page 216 agreed between them, That Xerxes should Land his Forces in Greece, and that the Carthaginians at the same time should with a great Army invade the Greeks in Italy and Sicily.
According to which Compact the Carthaginians raised a great sum of Money, and hired many Soldiers out of the Provinces of Liguria in ItalyGallia and Iberia; and raised Men of their own throughout all Lybia, and out of Carthage it-self. In which preparations were spent Three Years, and an Army of Three Hundred Thousand Men were mustered, and Two Hundred Ships fitted out.
On the other part Xerxes stirr'd up by the Industry of the Carthaginians, (by way of Emulation) as far exceeded them in Warlike Preparations, as he did in Dominion and Empire. He commanded Ships to be built every where upon the Sea-Coasts within his Dominions, as Egypt, Phaenicia, and Cyprus, and likewise through Cilicia, Pamphilia, Pisidia, Licia, Caria, Misia, Troas, the Cities of the Hellespont, Pontus and Bithynia, and in Three Years time (as the Carthaginians had done) set forth above Twelve Hundred Gallies. And this was the better accomplished by means of the Preparations of those great Forces rais'd by Darius his Father in his Life time. For Datis, Darius his General, being not long before overcome by the Athenians in the Battel of Marathon, Darius ever afterwards bore an implacable hatred against them: But just as he was ready to pass over into Greece, he was prevented by Death.
Xerxes, therefore incourag'd both by his Father's Assistance, and the Advice of Mardonius (as is before related) resolved to invade the Grecians.
When all things were prepared, he commanded the Officers of his Navy to randezvouze his Fleet as * Cyme, and Phocea. And he himself with the whole Army, both of Horse and Foot, rais'd out of every Province of his Dominion, marched from Susa; and advancing to Sardis, forthwith sent Heralds, into Greece, commanding them to go to all the Cities and demand in the Name of the King Earth and Water.
There dividing his Army, part he sent (sufficient as was conceiv'd) to make a Bridge over the Hell•spant, and another part to cut a Way through the Mountain Athos, both judging it safe for his Soldiers to have so short a Cut for their March, and hoping likewise by such an extraordinary Work upon the first Attempt, to strike a Terror into the Grecians. They therefore that were sent, having so great a multitude of Hands at work, speedily dispatcht the Business.
But the Grecians being now alarum'd with the vast Army of the Persians, sent Ten Thousand Men at Arms into Thessaly, to possess themselves of the Passages or Posts of Tempe. The General of the Lacedemonians was Synetus, and of the Athenians Themistocles: These sent Messengers to all the Cities, to require them to raise Soldiers for the defence of the Passages at the common Charge; for they made it their Business with all Expedition to interest all the Cities of Greece in the War, that so the Persians might be opposed by the combin'd Force of all Greece together.
But when they heard that the greatest part of the Thessalians, and those that inhabited the Straits, had submitted unto the Kings Delegates or Commissioners, they return'd home, despairing to make any effectual Defence at Tempe.
And here it will not be from the purpose to declare what part of Greece assisted the Barbarians, that (deservingly branding them with disgrace) Traitors to the Common Liberty of their Country may out of a sense of shame and Dishonour be deterr'd from the like practice. We say therefore, that the Dolopians, Aenians, Milesians, Perrhaebians, and * Magnesians, sided with the Barbarians; and even while the Guards were in Tempe, the Achaeans, Phthiotians, Locreans, and Thessalians joyn'd with them; and after they were withdrawn, most of the Beotians, went over to the Persians. Hereupon the Grecians, in a common Assembly at the Istmos, decreed, that if they should be victorious, those Grecians that sided with the Persians, should be sacrificed to the Gods every Tenth Man. And they order'd Embassadors to be sent to such as at present stood neuter, to stir them up forthwith to take up Arms for the Common Liberty.
Page 217 Of these, some without delay, heartily joyn'd themselves to the common Interest; others promis'd to do it in due time, though in truth by delay they were willing to have some prospect of the Issue of the War before they hazarded themselves. They of Argos by their Embassadors in the Common Council, declared that they were ready to join in Arms with the rest of Greece, if they might have some share of the supream Command in the Army: To whom Answer was given by the Council, that if they thought it a greater Grievance to Fight under a Grecian General for the Common Liberty, than to be Slaves to a Barbarian, they do wisely to forbear to take up Arms: But if through their Ambition they aspire to the Command of Greece, it were just that they should first signalize themselves by such noble Actions, as might justly deserve so great an Honour. After this the Grecian Cities, generally gave Answer to the King's Embassadors (that went through Greece) in such a manner as plainly demonstrated at how high a Rate they prized the common Liberty of the Country.
When Xerxes understood that the Bridge over the Hellespont was finished, and a Passage made through the Mountain Athos, he forthwith marched from Sardis, determining to make his Way to the Hellespont. And when he came to Abidos, he pass'd his Army over the Bridge into Europe; then marching through Thrace, he increased his Army by the Thracians and other Borderers. When he came to Doriscus, he commanded his Fleet should sail thither, that his Forces both by Sea and Land might joyn.
There he numbred his Army, in which it is reported there were inroll'd above Eight Hundred Thousand Foot, more than Twelve Hundred Gallies, Three Hundred and Twenty of which were Greek Ships. The Ships themselves were provided at the Charge of the King, but furnished with Soldiers and Mariners by the Grecians within his Dominions. All the rest were Ships fitted out by the Barbarians. Of these, Two Hundred were built and man'd by the Egyptians; Three Hundred by the Phaenicians; the Cilicians, Fourscore; the Pamphilians Forty; and the Licians as many: Besides, the Carians Fourscore; and from Cyprus an Hundred and Fifty. As to those from the Grecians, the Doreans inhabiting about Caria, together with them of Rhodes and Coos, sent Forty; the Ionians with them of Samos and Chius, an Hundred; the Eolians with Lesbos and Tenedos, Forty: They of the Hellespont, with them that inhabited about Pontus, Fourscore: The Islanders Fifty. For the King had secured to himself all the Islands between Cyaneas, Triopion and Sunium.
Such was the number of the Men of War in the Navy besides Eight Hundred and Fifty prepared for transporting of Horses, and Three Thousand Ships of Burden of Thirty Oars a-piece. Thus Xerxes was imploy'd at Doriscus in numbring his Army; but the General Council of Greece, being informed that the Forces of the Persians did approach; it was ordered that the Grecian Fleet, should forthwith sail to Artemesium in Eubaea, judging that to be the most convenient place to oppose the Enemy: And a Guard of Men at Arms are sent to Thermopile, sufficient (as was conceived) to secure the Straits and Passages, and repel the Barbarians: For it was determined with all haste and speed to defend on every side all those that took part with the Grecians, and with their Forces every way to preserve their Confederates. Euribiades a Lacedemonian, was Admiral of the whole Fleet; Leonidas General of Sparta, commanded the Forces sent to Thermopile, a brave Man and an excellent Soldier.
Leonidas taking upon him the Command, chose only a Thousand Men out of the Army to follow him in this Expedition. But the Ephori or Common Council advising him to take a greater number against so powerful an Enemy, yea, commanding him so to do, he in an intricate and perplexed Speech made Answer, That in truth that number was too few to keep the Pass against the Barbarians, but that he needed no more to accomplish that Design which they were going about to effect. Receiving this dark Answer, they asked him whether he led out the Army upon any slight and inconsiderable Attempt? He return'd in Answer, that in Words and Talk he was to lead them to defend the Passages: But in truth and in the Event to dye for the Common Liberty. Therefore if these Thousand which he had chosen might go along with him, the Fame of Sparta would be advanced even by their Destruction: But if all the Lacedemonians should Page 218 go thither, the very Lacedemonian Name would be utterly extinct, they being Men never used to fly to save themselves.
Upon this there were allotted to him a Thousand Lacedemonians, Three Hundred Spartans, and Three Thousand out of the rest of the Army: So that he marcht away with Four Thousand Soldiers to Thermopile. But the Locrians who inhabited near the Passages, had given Earth and Water to the Persians, and had promis'd to seize the Passes.
But when they perceiv'd Leonidas to advance to Thermopile, they revolted and joined themselves to the Greciau Army; and so a Thousand Locrians, as many Milesians, and near a Thousand Phocians marched with him to Thermopile; besides Four Hundred Thebans, of a different Faction sided now with Greece: For the Thebans that were in Confederacy with the Persians were divided amongst themselves.
This then is the utmost number of the Army which under Leonidas their General came to Thermopile, and there prepared themselves to bear the brunt of the whole strength of the Persians.
Xerxes having now numbred his Forces, march'd away with his whole Army to the City Acanthus, his Fleet sailing near at hand over against him; thence his Navy pass'd through the Ditch or Sluce cut through the Istmos, and by that means he pass'd his Fleet into the other Sea by a short and safe Cut.
When he came to the Bay of Melus, he was inform'd that all the Passages were possessed by the Enemy: Upon which he again increas'd his Forces, and join'd to them little less than Two Hundred Thousand Men more, which he had raised as his Confederates out of Europe. So that besides his Naval Forces, his Land Army consisted of no less than a Hundred Myriads. And the rest that were in his Fleet (what in his Men of War, and what in his Transport Ships and Shipping for other Necessaries) were judged to be no way inferior for number to his Land Forces. Therefore what we find reported concerning the Number he brought with him is not to be wondred at.
For it's said, that great Rivers were drunk up by that multitude, and that the Sea it self was even cover'd over by the spreading forth of the Sails of the Ships: So that the Forces of Xerxes have been by all reputed the greatest that ever any History made mention of.
The Persian Army now incamping at the River Sperchius, Xerxes sent Messengers to Thermopyle, both to find out with what Resolution he was likely to be oppos'd, and likewise to declare that the King commanded them to lay down their Arms, and return in safety to their own Countries, and become Friends and Confederates to the Persians; which if they yielded to, then he faithfully promis'd that he would bestow upon them both larger and richer Countries than those they did then inhabit.
This Message being heard, those with Leonidas returned this Answer; that they were in a better Posture to be the Kings Confederates being arm'd, than if they were disarm'd; and if it happen'd that they must fight, then they could more gallantly and couragiously venture their Lives for their Liberties. As for the Countries which the King promis'd them, they bid them tell him, that it was not the manner of the Grecians, by any base and dishonourable means to plant themselves in any Country, or to gain Lands and Estates but by Virtue and Valour, and being so gain'd by the same Valour to defend them.
Xerxes having receiv'd this Answer, presently sent for Demaratus the Spartan (who was banished from his Country, and fled to him) and in a scoffing manner ask'd the Laconian, whether the Grecians could run faster than his Horses? or whether they durst ingage with so great an Army? Demaratus is reported to have answer'd the King thus: You are not O King, unacquainted with the Valour of the Grecians, forasmuch as your Majesty ever made use of them to reduce your Rebellious Subjects upon all occasions: And do not think that these, who have done more than the Persians in the Defence of your Majesty's Sovereignty, will approve themselves with less Valour, for the preservation of their own Liberties against the Persians.
And now Xerxes dislodging his Army, marched to the Straights of Thermopyle, placing the Medes in the Front of the Battel, either because they were esteem'd Men of greatest Courage, or that he desir'd to have them all cut off, for they were still proud and haughty in regard the Sovereign Power not long before was wrested from their Ancestors, and many there were likewise in the Army whose Kindred perish'd in the Battel of Marathon. Xerxes therefore orders the Brothers and Children of those that were slain in that Battel, to be plac'd in a Body in view of the Medes, conceiving this would be a means to exasperate 'em to a fiercer Revenge upon the Grecians.
The Medes therefore being put in the Front (as before said) made a fierce Charge upon the Thermopylean Guards. But Leonidas (being well prepar'd) had plac'd his Men in a close Body, in the straightest part of the Passages: Now both sides are hotly engaged, for the Barbarians having their King both the Spectator and Witness of their Valour on the one hand, and the thoughts of danger of losing of Liberty, together with the Commands of the General firing the Grecians on the other, the Fight was amazing. And now setting Foot to Foot, fighting close at hand, and being lockt together, Wounds were given on both sides, insomuch as the Battel was doubtful a long time, till at length the Grecians through their Resolution, and the greatness of their Shields getting ground, the Medes with much ado fell off, and began to flag, a great part of them being kill'd, and many others wounded. The Medes thus baffled, the Caesii and Sachae (counted excellent Soldiers) continu'd the Fight; and although they were fresh Men and untouched, against Men almost tired out, yet they were hew'd down and quickly put to flight, and many kill'd by Leonidas his Soldiers: For the Barbarians being guarded with short Shields and Bucklers, were fitter for Fight in the open Field, (where they could by reason of the lightness of their Arms move as they pleas'd,) than in narrow Passages, where they could not well touch the Bodies of their Enemies standing so close together, and being likewise defended with large Shields. On the other hand, the Barbarians being but lightly arm'd, lay the more open to all the Darts and Blows of the Assailants.
Xerxes now seeing the Passages strowed with the Carcases of his Soldiers, and that the Barbarians were not able to withstand the Grecian Valour, sent against them the chiefest of the Persians, such as were call'd Immortal and Invulnerable, Men of far stronger Bodies than any of the rest of the Army. Of these the Grecians made a quick dispatch, for they fled presently, and Night now coming on, gave a present Cessation of Arms, with a great Slaughter of the Barbarians, few being lost on the Grecians side.
Xerxes fretting at the late Misfortune of his Arms, so cross to his hopes and expectations, the next day chose out of all his Regiments, such as were most approved for Strength and Valour; and after many earnest Entreaties, he told them that if they broke in upon the Grecians, and drove them out of the Passages, he would remunerate them with large Rewards; but that Death should be the Wages of them that fled. Upon which, they made a fierce and violent Charge in one Body upon the Army of the Grecians. The Soldiers of Leonidas on the other hand closing together in a Body like a strong Wall, with great resolution resisted the furious shock of their Adversaries, and were so earnest in Fight, that they would not suffer the usual fresh Aids to succeed to their Assistance; but overcoming all difficulties by Resolution, they beat down and destroy'd most of the choicest of the Barbarians; every one striving who should spend most of the day in signalizing his own Valour: For the Courage of the Young Men, put on the Old and Experienc'd Soldiers to a higher strain of Valour than ordinary; and the Glory formerly gain'd by the Old, stirr'd up the Young Men to Emulation of Honour.
At length this brave and choice Army of the Barbarians was routed and put to flight: In their flight they were stop'd by a strong Body of Men appointed for that purpose, who drove them back upon the Enemy, and so forced them to renew the Fight. But the King being astonished and in great fear, conceiving none durst make any further Attempt upon the Grecians, one Trachinius an Inhabitant of the Country (to whom all the secret and by-ways in the Mountains were by Page 220 use very well known) came to Xerxes, and promis'd him to lead the Persians through a certain straight and difficult Pass, that the Troops sent along with him might come upon the Backs of Leonidas his Soldiers, and by this means the Grecians being fought both behind and before, might easily be cut off.
At the hearing of this, the King greatly rejoyc'd, and amply rewarded the Trachinian, and forthwith sent along with him in the Night Twenty Thousand Men. But one Tyrastiades of Cuma in the Persian Army, an upright Man of honest Principles, in the Night privately convey'd himself from the Watch or Centinels of the Persians, and came to Leonidas, and discover'd what the Trachinian had contriv'd; which being known, a Council of War was call'd at Midnight, where they advised together what was to be done in the present imminent danger and state of Affairs. There were some that were of Opinion, That it was best forthwith to leave the Passages, and to return to the rest of their Associates while it was yet well with them, for that there was no hopes of safety if they continu'd there.
But Leonidas the Lacedemonian General minding to appropriate Immortal Honour to himself and his Spartans, commanded all the rest to depart, and reserve themselves for better Times, and for further help to the Greeks hereafter; enjoyning only the Lacedemonians to stay, and not to desert the defence of the Straights, for that it became the Generals and Commanders of Greece resolvedly to be victorious, or to dye valiantly upon the Spot.
The Council then breaking up, all the rest presently march'd away: And Leonidas being now left upon the Place only with his Citizens, was resolved with them to perform wonderful and Heroical Actions: For the Lacedemonians being but very few (for he kept the Thespians only with him, so that all of them together did not exceed Five Hundred Men) he prepar'd himself bravely to dye for the Liberty and Glory of Greece.
In the mean time, they that were sent with Trachinius, led about through the steep Passes, had beset those with Leonidas on every side: But the Grecians who had before cast off all Thoughts of Deliverance, and had preferr'd Honour before Life, with one Voice desir'd their General that he would lead them out against the Enemy before it were known to the Persians that they were surrounded.
Leonidas hereupon commending the Courage of his Soldiers, commanded them that they would with all speed go to their Dinners with that chearfulness as those that must be with the Gods at Supper: And he himself presently commanded Meat to be brought to him, and fell to eating: For by this means he said they would be more able to endure, and longer to abide the Dangers and Toyls of such an Ingagement.
After they had all refresh'd themselves, and were ready attending upon their General, he commanded them to follow him, and break into the Enemies Camp to kill all that they met, and make to the King's Pavilion: At which word of Command, in one Body in the Night under their General Leonidas, they should rush into the Camp of the Persians.
The Barbarians being amaz'd at so suddain and unexpected an Alarum, every where run out of their Tents in great disorder and confusion. And supposing that all those that were sent with the Trachinian were cut off, and that all the Grecian Forces were amongst them, they were every where seiz'd with fear and astonishment: A great Slaughter therefore was made amongst them by the Soldiers of Leonidas, but much more by the Persians among themselves, they not knowing who was Friend or Foe: The Mistake likewise being advanced by the Darkness of the Night, in which none could be distinguish'd, dread and horrour prevail'd all over the Camp, so that it was no wonder that a terrible Slaughter was made among them: For they killed one another, since now there was neither Time nor Place to be at any certainty, for that none knew whose Commands, or what Captain to follow, or what Colours or Ensigns to hasten to: But their Minds were in a continual Distraction. And if the King had then been in his Pavilion, he had been easily destroy'd amongst the rest by the Grecians, and in that moment had an end been put to so great a War: But Xerxes presently at the beginning of the Tumult, hasten'd, and speedily got out of harms way. The GreciansPage 221 breaking into his Pavilion, cut off the Heads almost of all they found there, and diligently sought for Xerxes (while the Night favour'd them) in all parts of the Camp.
But when the Day brake, and Light began to make a Discovery, the Persians then perceiving the Grecians to be very few, began to despise them, but durst not make strait upon them, being terrify'd by their amazing Courage.
Therefore they compass'd them round, and gauling them every way, both in the Flank and Rear, they were all destroy'd with Darts and Arrows. And this was the end of those sent with Leonidas to guard the Passes in Thermopyle, whose Valour who can sufficiently admire? who were also unanimous not to desert their Post assigned them, but undauntedly sacrific'd their Lives for the common safety of Greece, and chose rather to dye valiantly and in Honour, than to live as Slaves and in Disgrace.
On the other hand, this Terror and Amazement of the Persians, cannot but be very probable; for which of the Barbarians could ever suspect so incredible an Attempt? Who could have imagin'd, that Five Hundred should have that Confidence, as without Fear to set upon a Hundred Myriads? So that we may conclude that Posterity cannot but fix upon these Men as a Pattern and Example of Valour for ever; who though compassed about with inextricable Dangers, and wearied out in their Bodies with overcoming, yet in their Minds were unconquerable. These therefore are the only Men (we read of) that became more famous by their being overcome, than others by their most glorious Victories; for we ought not to make a Judgment of Mens Virtues by the Event, but by their solid and well-grounded Resolutions: For Fortune is the Mistress of the First, but every Man's Reason is the Advocate for the other.
For who can judge there were ever braver Men than these? who though they were not the Thousandth part of their Enemies, yet were acted with such brave Spirits, as to dare to try their Courage with an incredible Multitude; not that they had the least hope or expectation of overcoming upon so unequal Terms, but resolving with undaunted Resolutions and noble Souls to surpass all that ever was done in former Ages. They knew indeed they were then to fight with Barbarians: But yet they concluded, that thereby they should be sharers in Fame and Glory with all that ever were before them. For they were the only Men (since the Memory of Man) that chose rather to defend the Laws of their Country, than to preserve their own Lives, even with a Contempt of Dangers that were insuperable; judging it more desirable for Men of Valour so to signalize themselves.
To these the common Liberty of Greece ows more than to those that afterwards overcame Xerxes in following Battels; for the Barbarians being astonished with such an extraordinary and unheard of Attempt, were afterwards much discourag'd, and had little heart to Fight. The Spirits of the Grecians on the other side, were inflamed with the desire of gaining the like honour with their Countrymen. To conclude, these alone seem'd to have born away with them the immortal Memory of an unparallell'd Valour, above all before them: And therefore their Praises have been set forth not only by Historians, but by many Poets, amongst whom, that famous Milean Poet Simonides has described this noble Action, with high Strains of Commendation worthy of their Valour, thus—
Page 222 Having now said enough of these Gallant Men, we shall return where we broke off. Xerxes thus possess'd of the Passes, obtain'd (according to the Proverb) only in a Cadmean Victory, lost a great number of his Soldiers, with the Destruction of a very few of his Enemies in comparison. And having now gain'd the Straights, and made his way open, he determin'd to try his Fortune in a Sea-Fight: To that purpose he forthwith sent for Megabates the Admiral of his Navy, and commanded him to make up to the Grecian Fleet, and with the whole strength of his Navy to join Battel with them; who without delay obeys the King's Command, and looses from Pydna in Macedonia with the whole Fleet, and sails to the utmost Coasts or Promontory of Magnesia call'd Sepias, where meeting with a violent Storm and Tempest, he lost Three Hundred of his Ships of War, and a great number of his Transport Ships. When the Storm was over, he made away, and arrived at Aphetas, a City of Magnesia. From thence he sent forth Three Hundred Sail, and commanded the Officers that they should sail about, and make to the Right Hand of the Island Eubea, and so surround the Enemy. The Grecians in the mean time lay at Anchor at Artemesia in Eubea, whose Navy was at the most not above Two Hundred and Fourscore Sail, whereof an Hundred and Forty were fitted out by the Athenians, and the rest by the other Grecians. Euribiades, a Spartan, was Admiral of the Fleet; and Themistocles the Athenian took care of all other things relating to it. This Man by reason of his singular Prudence and Military Experience, was not only in great Reputation and Authority with the Grecians in the Fleet, but even with Euribiades himself; and all were ready at his Command. When the Sea-Officers were in Consultation where was the most commodious Place to join Battel; whilst all the rest were for abiding where they were, and to receive the Enemy as they then lay; only Themistocles was of a contrary Opinion, and declared, that that Party ever had the advantage, who in good order made the first Onset upon the Enemy: For if they then in a Body fell upon the Enemy, who was at that time in Disorder and Confusion, by coming out of several Ports, and at a great distance one from another, the Attack would probably be successful and prosperous.
The Counsel and Advice of Themistocles prevailing, the whole Grecian Fleet in order of Battel, set sail against the Persians, who coming out of their several Ports, as they were dispers'd and out of order, were met by the Navy of Themistocles, who sunk many of 'em, and forc'd as many more upon the Shoar.
In the mean time, the Fleets of both Parties now come together, and Battel join'd, some parts of the Fleets prevail'd here and there on both sides, without absolute Victory on either, till Night put an end to the Contest. Presently follow'd a most dreadful Tempest, whereby many Ships of the Persian Fleet were forc'd out of their Harbours, and lost. So as God dimself seem'd to fight for the Grecians, by reducing the Barbarians to a less number, that the Grecians might be an equal Match for them, and better able to bear the brunt of a Sea-Fight. Hence it was, that the Grecians grew more and more confident and couragious: And on the other Hand, the Barbarians ever more fearful in all Attempts.
But after the Storm was over, having again brought together their Navy, they made down upon the Enemy with their whole Fleet: The Grecians inforc'd with Fifty Athenian Ships, made ready, and undauntedly receiv'd the Barbarians. And here the manner of the Fight was almost like that at Thermopyle, for the Persians endeavour'd to charge through the midst of the Grecians, and so to pass into Euripus: But the Grecians, with the help of their Confederates in Eubea, defended the Straights; upon which, there was again a fierce Engagement, and both sides lost many of their Men of War: But Night drawing on again, both Parties were forc'd into their Harbours. It's reported that the Athenians on the Grecian side, and the Zidonians on the other, bravely behav'd themselves in both Battels.
The Grecians afterwards hearing of the Defeat and Slaughter made at Thermopyle, and being certainly informed, that the Persians were marching towards Athens, were in great consternation, and therefore sailing back to Salamis, they there lay. And now the Athenians seeing the extream Hazard all were in, who remain'd in Athens, put on Board their Wives and Children, and all Necessaries, and whatever else they could, and transported 'em into Salamis. Then the Admiral of the Persian Fleet, understanding that the Enemy was withdrawn from Page 223 their former station, presently with his whole Fleet made for Eubaea, and there first takes the City Istiea by Storm, and raz'd it, and then wasts and destroys the whole Country before him.
In the mean time Xerxes marches from Thermopyle through the Consines of Phocia, razes all the Towns far and near, and wasts and spoils all before him.
That part of the Phocians who sided with the Grecians, not being able to Contest with so great a Multitude, forsook their Towns, and with all their Inhabitants betook themselves to the difficult Passages and Defences of the Mountain Parnassus.
Afterwards the King entring the Country of the Doreans, forbore from Pillage and Spoil, and commanded that no Injury should be done there, because they were his Friends and Associates. But part of his Forces left there, he commanded to invade Delphos, and to burn the Temple of Apollo, and to rob and carry away all that they found there; and he himself in the mean time, led the rest of his Army into Beotia, and there incamp'd.
When those that were sent to spoil the Delphian God, were advanc'd as far as the Temple of Pallas, there arose a sudden and incredible Tempest, and Storm of Hail and Wind, with dreadful Thunder and Lightning, wherewith great Rocks were rent asunder, and fell upon the Heads of the Persians, and destroy'd them by Heaps. The rest that surviv'd, being terrify'd with this Portent of the Immortal Gods, ran away with all haste and speed. And thus by Divine Providence, the Oracle of Delphos was preserv'd from Ruin and Robbery. They of Delphos, that they might continue the Memory of this wonderful Appearance of the Gods to Posterity for ever, erected a great Trophy or Monument near the Temple of Pallas, on which they engraved this Elogy—
Xerxes passing through Beotia, wasted the Country of the Thespians, and burnt Platea, forsaken before of its Inhabitants. For the People of these Parts, with their Families and all their Concerns, had withdrawn themselves into Peloponesus: From thence he passed into Attica, continuing still his Devastation and Ruin of all things: And Athens it self he razes to the Ground, and burns the Temples.
Whilst Xerxes was thus imploy'd, his Fleet (having first spoil'd Eubaea and the Coasts of Attica) loos'd from Eubaea, and came to Attica. About the same time the Corcyreans lay about Peloponesus, with Threescore Gallies, because they could not (as they pretended) recover the Cape or Promontory of Malea. But other Writers say, that this was rather done out of Policy, that they might observe how the issue of the War was like to succeed, and submit to the Persians if they were Victors; and that the Grecians, if they were Conquerors, might believe they came so far in order to assist them.
But when News was brought to the Athenians that were at Salamis, that their Country was burnt up, and the Temple of Pallas laid in Rubbish, they were extreamly griev'd and dejected. An exceeding fear likewise seiz'd the other Grecians, seeing themselves besieged (as it were) by the Enemy on every side, coopt up together within Peloponesus. And therefore it was determin'd that the Leaders and Officers should consult and give their Opinion what place was fittest and most convenient wherein to try their Fortune in a Sea-Fight. Many and various Opinions were proposed and bandied to and fro in this matter: The Peloponesians, as those who only minded their own security, advised that the Fight might be near the Isthmus: For Fortifying the Isthmus with a strong Wall, if things did not succeed, they might presently withdraw themselves into Peloponesus, as into a Place of greatest Safety and Defence: But if they should be penned up in the little Island Salamis, they should run into Mischiefs inextricable.
But Themistocles advised to fight at Salamis, for that within the Straights they were sure to have the Advantage, where they might fight with a few Ships against many. On the other hand, he made it out, that to fight near the Isthmus, would be great disadvantage to them, for they must fight in the open Sea, where Page 224 the Enemy would have room to make use of the whole Fleet, by which a few Vessels (as they were) would soon be destroyed by such a Multitude.
These Reasons, and many others to the same purpose in reference to the Business in Hand, being seasonably and wisely offer'd by Themistocles, brought over all the rest to his Opinion.
It being now therefore determin'd in this General Council, to Fight within the Straights of Salamis, the Grecian Captains with all speed prepared themselves for Battel against the Persians: Euribiades therefore, together with Themistocles, began to encourage the People against the Danger approaching: But they were struck with such Terror and Fear of the great Power of the Persians, that they regarded not the Advice or Commands of their Leaders and Officers; but every one to save himself, hasted with all speed to pass over from Salamis to Peloponesus.
Neither were the Grecian Forces by Land, seized with less Fear and Terror, by reason of the great Power of the Enemy, being likewise much dejected by the Slaughter of those valiant Men at Thermopile: And then the misery of the Atheniaus, was ever before their Eyes, which amazed them, and put a damp upon all their Hopes.
Upon which the General Council discerning the Tumult and distracting Fears among the People, made an Order for the Inclosing of the Isthmus with a Wall; and thereupon many Hearts and Hands joining together, the Work was compleated: And so the Peloponesians, defended themselves by a Wall drawn out along from Lecheum to Cenchrea Forty Furlongs.
But now the Fleet at Salamis, was in a Mutiny, and in that degree of Fear, that none would obey their Officers. Themistocles therefore perceiving that Euribiades, the Admiral of the Fleet, was not regarded, and that the Violence of the Furious Popularity could not be restrained; and considering likewise that the Straits and Difficulties of the Places at Salamis were of great Advantage in order to obtain the Victory, resolved upon this Project: He commanded one chosen out for that purpose, to go privately as a Deserter to the King, to let him know that the Grecians had resolved to pass over with all their Fleet from Salamis into the Isthmus. Xerxes gives credit to what was related, as a thing very probable, and therefore resolved with all haste and diligence, to prevent the Land and Sea-Forces of the Grecians from joining; and to that purpose commanded the Ships he had from Egypt, forthwith to possess themselves of the Straits and narrow Seas between Salamis and Megaris, and orders the rest of his Navy to make for Salamis, and there without delay to Fight the Enemy. The King's Gallies were drawn up distinctly, according to their several Natiòns, that being all of one and the same Language, they might more readily aid and assist one another.
The Fleet setting forth in this Order, the Phaenicians were in the Right Wing, and the Grecians joyn'd with the Persians were plac'd in the Left. In the mean time, the Officers of the Ionians sent with great Secrecy a certain Samian unto the Grecians, to acquaint them what the King determined, and in what Method and order all things were hastning forward, and that they themselves (as soon as the Battel was join'd) were resolved to desert the Barbarians.
All which, when the Samian had thus privily discover'd to Euribiades, Themistocles (his Matters succeeding according to his Hearts desire, and as he had contrived,) with great Joy encourag'd the Navy to Fight. The Grecians recovering their Spirits at the Message sent by the Ionians, and (stirred up with fresh hope by the present Circumstances of Affairs to Fight) against their former Determinations, loosed from Salamis with great Resolution. And now the Fleet being disposed in order of Battel by Euribiades and Themistocles, the Left Wing was committed to the Lacedemonians and Athenians against the Phenicians, the Enemy's Right Wing.
The Phenicians were at that time in great Reputation for Maritime Affairs, as well by reason of the multitude of their Shipping, as for their singular and ancient Skill in Navigation. The Aegineans, and those of Megara, were plac'd in the Left Wing, for these were conceived (next to the Athenians) to be the best Seamen; and it was concluded that they would fight with the greatest Obstinacy and Resolution, in regard they had no where to fly with the rest of the Page 225Grecians for Security, if they were put to the worst. The middle Battel was supplied by the rest of the Grecians.
Things being thus order'd and prepar'd, they forthwith set sail and possess'd themselves of the Straits and Passages between Salamis and Heraclea.
As for the King, he commanded the Admiral of his Fleet, that without any stop or delay, he should set upon the Enemy: And he plac'd himself upon an Eminence over against the Island of Salamis, from whence he might see all the Passages of the Battel.
The Persians, indeed at the First, while they could sail in the open Seas, every one kept his station: But when they began to enter the Straits, many of the Ships were Forc'd out of their Order, which occasion'd a great Tumult, and Confusion amongst the rest. Then the Admiral, who led the Van, fell in First with great Valour upon the Enemy, and was sunk at the First Charge, upon which, a great Terror seized the whole Fleet; for upon the Death of the Admiral many took upon e'm to command, and gave out several and different Orders; so that they durst not proceed further but tackt about and made to Sea.
The Athenians perceiving the Terror and Confusion of the Barbarians, fiercely pursu'd them; some of their Ships they struck through with the Beaks of their Vessels, and brusht off the Oars of others: And many of the Barbarians Gallies in the Flight, lying open with their Broad-sides to the Beaks of the Grecian Ships, by multitude of strokes were pierc'd through and through; So that now, not having time to turn the Heads of their Gallies, they fled as well as they could with their Oars revers'd.
The Phenicians, and Cyprian Ships being now dispersed by the Athenians, and forc'd to Fly, the Cilicians, Pamphylians, and Lycians, who were next to them, fought indeed at the First very obstinately; but when they saw the best and stoutest of the Ships routed, and making away, they hasted also out of the Danger.
In the other Wing, the Fight was for some small time doubtful, the Contest being vigorous on both sides; but the Phenicians and Cyprians being driven a-shoar, and the Athenians making Head upon the other, the Barbarians not able to bear the Shock, fled, and lost many of their Ships in the Flight. And thus the noble Grecians got a glorious Victory at Sea over the Barbarians.
In this Battel, Forty Ships of the Grecian Fleet were lost; but above Two Hundred Gallies of the other were sunk, besides those that were taken with their Ships and Men.
The King being thus unexpectedly overcome, in a Rage slew the Phenicians, as the first that fled; threatning the rest, that in due time he would measure out Punishments for them proportionable to their Demerits; who terrify'd with the King's Threats, forthwith made for Attica, but the Night following they sailed into Asia.
And now Themistocles, justly esteem'd the Author of this Victory at Sea, contrives another Stratagem not inferior to the former; for the Grecians being terrified, and not daring to fight at Land against so many Thousands of Men, he thus diminishes the Forces of the Enemy.
He sends his Childrens School-master to the King, with Instructions to acquaint him, that the Grecians were hasting with their Fleet to the Bridge, in order to pull it down.
This Message thè King believ'd, as very probable, and thereupon was in a terrible Fright, lest the Grecians, who had then the whole Command of the Seas, should block up his Passage into Asia, so that he could not return; he resolv'd therefore to be gone with all speed, and to leave Mardonius behind him, with an Army both of Horse and Foot, consisting of no less than Four Hundred Thousand Men. These Two pieces of Military Policy contriv'd by Themistocles, crown'd the Grecians with the renown of Two glorious Victories: And thus stood the Affairs of Greece. But now having declared sufficient for the present, the things that were transacted in Europe, we shall go on to those done elsewhere in Foreign Parts.
How the Carthaginians invaded Sicily, and were routed by Gelon.
THE Carthaginians (as it was before agreed between them and the Persians, that they should at the same time set upon the Greeks in Sicily) had made great preparation for War: And now all things being in readiness, they chose Amil••r General of their Army, a Man of great Authority amongst the Citizens; who being furnish'd both with Sea and Land Forces, looses from Carthage. The Land Army was no less than Three Hundred Thousand, and his Fleet above Two Thousand Sail, besides Transport Ships for the carrying of Provision, which were above Three Thousand.
But Sailing through the Libian Sea, by the violence of a Storm, he lost his Ships, wherein the Horses and Chariots were on Board: And when he came to Pannormus, the Port of Sicily, he was heard to say, that there was now an end of the War; for he was much afraid, that the Sicilians by the favour of the Sea, had escaped the Danger. There he lay for the space of Three Days, refreshing his Army, and repairing his Ships; and then marched by Land against Himera, his Fleet sailing over against him near the Shoar.
When he came to the City, he plac'd his Army in Two Camps, in the one his Land, and in the other his Naval Forces. Under all his Long Ships or Gallies, he caus'd deep Trenches to be drawn, and to be barracado'd round with Timber. His Land Forces he encamped in Front, over against the City, Extending the Fortifications from the Barracado of his other Camp to the Hills that overtopt the City. When he had thus blockt up the Place on the West side, he unladed all the Ships of Burden, of the Meat and Provision, and sent away what Ships he had left, for Corn, and what other Provision and Victuals they could buy, to be brought to him from Africa and Sardinia: But he himself march'd towards the City with a choice part of the Army, and routed the Himerians that came sorth to oppose him, by which the struck a great Terror into the Besieg'd.
Hereupon Theron Prince of the Agrigentines, though he had aid sufficient with him for the Defence of Himera; yet being now in a great Fright, sent with all speed to Syracuse to Gelon for Succours; who being prepared with his Forces beforehand, and understanding the fear the Himerians were in, without delay, marched out of Syracuse, with no less than Fifty Thousand Foot, and Five Thousand Horse, and with a swift March came to Himera. Upon which, he reviv'd the Spirits of the Himerians, and freed them from all Fear of the Carthaginian Army; for he encamped near the City, and fortified himself both with a Wall and deep Trench, and then sent forth all his Horse to seek out the Enemy, who were at that time dispersed, forraging all over the Country. These Horse setting upon the Carthaginians roving and disorderly dispers'd, took as many Prisoners as each of them could carry back; for above Ten Thousand were brought into the City. By which Exploit, the Authority and Glory of Gelon was much advanc'd; and now the Himertans began to contemn their Adversaries.
Afterwards (with no less courage) he perform'd other things; for all the Gates that Thero before (for fear of the Enemy) had built, he on the other Hand (in contempt of the Carthaginians) caused to be pull'd down, and furnish'd the Place with others that were of absolute necessity. To sum up all, Gelon being an expert Soldier, and prudent in Management, set his Head at work how he might by some Stratagem deceive the Barbarians, and destroy their Forces without any Danger to himself or his Army: Which Device of his was much forwarded by an Accident that then happen'd, for as things then stood, resolving upon burning the Enemy's Fleet, it fortun'd Amilcar being then in the Camp with his Navy, preparing for a great Festival Day to Neptune, some of the Horse-men brought to Gelon a C••rier taken in the Fields, who brought Letters from the Selim••t•ans, in which was written, that they would send the Horse-men to him at the Day that he had appointed; which was the Day whereon he had determin'd the Sacrifice Upon the same Day therefore Gelon sends Horse-men of his own, commanding them, that conveying themselves privately in the Night to Places nearest Page 227 and most convenient, as soon as it was Day, they should go to the Enemy's Naval Camp, as if they were the Selinutian Confederates; and being receiv'd within the Wall and Fortification, should first kill Amilcar, and then set Fire to the Ships.
He gave moreover in Charge to those that were as Spies upon the next Hills, that as soon as the Horsemen were admitted into the Fortification, they should give notice of it by lifting up the Sign. And he himself at Break of Day (with his Army drawn up) waited when the Sign would be given.
The Horse being come to the Carthaginians Camp about Sun-Rising, they were admitted by the Watch for Confederates; being entered, without delay they make up with a fierce Charge to Amilcar, who was then Sacrificing, and both killed him, and fired the Ships. And presently the Sign being given by the Spies, Gelo with all his Forces in Battalia, fell into the Camp of the Carthaginians. Whereupon the Officers presently drew forth all their Forces out of the Camp to encounter the Sicilians, and with Ensigns advanc'd, fought with great obstinacy. And now the Trumpets in both Armies sounded a Charge, and in Emulation each endeavour'd to exceed the other in Noise and Clamour. In conclusion, great was the Slaughter on both sides, with little or no advantage to either; when presently the Flame mounting up from the Ships, and News brought of the Death of the General, the Grecians (now encouraged) doubled their Shouts, in certain hope, and confidence of Victory; but the Carthaginians altogether discouraged and in Despair, betook themselves to Flight. And because Gelo had commanded that no Prisoners should be taken, the Slaughter in the Pursuit was very grievous; at last no less than an Hundred and Fifty Thousand were Slain. The rest gain'd a Place by Nature Fortify'd, and this gave the first stop to the Fury of the Pursuers: But because they wanted Water (through Extremity of Thirst) they were forced to deliver up themselves to the Conqueror's Mercy.
Gelo's Name was now renown'd upon the account of so great a Victory obtain'd meerly by his own prudent Contrivance; and his Praise was advanc'd to the very Heavens, not only by the Sicilians, but by all others. For I may truly say, that we have no History of any General, that ever before him put in Execution, so prudent and remarkable a Stratagem; or ever slew more of the Barbarians in one Battel, or took so many Prisoners. And therefore some Writers account this Battel nothing inferior to the Fight by the Grecians at Patea, and equal this Project of Gelo to the Contrivances and Intreagues of Themistocles. But the highest Commendations (because they were both so remarkable and eminent) are by some attributed to this, and by others to that. For whereas both the Greeks and Sicilians before Fighting, were terrify'd with the multitude of the Barbarians, the News of Gelo's Victory, (the Sicilians first prevailing) inspired the Grecians with greater Courage. But the Fortune of the Generals on either side was much different; for it's most certain, that the Persian King with many Thousands more escaped; but not only the Generals of the Carthaginians, but even all the whole Army were so slaughtered and destroyed, that (as it is reported) not one escaped to Carthage to carry the News of the Defeat. Add moreover, that the most Noble of the Grecian Commanders, Pausanius and Themistocles, were most unworthily dealt with, even by their own Countrymen; the one for his Covetousness and Treason, was killed by his Fellow Citizens, and the other (Banished Greece) was forc'd to fly to his greatest Enemy Xerxes, and there live in Exile. Gelo, on the contrary (after his Success, advanced to more Honour by the Love and Favour of the Syracusians,) reigned till he was old, and died admired and honoured of all. And such was the Esteem and grateful Remembrance the Citizens had of him, that the entire Government was continued in his Family Three Descents. Those therefore who have thus highly merited, challenge from us likewise their due Honour and Praise. But to return where we left. The same Day that Gelo routed the Carthaginians, Leonidas at Thermopyle with his Grecians, broke into the Camp of Xerxes with more than ordinary Valour; as if the Gods on purpose had contrived and effected at one and the same moment of time, a glorious Victory in one Place, and an honourable Death of the Grecians in another.
Page 228 After the Fight at Himera, Twenty Long Ships, which Amilcar had drawn out, occasionally for necessary Services, made their Escape, and only they of the whole Army, made an Attempt to return to their own Country, the rest being either Kill'd or Taken. But being overloaded with the Multitude of them that fled, and meeting with cross Winds and Tempests, they were all Shipwrackt and lost, save only a few that escaped in a small Boat, and arriv'd at Carthage; and there with a doleful Cry, declared how all the Army that was carry'd over into Sicily, was destroy'd.
The Carthaginians were so terrify'd with the unexpected Slaughter of their Men, that they all watcht Night and Day, for the Guard of the City, as if Gelo had been just then ready to enter into Carthage with his whole Army. The number of those that were Slain, affected the whole City with Lamentations; and private Houses and Families were full of Tears and Complaints; while some enquired after their Children, others after their Brothers: A great number of Orphans now bereft of their Parents, with miserable Cries, bewailed both their Deaths, and their own Misery, who were now left naked and destitute of those that should take care of them.
The Carthaginians therefore fearing lest Gelo should hasten into Africa, sent unto him Plenipotentiaries, Men both of great Eloquence and Discretion.
In the mean time, he honourably rewarded the Horsemen that destroy'd Amilcar, and upon all others that had done any remarkable Service, he bestow'd the Marks of his Favour. The chiefest of the Spoils, he kept himself, with an intent to Dedicate them as Ornaments to the Temples at Syracuse: Many of the rest he gave to be set up in the Temples of the Himereans: What remain'd, together with the Captives, he distributed amongst his Souldiers, proportionably to every one's Merit. And those Captives that fell to the share of the Cities, were in all those Places (with their Legs shackl'd) imploy'd in publick Works for the Common Good. They of Agrigentum having gotten many Captives for their share, enriched both their City and Country round about with their Labours; for they had so many Prisoners, that many of the private Citizens had Five Hundred a-piece.
And the Multitude of their Captives and Slaves was advanced, not only because they sent great Assistance to the War, but likewise by reason many of the Barbarians, when their Army was routed, fled up into the Mid-land and Borders of Agrigentum, who being all taken alive, fill'd the City with Prisoners. The greatest part were set apart for the Publick Service, and appointed to cut and hew Stone; of which, they not only built the greatest of their Temples, but made Water-courses or Sinks under-ground, to convey Water from the City, so great and wide, that though the Work it self was contemptible, yet when done and seen, was worthy of Admiration. The Overseer and Master of the Work, was one Pheax, an excellent Artificer, from whom these Conduits were called Pheaces. The Agrigentines likewise sunk a Fish-Pond, with great Costs and Expences, Seven Furlongs in Compass, and Twenty Cubits in Depth.
Into this, Water was brought both from Fountains and Rivers, and by that means sufficiently supplied with Fish of all sorts, both for Food and Pleasure. And upon this Pond, fell and rested great Multitudes of Swans, which gave a most pleasant and delightful prospect to the Eye; but by neglect of succeeding Ages, it grew up with Mud, and at last through length of Time, turned wholly into dry Ground. But the Soil there being very fat and rich, they have planted it with Vines, and replenished it with all sorts of Trees, which yields to them of Agrigentum, a very great Revenue.
When Gelo had dismiss'd his Confederates, he marched back with his Army to Syracuse.
And for his notable Victory he was not only had in great Honour and Esteem by his own Citizens, but even by all the Sicilians. For he got so many Prisoners and Slaves, that the Island seem'd to have all Africa under her Dominion.
Ambassadors came continually from all the Cities and Princes of the Adverse Party, begging Pardon for their Error, and promising Observance to all his Commands for the future. But as for Gelo, he carry'd himself with great Complacency Page 229 towards all, and enter'd into a League with them; and in the time of his Prosperity, behav'd himself with great Modesty and Humanity; not only towards the Sicilians, but even towards his most implacable Enemies, the Carthaginians.
For when Embassadours came from Carthage, with many Tears begging his Favour, he receiv'd them very Courteously, and made Peace with them, upon Condition that they should pay Two Thousand Talents of Silver for the Expences of the War: And that they should build Two Temples, where the Articles of the League might be kept as Sacred. The Carthaginians being thus safe beyond their hopes, freely consented to the Demands, and promised a Crown of Gold to Damareta, the Wife of Gelo: For by making their Addresses unto her, she was chiefly instrumental for the procuring of the Peace. And after she receiv'd the Crown from the Carthaginians, which was of the value of an Hundred Talents of Gold, Gelo coin'd it into Money, and call'd it from her, Damaret••um, every Piece worth Ten Attick Drachmas, called likewise of the Sicilians, Pentecontralitrons, from their being Fifty Pounds in weight.
Gelo carry'd himself thus graciously to all, chiefly prompted thereunto by his own generous Disposition, yet not without some Design to engage all by Kindness. For he had a purpose to pass with his Army over into Greece, and to joyn with them against the Persians: But when he was ready to transport his Fleet, Messengers from Corinth brought him the News of the Victory by the Grecians at Salamis, and that Xerxes with a great part of his Army had left Europe. Upon which News he altered his Resolution, and commending the forwardness of his Souldiers, called a General Assembly, with a Command that all should meet Arm'd: He himself when the Assembly was met, came in amongst them, not only without any Arms, but without a Tunick, covered only with a Cloak or Mantle, and in a Speech set forth the whole Course of his Life and Actions to the Syracusians; the People giving evident Testimony of their Approbation to every Word that he said, and admiring that he should so expose himself amongst Armed Men, to the Will of every Person that might have a Design against his Life; every one was so far from offering him any Violence, as a Tyrant, that had oppressed them,. that all with one Voice proclaim'd him their Benefactor, their King, and the Deliverer of their Country.
After these things, he built Two Magnificent Temples, one to Ceres, and another to Proserpina out of the Spoils: And caused a Tripode to be made of Sixteen Talents of Gold, which he dedicated as a Token of his Gratitude to Apollo at Delphos. He afterwards determin'd to build a Temple to Ceres in Mount Etna, which so far proceeded, as that the Image of the Deity was placed in her Shrine; but by Death he was interrupted in his Design, and the Work left imperfect. About this time, Pindar the Lyrick Poet flourished. And these are all the things that were done this Year worthy of any Remark.
The Victory of the Greeks over Mardonius at Platea.
XAnthippus being Archon of Athens, and Quintus Fabius Vibulanus, and Serrius Cornelius Cossus, Roman Consuls, the Persian Fleet (all but the Phaenicians) after the Battel at Salamis, lay about Cuma: And there continuing all Winter, at the Spring passed over to Samos to guard the Coasts of Ionia: The Fleet consisted of Four Hundred Sail; and because they were jealous of the Ionians, they kept a strict Eye upon the Cities there.
In Greece, upon the great Success of Salamis, which was chiefly owing to the Valour and Conduct of the Athenians, all were of Opinion that the Athenians (bering lifted up) would now contend with the Lacedemonians for the Dominion of the Seas: And this the Lacedemonians foresaw, and therefore used all their Arts and Endeavours to keep them under. And for that reason when they were to take notice of the Noble Actions in that Fight, and to distribute Rewards accordingly, the Lacedemonians prevailed by their Interest, that the Honour of the Day should be given to them of Aegina, and among the Athenians to Amynias, the Brother of Aesculus the Poet; because that he being General of the Gallies, first charg'd the Admiral of the Persians, and sunk both him and his Ship together.
But when the Athenians shewed their Resentment that they were so undeservedly slighted, the Lacedemonians were afraid, lest Themistocles (being provoked with the Indignity) should contrive some considerable Mischief against them and the rest of the Grecians: Therefore to stop his Mouth, they rewarded him doubly above all the rest. But when the People of Athens understood that he had accepted what was given him, they were much incens'd, and remov'd him from his Place as General, and put Xanthippus, of the Family of Ariphron, into his stead.
And now the Distaste given by the Grecians to the Athenians being spread Abroad, Embassadors came to Athens, both from the Persians and the Grecians. The Persian Embassadors spoke to this effect:
That if the Athenians would side with the Persians; they should have what part of Greece they would chuse; that Mardonius the Persian General would rebuild their Walls and their Temples; and that the City should have and enjoy its former Laws and Liberties. On the other Hand, the Lacedemonian Embassadors earnestly intreated them, that they would not make any League with the Barbarians, but preserve their ancient Amity with the Grecians, being so near one with them, both in Nation and Language.
To the Barbarians the Athenians gave this Return,
That the Persian had no Country so rich, nor Gold so heavy, which could tempt them to forsake their Confederates the Grecians in their necessity. And to the Lacedemonians they commanded Answer to be given, That as heretofore their care had been to preserve Greece, so for the future to their utmost Endeavour they would defend it. And in the mean time, desired that they would forthwith with all their Forces pass into Attica, in regard it was very apparent, that Mardonius when he came to understand the Athenians to be so Resolved against him, would invade Athens with all his Force
: And so it came to pass; for Mardonius Encamping in Beotia, first endeavour'd to draw the Cities of Peleponesus to a Defection, by sending Monies here and there to the Governors and Chief Men. And after when he received the Answer return'd him by the Athenians, he rag'd like a Mad Man, and forthwith marched with all his Army into Attica: For besides those which Xerxes left with him, he rais'd many out of Thrace and Macedonia, and other Confederate Cities, to the number of Two Hundred Thousand Men and upwards.
Page 231 And now Attica being invaded by so great a Multitude, the Athenians sent Messengers to the Spartans, and desired their Aid, who were so slow that the Enemy violently broke in upon the Country, so that the Athenians were reduced to great Streights, and now a Second time, with their Wives and Children, and all other things that they could in that Distraction and Hurry carry away, left their Country, and fled to Salamis.
Mardonius greatly inrag'd, destroy'd and wasted all the Country, levelling the City to the Ground, and utterly demolished all the Temples that were left untouch'd in the former Desolation.
Upon his returning thus to Athens with his Forces, it was determined in the general Assembly of the Grecians, that they would all join with the Athenians, and march to Platea, and there join Battel with the Persians for the Liberty of their Country. And made Solemn Vows to the Gods, that if they became Victors, they would celebrate and set apart a Festival Day, and institute Sports to the Goddess Libertas at Platea.
At the General Rendezvous in Peleponesus, they took an Oath to oblige one another to the Prosecution of the War, to the end their League might be inviolably observ'd, and that all Difficulties might be undergone with undaunted Courage. The Form of the Oath was thus,—I will not prefer Life before Liberty.I will not desert my Officers, whether they live or dye, but that I will bury my Fellow-Souldiers that shall fall in the War, how many soever they may be. If I be victorious in this War, I will not destroy or spoil any City of my Confederates. I will not rebuild any of the Temples that are burnt or ruin'd, but leave them as Monuments of the Impiety of the Barbarians to Posterity.
When they had thus sworn, they march'd over the Mountain Citharon into Beotia, and incamp'd at the Foot of the Hill, near the City Erythra. Aristides was the Commander of the Athenians, and Pausanias the Tutor of Leonidas (who was under Age) was General of the whole Army.
When Mardonius understood that the Enemy was enter'd Beotia, he march'd from Thebes, and pitcht his Tents at the River Aesopus, and fortify'd himself with a deep Trench, inclosing his Camp round with a Wall of Timber. The Grecians were an Hundred Thousand, but the Persians were Five Hundred Thousand. The Barbarians began the Fight, who all the Night long, roving up and down with all their Cavalry, set upon the Grecians in their Camp: The first that felt the Brunt were the Athenians, who forthwith in good order valiantly oppos'd them; so that the Fight was very hot. At length the rest of the Grecians put all to Flight that made the Onset on them; only the Magareans, who had to deal with the General and best of the Persian Horse, were over-press'd, yet gave no ground, but sent with all speed to the Athenians and the Lacedemonians for Succors. When Aristides understood their Distress, he forthwith sent the chief of such Athenians as were then about him, to their aid; who joyning with the other, made such a Charge upon the Barbarians, that they soon freed the Magareans from their Dangers, killing the General of the Persian Horse, with many others, and put the rest to flight.
This happy success at the beginning of the War, fill'd the Grecians with hope of absolute Victory in the Conclusion. Afterwards they remov'd their Camp out of the Plain, next under the Foot of the Mountain, into another Place more convenient for obtaining a perfect Victory. For on their Right Hand was an high Hill, and on their Left the River Asopus for their Defence: Between these Two they encamp'd, thus guarded by a natural Fortification. The straitness of the Place thus chosen by the Grecians, was of great advantage, and did much conduce to the Victory: For the Persians could not enlarge their Front as otherways they might, by reason whereof so many Thousands of the Barbarians became useless and unprofitable. The Generals, Pausanias and Aristides having now so fair an Opportunity, drew out their Forces, and advanced in Battalia as the Ground would give them leave.
Mardonius on the other Hand, being forc'd to march up in a close Body, drew up his Men to the best advantage he could devise, and with a great Shout meets the Grecians, and with the choicest of his Men, who were his Life-Guard, makes the first Charge upon the Lacedemonians, who were plac'd in Front to receive Page 232 him. He fought with an high Resolution, and made great Slaughter amongst the Greeks; but the Lacedemonians stoutly stood their Ground, contemning all Danger, and destroy'd likewise Multitudes of the Barbarians, who (as long as Mardonius was in the Head of the Army) bore the Brunt with great Courage; but as soon as he fell (valiantly behaving himself) and that they discern'd the choice of the Army with him, were all either kill'd or wounded, their Hearts fail'd, and they betook themselves to Flight, and were as hotly pursu'd by the Grecians; however the most of them got within the Timber Wall. The rest (being Grecians that sided with Mardonius) fled to, and shelter'd themselves within the Walls of Thebes. The Remainder of the Army, to the number of Forty Thousand and upwards, fled another way, with Artabazus (a Man of great account amongst the Persians) who came with them back by a shorter Cut into Phocis.
This Dispersion of the Persians caus'd the Forces of the Grecians likewise to be scatter'd, and divided into several Parties; for the Athenians, Plateans and Thespians fiercely pursued those that fled to Thebes. The Corinthians, Sicyonians and Philasians, and some few others, follow'd close upon the back of those that fled with Artabazus. The Lacedemonians with the rest of the Army, besieged and assaulted those that were forc'd within the Wall. The Thebans receiving those that fled, issu'd forth, and join'd with them against the Athenians their Pursuers; upon which there was a fierce and bloody Fight before the City Walls, the Thebans bravely standing to it, so that many were kill'd on both sides. But at length the Athenian Courage drave the Thebans back into the City.
Then the Athenians march'd back to the Lacedemonian Camp, and join'd with them in assaulting the Persians within the Wall; where the Fight was maintain'd with great Obstinacy on both sides; the Barbarians on the one Hand, within a place of Strength defending themselves with great Courage, and the Grecians on the other, with all their Might, endeavouring to force the Wall, the Fight was pursu'd without regard or fear of Death; so that many were wounded, and great numbers, with Showers of Darts were there Slain. But neither the Wall, though strongly Fortify'd, nor the number of the Barbarians could withstand the fierce Assault of the Grecians, but whatever was in their way, they bore down all before them. The Grecian Generals, the Lacedemonians and Athenians out of Emulation and desire of Glory, strove to exceed each other, encouraged both by their former Victories, and prickt forward by their own natural Valour. At length the Persians Camp was entred and taken by Storm; and though the Barbarians cried for Quarter, yet they found no Mercy. For Pausanias consider'd the great number of the Enemy, insomuch as he was afraid lest through their Number (which far exceeded the Grecians) some unexpected and suddain Mischief should happen, and therefore commanded that they should take no Prisoners. Whereupon an incredible Slaughter was made in a short time, and was scarce ended, when more than an Hundred Thousand were already put to the Sword.
When the Battel was ended, the Grecians apply'd themselves to the Burying of their Dead, which were above Ten Thousand. Then they divided the Spoil amongst the Souldiers, and appointed Judgment to be given concerning every thing that was done with more than ordinary Valour and Courage in that War. By the Decree of Charitides, amongst the Cities, the greatest Honour was attributed to Sparta; and amongst the Men to Pausanias.
In the mean time Artabazus with swift Marches pass'd through Phocis into Macedonia, with those Forty Thousand Persians that fled with him, and brought them all over safe into Asia. The Grecians dedicated a Tenth of the Spoils, and made thereof a Tripode of Gold, and placed it in the Temple of Delphos, and engraved upon it this Elogy;
And another was Engraven by the common Consent of all, to the Honour of those Lacedemonians who died at Thermopyle, in these Words—
And another by a Private Hand thus,—
After the same manner did the People of Athens adorn the Sepulchers of those that fell in the Persian War; and then were first instituted the Funeral Games, and a Law was then made, that the Valorous Exploits of those that were buried at the Publick Charge of the City, should be thenceforth set out by the best of their Orators.
Afterwards Pausanias the General, causing all his Army to return to their several Colours, marched against the Thebans, and required the first Authors of the Defection to the Persians, to be delivered up to Justice. The Thebans being discouraged both with the Multitude and Valour of their Enemies, the chief Authors of the Confederacy with the Persians, yielded themselves up to Mercy, and were all put to the Sword by Pausanias.
Of the Fight with the Persians by the Grecians in Ionia at Mycale.
THE same day that the Battel was fought at Platea, there was another great Fight with the Persians in Ionia, which I shall relate from the beginning.
Leotychidas the Lacedemonian, and Xanthippus the Athenian Admirals of the Navy, after the Battel at Salamis, came with their Fleet to Aegina, where staying some few Days, they fail'd thence to Delos with Two Hundred and Fifty Gallies. While they staid there, Ambassadors came to them from Samos, entreating that they would be assistant to the Inhabitants of Asia, to regain their Liberty.
Leotychidas hereupon calling a Council of War, it was there determined to assist them; and to that end, with all speed they loos'd from Delos. The Officers of the Persian Fleet being then in Samos, hearing of the Expedition the Grecians intended against them, departed from Samos with their whole Fleet, and came to Mycale in Ionia, and judging themselves not strong enough to encounter the Grecians, they hal'd all their Ships ashore, and compass'd 'em in both with a Wall and a deep Trench. And in the mean time, they sent with all speed for Land-Forces from Sardis, and other Neighbouring Places, so that an Hundred Thousand Men were presently Mustered together, and they procur'd all other things necessary for the War, as far as was possible, being jealous that the Ionians were ready to revolt.
Leotychidas with his whole Fleet well provided, sail'd with a straight Course against the Barbarians at Mycale, and sent before him a Ship, with an Herald or Cryer in it, one of greater Voice than any of the rest of his Army, and gave him in charge, that when he approached the Enemy, he should proclaim with a loud Voice, That the Grecians that had routed the Persians at Platea, were now at Hand, resolv'd to restore the Greek Cities in Asia to their Liberty; which was done by those with Leotychidas, because they conceiv'd that upon the News, the Grecians in the Army of the Persians would revolt, and great Tumult, and Disorder would be made amongst them; which happened accordingly.
As soon as the Cryer came up to the Persian Fleet, and had executed his Commands, the Persians grew jealous of the Grecians, and the Grecians began to consult together of a Revolt. The Officers of the Grecian Fleet having well debated Page 234 and considered all things relating to the present Affair, landed their Forces. The next Day, when all things were ready for the Onset, a Rumor was on a suddain spread in the Army, that the Grecians had overcome the Persians at Platea. Upon which, Leotychidas and his Collegues drew up the Army in a Body, incouraging them to fight, making use of several Arguments to that purpose, and withall singing among them Songs of the Victory at Platea, thereby the more to stir up and inflame their Spirits to the present Encounter. But the Circumstances of Affairs were then very remarkable; for it's certain both Armies fought on one and the same Day; the one at Mycale, and the other at Platea. Therefore since Leotychidas could not then know any thing of the Victory at Platea, we may conclude that this Report was a Stratagem invented by him on purpose; especially considering the great distance of Places, the News could not possibly arrive in so short a time. But the Persians, now no longer confiding in the Grecians, took away their Arms, and deliver'd them to their Confederates, and encouraged their Souldiers, telling them, that Xerxes was at hand with a great Army for their Assistance, whereby they rais'd up their Spirits.
Both Armies being now drawn up in Batalia, and advancing one towards the other, when the Persians saw the inconsiderable Number of the Grecians, they despised them, and forthwith charged upon them with a great shout. In the mean time the Samians and Milesians, determin'd to assist the Grecians, with all the strength they could make, and to that end with a swift March made towards the Enemy. And the Ionians conceiv'd that when they came in sight of the Grecians, they would be thereby more incouraged, which fell out otherwise; for those with Leotychidas being seis'd with a pannick Fear, upon the apprehension and suspition that Xerxes, was at hand with all his Forces from Sardis, there was nothing but Confusion and Distraction, through various Surmises and Opinions amongst them. Some were for retiring forthwith to their Ships, others were for standing their Ground, and fighting valiantly to the last Man. Whilst they were in this Terror Disorder and Confusion, the Persian Army advanced in order of Battel, and in a terrible manner with great shouts fell in upon the Grecians, who were forc'd to receive the Charge, having now no time left for further Consultations. The Battel being now join'd, great Courage, and Resolution was shewn on all hands, and a long time the Fortune of the Day was doubtful, and many fell on both sides. But as soon as the Samian and Milesian Armies appear'd, the Courage of the Grecians was reviv'd, and the Persians so flag'd and fail'd that they forthwith fled, and were pursu'd with a very great Slaughter; for the Souldiers of Leotychidas and Xanthippus follow'd them close at their Heels, to their very Tents. In the mean time the Aeolians and many other of the Inhabitants of Asia, came in to the assistance of the Grecians though then almost Conquerours: For a general and ardent desire of Liberty possess'd all the Asian Cities, and therefore many neither regarded Leagues made, or Hostages given, but together with the other Grecians with the same Rage hew'd down and slew the flying Persians. And thus the Persians, were routed and dispers'd with the slaughter of Forty Thousand Men; of the rest some of them escap'd to their Camp, and others fled to Sardis.
Xerxes being inform'd both of the Slaughter of his Men at Platea, and of the routing of his Army at Mycale, leaving part of his Forces to carry on the War, in a great Fright fled with the rest to Ecbatana.
When all was over, Leotychidas and Xanthippus sail'd back to Samos, and then receiv'd the Ionians and Aeolians as their Confederates in the War. And some time after used many persuasive Arguments to them, to leave Asia, and come over into Europe, promising them to bestow upon them the Estates of all those that had confederated themselves with the Persians. For if they continued in Asia, they would be in continual Alarms by Enemies that far excell'd them in strength, and that were near to them; and that their Friends by reason of the distance by Sea, could not be assistant to them so opportunely, and at such Seasons as their Necessity might require. Upon which Promises the Ionians, and Aeolians were persuaded, and in observance of the Grecians Desires, prepar'd themselves to take Shipping for Europe. But the Athenians afterwards changing their Minds, now persuaded them to remain where they were, and faithfully promis'd that though now if the rest of Greece should assist them, yet that they would from time to time, send them aid, as being they who were only oblig'd so to do, by reason Page 235 of their Kindred and Relation to them. For the Athenians were jealous that if the Ionians settled in new Habitations, by the common concurrence of the Grecians, they would not for the future own Athens as their Metropolitan City and place of their Original. Whereupon the Ionians upon second thoughts determin'd not to remove out of Asia.
Things thus accomplished, the Grecian Army divided: The Lacedemonians sail'd back into Laconia; the Athenians with the Ionians and Islanders, made for Sestos; which Xanthippus the General took at the first Assault; and after he had put a Garrison into it, and discharg'd his Confederates, he return'd with his Citizens to Athens. And this was the event and issue of the Medean War (as it was call'd) after it had continu'd for the space of Two Years.
Herodotus the Historian began his History with some things before the War of Troy, and relates in Nine Books, whatever happen'd of Moment almost in all parts of the World; and concludes his History with the Fight at Micale, and the Siege, and taking of Sestos. During these Transactions, the Romans had great Wars, and shed much Blood amongst the Volsians. Spurius Cassius the Year before Consul, being convicted of Treason, for aspiring to the Supream Government, was put to Death. And these were the things done this Year.
The Death and Commendation of Gelo King of Syracuse; and the Rebuilding of Athens by the Policy of Themistocles.
TImosthenes being Archon or Chief Magistrate at Athens, and Cesus Fabius, and Lucius Aemilius Mamerchus Roman Consuls, there was a setled Peace throughout all Sicily; for the strength of the Carthaginians was utterly broken, and Gelo govern'd the Sicilians with that Justice and Equity, that the Laws flourished in every City, and Plenty every where abounded. The Syracusians making a Law against extravagant Pomps of Funerals, and not only taking away those usual vast Expences upon the Dead, but forbidding all manner of Curiosity upon that account; Gelo willing in all things to confirm what the People agreed upon, confirm'd this new Law by his own Example; for falling sick, and lying upon his Death-bed, he gave up the Kingdom to Hiere his eldest Brother, and commanded that the Law should be strictly kept in reference to his Funeral. After his Death, his Successor in burying of him, observ'd his Commands. His Body was laid in his Wife's Inheritance, within the Nine Towers (as they were call'd) Places of great and sumptuous Workmanship.
The whole City accompany'd the Body to the Place, which was about Two Hundred Stages distant: And the Citizens erected a stately Monument over him, and commanded he should for ever after be honour'd with the Honours due to the Ancient Heroes.
This Monument was in after-times destroy'd by the Carthagians in their War against the Syracusians: And the Places call'd the Nine Towers (through Envy) were demolished by Agathocles. But yet neither the Hatred of the Carthaginians, nor the Envy of Agathocles, nor the Force nor Fraud of any other Person, was able to eclipse the Glory of Gelo. For History has justly preserv'd his Fame, and will for ever hand it down to Posterity. For as it is just, and tending much to correct the Irregularities of Humane Conversation, to fix a Brand and Mark of Disgrace upon those that have used their Power wickedly and mischievously, so on the other hand, it is as just to perpetuate the Memory of those who have rul'd justly and honourably to the good of others. For this will be an Inducement to Men to behave themselves so, as to merit Commendation Page 236 from those that come after them. Gelo reign'd only Six Years: Hiero his Brother and Heir, Eleven Years and Eight Months.
After the Victory at Platea, the Athenians brought back their Wives and Children from Troezen and Salamis to Athens, and forthwith set upon the Repairing of their Walls, and spared neither Cost nor Pains in that, nor in any other thing necessary for their Defence.
But the Lacedemonians considering that the Athenians had much advanced their Reputation by their Strength at Sea, fearing lest they should grow too strong, determin'd to forbid the building of their Walls; and therefore sent Embassadors with all speed to Athens, to let them know, that it was not for the common good and interest of Greece, that Athens should be walled; for if Xerxes should make upon them a Second Invasion with fresh and greater Forces, if he should gain Cities out of Peloponesus ready wall'd, he might from thence, as out of Forts and Castles, make suddain Incursions upon them, and thereby with ease subdue the Grecians. But when the Embassadors were not much regarded, they imperiously commanded the Carpenters and Smiths to cease from the Work. Whereupon the Athenians not knowing what to resolve upon, Themistocles (who was then in great Favour and Authority) advis'd them, that they should not at present make any Noise or Stir about the matter. For if they should contend, the Lacedemonians would easily hinder them in the Work, by making an Inrode upon them with the Forces of Peloponesus. But he intimated to the Senate privately, that he (with such others, as they should appoint) would go as Embassadors to the Lacedemonians, and there argue the Case with them concerning the Fortification of the City. And he gave in charge to the Magistrates, that if any Embassadors came from Lacedemon, they should detain them till his return from thence; and in the mean time they should with the assistance of the whole City go on with the Work, and that was the very way (he told them) to effect their Design.
The Athenians all approv'd of his Advice, and Themistocles with those join'd in Embassy with him, set forth for Sparta. In the mean time the People of Athens set upon the Work with might and main, sparing neither House nor Sepulchre for Materials: Women and Children, Strangers and Servants were all imploy'd, and none permitted to be idle. The Work went on beyond expectation, and through the multitude of Hands, and diligence of those imploy'd, advanc'd to Admiration; which being nois'd abroad, the Lacedemonians were very hot with Themistocles concerning the Fortifying of the City. But he denied all, and wish'd them not rashly to believe every little Story spread Abroad, but rather to send some faithful Messengers, who might bring them a certain account of the truth, how Matters went; and for further Assurance, he deliver'd up himself and his Associats as Hostages to the Spartans.
The Lacedemonians at present pacify'd and perswaded by what Themistocles had said, took him and his Associates into Custody, and forthwith sent some of the chief of the Citizens to Athens, to make strict inquiry and observation how Affairs were. In the mean time, the Athenians in a short space, advanc'd their Walls to their just height. The Spartan Embassadors as soon as they entred into Athens, being very turbulent, and sharply threatning the Athenians for what they had done, they committed them all to Prison, declaring they should not be set at Liberty, till Themistocles and the rest of their Embassadors were sent Home. By this Trick the Laconians being deluded, were forc'd to redeem their own Embassadors by the discharge of the Athenians. And this Policy of Themistocles in procuring the walling of the City, both with effectual speed and safety, purchased the great Love and Honour of the Citizens.
Whilst these things were acting in Greece, the Romans made War upon the Tuscans, and got a great Victory, with the Slaughter of many of their Enemies, and afterwards took Tusculum by Storm, and reduced the City of the Esculaneans.
The inlarging of the Haven at Athens by Themistocles. The Treason of Pausanias, and the Justice of Aristides.
AT the end of the Year, Adimantus was chosen Archon of Athens, and Fabius Vibulanus, and L. Valerius were Consuls of Rome. At this time Themistocles for his excellent Government and ingenuity in state Policy, was in great esteem, not only at Athens, but over all Greece. Being hereby encouraged, he made it his Business (by further and greater Services) to enlarge the Bounds and Sovereignty of his Country: For confidering that there was no Haven at the Pyreum, and the Athenians were forced to make use of Phaleron for their Port, which was strait and incommodious, he contriv'd to turn that into an Harbour, which would require the least Charge, and yet would be the most beautiful and spacious Haven in all Greece, which being accomplished, he hop'd would conduce to the making the Athenians Masters of the Seas; who then had a great Fleet, and were famous for their many Victories at Sea.
By this means he hop'd the Ionians (being defcended from the same Ancestors) would be brought over to them, and so by their Assistance he should be able to restore all the Grecians in Asia to their Liberty, and thereby for ever oblige them to be Friends to the Athenians.
Moreover he concluded that the Islanders mov'd with the Athenians strength at Sea, would presently join with them, who were judg'd Persons that might be of great advantage or prejudice to them. And he very well understood that the Lacedemonians were very considerable at Land, but understood little of Sea-Affairs; but yet he kept all private to himself, being assured that the Lacedemonians would never suffer it to be done.
Therefore in a Publick Assembly, he told the Citizens that he had found out something of very great moment and advantage to the Commonwealth; but that it was not at present expedient to make it publick; being of that nature, that the fewer that were acquainted, the better; and therefore wished the People to chuse Two whom they could best trust, to whom he would discover the whole Design.
The People hereupon chose Two, Aristides and Xanthippus, not only because they were Men of Integrity and honest Principles, but that they emulated Themistocles, and secretly envy'd him for the Glory and Reputation he had amongst the People. When they had privately heard what he had design'd, and his Reasons, they made report unto the Assembly, that what Themistocles had contriv'd, was not only great, but of extraordinary advantage to the Commonwealth, and with ease to be effected. The People were presently taken with great admiration of the Man; and yet as soon struck with a suspition, lest by these Inventions and great Designs, he aim'd at the Sovereignty. Therefore they commanded he should forthwith discover his Purposes. But he told them again and again, that it was not for the publick good openly to reveal them.
The People now more admiring the Courage and Constancy of the Man, commanded him to reveal the business to the Senate privately; and if the Senate did judge that it was a matter feasible, and of certain advantage to the Publick, then whatever was necessary for the Execution of his Design should be granted to him. Upon which, when he had informed the Senate of the particulars, and when upon the Relation, all was judg'd both easie, and of highest Concern and Advantage to the Commonwealth, every thing at length was granted to him which he desired (in order to the effecting of his Design) with the approbation and consent of the People.
The Assembly then broke up with great admiration of Themistocles, every one expecting what would be the issue of their Counsels. And now being furnished with all things necessary, both as to Men and Money, he contriv'd how to delude the Lacedemonians a Second time; for he was assur'd, that as they had Page 238 oppos'd the repairing of the Walls, so they would with all their power and might obstruct the making of the Port.
He sent therefore Embassadors to Sparta, who should let them know how much it tended to the advantage of Greece, in case of future Invasions by the Grecians, to have in some Place or other a commodions Haven. By this Contrivance giving a check and stop to any hasty opposition by the Lacedemonians, he forthwith sets upon the Work. And all Hands being imployed in the business, the Port was finished upon a suddain, and beyond all expectation. Then he advis'd the People that they would add Twenty Gallies more every Year to the Fleet they had, and that they would priviledge with freedom from all Impositions all Strangers and Artificers, that by that means both the City might become Populous, and store of Workmen and Tradesmen might be had with little pains; for he conceiv'd both necessary, not only for the increase, but the support of their power at Sea: And thus the Athenians were imploy'd.
The Lacedemonians now commanded Pausanias who was their General at Platea, to free the Greek Cities from the Persian Garrisons which still remain'd amongst them; whereupon he sail'd from Peloponesus (with Fifty Gallies, and from Athens with Thirty, of which Aristides was Admiral) to Cyprus, and there deliver'd the Cities from the Garrisons that were fixt amongst them. Thence sailing back to the Hellespont, he took Byzantium, then under the Persian Yoke, and freed the City; some of the Barbarians being put to the Sword, and others taken Prisoners; amongst whom, some of the Persians of great Quality were taken and deliver'd to the care and custody of Gongylus of Eretria, under pretence to reserve them for Punishment, but in truth to return them safe to Xerxes: For he had contracted a private Confederacy with the King, and was to marry the King's Daughter for his Reward, in undertaking to betray Greece. All these Matters were transacted by Messengers and Interpreters between him and Artabazus the Persian General, who secretly fed Pansanias with Money, with which he corrupted such Grecians as were for his Purpose.
But the Treason was discover'd, and the Author fell under just Punishment in this manner: Giving himself up to Persian Luxury and Excess, and carrying it with great Insolency and Tyranny towards those that were committed to his Charge, all highly resented his Pride and Haughtiness, especially those that had born any Office and place of Magistracy in the Commonwealth. The Souldiers therefore every where murmuring, and in all their Meetings, complaining one to another of these things, and of the Pride and Tyranny of Pausanias, the Peloponesians at length deserted him, and return'd into their own Country, and sent Messengers to Sparta, to accuse him.
But Aristides the Athenian making use of the present occasion in all publick Meetings and Assemblies, stirr'd up the Cities, and by fair and smooth Words so far wrought, as to prevail with them to put themselves under the Protection of the Athenians. And that which help'd forward the matter to the advantage of the Athenians was this that follows. Pausanias had agreed with Artabazus, that he should not suffer any to return that brought him Letters from himself, lest their Intreagues should be discovered: Whereupon all such Messengers were kill'd to prevent their Return; which being taken notice of, and suspected by one imploy'd in that Affair, he open'd the Letters deliver'd to him, and by the Contents being now confirm'd in his former Opinion of the Destruction of the other Letter-Carriers, he deliver'd the Letters to the Ephori; who not being fully satisfied of the truth by those Letters which were very dark; but insisting upon further and clearer Evidence, the Messenger told them he would find out a way how they might convict him of his Treason, by Testimony out of his own Mouth.
Whereupon the Messenger forthwith went to Tenarus, to pay his Devotion in the Temple of Neptune, where he wrought a double Tent, one within another, within one of which were conceal'd some of the Ephori and other Spartans. Pausanias hastens Page 239 thither, and inquires of him, what was the ground and cause of his Earnestness in his Addresses; who complain'd, that he by his Letters had determin'd his Death notwithstanding his Innocency. Upon which, Pausanias declar'd he was very sorry for what he had done, and begg'd his Pardon, and entreated him to conceal the matter, and promised he would bountifully reward him: And so they parted.
But the Ephori and those with them took little notice at that time of the business; but a while after, the Lacedemonians with the authority of the Ephori, consulted together to seize him, and bring him to his Tryal; which he foreseeing, fled to the Temple of Minerva Chalcidica.
The Lacedemonians being at a stand, whether it were lawful for them to force him out of the Temple, it's said his Mother went thither, and plac'd a Tile she brought with her before the Gate of the Temple, and without doing or saying any other thing, return'd to her own House; which when the Lacedemonians understood (according to the Mother's Sentence) they made up the Gate of the Temple, and by this means he was famish'd to Death. His Body indeed was deliver'd to his Friends to be bury'd; but the Deity was highly incens'd for the Violation of the Sanctuary: For when the Spartans went to enquire at the Oracle of Delphos, concerning some other matters, they were commanded to restore the Suppliant to the Goddess: Which Command being impossible for them to observe, there were many and great Consultations among 'em what was best to be done. At length they came to this Resolve, to set up and dedicate Two Brazen Statues of Pausanias in the Temple of Minerva, which was done accordingly.
And now according to our usual manner, through the whole Course of our History, as we have used to advance the just Praises of them that were vertuous and deserving, and on the other hand, to perpetuate the dishonourable Actions (after their Deaths) of such as acted wickedly, so we shall not let pass the detestable Malice and Treason of Pausanias, without Censure. For who could not but admire the madness of this Man? who after his Victory obtain'd at Platea, and by other noble Actions, being grown so deservedly famous and popular among the the Grecians, did not only neglect to preserve what honour and authority he had gain'd, but in a sordid manner (thirsting after the Riches and effeminate Delights of the Persians,) wickedly stain'd all his former Glory by Treason. Grown proud by success, he grew weary of the plain Laconian way of Living, and gave himself up to the Luxury, Voluptuousness, and softness of the Persians, whom it less became of all other Men to imitate. For he knew (not by relation from others) but by his own Experience, how much the severe Discipline of his own Country did exceed the soft Manners of the other, as to the advancement of Vertue and Courage: And therefore his Treason not only brought upon himself just punishment, but likewise was the occasion that all his fellow Citizens were deprived of the Admiralty at Sea.
For the great care and integrity of Aristides in the management of Martial Affairs being taken notice of, as likewise his Courtesie and Moderation towards all that were under his Command (and that managed with an apparent demonstration of all manner of Virtuons Qualities) all with one consent chose to subject themselves to the Athenians. The Captains and Officers therefore sent from Sparta, no longer regarding Pausanias, but all admiring Aristides, submitted in every thing to him, by which means he got the Sovereignty of the Sea without Blows.
Aristides therefore forthwith propounds to his Confederates, That it might be decreed by the general Consent of the People in their Publick Assemblies, that from thenceforth a common Fond or Treasury should be appointed at Delos, where all the Money collected for publick Service should be kept. In pursuance of which Counsel, for the better managing of the War against the Persians (wherewith they were then threatned) all the Cities were commanded to contribute according to their several Abilities; which was so liberally done, as the Sum amounted to no less than Five Hundred and Sixty Talents; which he so equally and justly disposed of (being made Lord Treasurer) that he gain'd the entire consent and approbation of all the Cities to whatsoever he thought fit to be done.
Page 240 And now having accomplished that, which above all other things seemed to be most difficult; for his Justice and Integrity, he got the Name of Aristides the Just. And so the very same time that Pausanias by his Wickedness depriv'd his Citizens of the chief Command at Sea, Aristides by his Virtue gain'd for the Athenians that Sovereignty which they never had before. And these were the Actions of this Year.
Hiero King of Sicily prepares to besiege Agrigentum; discovers the Treason of them of Himera to Thero their Prince. Expells the Cateneans and Naxians.
WHen Phedon was Archon of Athens, the Seventy Sixth Olympiad was perform'd, in which Scamander of Mitylene was Victor; the Consuls of Rome were Cesus Fabius and Spur. Furius Medullinus. About this time died Leotichidas King of Sparta, in the Two and Twentieth Year of his Reign, to whom succeeded Archilaus, who reign'd Two and Forty Years. At the same time died Anaxilaus King of Rhegium, and Zancles after he had governed Eighteen Years, and Micychus (a faithful Trustee) was admitted into the Government, upon Condition that he should restore all to the Children of the deceased King when they came of Age.
Hiero King of Syracuse, after the Death of Gelo, had a jealous Eye towards his Brother Polyzelus, because of his great Interest and Esteem among the People; and therefore contriv'd how to take him out of the way; to which end, he imploys all Mercenaries and Strangers about him for his Guard, judging that to be the surest way for the keeping Possession of the Kingdom.
And when the Sybarites were besieged by the Crotonites, and desir'd assistance from him, he rais'd a great Army, and committed the charge of the War to Polyzelus, with a purpose that he might fall in the Battel. But Polyzelus suspecting the Design, refused the Command; at which the King fell into a great Rage against his Brother, who fled to Thero King of Agrigentum; whereupon Hiero makes all preparation and speed to besiege them both.
In the mean time, Thrasideus the Son of Thero being Governor of Himera, by his harsh and severe Government, quite lost the Hearts of the People. But they not daring to complain to his Father, (not looking upon him as an impartial Judge) sent Embassadors to Hiero, with great Accusations against Thrasideus, and offer both to deliver up their City, and to assist him against Thero. But Hiero (judging it better for his purpose to deal with Thero in a calm and peaceable manner) secretly betrays the Himerians and their Plots against him. All things being made apparent and plain, Thero is not only reconcil'd to Hiero, but likewise restores Polyzelus to his Brother's former Love and Favour, and puts to death many of the Traitors of Himera.
About the same time Hiero expelled the Cataneans and Naxians from their own Country, and planted the Cities with new Colonies of Five Thousand Men out of Peloponesus, and as many from Syracuse, and call'd Catana Aetna; and distributed not only the Country of Catana, but many large Tracts adjoyning, by Lot amongst the Citizens, which were Ten Thousand. And this he did, both to have Succors at hand upon any Pressing occasion, and likewise that he might be honoured after his Death, as the Founder of so great a City, (wherein were contained Ten Thousand Inhabitants. The Cataneans and Naxians he transplanted into the City of the Leontines, commanding them to abide there in common freedom with the rest of the Inhabitants.
Page 241Thero in like manner considering how Himera was in a great measure depopulated, planted the Doreans there, and ordered that whosoever would, should be inroll'd Citizens of that Place. These govern'd the Commonwealth with great Commendation for the space of Fifty Eight Years: Not long after which time, the Carthaginians raz'd the City to the Ground, which hath continu'd ruin'd and in its Rubbish to this Day.
The Lacedemonians quarrel with the Athenians for the Dominion of the Sea.
WHen Dromoclides was Archon of Athens, and Marcus Fabius, and Caius Manlius Consuls of Rome, the Lacedemonians were highly concern'd for their loss of the Sovereignty of the Sea, and therefore being greatly exasperated against the Grecians, who had deserted them, they breath'd out Revenge, with just Indignation against them. A General Council therefore being call'd, they advis'd together concerning War to be proclaim'd against the Athenians, in order to the Recovery of their Dominion at Sea: And in several other Assemblies of the People, most of them (especially the Young Men) were very hot and eager for the War, vaunting every where how rich they should be if they succeeded in their Design, and how all would be encouraged in the Service of their Country, when every private Family hath had such advantages and occasions to enrich and advance themselves.
And they call'd to mind an old Prophesie from the Oracle, which bid them beware of having but an half Empire, which could signifie nothing else (as they alledg'd) but the present Circumstances they were in. For being there were Two Sovereignties, the one at Land, and the other at Sea, if they lost the one, they must needs be Masters but of a Lame Government.
The whole City almost being of the Opinion for a War, the matter was again referr'd to the Senate, supposing none would dare to contradict the general Sense of the Citizens. But one of the Senators, of the Family of Hercules, call'd Hetaemaridas, (a Man of great Esteem among the Citizens for his Virtue) advised quite otherwise, and declar'd his Opinion that they should suffer the Athenians quietly to enjoy the Dominion of the Sea, for that it was not the Custom of the Commonwealth of Sparta, to contend about that Sovereignty. And urging many Reasons for the confirmation of his Opinion (which was not at first very grateful) he at length prevail'd both with the Senate and People to wave the War. And so it was concluded, according to his Advice, as most advantagious to desist.
The Athenians at the first were in great fear of a bloody War with the Spartans about this Command at Sea, and therefore they built many Gallies for that purpose, and provided a great Mass of Treasure, and sought to gain all their Neighbours and Confederates with the greatest Demonstrations of kindness and courtesie imaginable. But hearing of what was resolv'd and determin'd by the Lacedemonians, all fear of War being now vanish'd, they wholly bent their Minds to advance the power and greatness of their City.
Hiero breaks the power of the Hetruscans by Sea.
WHen Acestoridas was Archon of Athens, and Cesus Fabius, and T. Virginius Consuls of Rome, at that time Hiero King of Syracuse (at the Request of the Citizens of Cuma in Italy by their Ambassadors who were greatly annoy'd by the Hetruscans) sent a considerable Fleet to their Assistance, who joyning Battel with the Hetruscans of Tyrenia, in a Sea-Fight sunk several of their Ships, and obtain'd a compleat Victory, and so the power of the Hetruscans being broken, they return'd to Syracuse.
The War between the Tarentines and the Japigians.
MEnon being Archon of Athens, L. Aemilius Mamercus, and C. Cornelius L•ntulus, Consuls of Rome, broke out a War between the Tarentines and the Japiges, concerning the Limits of their Lands. At the first there were but little Skirmishes, and taking Booties one from another: But the Enmity increasing by degrees, and in the mean time Slaughters being committed far and near on both sides, at length it broke out into open War. The Japiges, of their Citizens and Confederates, bring into the Field above Twenty Thousand Men. The Tarentines understanding the great Preparation made against them, both with their own Citizens and Confederates of Rhegium, likewise take the Field. A bloody Battel was fought, and after many kill'd on both sides, at length the Japiges became absolute Victors; and in the Pursuit, the Tarentines were scattered, and broken into Two Parties, whereof one fled back towards Tarentum, the other were furiously driven towards Rhegium. The Japiges likewise divided themselves into Two Parties, of which, the one pursu'd close upon the back of the Tarentines; and in regard the distance of Place was but very small, there was a very great Slaughter made. The other Party so hotly pursu'd them of Rhegium, that they fell in pell-mell with them into the City, and so took and possessed it.
The Death of Thero Prince of Agrigentum, and the Tyranny of his Son Thrasydeus, who Abdicated the Government, and kill'd himself. Three Hundred of the Family of the Fabii slain at one time.
THE next Year, Chares was Archon at Athens, and at Rome, Titus Memius, and Caius Horatius were Consuls. Then were celebrated the Olympian Games at Elis, being the Seventy. Seventh Olympiad, in which Dancles of Argos was Victor. About this time, Thero King of Agrigentum died, in the Sixteenth Year of his Reign, and Thrasydeus his Son succeeded.
Thero governed with great Moderation and Justice, and therefore was greatly loved and honoured by his Subjects: And at his Death was reverenced as a Divine Heroe; but his Son even in his Father's Life-time, appeared to be of a violent and bloody Disposition.
And after his Father's Death, throwing aside all restraint of the Laws, he rul'd arbitrarily and tyrannically: For which reason his Subjects combin'd against him, as one not fit to be intrusted with the Government, and perfectly hated by all. And therefore within a little time after he came to an end suitable to his Deserts.
For after the Death of his Father, he rais'd a great Army of Mercenaries, and of his own Subjects of Agrigentum and Himera, to the number of above Twenty Thousand Horse and Foot, and with these went against the Syracusians. But Hiero furnish'd with a considerable Army, wasted the Borders of Agrigentum, and after join'd Battel with the Enemy, in which most of the Grecians on both sides being drawn up one against another, were slain. But the Syracusians got the Day, with the loss of Two Thousand Men; of the other side were kill'd above Four Thousand.
Thrasideus by this ill Success, perplexed in his Mind, Abdicated his Government, and fled to the Megarians call'd Miseans, and being there condemn'd to Dye, slew himself. The Agrigentines after they had restor'd and setled their Democratical Government, sent an Embassador to Hiero, to strike up a Peace. At the same time in Italy, the Romans had War with the Veians, and in a great Battel at Cremera were routed; and amongst others, Three Hundred of the Fabii, all of one Family, were slain every Man. And these were the Affairs and Events of this Year.
The Malice of the Lacedemonians against Themistocles, and his Banishment. His Praise.
THE next Year Praxiergus being Archon of Athens, Aulus Virgilius Tricostus, and C. Servilius, Roman Consuls; the Eleans who before lived dispers'd in several little Villages, now imbody'd themselves into one City, call'd Elis. The Lacedemonians observing how Sparta was contemn'd and evil spoken of by reason of the Treachery of Pausanias, and how the Name of Athens grew famous for their Loyalty and Faithfulness one to another, endeavour'd all they could to stain the Athenians with the same Blot of Ignominy. And therefore for as much as Themistocles was a Man of great Repute and Esteem amongst the Athenians, they accuse him of Treason, as if he consulted with Pausanias how to betray Greece to Xerxes. And the more to provoke the Enemies of Themistocles, and to stir them up to accuse him, they made use both of Bribes and false Insinuations, affirming that Pausanias discover'd his Treasonable Design of betraying Greece unto Themistocles, and solicited him to join with him both in Counsel and aid other ways: But though Themistocles would not then agree to do that, yet he did not look upon himself obliged to discover his Friend. However (notwithstanding the Potency of his Adversaries) Themistocles was clearly acquitted, and his Name grew more famous amongst the Athenians, for he was greatly beloved by the Citizens for the former eminent Services he had done the Commonwealth. But afterwards (when by reason of his Popularity, he became suspected by some, and envy'd by others) unmindful of his former Deserts) they determin'd both to weaken his Authority, and to bring down the height of his Spirit. In the first place therefore, they Banish'd him the City, by the Judgment of Ostracism. This Law was instituted at Athens, after the Tyrants were expell'd out of the City by Pisistratus: And the Law was thus; Every Citizen writ the Name of him in a Shell, whom they most suspected to be in a capacity. (by reason of his Power and Interest) to overturn the Popular Government; and he whose Name was writ in most of the Shells, was forthwith Banished for the space of Five Years. And this Law was used at Athens, not so much as a punishment for any particular Offence, as to humble the Spirits of proud and aspiring Men, and by their Banishment to reduce them to more Moderation and Submission.
Themistocles thus banish'd from his Country, went to Argos; which when known by the Lacedemonians (supposing now they had a fair opportunity to ruin him,) they sent again Embassadors to Athens, to accuse him as being in Conspiracy with Pausanias in his Treason; alledging that those Injuries which did concern all Greece in general, should not be determin'd by the Athenians only, but by a Common Council of Greece, which was wont upon such occasions to be assembled at Sparta. Themistocles considering that the Lacedemonians were resolv'd to expose the Athenians to Shame and Contempt, and that they of Athens were as ready to oppose them, in defending their Country against the Crime objected, he concluded that the matter concerning him, would be agreed to be heard in a Common and General Assembly of the Grecians at Sparta: And he had had experience, that the Lacedemonians were guided more by Interest and Favour, than by the Rules of Justice, as by a late Experiment was apparent in a Judgment they lately gave, in a Cause between them of Argos and Athens: For they that were Judges in that Assembly, were so envious against the Athenians, that though the Athenians provided more Ships for the late War, than all the Grecians beside; yet they judg'd them worthy of no more Honour than any of the rest of the Greeks: For these Reasons he judg'd it not advisable to trust to that Assembly at Sparta; for from his late defence made at Athens, they took occasion to renew their Accusation; for in his Justification he had confess'd he had received Letters from Pausanias, to perswade him to joyn with him in his Treason, conceiving this would be a strong Argument for the support of his Innocency; in Page 245 as much as it might be concluded, that Pausanias would never have used such earnest intreaty, unless he had before disallow'd of Pausanias his Treasonable Designs.
For these Reasons, Themistocles fled to Admeius King of the Molossians, and at his Court humbly prayed for Protection. The King at the first receiv'd him courteously, and promis'd that he would take care of his safety: But when the Lacedemonians sent some of the Nobility to him to demand Themistocles, calling him Traytor, and the ruin of Greece, and denouncing War against the King by all the Grecians, unless he did deliver him: The King at length mov'd with their Threats, and yet pitying his late Suppliant on the one hand, and desiring to avoid the imputation of ignominy, of harbouring a Traitor on the other hand, advis'd Themistocles with all speed to be gone as privately as he could, and furnish'd him with a great Sum of Money for his support in his Flight. Having receiv'd the Money, and all other Supplies necessary, provided by the King for him, he fled in the Night from the Molossians, and finding Two Young Merchants of Liguria, who were well acquainted with the Voyage, he fled with them, and by the advantage of the Night, and the unwearied care and industry of the Two Young Men, he deceiv'd the Lacedemonians, and came safe into Asia, where he had a special Friend call'd Lysithedas, a Man of great wealth and interest, and with him he abode. This Man was in great favour with Xerxes the Persian King, and had nobly entertain'd his whole Army as they pass'd that way: By which means he became very familiar and endear'd to the King. The Man pitying the present condition of Themistocles, endeavour'd all he could to prefer him, and promis'd to do him all the service that was in his power.
But when Themistocles desir'd him to bring him to the King; he at first refused, alledging if he did, the King would take off his Head, because he had done so much Mischief to the Persians. Yet when he found that Themistocles was in earnest and pressing, he yielded to him, and in a short time, procur'd him a safe Conduct into Persia. It was a Custom there, that when any of the King's Concubines were brought to him, they were carried in a Chariot close cover'd, and it was not lawful for any, either to spie or inquire who was so carried. Lysitheidas made use of this to effect what he design'd, for he procur'd a Chariot sumptuously adorn'd with Flags and Streamers, and put Themistocles into it, and with all secresie brought him safe to the King; who had first promis'd Lysitheidas in private, that none should do him any Injury. After he came into the King's presence, and in an elegant and fluent Discourse, had satisfied him, that he had not been any ways injurious to the Persians, he was fairly discharg'd and acquitted. And being thus safe by the favour of an Enemy, he fell presently into a new and far greater danger, which was thus—
Mandona, the Daughter of Darius that destroy'd the Magi, and Sister of Xerxes, was of high esteem among the Persians; she lost all her Children in the Sea-Fight, where the Persians were routed; which she could not bear without great trouble, which mov'd all to pity her: She hearing that Themistocles was come to Court, in a Mourning Habit, and with many Tears, petitioned the King her Brother, that he would kill Themistocles; but not being able to prevail, she solicited the Nobility to the same purpose, and at length rais'd a tumultuous Multitude, to demand Justice against him; who rush'd with great Clamours and Noise into the Palace, crying out for Justice against Themistocles. The King told the Nobility, that he would call a Senate, and whatever they ordered should be effected. Themistocles had time sufficient given him to prepare for his Trial; within which time he perfectly learnt the Persian Language, and did so manage and plead his own Cause before the Senate, that he was acquitted both of Guilt and Punishment.
The King rejoic'd at his Discharge, and honour'd him with many rich Gifts: For he gave to him in Marriage a Virtuous Persian Lady, of Noble Birth, and excellent Beauty: And order'd him many Servants to wait upon him, and gave him all sorts of drinking Vessels, and things for daily use, not only for necessity, but for delight and pleasure. He bestow'd likewise upon him, Three Cities for his Support and Maintainance: Magnesia near the River Meander (the richest City of Asia for Corn) to provide him Bread. Mynutes for Page 246 Meat and Victuals, being near the Sea, where much Fish was caught; and Lampsacus full of Vines for his Drink.
Themistocles now free from all fear of the Grecians (by whom he was undeservedly banish'd after all the good Services he had done for them, and richly provided for by them, whom he had afflicted with grievous Slaughters,) lived in these Cities with great plenty of all things. At length he died at Magnesia, where he was Buried, and a Sumptuous Monument there set up for him, which remains to this day.
Xerxes long'd to renew the War against Greece, and requir'd Themistocles to be General of the Army: Who assented, upon Condition that Xerxes would swear that he would not undertake the War without him. Upon which a Bull was sacrifi'd, and at the Solemnity the King swore accordingly. Then Themistocles drunk off a Cup of the Bull's Blood, and immediately fell down Dead.
Thus was Xerxes diverted, and Themistocles (by the manner of his Death) left behind him a remarkable Evidence of his Sincerity in the Management of the Affairs of his Country.
And now we are come to the Death of the bravest Man amongst the Grecians, of whom it may be justly doubted whether he fled to the Persians, with the stain of any Guilt or Treachery against his Country, but rather believ'd that the Athenians and the rest of the Grecians, ingrateful for all the good Services he had done, forc'd him most unjustly into extream Hardships and Dangers. For if we impartially and without Envy, examine the Temper and Actions of the Man, we cannot but judge him in every respect, to be the bravest and most accomplished Person of any we have before mention'd. Therefore it may be justly admir'd, that the Athenians should wilfully deprive themselves of so excellent a Person: For when Sparta was in greatest power above all the other Cities, and Eurybiades the Spartan was High Admiral of the Fleet, who but he by his Counsels and Management, robb'd all the Spartans of their Glory? Whom have we ever heard of that by one Action did accomplish that which advanc'd his Honour above all Generals, and his City above all Greece, and Greece it self above all the Barbarians? What General ever had less Advantages, and yet subject to greater and more eminent Dangers? Who ever obtain'd so glorious a Victory, opposing the combin'd strength of all Asia, with the Citizens of a poor ruin'd City? Who ever advanc'd his Country to such a height and extent of Power by his honourable Actions in time of Peace? Who ever so preserved his Country in the greatest heat of a devouring War? By one well laid Stratagem of pulling down a Bridge, he ruin'd the Enemies Land-Forces, causing them to divide one half from the other, and by that means making it more easie for the Grecians to destroy the rest. Therefore if we seriously consider the things done by him, and exactly and particularly examine them, it will evidently appear, that he was most unworthily dealt with by a City that he had by his Virtue and Valour advanc'd to the highest pitch of Glory; and that that City which was esteemed and reputed the Justest and Wisest, was to him most Cruel and Unjust.
Though this may seem a long digression in the praise of Themistocles, yet we conceiv'd it an inexcusable neglect, slightly to pass over his excellent and incomparable Virtues. During these Times, Micythus Prince of Rhegium, and Zancles built Teuxuntum in Italy.
Cymon the Athenian General, gains many Places for the Athenians; routs the Persians by a Stratagem at Eurymedentum.
DEmotion or Dromodides being Archon at Athens, the Romans chose P. ValeriusPublicola, and Naulius Rufus Consuls.
During the Government of Demotion, the Athenians chose Cymon, the Son of Miltiades, to be their General, and with a great Army commanded him to pass over into Asia, to aid the Confederate Cities, and to free them that were as yet garrison'd by the Persians. He came with a Fleet to Bizantium, and took the City Eion from the Persians; and forced Scyrus, where the Pelasgi and Delopes inhabited; and appointing one amongst the Athenians to see the Repair of it, he divided the Country by Lot.
From hence (with his Mind and Thoughts full of great Projects) he sail'd back to the Pyreum, and being furnished with more Ships and sufficient Provision, he puts forth again with a Navy of two hundred Sail.
At length with the Ionians, and other Confederates, he got together a Fleet of three hundred Sail, and made for Caria. And when he came there, all the Grecian Cities upon the Sea-Coast, immediately revolted from the Persians. The rest (which were filled with the natural Inhabitants, and with Persian Garrisons) Cymon took by Storm. All being thus brought under his Power in Caria, Lycia wholly submitted and came under his Protection. By those that came in to the Athenians the Fleet was greatly encreased. Hereupon the Persians prepared Land-Forces of their own Country, but their Seamen were of Phenicia and Cilicia: Tithraustes, Xerexs his Bastard Son, was General of the Persian Army.
Cymon having Intelligence, that the Persian Fleet lay at Cyprus, makes straight thither, and joyns Battle with his Two hundred and fifty Ships, against Three hundred and forty of the Persians. It was fought stoutly and bravely on both sides; at length the Victory fell to the Athenians, who (besides many that were sunk and destroyed) took above a Hundred Ships with their Men. The rest flying to Cyprus, the Souldiers left their Ships and ran ashore, and the empty Vessels afterwards came into the Hands of the Enemy.
Cymon being not yet satisfied with this Victory, forthwith sail'd away with his whole Fleet, with a Design to fall upon the Land-Army of the Persians, who were then encamp'd at Eurymedon, contriving to delude them by a Stratagem; he fill'd the Ships he had taken with the stoutest of his Men, with Turbans and other Ornaments attired like the Persians, who deceiv'd by the Make and Furniture of the Persian Ships, took them for a fresh Supply, and received the Athenians as Friends.
Cymon when Night came, landed his Men, and being taken as a Friend, he rushed into the Camp of the Barbarians, now fill'd with Confusion and Terror, (his Soldiers killing all before 'em, and amongst the rest, Pheredates in his Tent, the King's Nephew on his Brother's side, another General of the Persians Army.) At length the whole Army through the sudden and unexpected Assault, were totally routed and put to flight; and such a Fear and Consternation surprized the Persians, that many of 'em knew not by whom they were broken; for they could not in the least imagine, that they were assaulted by the Grecians, who had no Land-Army as they were verily perswaded; but thought that the Pisideans their Neighbours, who had been a little before provoked, had risen in Arms against them. Supposing therefore this Impression upon them, to be made from the Land, they fled to their Ships as to their Friends; and because the Night was very dark, the Mistake was the greater, and more mischievous, none knowing certainly what to do. When the Persians in this Confusion were slaughtered on every side, Cymon having before directed his Soldiers, that as soon as he should lift up a burning Torch, they should all repair thither, gave the Sign near to the Fleet, fearing some Disaster might happen by his Men being scatter'd and dispers'd in seeking after the Pillage of the Field; at the Sight of the Torch they left off pillaging, and all return'd to their Ships.
Page 248 The next day they set up a Trophy near the place, and sail'd back to Cyprus, fraught with two glorious Victories, the one at Sea, and the other at Land. For it was never before known, that such great Things both by Sea and Land were ever done by one and the same Army. From this time Cymon for the great Atchievments he had bravely and wisely perform'd, both by his Valour and Policy, was highly advanc'd in Reputation, not only amongst his Fellow-Citizens, but all the rest of the Grecians: For he took Three hundred and forty Ships, Twenty thousand Prisoners, and a vast Sum of Money. The Persians greatly perplexed with this dreadful Blow, fell a Building a greater Number of Ships than they had before; for the great Successes of the Athenians after this struck them with Fear and Terror; and from this time, the City increas'd both in Wealth and Power, and became famous abroad for the Glory of their Arms. The Athenians dedicated the Tenths of the Spoil to their Gods, with this Epigram;
These were the things done this Year.
A great Earthquake in Sparta; the War upon them by the Helots and Missenians.
PHedon was now Archon of Athens, and Lucius Furius Medullinus and Marcus Manlius Vulso Consuls of Rome, when a most sad and unexpected Calamity happened to the Spartans; for by an Earthquake there, not only the Houses were wholly overturn'd, but above Twenty thousand Souls buried in the Rubbish. The City shak'd for a long time together, and many by the violent Fall of the Walls of the Houses miserably perished; and the Houshold-goods and Riches of all sorts were by this dreadful Shake swallow'd up.
Thus were they punished as by some angry Deity taking Vengeance upon their Crimes. And were afterwards brought under many other Calamities, by the Hands of Men upon the Accounts following.
The Helots and Missenians (inraged not long before against the Lacedemonians) bridled their Anger for a time, whilst they fear'd the Power and Grandeur of the City of Sparta. But when they observ'd that the greatest part of the City and Inhabitants were destroyed by the late Earthquake (setting light by them that were left) they enter'd into a League, and with joint Force made War upon the Spartans. But Archidamus King of Sparta by his Prudence had preserv'd many of the Citizens from the late Ruin, and with these resolutely goes forth against the Enemy. For while the City was in the height of this terrible Convulsion, Archidamus suddenly headed his Army, and hasten'd into the open Field, and commanded the rest to follow him; by which means this remnant was preserv'd. Having then marshal'd his Men, he prepared for Battle.
The Helots with the Missenians in their first Heat, with great Confidence march'd against Sparta, supposing there was none to make any Defence. But when they understood that Archidamus was ready with the Citizens that were left, to defend the City and Country, they desisted from their Design. Afterwards from a Fort they had in Missenia they made daily inrodes into Laconia.
The Spartans send to the Athenians for Aid, who furnish'd them with Supplies: And at length, by their Diligence in procuring Assistance from the rest Page 249 of their Confederates, they got together an Army equal to their Enemies: Nay, at the beginning of the War, they were far superior; but afterwards they dismis'd the Athenians, in truth, suspecting that they favour'd the Messenians, but pretending that the Forces of the other Confederates were sufficient for the present Service. The Athenians looking upon it as a Slight and an Affront, departed grumbling, full of Indignation, with their Hearts boyling with Revenge against the Lacedemonians; which Hatred increased every day more and more; and this was the first Cause of the Enmity between the Athenians and the Lacedemonians, which afterwards broke out into open Hostility, and fill'd the Cities with Cruelty and Bloodshed, and all Greece with Misery and Calamity: But we shall write of these things distinctly in their due place.
After this the Lacedemonians, with the Forces of their Confederates, besieged Ithome. In the mean time all the Helots revolted from the Lacedemonians, and join'd with the Messenians. And now though the War had continued ten Years compleat, wasting one another with various Successes, yet they could not decide the Controversy.
The War between the Argives and the Mycenians.
WHen Theaginidas was Archon of Athens, and Lucius Emilius Mamercus and Lucius Vopiscus Julius, Consuls of Rome, began the Seventy Eighth Olympiad, wherein Parmenidas Possidoniates was Victor. At that time the War broke out between the Argives and the Mycenians upon the following Occasion. The Mycenians by reason of the ancient Renown and Glory of their Country, would never submit to the Government of the Argives, as all the rest of the Cities in the Territory of Argos did, but were still governed by their own Laws distinct from them of Argos. They contended likewise with the Argives, concerning the Holy Rights of the Temple of Juno, and to have the sole Management of the Nemean Games. Besides, when the Argives made a Law, that none should aid the Lacedemonians at Thermophyle, unless the Spartans would relinquish and give up part of their Country to them of Argos, they of Mycena only of all the other Cities in the Territories of Argos join'd with the Lacedemonians. And lastly, they of Argos were jealous, lest by the Growth of their Power, their ancient Courage should so revive as to contend with them for the Sovereignty. For these Reasons they had an evil Eye to the Mycenians, and some time not long before had a longing Desire to ruin their City. And now they thought a fit Occasion and Opportunity was offer'd them, to accomplish what they before design'd, in regard the Spartans seemed not to be in a Condition, by reason of their late Calamity, to aid and assist them. To this end they marched against 'em with a great Army both from Argos and their Confederates; and having routed 'em, drove 'em within the Walls, and besieg'd their City. The Mycenians made a stout Defence for a time, but wearied out and wasted by Famine, (the Laccdemonians partly thro' Wars of their own, and partly thro' the late Ruins by the Earthquake unable to assist 'em, and the help of the other Confederates failing) they became a Prey to the Conquerors. The Argives made all the Citizens Captives, and consecrated a Tenth of the Spoil to God, and laid the City even with the Ground. Such was the End of Mycena, a City in former times flourishing in all Prosperity, that had bred and brought up Men famous in their Generations, that had been glorious in the World by brave and noble Actions, and now lies wast and forsaken unto this day. These were the Affairs of this Year.
The Death of Hiero.
LYsiatus being Governour or Archon of Athens, the Romans chose Lucius Pinarius Mamercinus, and Lucius Furius Fusus their Consuls. At this time Hiero King of Syracuse invited to him with many rich Presents the Sons of Anaxalius, Prince of Zancles, now Messina in Sicily, and put them in mind how kind Gelon had been to their Father, and advis'd 'em now they were come to Mens Estate, to call Micythus their Tutor to account, and to take the Sovereign Power and Government into their own Hands. Being return'd to Rhegium, they forthwith demanded an Account of Micythus of his Administration; who, being a just and honest Man, call'd together all the Friends of the two young Men, and gave so full and clear Account of his Trust, that all then present admir'd his Justice and Faithfulness. The Youths now sorry for what they had done, desir'd him to take upon him again the Government, and as their Father, to order and dispose of all Affairs as he thought fit. But Micythus utterly refus'd to be any longer concern'd; but giving up all, ship'd his Goods, and sail'd forth from Rhegium, with the general Love and Favour of the People, and made for Greece, where he lived the rest of his Time in great Repute at Tegea in Arcadia. Hiero dyed at Catena, a City repeopled by him, and was there buried with great Pomp and Solemnity after he had reigned Eleven Years. He left his Kingdom to Thrasybulus his Brother, who reigned only one Year.
Thrasybulus King of Syracuse depos'd by Force of Arms for his Tyranny.
NOw was Lysanias Archon of Athens, and Appius Claudius, and Titus QuintusCapitolinus, Roman Consuls, during whose Governments, Thrasybulus lost the Kingdom of Syracuse: Concerning whom, inasmuch as it is our purpose particularly and distinctly to write, it is necessary to look a little back, that so things may be more clearly understood from the beginning. Gelo, the Son of Dinome, a Man for Valour and Military Discipline excelling all the rest, by a notable Stratagem (as you have heard) routed the Carthaginians. And using his Victory with all Moderation towards them he had subdued, and dealing kindly and courteously with all his Neighbours, was greatly honoured among the Sicilians; and for the Sweetness of his Disposition, liv'd belov'd of all in Peace and Quietness to the end of his days.
Hiero the eldest of his Brothers succeeded him in the Kingdom, but far unlike him in his Government. For he was covetous, cruel and altogether a Stranger to the Candor and Sincerity of his Brother, by reason whereof many were inclin'd to a Defection and Revolt; but the Memory of Gelo's Generosity and general Kindness to all the Sicilians, restrain'd them from outward Force and Violence. But when Hiero was dead, Thrasybulus his Brother advancing to the Crown, exceeded his Predecessor in all Vice and Wickedness: For being more cruel and bloody in his Nature, he slaughtered the Citizens against all Law and Justice; and by false Accusations banished many others, and consiscated their Estates. At last hating his People, and the People on the other hand, hating him for the Injuries they had suffer'd, he rais'd a Standing Army, to defend himself against the fear'd Revolt of his Subjects. And now growing every day more and more into the Hatred of his People, abusing some, taking away the Page 251 Lives of many others; the People not able longer to endure his Cruelties, made a general Defection, and rose up in Arms, to procure their Liberty by the Sword, and shake off that Yoke of Slavery and Tyranny they were under. Thrasibulus seeing the whole City of Syracuse in Arms against him, first endeavour'd to cool them by fair words; but when he saw they were so incens'd, that there was no opposing them, he rais'd Forces from Catana, a Colony not long before plac'd there by Hiero, and by other Confederates and Mercenaries, he got together an Army of Fifteen Thousand Men, and possessed himself of that part of the City call'd Acridina, and the Island which was strongly Fortify'd, from whence he made many Sallies and Incursions upon the Enemy.
The Syracusians at first kept that part of the City call'd Ithica, and from thence annoy'd Thrasibulus: And sent Embassadors to Gela, Agrigentum, Selenunte and Himera, and to the rest of the Cities in the Heart of Sicily, desiring aid and assistance for the recovering of their Liberty. These readily answered their Request, and sent them seasonable Supplies, some Regiments of Foot, others Troops of Horse, others Ships furnished with all necessaries for War: Thus in a short time having a considerable Force both of a Fleet at Sea, and an Army by Land, the Siracusians offer'd Battel to the Enemy, both by Sea and Land. But Thrasibulus being forsaken of his Confederates, and having now none to trust unto but his Mercenaries, betook himself only to Acridina, and the Island, and left the rest of the City wholly to the power of the Syracusians. Afterwards he fought with them at Sea, and was beaten, losing many of his Ships, and fled with those that escaped into the Island. Presently after he drew out his Men from Acridina, and joined Battel with them in the Suburbs of the City, where he was again routed, with the loss of many of his Men, and retreated a Second time within his Post in Acridina.
At length being out of all hope to regain his Sovereignty, he sent to the Syracusians, and came to terms of Agreement with them, and so departed into Locros. The Syracusians thus freed from Slavery, suffered the Mercenaries to march away peaceably. They freed likewise the rest of the Cities from such Garrisons as were put upon them, and restored to every place the Democracy. From thenceforth the Syracusians lived in great Peace and Prosperity, and injoy'd a popular Government for the space of Threescore Years, till the Reign of Dionysius. This Thrasibulus receiv'd a well order'd and constituted Kingdom, but basely lost it by his wickedness; and spent the rest of his Days at Locris as a private Man. While these things were done in Sicily, Rome first created Four to be Tribunes of the People, Caius Sicinius, Lucius Numitorius, Marcus Duillius, and Spurius Aquilius.
The Murder of Xerxes by Artabanus.
AT the end of this Year, Lysitheus was made Chief Governor of Athens, and Lucius Valerius Publicola, and Titus Aemilius Mamercus, Consuls of Rome. In their times Artabanus of Hircania, in great esteem with Xerxes, and Captain of his Guard, contriv'd to gain the Kingdom by the Murder of the King. He reveals his Design to Mithridates the Eunuch, one of the King's Chamberlains (whom he most consided in, as being his near Kinsman, and whom he had oblig'd by many instances of his Favour.) Mithridates presently complies with him, and brings Artabanus privately in the Night into the Bed-Chamber, and being entred, without delay murthers the King: And in the heat of the Fact runs to the King's Sons, Two of whom, Darius the Eldest, and Artaxerxes, were then at Court: Hytaspes the Third at that time, was Governor of Bactria. Artabanus in the dead of the Night, hastens to Artaxerxes, and tells him that Darius had murther'd his Father to come to the Crown: And therefore perswades Artaxerxes that he should not slothfully suffer his Brother to settle himself on the Throne, Page 252 but revenge his Father's Death, and take upon himself the Sovereignty. For the effecting whereof, he promis'd him to bring in the King's Guards for his Assistance. Artaxerxes was easily persuaded, and with the Assistance of the Guards kills his Brother. Artabanus seeing his Treachery to succeed according to his hearts Desire, now boasts before all his Sons that the time was come for his advancement to the Kingdom, and forthwith came to Artaxerxes with his Sword drawn, and Wounds him. The King not being much hurt, bravely Defends himself, and kills Artabanus upon the place. Having thus not only preserv'd himself, but reveng'd the Murther of his Father, he was established in the Throne of Persia. This was the end of Xerxes after he had reign'd Twenty Years. But his Successor continued Forty Four.
The War between the Athenians and the Aegineans.
THE following Year wherein Archimedes was Archon of Athens, Aulus Virgilius, and Titus Numitius, Roman Consuls; was the first Year of the Seventy Ninth Olympiad, at which Xenophon the Corinthian won the Prize: At this time the Thrasians revolted from the Athenians, through the Differences arising concerning the Mines, but were reduc'd by force to their Obedience. The Aegineans likewise rebell'd, and being subdued, the Athenians besieg'd their City, which was grown proud, not only through their great Successes and Victories at Sea, but their Riches at Land, and having a brave and well furnished Navy, were ever Enemies to the Athenians; who therefore entred the Island with an Army, laid waste the Country, and resolv'd to raze the City Aegina to the Ground: Hereupon now grown great in power, they carried not themselves with that Humanity and Courtesie towards their Confederates as they were used to do, but domineer'd every where with a proud and high Hand. This imperious way of theirs, caus'd many of their Confederates to enter into Consultations for a general Defection, and some particular Places determin'd it of their own accord, without flagging for, or expecting the results of a General Assembly. While these things were acting, the Athenians (being now every where Masters at Sea) sent a Colony of Ten Thousand Men to Amphipolis (chosen partly out of the Citizens, partly from among the Confederates) and divided the Country by Lot: For sometime they kept under the Thrasians that bordered upon them; but when they attempted to proceed further into the heart of the Country, those that enter'd Thrace were wholly cut off by the Edones.
The Egyptians revolt from the Persians. New Troubles in Sicily:
TLepolemus being Governor of Athens, the Roman Consuls were Titus Quintius, and Quintus Arbilius Structus. Artaxerxes now newly come to the Throne of Persia, first put to Death all those that had an Hand in the Murther of his Father, and then setled Affairs so as he thought most conducing to the interest of the Government: For he remov'd those Governors of the Provinces whom he most suspected, and plac'd others whom he most confided in, in their room. He took care to store up all manner of Provisions, and to furnish his Army with all things necessary; and ruling with all Justice and Equity, he grew into high Esteem among the Persians. In the Page 253 mean time the Egyptians hearing of the Death of Xerxes, and the Troubles in Persia occasion'd thereby, fell a plotting how to recover their Liberty; and to that end on a sudden rose against the Persians, and drave the Questors or Persian Treasurers out of Egypt.
Then they set up one Inarus to be their King; who first had an Army of the natural Inhabitants, and afterwards increas'd his Forces by Mercenary Foreigners. He sent likewise Embassadors to Athens, desiring their aid, with Promises that if they regain'd their Liberty, the whole Kingdom should be for their Service and Advantage as well as his; and he should be ever and in every thing grateful to them. The Athenians conceiving it to be much to their advantage, if by what force they could make, they might drain the Persians of their Money, and gain likewise the Egyptians to their interest, to be ready to serve them upon all occasions, determin'd to send to their Assistance a Navy of Three Hundred Sail; and to that end, all Hands were at work to make ready a Fleet. Artaxerxes receiving the News of the Revolt of the Egyptians, resolved to exceed them both in number of Men, and Provisions of War; and for that purpose forthwith rais'd Souldiers out of all the Provinces of the Kingdom, rigg'd out his Fleet, and omitted nothing necessary in the present Juncture. And thus stood the Affairs of Asia and Egypt at this time.
In Sicily after they had cast off the Kingly Government, and restored all the Cities to liberty, the whole Island greatly flourished; for having a rich and fertile Soyl, and Peace on every side, they grew very rich in a short time, the Land abounding in Labourers, Cattel, and all other Conveniences, for the comfort and happiness of Man's Life, much being now laid up, and nothing expended in Wars. But they continu'd not long thus, but again broke forth into Wars and Seditions upon the account following. Thrasibulus being deposed, they call'd a General Assembly, to consult about the manner of a Popular Government, and there it was unanimously decreed, that a Statue should be erected to Jove the Deliverer, as high as a Colossus, and that there should be Yearly upon the Day that they were rid of the Tyrant, and regain'd their Liberty, Sacrifices offered, and Solemn Games celebrated: At which Solemnities they likewise vow'd to sacrifice Four Hundred and Fifty Oxen, and therewith to feast all the People, and that all the Magistrates (according to the ancient Custom) should be chosen out of the chiefest Citizens; and that none of the Strangers who were made Denizens by Gelon, should be admitted to these Honours, looking upon them either as unworthy, or fearing lest they (being always inur'd to Monarchy) should endeavour a change of Government, which was no vain conception, as the Event after made evident. For Gelon had infranchis'd above Ten Thousand Mercenaries, of whom, above Seven Thousand remain'd at that time.
These being inraged thus to be excluded, and made incapable of being chosen Magistrates, began to plot, and at length joining together, seiz'd upon Acridina, a part of the City, and the forementioned Island, both of which Places were strongly wall'd and fortify'd.
On the other side in this Confusion, the Syracusians possessed themselves of another part of the City, especially towards the Epipole, defending themselves with a Wall and strong Guards. The Seditious were so penn'd up, that they grew scant in their Provisions. And though they were far less in number than the Citizens, yet they were much better Souldiers; and therefore when ever they made any Sallies, in every Skirmish they went off with Success. But being so close shut up, they were nigh famished. And this was the state of Sicily at this time.
This Year Conon was Archon of Athens, and Quintus Fabius Vibulanus, and TiberiusAemilius Mamercus were Roman Consuls. At this time Artaxerxes King of Persia, made Archemenes the Son of Darius his great Uncle, General of his Army intended against Egypt, which consisted of above Three Hundred Thousand Horse and Foot: With these he march'd into Egypt, and incamp'd near the River Nile, and as soon as he had refresh'd his Army, prepar'd for Battel. The Egyptian Forces were made up of Africans and Egyptians, and waited in expectation of further Aid from the Athenians; who at length arrived with a Fleet of Two Hundred Sail, and joining with the Egyptians, the Battel began with great Resolution on both sides. The Persians indeed were far more in number; but the Athenians with great Valour and Courage breaking in upon that Wing of Page 254 the Persians that was plac'd against them, and killing and destroying many of them, the rest of the Barbarians fled, and in the pursuit, most of the Army was cut off, and the rest fled to a place call'd the White Wall. The Athenians by whose Valour the Victory was obtain'd, follow'd close after them to the place, and Besieged it. But Artaxerxes having intelligence of the Overthrow of his Army, sent some he could most confide in, to the Lacedemonians, with a great Sum of Money, to induce the Spartans to make War upon the Athenians, thinking by that means to force them back, for the necessary defence of their own Country. But the Lacedemonians would neither accept of the Money, nor hearken to any other Proposals of the Persians. Being thus without hopes of Aid from the Lacedemonians, Artaxerxes prepar'd a new Army, and made Artabazus and Megabysus, both very Valiant Men, Generals, and sent them against the Egyptians.
The Persians Expedition into Aegypt. Wars in Sicily.
AT Athens, Euippas was Archon, and Quintus Servilius and Spurius PosthumusAlbus, Consuls at Rome. At which time Artabasus and Megabyzus appointed Generals for the Aegyptian War, marched away for Aegypt with above Three hundred thousand Horse and Foot. When they came to Cilicia and Phenicia, they refresh'd the Army, and commanded the Cyprians, Phenicians and Cilicians to set forth a Fleet, who furnished out Three hundred Sail fitted both with Men, Provisions and all other things convenient and necessary for a Sea-Fight. In Preparations for the War, training of the Souldiers, and imploying themselves in other Acts of Military Discipline, they spent almost a whole Year. The Athenians in the mean time closely besieg'd the Persians at the White Wall, which was valiantly defended and not likely to be taken after a Years Siege. In Sicily the Syracusians at War with the before-named Revolters daily assaulted Acridina with the adjoyning Island; and tho' they overcame the Rebels at Sea, yet they could not drive them out of the City, they were so fortify'd. But afterwards when both Armies were drawn out into the open Field, the Fight being obstinate, many were killed on both sides, but the Victory was at length gain'd by the Syracusians. After the Battle the Syracusians crown'd Six hundred Men who were most active in the Fight, and gave to every one a * Mina in Money, as a Reward of his Valour. During these Combustions, Deucetius General of the Sicilians, began a War against the Inhabitants of Catana, for withholding the Lands of the Sicilians, in which the Syracusians likewise ingaged against Catana.
The Cataneans had these Lands divided to them by Lot, when they were first plac'd a Colony there by Hiero the late King. And therefore defended their Right with all the Force and Power they could. But being overcome in several Battles, they were forced at length to leave Catana, and possessed themselves of the City Etna, formerly call'd Eunetia; and the ancient Inhabitants of Catana after a long time of Banishment, return'd to their own Country, and former Habitations. After this, all others that were driven out of their own proper Cities in the times of Hiero, with the Assistance of their Neighbours, were forthwith restored, and the Usurpers were every where ejected, as the Gelones, Acragentines and Himereans. The Rhegians and Zancleans likewise threw off the regal Power of the Sons of Anaxilas, and asserted the Liberty of their Country. After this the Gelones seating themselves at Camerina, again divided the Land by Lots. At length almost all the Cities determining to root up all those they took for their Enemies, confederated together (by virtue of a public Edict) against all the Foreigners, and restored those that had been banished, to their ancient Cities; transplanting all the Strangers (that had before usurped) to Messena. In this manner all the Seditions and Tumults through the Cities of Sicily were appeased, Page 255 and almost all were forced from the Power of Foreigners, and reduced to the ancient Form of a Common-wealth, and all the public Lands divided by Lot to the Citizens.
Now Phasiclides was Governour of Athens, and the Eightieth Olympiad was celebrated, in which Tharillus the Thessalian was Victor. And at Rome were chosen Quintus Fabius, and Titus Quintius Capitolinus, Consuls. In Asia, the Persian Commanders now in Cilicia had got together a Fleet of Three hundred Sail, well man'd and furnish'd in every respect for the War, and march'd with the Land-Army through Syria and Phenicia, and came at length to Memphis, (the Fleet sailing all along by the sides of them, near the Shoar) where they forthwith rais'd the Siege at the White Wall; both the Aegyptians and Athenians being amaz'd at the Approach of such an Enemy: Hereupon the Persians presently call a Council of War, and prudently resolved to decline fighting, but rather to endeavour to make an end of the War by some politick Stratagem. And to that end knowing that the Athenian Fleet lay at Anchor at an Island call'd Prosopitis, they diverted the Course of the River (which encompassed the Island) by deep Trenches made in the adjoyning Continent, and by that means joyn'd the Island to Main-land. The Aegyptians as soon as they discern'd all the Ships, stood upon dry Land, struck with Amazement, forsook the Athenians, and submitted themselves to the Persians. The Athenians thus forsaken, and seeing the Fleet made useless, set Fire to all the Ships, that they might not come into the Power of the Enemy. And nothing terrify'd with their present Circumstances, they encourag'd and advis'd one another, that they should not do any thing that should be a blemish and disgrace to the Courage and Valour they had before shewn in former Encounters.
Soaring therefore above the Valour of those that lost their Lives at Thermopole, for the safety of Greece they resolv'd to fight. But the Commanders of the Persians, Artabazus and Megabizus seeing the Courage of the Athenians, and considering their former Losses of so many thousand Men, they made Peace with the Athenians upon this Condition, That they should depart out of Aegypt without Hurt or Prejudice. The Athenians thus preserv'd (thro' their own Valour) leave Aegypt, and marching thro' Africk to Cyrene, from thence they all came safe (beyond their hopes) unto their own Country. During these things, Ephialtes Son of Simonidas, Tribune of the People at Athens, stir'd up the Rabble against the Areopagites to take away the Power from the Senate in Mars Hill, and to overturn the ancient and laudable Laws of the Country. But such wicked Designs went not unpunish'd, for he was kill'd in the Night, not known by whom, and so ended his days in Dishonour.
The War between the Epidaurians and the Athenians.
THE former Year ended, Philocles governed Athens the next, and at Rome, Aulus Posthumius were Consuls: In their times was begun the War by the Corinthians and Epidaurians against the Athenians, who in a sharp Battel, overcame the other, and with a great Fleet made out against the Halienses, and invaded Peloponesus, where they slaughter'd and destroy'd many of their Enemies. The Peloponesians make Head again, and with a great Army sight them at Cerryphalia, where the Athenians again rout them. Grown now consident with these Successes, and observing the Aegineans (puffed up with the Victories that they had obtain'd) to carry it as Enemies towards them, they determin'd to make War upon them; and in Execution thereof, sent forth against them a great Fleet: They of Aegina on the other hand, trusting to their Skill and former Successes at Sea, despised the great Forces of the Athenians, and with a small Navy, and some few other Ships lately built, venture a Sea-Fight, Page 256 but were beaten, with the loss of Seventy of their Vessels; so that now they were wholly discouraged and dejected, and therefore were forced to submit themselves to the Athenians. These things were done by Leocrates, the Athenian Admiral, in the space of Nine Months War with the Aeginetes. In the mean time, Deucetius King of Sicily (very Rich, and of a Noble Family) built Menenum, and divided by Lot the adjacent Lands, amongst them of the Colony brought thither. Then he Besieged the Famous City Morgantina, and was highly honour'd by all his Countrymen.
The War between the Corinthians and Megareans.
THE next year Bion was Archon at Athens, and Publius Servilius Structus, and Lutius Aebutius Eliuas, Roman Consuls. During their Government, broke out the War between the Corinthians and Megareans about the Limits of their Country. At the first they made inroads into one anothers Country, and then proceeded with little Skirmishes. At length the difference growing higher and hotter, the Megarians (suspecting their own weakness) made a League with the Athenians, by which means they ballanced their Enemies in Strength and Power. And when the Corinthians sent a considerable Army from Peloponesus against Magera, the Athenians sent Aids to the Magerians under Myromides their General, a very Valiant Man. The Armies presently ingag'd, and great Valour and Obstinacy was shew'd on both sides, insomuch as the Success was very doubtful a long time; till at length the Athenians got the day, with the Slaughter of Multitudes of the Enemy. And a few Days after, the Athenians were Victors in another Battel fought at Cimolia, where they likewise kill'd many. Within a few Days after, a Third Battel was fought.—Here something seems to be wanting in the Greek Copy.
The Phoceans made War against the Doreans, who were originally Lacedemonians, and inhabited Three Cities lying under Mount Parnassus,Cytinium, Boium and Erineus. At the first, the Doreans, (being overcome) lost their Cities to the other. But the Lacedemonians being of the same Blood, afterwards sent them aid under Nicomedes, formerly General of Cleomedes, who led forth an Army of Fifteen Hundred Lacedemonians, and rais'd as many more out of Peloponesus as made up Ten Thousand; with these he march'd to the Defence of the Dores, he being Tutor and Governor of Pleistonactis their King, who was then a Child. Having conquered the Phoceans, and recover'd the Cities, he put an end to the War, upon Articles of Peace between the Two Nations.
When the Athenians understood that the Lacedemonians had made an end of the Phocean War, and were ready to return home, they consulted how to cut them off in their Passage by the way. To this end, having resolv'd upon the attempt, they took to their aid and assistance the Argives and Thessalians, and so making out against them with a Fleet of Fifty Sail, man'd with above Fourteen Thousand Souldiers, they stopt the Passages through Geranea. The Lacedemonians hearing of the Contrivances of the Athenians, turn'd out of the way towards Tanagra in Beotia: But the Athenians march'd swiftly after them, and at length the Two Armies join'd Battel; and although the Thessalians (in the very heat of the Fight) deserted the Athenians, and joyn'd with the Spartans, yet they and the Argives stood manfully to it, and after many were kill'd on both sides, the Night put an end to the Dispute. After this, there being sent much Provision out of Attica to the Athenians, which was understood by the Thessalians, they conceiving this to be now a fit opportunity to do some notable Service, (having refreshed themselves) in the Night marched out to meet the Carriages: And being that the Guard that attended them, never suspected any Design, but admitted the Thessalians as Friends, the Contest grew hot whether should get or lose Page 257 all. For the Thessalians (being at first thus admitted) kill'd all they met, and being well prepared, and the other taken at unawares, made a great Slaughter. The Athenians that were encamp'd, hearing of what mischief the Thessalians had done, hasten'd to the Relief of their Countrymen, and fell with great Rage upon the Thessalians, and routed them at the first Charge with a great Slaughter. In the mean time, the Lacedemonians came in to the and of the Thessalians, and both Armies being now drawn up in Battalia, it came to a general Battel, which was fought with great Resolution, and many kill'd on both sides. The issue and event being doubtful, both the one side and the other suspected the loss of the Day; but Night growing on, and the Victory still remaining doubtful, Messengers were dispatch'd one to another, and a Truce at length agreed upon for Four Months.
The War between the Athenians and the Beotians.
THIS Year ended, Mnesitheides was chosen Archon of Athens, and LuciusLucretius, and Titus Viturius Cicurinus were Roman Consuls. In the time of their Governments, the Thebans being brought low by reason of their League with Xerxes, endeavour'd by all the Artifices they could, to regain their former Power and Sovereignty; for being greatly despis'd by all the Beotians who had shaken off their Authority, they apply'd themselves to the Lacedemonians, to assist them in recovering the Government of Beotia: And for this Kindness they promis'd that they would be at all the Charge of the War then begun against them by the Athenians, and that the Spartans should not need to bring any Land-Forces out of Peloponesus.
The Lacedemonians judging it to be much to their advantage, to gratifie the Thebans in their Request, conceiving that if they were thus strengthen'd and supported, they would become a Bulwark against the Athenians, especially the Thebans having at that time a great and well disciplin'd Army at Tanagra, they enlarg'd the Bounds and Circuit of the City of Thebes, and compell'd all the Beotians to the subjection of the Thebans.
The Athenians to obviate the Designs of the Lacedemonians, rais'd a considerable Army, and made Myronides the Son of Callias, General. Having chosen a competent number of the Citizens, he told them the Day wherein he intended to march out of the City. When the Day came, many of the Souldiers (notwithstanding the Command given) did not appear; yet with those he had, he made for Beotia. Some of his Friends and Officers of the Army, persuaded him to stay, till the rest of the Souldiers came up to them. But Myronides being both a Prudent and Valiant Commander, answer'd, That it did not become a General to Loyter, for it was a shrew'd Sign, that they who were slow and dilatory in their March towards their Enemy, would be Cowards in the Fight, and would prefer their own safety before the good of their Country. For they (said he) that readily appear'd at the Day appointed, gave an evident Testimony of their Valour, that they were resolv'd not to shrink in the Day of Battel. Which by the Sequel did appear; for he march'd against the Thebans with an Army far less in number of Men, but much excelling in Prowess and Valour, and by the brave Resolution of his Souldiers, utterly routed the Enemy; which Victory was not inferiour to any that were ever obtain'd by the Athenians in former Times. For neither that at Marathon, nor at Platea against the Persians, nor any other Exploit of the Athenians, did exceed this of Myronides against the Thebans. For the former, some of them were obtain'd against Barbarians, others by the help of their Confederates. But this was gain'd by the Athenians themselves alone, against the most Valiant of the Greeks. For the Beotians were ever accounted for stoutness and hardyness, not inferior to any in Greece; which in after-times was confirm'd; for at Leuctra and Mantinea, the Thebans alone fought both with the LacedemoniansPage 258 and their Confederates, and purchas'd to themselves great Renown, and became reputed (and that not unworthily) the best Commanders of all Greece.
Although this Battel was one of the most Famous, yet no Author has writ any thing of the manner or order of it. However by this glorious Victory over the Beotians, Myronides has equaliz'd his Memory with those illustrious Generals, Themistocles, Miltiades and Cimon. Immediately after the Fight, he took Tanagra by Storm, and demolisht it. And running over all Beotia, wasted all before him, and divided the Spoil and Riches of the Country amongst his Souldiers.
The Beotians inraged with the wasting and destroying of their Country, came together from all Parts, and with a great Army march'd against their Enemies. The Fight began amongst the Vineyards of Beotia, and both sides being fully resolved, the heat of the Battel continued a whole Day, but at length with great difficulty the Valour of the Athenians prevail'd.
Myronides shortly wan all the Cities of Beotia, except Thebes. Then he rais'd his Camp, and march'd with his Army against the Locrians (call'd Opuntians) routed them at the first Onset, and upon their submission took Hostages, and then broke into Pharsalia, and with as much ease overcame the Phoceans, as he did the Locrians, and receiving Hostages, marched for Thessaly, and charging them with Treason, commanded them to recall those they had Banished.
But the Pharsalians refusing to obey, he besieged the City, which (after a long and stout Defence) he was not able to take by Force, and therefore raised his Siege, and return'd to Athens; where he was receiv'd with great Acclamations of Praise, for the noble Acts he had in so short a time accomplish'd. These were the Remarks of this Year.
The Athenians invade the Spartans by Tolmides.
THE Eighty First Olympiad was celebrated at Elis, wherein PolymnastusCyreneus was Victor, at the time when Callias was Archon of Athens, and Servius Sulpitius and Publius Volumnius Amintinus were Roman Consuls. Then Tolmides the Admiral of the Athenian Fleet out of Emulation to the glory of Myronides, made it his Business to do something more than ordinary remarkable. And therefore for as much as none before had ever attempted to invade Laconia, he advis'd the People of Athens to make an Inroad into the Country of the Spartans, undertaking that if he might have but a Thousand Armed Men Aboard his Ships, he would waste Laconia, and bring an Eclipse upon the Spartans Glory. Having got the Consent of the People, and designing privately to get more Men than he at first required, he conceiv'd this Project: All were of opinion that a choice should be made of the strongest, young and most spriteful Men in the Army. But Tolmides designing far more than the Thousand yielded to him for his intended Enterprize: He goes to every one of the ablest Men, and tells 'em each singly, that he intended to chuse him for the War, and that it was far more for their Credit and Reputation, to offer themselves of their own accord, than being chosen to be compell'd to the Service. When by this means he had persuaded above Three Thousand to give in their Names of their own accord, and discern'd the rest to be backward, he then proceeded to the choice of the Thousand granted to him by the Consent of the People. And when all things were ready for the Expedition, he set Sail with Fifty Ships, and Four Thousand Souldiers, and arriving at Methon in Laconia, took it; but by reason of the speedy Succour sent by the Spartans, he was forc'd to quit the Place, and made for Gythium, a Port Town of the Lacedemonians, which he likewise took, and there burnt and destroy'd all the Shipping and Naval Provisions, wasting the Country round about. Thence he bent his Course for Zacynthus in Cephalania, and possess'd himself of that City, and after he had brought all the Towns in Cephalania to a submission, he sail'd with the whole Fleet to Naupactus, on the Page 259 opposite Shore, which he gain'd at the first Assault, and there plac'd a Colony of the Noblest Families of the Messenians, who had been before (upon Agreement) dismis'd by the Lacedemonians. For about this time in a War against the Messenians and the Helots, the Lacedemonians had reduced most of them to their former Subjection. And them of Ithomea they discharg'd upon Articles of Submission, as is before said: And as for the Helots, those of them that were the Authors and Ringleaders of the Defection, they had put to Death, and made the rest Slaves.
Sosistratus now Pretor of Athens, the Romans chose for Consuls, Publius ValeleriusPublicola, and Caius Clodius Rhegillanus. During their Government, Tolmides continued in Beotia. But the Athenians made Pericles the Son of Xanthes General of a select number of Men, and committed to him Fifty Ships, and a Thousand Souldiers, with a Command to invade Peloponesus. Hereupon he wasted a great part of it, and passed into Acarnania, near the Island Oeniades, and there brought all the Cities to a Submission. So that during this Year, the Athenians gain'd many Cities, and became famous for their Military Discipline, and many glorious Successes in their Wars.
The War in Sicily between the Aegestines and the Lilybeans. The Custom of writing upon an Olive-Leaf the Names of such as were to be banish'd in Sicily, call'd Petalism.
IN this Year Ariston was Chief Magistrate at Athens, and Quintus Fabius Vibulanus and Lucius Cornelius Curetinus, Consuls of Rome. In the time of their Government, a Peace was made between the Athenians and the Peloponesians for Five Years, by the mediation of Cimon the Athenian.
In Sicily a War broke out between the Aegestines and the Lilybeans concerning some Lands near to the River Mazarus: After a sharp Battel fought, and many kill'd on both sides, they began to cool for some time; but after an account of the Citizens was taken in every City, and a new division of the Lands was made by Lot, and that every one was to take his share as it fell, the shares fell so confus'd, that the Cities broke out again into Civil Discords and Dissentions, by which Mischiefs the Syracusians greatly smarted. For one call'd Tyndarides, a rash conceited Fellow, who protecting and feeding many poor People, by that means sought to make a Party to further his Design in obtaining of the Principality: But when it was evident, that he aim'd at the Sovereign power, he was brought to his Trial and condemn'd to dye. And when they were bringing him back to the Goal, he was by the Party he had before prepared, as aforesaid, by Force rescu'd out of the Hands of the Officers. This rais'd a Tumult through the whole City, and caus'd the chief and soberest part of the Citizens to join together against them; who presently apprehended the Innovators, and put them, together with Tyndarides to death. When several Attempts were made of this kind, and many were infected with this itch of Dominion, the Syracusians were at length forc'd after the Example of the Athenians, to make a Law not much differing from that of Ostracism at Athens: For there every Citizen was to write in a Shell the Name of him whom they conceiv'd to be most powerful to possess himself of Sovereignty. So the Syracusians were to write the Name of him who was thought to be most potent upon an Olive-Leaf; and when the Leaves were counted, he whose Name was upon most of the Leaves, was Banish'd for Five Years.
By this means they conceiv'd they should bring down the aspiring Minds of the great ones to some moderation; for they did not hereby intend the punishment of any Crime that was committed, but the prevention of Mischief, by impairing the Estates, and weakning the interest of them that might be ambitious. Page 260 That therefore which the Athenians call'd Ostracism, from the nature of the thing, the Syracusians call'd Petalism.
This continu'd long amongst the Athenians, but was abolished within a short time after by the Syracusians, for these Reasons: For when several of the chief and best deserving Men were by this Law banish'd the City, the rest who were beloved by the Citizens, and were Men of great use in the Service of their Country, withdrew themselves from all publick business, and out of fear of the Law, betook themselves to private Lives: But minding thus their own private Concerns, at length they fell into all manner of Profuseness and Luxury. In the mean time, the basest of the Citizens taking upon them the Government, stirr'd up the Common People to Innovations and Disturbances in the Commonwealth; and so all things ran a Second time into Sedition and Confusion, and a continual and mighty Storm of Trouble and Disorder shook the City. For there arose many Ringleaders and Seducers of the People, especially Young Conceited Men, who thought none spoke like themselves, nor no Wisdom like theirs. In Sum, many instead of the Principles of the ancient Justice and Honesty, instill'd nothing into the People, but wicked Notions, both in Manners and Practice. In time of Peace, it was their only business to heap together Riches, but had no regard at all to Amity and Justice amongst Men. The Decree therefore of Petalism, upon more mature Consideration, was repeal'd within a short time after it was put in execution. And thus stood the Affairs of Sicily at this time.
Pericles makes an Inrode into Peloponesus. Besieg'd Scycion. Phaylus in Sicily made Admiral against the Tyrrhenian Pirats; is corrupted and banish'd. The Original of the Palici: And the Stories of the Temple, and Wonders of the Craters in Sicily.
WHen Lysicrates was Governor of Athens, Caius Nausius Rutillius, and LuciusMinutius Augurinus, were celebrated Consuls at Rome. During their times, Pericles the Athenian General made an Inrode into Peloponesus, and wasted the Country of the Scycions. The Scycions march'd out with a great Army against him, and Battel being join'd, Pericles routed them, and kill'd many in the Pursuit, and having driven the rest within the Walls of the City, laid Siege to the Place. But after he had made a valiant Assault, and saw he could not win the Place, in regard the Lacedemonians had sent Aid to the Besieg'd, he withdrew his Army from Scycion, and march'd into Acarnania, there wasting the Country of the Oeniades; and having loaded himself with Booties and Plunder, left Acarnania. After this, he march'd into Chersonesus, and divided the Country by Lot amongst a Thousand Citizens. And in the mean time Tolmides the other General made a Descent into Eubea, and divided the Country of the Naxians amongst another Thousand of the Citizens.
As for Sicily, the Tyrrhenians infesting the Sea with Pyracies, the Syracusians chose one Phaylus to be Admiral of the Fleet, and commanded him to make a Descent upon Tyrhenia. Being furnish'd with a Fleet well provided, upon the first attempt, he wasts the Island of Aethalia; but being corrupted by the Hetruscans with Money, he return'd into Sicily, without doing any thing memorable. But the Syracusians banish'd him for his Treason, and chose another call'd Apelles, and sent him with Threescore Ships against the Tyrrhenians. Upon which he wasts the Sea-coasts of Tyrhenia, and sails to Corsica, then subject to the Hetruscians, and harrased and destroy'd a great part of the Island; and having wholly subdued Aethalia, return'd to Syracuse, with a multitude of Prisoners and much spoil.
Page 261 After this, Ducetius Prince of the Siculi, reduced all the Cities of the same Nation (except Hybla) into one Society and Community. This Man being both Wise and Valiant, bent his Mind for the accomplishing of something great and unusual; for having a rich Treasury, he remov'd the City Neas, the Place of his Birth, into a plain Champain Ground, and built a famous City near the Temple of the Palici (as they are call'd) from whom he call'd the City Palicon. And because those Deities now fall in our way, it's not fit we should altogether pass by the strange and indeed incredible Stories that are related concerning this Temple, and especially that great wonder there call'd the Craters. For they say, that this Temple is to be preferr'd before all others, both for Antiquity and Religious Worship, especially for the strange and wonderful things done there.
And first in this Temple, there are hollows in the Earth, call'd Craters, not very large in compass, but of incredible depth, from whence break out great sparks of Fire and Water, like as from boiling Pots or Caldrons. The Water cast forth, resembles so many Streams of Fire; but there's no certainty what it is, for none hitherto ever durst approach it: For the violent irruption of the Fiery Matter is so wonderful, that it seems to be the immediate effect of some divine Power. It smells like Brimstone, as most predominant, and the bottomless Gulf roars and makes a most dreadful and horrible noise. And that which is far more to be admir'd is this, That this River of Fire neither flows nor makes any stay upon the Land, but in a continual motion, with an amazing force, hurls it self up into the Air. This Place therefore by these wonderful instances of some Divine Presence, being accounted Sacred, the most Solemn and Sacred Oaths were used here to be taken, and due Punishments were without delay executed by the Deity, upon the Perjur'd Person; For it hath been observ'd, that many such have been struck blind as they have gone out of the Temple. And the great Veneration that Persons have had for the Place, has often been the occasion that matters of great Controversy (where Might was likely to overcome Right) have been decided by an Oath in this Place. This Temple likewise at some times, is a Place of Refuge, and a special help for injured Servants to protect them against the cruelty of their Severe Masters. For they who fly thither, cannot be drawn thence, but continue safe there, till by the Mediation of Friends they are reconcil'd to their Masters, and mutual Oaths taken for the faithful Performance of what is promis'd on both sides. And it was never known, that ever any broke his Faith with his Servant in such a case, such an awe (through the fear of the Gods) was upon them. This Temple is situated in a most pleasant Plain, adorn'd with beautiful Porches, Galleries and other stately Buildings, becoming the dignity of the Gods. But of this sufficient is said. And now we return to what we were before relating.
Deucetius after he had wall'd in his new City Palicon, divided the Country adjacent among the Inhabitants. They grew wonderfully rich in a short time, both by reason of the fruitfulness of the Soil, and the multitude of the People. But this Sun-shine lasted not long, for destroy'd it was, and lies waste and desolate to this Day. The reason of which shall be declared in its proper Place.
In Italy, after the Sacking of Sibaris by the Crotonians, one Thessalus, about Eight and Fifty Years after getting together the remnant of the Sibarites, rebuilt Sibaris, situated between two Rivers, Sybaris and Crathis. But the Sibarites growing rich suddenly by reason of the fruitfulness of the Soil, possess'd the City only Six Years, and were again ejected; which we intend to relate more fully in the following Book.
The Contests between Deucetius and the Agrigentines. His strange Submission to the Syracusians, who sent him to Corinth, with promise to supply him with Necessaries.
WHen Antidotus was Governor of Athens, the Romans chose Lucius Publius Posthumus, and Marcus Horatius Consuls. In their time, Deucetius the General of the Siculi took Aetna, whose Prince was kill'd by Treachery. Afterwards he led his Army into the Country of the Agrigentines, and besieg'd Motyum, a Garrison of the Agrigentines. They of Agrigentum sent aid to them of Motyum, but his Army fought and routed them, and took the Place. The Winter approaching, all return'd to their several Cities. The Syracusians put to Death Bilco, the General of the Army, the Author (as was supposed) of that ruin that was brought upon them in this Battel, and who was judg'd to have had secret Correspondence with Deucetius. At the Return of the Year, they made another General, committing to him an Army well appointed in all respects, with strict Orders to ruin and destroy Deucetius. To which end he led forth the Army, and found Deucetius encamp'd near Nomae, where a Battel was fought, and after many kill'd on both sides, the Siculi after a valiant Resistance at last fled, but a great slaughter was made of 'em, in the Pursuit. Many of those that escap'd, fled to the Forts and Strong Holds, for few had Hearts and Courage enough to run the same Fortune with Deucetius.
Whilst these things were thus acting, the Agrigentines retook the Castle of Motyum by force, wherein at that time was a Garrison of Deucetius; then they march'd to the Victorious Syracusians, and both encamp'd together: But Deucetius having lost all his Treasure in the last Battel, was brought near to the utmost extremity, partly through the Treachery of some, and partly through the Cowardize of others of his Souldiers who deserted him.
At length seeing matters brought to so desperate a Condition, that his Friends who were yet about him were ready to lay violent Hands upon him, to prevent the execution of their Treacheries, he fled with all speed in the Night to Syracuse, and whilst it was yet dark, came into the Market-place, and fell down before the Altars, and as an humble Suppliant, gave up both himself and his Country into the Hands of the Syracusians. The strangeness of the thing brought a great Concourse of People together into the Market-place. Upon which, a General Assembly of the Magistrates was call'd, and there it was debated what was to be done in this matter. Some who were used and lov'd to speak much to the People, persuaded them to take him as an Enemy, and for his many Acts of Hostility against them, to punish him accordingly. But the Wiser sort of the Senators who were then present, declar'd that the Suppliant was to be preserved, and that a reverend regard was to be had to the Providence of God; and that they should not have respect so much to what Deucetius deserved, as seriously to consider what was fit and just for them to do in such a case. To kill one whom Providence had laid as a Suppliant at their Feet, was unjust, but to preserve and keep to the Rules of Piety towards God, and Humanity towards Men that submit to Mercy, greatly became the Generosity of the Syracusians. Hereupon the People unanimously cried out, Let the Suppliant be safe. Deucetius thus deliver'd, the Syracusians sent him back to Corinth, and commanded him there to continue the rest of his Days, with a Promise to supply him with all things necessary for his comfortable support. And now having perform'd our Promise in setting forth those things that happened the Year next before the Athenian Expedition into Cyprus under Cymon their General, we conclude this Book.
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