IT's an old Saying, (brought down to us by Tradition) That none overturn Democracies, but Men that overtop others in Power and Interest. For which reason some Cities are always jealous of such of their Fellow Citizens as grow Great and Powerful; and therefore do what they can to depress them. For when Men are in Power, the next Step is to domineer over their Country; and for those that (through the Greatness of their Interest above others) have Grounds to expect the Sovereign Authority, 'tis very difficult to be free from an Itch of Monarchy. For 'tis very natural for them that are ambitious, when they have much, to thirst after more, and never set Bounds to their insatiable Ambition.
The Athenians therefore, upon this very account, made a Law, which they call'd Ostracism, for the banishing such as grew Great amongst them; not so much to punish them for any Fault they had committed, but to prevent the Mischief and Prejudice to their Country, which by their Power and Interest they were in a Capacity to bring upon them: For they remembred (as it were an Oracle) what Solon had formerly said, who foretelling the Tyranny of Pisistratus, compos'd this Elegiack:
Of all other Places, Sicily was most infected with this Itch of Monarchy, before the Romans reduc'd it into the Form of a Province. For the Cities, deceiv'd by the Flatteries of the Orators, advanc'd inconsiderable Men to that height, till they became absolute Lords over the deluded Multitude.
But the Advancement of Agathocles to be Prince of Syracuse, is above all othersthe most singular and remarkable: For he began at first in very mean and unlikely Circumstances; but at last he involv'd not only Syracuse, but all Sicily and Lybia it self in Blood and Slaughter. He was so mean and low in the World in his Original, that he follow'd the Trade of a Potter; from whence he rose to that height of Power and Cruelty, that he Lorded over the greatest and richest Island in the World; and for some time gain'd the greatest part of Africa, and some Parts of Italy, and fill'd the Cities of Sicily with Butcheries and Oppressions. None of the Tyrants that ever were before him committed the like Villany, or exercis'd such barbarous Cruelty upon their Subjects. For as for his own Kindred, he put them all to Death, Root and Branch; and so plagu'd the Cities, that he sometimes butcher'd all that were at Men and Women's estate; and would would cut the Throats of Multitudes of poor Innocents for the Faults of a few, without any difference or distinction; and then presently would murder whole Cities, Men, Women, and Children.
But because this Book, with others that follow, comprehend the Tyranny of Agathocles, omitting any further Preface relating thereunto, we shall now connex things coherent with those that were before related, first allotting to everything we treat of its due and proper time.
In the preceding Eighteen Books, we have endeavour'd to set forth whatever was done in the known Parts of the World, from the beginning of Time, to the Year next before theReign of Agathocles, to which time, from the Taking of Troy, are computed Eight hundred sixty six Years.
In this Book, beginning with the first of his Reign, we shall end with the Battelfought by Agathocles with the Carthaginians, containing an account of Affairs for the space of Seven Years.
Agathocles his Parentage and Education: His Rise: His Stratagems: His bloody Massacre at Syracuse. He gains the Sovereign Power. The Affairs of Italy. Olympias returns into Macedonia by Polysperchon's means. The Armies revolt to her. Her Cruelties. She murders Euridice, and Arrideus her Husband. Affairs in Asia. Eumenes and Seleucus. Eumenes join'd by many of the Captains. The number of their Forces. He comes to Susa. Attalus and others imprison'd by Antigonus in a strong Castle, seeking to escape, are afterwards besieg'd, and taken.
IN the Rule of Demogenes Chief Magistrate of Athens, and when Lucius Plotius and Manius Fulvius were Roman Consuls, Agathocles became Tyrant of Syracuse. That things as they were severally done may be more clearly and distinctly understood, we shall premise a few things concerning the foremention'd Prince.
Carsinus of Rhegium being banish'd from his Country, dwelt at Thermis in Sicily, which City was then in the hands of the Carthaginians: This Man married a Woman of that Place, who when she was big with Child, us'd often to be troubled with strange Dreams. Being therefore much perpiex'd in his Mind concerning this Embrio, he intrusted this Affair with some devout Carthaginians, who were then going to Delphos, and desir'd them to enquire of the Oracle concerning this Child; who faithfully performing what they were enjoyn'd, the Oracle gave this Answer, That that Child would bring dreadful Calamities upon the Carthaginians and all Sicily. The Father being terrify'd with this Prediction, expos'd the Child in the open Fields, and left it with some to watch to observe its end. After several days it still continu'd alive, and the Guard upon it growing remiss and careless, the Mother in the mean time stole the Child away in the Night, but durst not bring it back to her own House for fear of her Husband; but intrusted it with her Brother Heraclides, and call'd it Agathocles, after the Name of her own Father.
Where being brought up, he grew very Beautiful, and of Strength of Body above what was usual at his Age. When he came to be seven years old, Carsinus was invited by Heraclides to Sacrifice, and there seeing Agathocles playing with other Children about the same Age, he greatly admir'd both his Strength and Beauty; and when his Wife told him, That the Child which he so expos'd, if he had been brought up, would have prov'd as Manly a Child as that he then saw; he answer'd, that he was sorry for what he had done, and then fell a weeping: Whereupon the Woman perceiving that what she had done would be very pleasing and agreeable to her Husband, she discover'd to him the Truth of the whole matter; whereat he was mightily pleas'd, and took away his Son; and out of fear of the Carthaginians, remov'd with all his Family to Syracuse: but being but a poor Man, he taught his Son, then a Child, the Potter's Trade; at which time Timaleon the Corinthian having routed the Carthaginians at the River Cremissus, made all free of the City that would come in to him, amongst whom Carsinus (with Agathocles) were inroll'd as Citizens; and Carsinus died a little time after.
The Mother of Agathocles had in a certain place set up her Son's Statue in Stone, upon which a Swarm of Bees fastned, and began to make their Wax-Combs upon the Hips of the Statue; which remarkable Passage being related to those who apply themselves to Studies of that kind, all unanimously agreed, That when he came to be a Man, he would be famous; which happen'd accordingly: For Demas, a Nobleman of Syracuse, falling in love with Agathocles, first supply'd him liberally with every thing he had occasion for; so that he began in some measure to taste of Plenty; afterwards being created General of the Agragentines, he advanc'd him to be a Colonel in the room of one that was then lately dead. He was indeed very remarkable and of great Esteem before he was an Officer, upon the account of the Strength of his Body; for in the time of Training and Military Exercise, he bore so great a weight of Armour, and carry'd such mighty Weapons, that no other Man was able to bear. But now since he was made a Military Tribune, his Fame spread abroad much more than it did before; for he was eager to fight, daring in Action, and bold, nay, impudent in his Harangues to the People. Demas afterwards fell sick, and died; and having left all his Estate to his Wife, Agathocles marry'd her, and so was esteem'd one of the richest of the Citizens.
Page 609 Afterwards the Crotonians being besieg'd by the Brutians, the Syracusians sent a great Army to their relief, under the Command of Antander, the Brother of Agathocles and others: But the Sovereign Command and chief Management of the Affair was committed to Heraclides and Sosistratus, Men that employ'd themselves all their Lives long in Assassinations, Murders, and all kinds of Wickedness and Debauchery. Which the Book next preceding this hath particularly set forth. With those in this Expedition (by a Decree of the People) was join'd Agathocles, who was then a Colonel; and though he had remarkably approv'd his Valour against the Barbarians, yet he was so envy'd by Sosistratus, that he altogether disregarded him, not allowing him the Honour due to his Deme rits: At which he was so exasperated, that he accus'd Sosistratus and his Followers to the People, as having designs to advance him to the Monarchy. But the Syracusians giving no regard to those Accusations, Sosistratus, after his return from Crotona, became Supream and Absolute Lord of his Country.
Agathocles being incens'd against him, first (with those that sided with him) remain'd in Italy, and endeavour'd to possess himself of Crotona, but failing in his design, with some few along with him, he escap'd to Tarentum; by whom he was entertain'd and taken into Pay; but committing many rash and inconsiderate Acts, he began to be suspected of some intended Innovation; and thereupon his Commission was taken from him; upon which he got together the Exiles of Italy, and reliev'd them of Rhegium, who were then besieg'd by Heraclides and Sosistratus. Afterwards, when the Monarchy was abrogated at Syracuse, and Sosistratus was expell'd out of the City, he return'd into his Country. And in regard at that time, many of the Nobility who were for an Oligarchy (to the number of Six hundred of the greatest Persons of Quality) were together with the Magistrates thrust out of the City, a War broke out between the Exiles, and those that were for a Democracy; and the Carthaginians sided with Sosistratus and his Exiles: Hereupon, there were daily Skirmishes and Drawing-up of Armies one against another; in which Agathocles acting sometimes as a Private Soldier, and at others as a Commander, gain'd the Reputation both of Valour and Policy; for always upon every opportunity, he invented some stratagem or other which prov'd advantageous to his Party; amongst which there was one thing especially to be remember'd.
The Syracusians had Encamp'd near to Gela, and at that time in the Night he broke into the City with a Thousand Men at Arms, who were presently met by Sosistratus, with a strong and well-order'd Party, who forc'd them that had entred, back, and kill'd Three hundred of them: The rest looking upon themselves all as lost, endeavour'd to get out at a Sally-port, and were beyond all Hope and Expectation, freed from their present imminent danger by Agathocles: For he fought with great Valour and Resolution at the Head of his Men, and receiv'd seven Wounds; and when he was even ready to faint (through loss of Blood) and the Enemy bearing down upon him, he commanded the Trumpeters to sound a Charge at both parts of the Walls; which being presently done, those who came to force out them that were entred, could not discern the truth of the thing, because of the Darkness of the Night, and therefore believing that another Party of the Syracusians had broken in at both Places, they made an Halt and pursu'd no further. And so being divided into two Parts, at the Sound of the Trumpets, they forthwith ran together to defend the Walls. In the mean time, Agathocles with his Soldiers, having thus made room for themselves, got safe to the Trenches; and thus having deluded the Enemy, he not only wonderfully preserv'd his own Men that first entred, but seven hundred more that came in to his assistance.
After this, Acestorides the Corinthian being created General at Syracuse; Agathocles was thought to aspire to the Monarchy for his good Service, but he avoided the Danger that hung over his Head upon that account: For Acestorides (not willing to cut him off for fear of a Tumult) commanded him to depart the City, and ordered some to kill him in the Night as he was making away. But Agathocles conceiving what the General was plotting against him, pick'd out one of the young Men that was very like himself, both in Stature and Feature; and delivered to him his Horse, Arms, and Garments, and by this means subtilly deceiv'd them who were sent out to be his Murderers; but he himself slink'd away in By-paths in a poor ragged Coat; and they by the Arms and other signs, conjecturing that the other was Agathocles, (the Darkness of the Night not permitting a perfect Discovery) perpetrated indeed the Murder, but miss'd the Person.
Afterwards the Syracusians having re-admitted the Exiles that were driven out of the City with Sosistratus, and having made Peace with the Carthaginians; Agathocles himself now an Exile, rais'd an Army of his own in the Heart of the Country; at which not only the Citizens but the Carthaginians were much affrighted; and therefore he was courted Page 610 to return into his own Country; and when he came, being conducted into the Temple of Ceres by the Citizens, he there swore that he would do nothing to the Prejudice of the Democracy.
Putting on therefore a Cloak of Dissimulation, as if he would protect the Democracy, and having caught the People by divers Tricks and Devices, he was made General and Conservator of the Peace, till all Matters should be appeas'd amongst the Exiles that were return'd to the City. For every Company and Fraternity were divided into many Factions, and very great Heart-burnings there were between private and particular Persons: But the Senate of Six hundred that was appointed to govern the City after an Oligarchy, was most fierce against Agathocles's Party; for the Members of this Assembly were such as were the Richest and of the best Quality among the Syracusians.
However, Agathocles, who now affected the Sovereignity, gain'd many opportunities for the accomplishing of his Designs: For he had not only a Command of an Army as General, but News being brought that there was an Insurrection in the Bowels of the Country at Erbita, he gain'd a further opportunity to increase his Army, and raise what Men he pleased without suspicion. Under colour therefore of his Expedition to Erbita, he rais'd Men out of Morgantina and other Cities, in the Heart of the Country, together with those that had formerly serv'd him in the Wars against the Carthaginians; for all these had a great respect for Agathocles, upon the account of the many instances of his kindness towards them, throughout the whole War. On the other hand they hated the Six hundred who had been a part of the Oligarchy in Syracuse, and no less abhorr'd the People who forced them into Obedience. There were Three thousand of them that were thus very ready with Heart and Hand to overturn the Democracy: To these he join'd some of the Citizens, who by reason of their Poverty envy'd the Power and Pomp of the great Ones.
When every thing was ready, he order'd the Soldiers to meet him at spring of Day, in a Body at Timoleontium; and he himself in the mean time sent for Pisarchus and Decles, (who seem'd to be the most leading Men among the Six hundred) pretending to discourse with them concerning some Matters relating to the Publick Good: When they came to him, accompany'd with forty of their Friends, he pretended he was to be betray'd by them, and thereupon seiz'd them all, and accus'd them to the Soldiers, declaring, that for his love to the People, he was likely to be hurried away to destruction by the Six hundred, and sadly bewail'd his Miserable State and Condition; at which all the Soldiers were so enrag'd that they cry'd out, that Revenge should be presently taken without any further delay, upon the Authors of such Injustice: Upon which he commanded the Trumpets to sound a Charge, and order'd his Soldiers to kill those that were the Ring-leaders of the Mischief, and spoil and plunder the Six hundred, and all those that sided with them, of all their Goods and Estates. Hereupon all being now eagerly set upon Ravage and Spoil, the whole City was fill'd with Horror and Confusion; for the most Innocent of the Citizens not dreaming of any Massacre design'd against them, ran out of their Houses into the Streets, to see what the Ground was of the Uproar; whereupon, the Soldiers, partly through their Covetousness to enrich themselves, and partly through Madness and Rage, fell upon the Naked People that (through Ignorance) had no Arms to defend themselves, and put them all to the Sword. For the Soldiers having secur'd all the Narrow Lanes and Passes in the City, the Citizens were inhumanly Murder'd, some in their Houses. and others in the Streets, and many (altogether Innocent, not accus'd of the least Fault) were knock'd on the Head while they were asking the reason why they were to be kill'd. For the common Soldiers (having now all in their Hands) made no difference betwixt Friend and Foe; but he was sure to be reputed an Enemy where most was to be gotten by his Fall; so that then you might see the whole City fill'd with Violence, Murders, Slaughters, and all kinds of Wickedness: For some out of former grudges spar'd not to load those they before hated with all sorts of Disgrace, having now full sway to do whatever they pleas'd; others judging it an act of Prudence to enrich themselves by the Butcheries of them that were rich; spar'd no means, nor omitted any contrivance to destroy them. For some broke down the Gates of the Out-Courts, others by Ladders ascended the House Tops, and some fought with them that defended themselves from the Roofs of the Houses. Nay, there was no safety even to them who fled to the Temples under the shelter of the Gods; but Piety towards the Gods was crusht and born down by the Cruelty of Men: And these things Greeks against Greeks in their own Country, and Kindred against Kindred in a time of Peace, without any regard either to the Laws of Nature, or Leagues or Reverence to the Gods, dar'd thus audaciously to commit: Upon which account not only Friends, but even Enemies themselves, and every sober Man, could not but pity the miserable Condition of these distressed Page 611 People. All the Gates were shut up, and above Four thousand were kill'd in one day, for no other fault but that they were in greater esteem than others: Of those that endeavour'd to fly, some in running to get out of the Gates were laid hold on, others who cast themselves over the Walls escap'd to the next Towns. Some through Fear and Inconsiderateness leap'd off the Walls and broke their Necks. After all, there were thrust out of the City as Exiles, above Six thousand, of whom the greatest part fled to Agrigentum, where they were receiv'd and entertain'd with that Humanity as was agreeable to their present Condition. But those of Agathocles his Faction, (who spent the whole day in Butchering of the Citizens) were not sparing in committing their Rage and Villanies upon the Women, but thought they should be reveng'd upon them that escap'd Death, if they could but abuse their Kindred and Relations, in the most Vile and Beastly manner imaginable: For that it was very reasonable to think, that it would be more bitter than Death it self to Husbands and Parents to think of the Abuses of their Wives, and the Ravishings of their Daughters: But from hence we must forbear composing a Tragedy as is very usual with other Writers, especially to stir up compassion towards them that are involv'd in such horrible Sufferings; because none will expect an express account of every Particular, when the whole is so ready and clear to be understood. For they that durst impudently at Mid-day murder Innocents in the open Streets and Market place, have no need of a Writer to set forth what they did in the Houses in the Night, and how they behav'd themselves towards Wives and young Maids then in the power of their Enemies, without any guard or defence to protect them.
But Agathocles, after he had glutted himself with the slaughter of the Citizens two whole Days, brought together all the Prisoners, and releas'd Dimocrates, upon the account of an old Friendship between them: But as to the rest, such as were his greatest Enemies, he put to Death, and banish'd the other. Then calling a common Assembly, he accus'd the Six hundred, and those who had favour'd the Oligarchy, declaring that he would purge the City of all those that affected a Monarchy; and restore the People to perfect Liberty, and that he would henceforth stand upon equal ground with them all, and live a private Life, free from further Cares and Toils. Upon saying of which he threw away his Generals Coat, and put on a Jacket, and so went his way, making a shew of himself as but one of the Common People. He did this dissemblingly to act the Part of a Commoner; being in the mean time very well assur'd, that there were many in the Assembly that were Brethren in Iniquity with himself, who would never suffer the Generalship to be devolv'd upon any other.
Hereupon, those that had robb'd the oppress'd People of their Goods, immediately cry'd out, and with a loud Voice wish'd him not to desert them, but to take upon him the intire and absolute Management of all Affairs. At first he seem'd to be very shy; but being afterwards more earnestly prest by the Multitude, he told them he was willing to accept of the chief Command as General, provided he should not be join'd with any other Collegue, for he should never be content to be accountable (as the Law then was) for the Miscarriages and Irregularities of those that should be join'd with him in Commission. Hereupon, the People having agreed, that the whole Power should be in him alone, they voted him General, with full and absolute Authority; so that for the future he plainly acted the Part of a Monarch, and manag'd the Affairs of the whole City.
The Syracusians as yet Tame and Quiet, some curb'd by Fear, and others kept down by Force, durst not discover (as a thing vain and to no purpose) the Heart-burnings that were among them.
But many of the Poorer sort, and those that were in Debt, were much pleas'd with this Revolution: For Agathocles had promis'd in the Senate, that all former Debts should be remitted and made Void, and that Lands should be allotted and shar'd out to the Poor.
After he had finish'd these things, he order'd that none for the future should be kill'd or otherwise abus'd. But on the contrary, changing his former course, he carry'd himself with a great deal of mildness towards the People, encouraging many with Rewards, and not a few with large Promises, and courting all with smooth words, he no little winded himself into the favour and good Opinion of the People: And though he was advanc'd to so high a pitch of Honour, yet he put not on a Diadem, nor suffer'd the Attendance of a Life-Guard, nor admitted any difficulty of access to his Person, which is the common practice almost of all Tyrants: But he made it his business chiefly to look after the Publick Revenue, and the making and providing all sorts of Weapons and Arms: He built likewise other long Ships to encrease and strengthen his Fleet: And lastly, brought many of the Cities and Towns in the Heart of the Country to stoop to his Authority. And thus then stood the Affairs of Sicily.
Page 612 In Italy this was the Ninth year of the War of the Romans with the Samnites; before which time there had been very sharp Battels and Engagements between them; but then (except some Incursions into the Enemies Country) there was little or nothing done worth taking notice of; only some Forts were taken, and the Country harrass'd. But in Apulia they wasted and spoil'd all Daunia, and having conquer'd the Canutii, receiv'd of them Hostages. There were added likewise two other Tribes to the former, the one of Falernia, and the other of Ufentina.
While these things were acting, the Crotonians made Peace with the Brutians; but the War being continu•d another year with the Exiles, (who were expell'd by the People for their conspiring with Heraclides and Sosistratus, of which we have given a particular Account in the former Book) they created Parones and Menedemus their Generals. In the mean time the Exiles went to Thurium, and there listed Three hundred Mercenaries, and endeavour'd in the Night to have broke into the City: But being repuls'd by the Crotonians, they Encamp'd in the Confines of the Brutians; but within a short time after they were every Man cut off by a much stronger Party, who sallied out of the City against them.
And now having given an account how things went in Sicily and Italy, we shall pass to the things done in other Parts of Europe.
Eurydice being Queen-Regent in Macedonia, as soon as she heard that Olympias was preparing for her return, sent an Express to Cassander, then in Peloponnesus, wishing him to hasten to her Aid and Assistance; and in the mean time, by her Bribes and Promises, she brought over the most active and stirring Men among the Macedonians, to favour her in her designs.
But Polysperchon got an Army together, and being join'd with Aeacides of Epirus, he brought back Olympias, with Alexander's Son into the Kingdom. And hearing that Eurydice was at Evia in Macedonia with an Army, aiming to make an end of all by one Battel, he makes swiftly after; and presently as soon as the Armies Encamp'd one over against the other, on a sudden the Macedonians (in reverence to Olympias, and calling to mind the many Advantages and Kindnesses they had receiv'd at the hands of Alexander) turn'd about; whereupon, King Philip with all his Servants were presently taken. Eurydice likewise, together with Polycles (one of her Counsellors) were afterwards taken; being before return'd to Amphipolis.
Olympias having thus gain'd the custody of both the Kings, and likewise the Kingdom, without Blood; us'd not her good Fortune with that Humanity as she ought to have done: But at the very first imprisoning both Eurydice and Philip her Husband, she us'd them very cruelly: For she coop'd them both up in a very straight and narrow Place, where through a little narrow Hole every thing for their necessary use was deliver'd in to them. And for many days together, she thus (against all Law and Conscience) exercis'd her Rage and Revenge upon these miserable Princes.
But when she perceiv'd that the Macedonians spoke ill of her, out of Pity and Commiseration towards those that were thus miserably dealt with, she deliver'd Philip to certain Thracians, (after he had reign'd Six Years and Four Months) to be stabb'd with Ponyards. But Eurydice she order'd to be more severely dealt with; because she was to free of her Tongue, that she was still blabbing it out, that she was fitter to rule the Kingdom than Olympias: And therefore she sent to her a Sword, a Rope, and a Cup of Poison, bidding her chuse which she would to dispatch her self with, neither valuing the former State and Dignity of the Injur'd Lady, nor commiserating the common lot of Mankind: And therefore she came at length to experience the same turns of Fortune her self, and came to an end, every way worthy her Cruelty. For Eurydice in the presence of the Person that brought her the Instruments of her Death, pray'd the Gods that she might have the like Present sent to her; and then having bound up the Wounds of her Husband, as well as the shortness of time would permit, she wrapp'd him up, and so without any Womanish Complaints, or any base dejection of Spirit, through the greatness of her Misery, she strangled her self in her own Garter.
Having made an end of these two, she kill'd Nicanor, the Brother of Cassander: Then she pick'd out a Hundred Macedonians of Cassander's Friends, and put them all to Death. Having gratify'd her Revenge by these Cruel Acts, many of the Macedonians were incited to hate her mortally for her Cruelty: For they all remember'd the Words of Antipater, who, like an Oracle, a little before his Death, had given strict charge not to admit this Woman to govern the Kingdom. Olympias therefore managing things after this rate in Macedonia, it clearly pointed out a Revolution in the State.
Page 613 In Asia, Eumenes having with him the Argyraspides under their Captain Antigenes, winter'd in the Province of Babylon, in the Towns call'd Carrhe; thence he sent Ambassadors to Seleucus and Pitho, requiring them to assist the Kings, and that they would join with him in the War against Antigonus. Pitho was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Media, and the other of the Province of Babylon, when the second Division of the Provinces was made in Triparadisus. Seleucus answer'd, That he, and those with him, would supply the Kings with what ever they wanted, but that he would never observe any of the Commands of Eumenes, who was adjudg'd to die by the common Suffrage of the Macedonians. After many Disputes relating to this Resolution, they sollicited Antigenes and the Argyraspides by their Agent to cast off Eumenes.
But the Macedonians rejecting what they requir'd, Eumenes commended them for their Fidelity and march'd away, and came to the River Tigris, and there encamp'd Three hundred Furlongs from Babylon: For he design'd to march to Susa, because he intended to raise Forces out of the higher Provinces, and to make use of the King's Treasures as there should be occasion. But he was forc'd to pass the River, because that part on this side was eaten up by Forraging and Depredations, and the Country on the other side was yet untouch'd, and afforded plenty of Forrage and other Provision for his Army. While he was getting Vessels together, in order to his passing over the River, Seleucus and Pitho sail'd up the River with two Galleys of three Tire of Oars, and many other little Vessels, being part of those that Alexander built at Babylon.
As soon as they arriv'd at the place where the Passage was intended, they renew'd their Sollicitation to the Macedonians to perswade them to cast off Eumenes, and not to abet and encourage a Fellow against them who was but a Stranger, and had destroy'd Multitudes of the Macedonians. But when Antigenes could not be prevail'd with upon any Terms whatsoever, the Seleucians sail'd to an old Sluce, and broke down the Head of it, where it was grown up through length of Time: Upon which the Macedonian Camp was surrounded with Water, and all the Tract of Ground overflow'd, so that the whole Army was in great danger to be utterly lost. All that day therefore they rested, considering and advising what was best to be done in such an Exigent. The next day, without any Disturbance from the Enemy, they transported the greatest part of the Army in Flatbottom'd Boats, to the number of Thirty, forc'd forward with long Poles: For Seleucus had only Horse with him, and those far inferiour in Number to the Enemy. And now Night approach'd, when Eumenes (in great Pain for his Carriages left behind) caus'd all the Macedonians to repass the River; and then, by Direction of one of the Natural Inhabitants, he set upon cleansing another such-like place, by which the Water might be easily diverted, and the Ground all round about drain'd dry. Which when Seleucus perceiv'd, (minding to be rid of them out of his Province with what speed he could) he sent Ambassadors to them to make a Truce, and so permitted them to pass over the River: But forthwith sent Expresses to Antigonus in Mesopotamia, to desire him with all speed to come down with his Army, before the Governors of the Provinces came in with their Forces.
Eumenes having now passed the River Tigris, as soon as he came into Susiana, he divided his Army into three Bodies, by reason of the Scarcity of Provision; and thus marching through the Country three several Ways, he was in great want of Bread Corn, therefore distributed Rice, Millet and Dates (with which that Country abounded) amongst the Soldiers.
Although he had before taken care to send away the Kings Letters to the Lords Lieutenants of the Upper Provinces, yet he then again sent Expresses, to desire them all to meet him with their Forces in Susiana. At which time it so happen'd, that they had their Forces then in the Field, and were got together for some other Reasons. Of which, it's necessary here to say something before we proceed further.
Pitho was Lord Lieutenant of Media, and General of all the higher Satrapies, by Nation a Parthian, who had kill'd Philotas the former General, and had plac'd Eudamus his own Brother in his Room. Upon which, all the other Provinces join'd together, lest they should be serv'd the same Sawce, because Pitho was of a restless Spirit, and had engag'd himself in Matters of high Importance. Having therefore overcome him in Battel, and cut off most of his Army, they drove the Man himself out of Parthia; who first sought for shelter in Media, and in a short time after he went to Babylon, and prayed Assistance from Seleucus, and that they might join together in one common Interest. The Governours therefore for these Causes having drawn their Forces together, Eumenes his Messengers came to the Armies when they were ready, and prepar'd in the Field. Peucestes was the most Renown'd Captain of them all, and was made General by an Page 614 unanimous Assent. He was formerly Squire of the Body to Alexander, and advanc'd by the King for his Valour. He was Lord Lieutenant of the greatest part of Persia, and in great Esteem among the Natives. And for this Reason, he of all the Macedonians was allow'd by Alexander to wear a Persian Gown, because he thought thereby to ingratiate himself with the Persians, and engage them to be more observant to all his Commands. He then had with him Ten thousand Persian Archers and Slingers, and of other Nations (taken into the Rank of Macedonians) Three thousand, with Six hundred Horse of Greeks and Thracians, and of Persian Horse Four hundred. Polemon a Macedonian, Governor of Carmania, had Fifteen hundred Foot, and Seven hundred Horse. Sibyrtius, Governor of Arachosia, had a Thousand Foot, and Six hundred and ten Horse. Androbazus likewise was sent from Parapamysus (of which Province Oxyartes was Governor) with Twelve hundred Foot, and Four hundred Horse. Stasander, Governor of Aria and Dranginas, being join'd with the Bactrians, had with him Fifteen hundred Foot, and a Thousand Horse. Out of India came Eudamus with Five hundred Horse, and Three thousand Foot, and a Hundred and twenty Elephants, which he got after Alexander's Death, when he treacherously slew Porus. There were in the whole, with the Governors of the Provinces, above Eighteen thousand and Seven hundred Foot, and Four thousand and Six hundred Horse.
When all these came into the Province of Susiana, and join'd with Eumenes, a publick Assembly was call'd, where was a hot Dispute concerning the Choice of a General. Peucestes, upon the account of his bringing in most Men into the Field, and his eminent Post under Alexander, conceiv'd he had most Right to challenge the chief Command. Antigenes, Captain of the Silver Targateers, insisted upon it, That the whole Power of Election ought to be committed to his Macedonians, who under Alexander had conquer'd Asia, and by their Valour had so signaliz'd themselves, as to gain the Reputation of being Unconquerable. But Eumenes fearing lest by their Divisions they should become an easy Prey to Antigonus, advis'd that they should not make only one General; but that all who were before chosen Captains, and Commanders, should meet every day in the King's Pavilion, and there consult of all the publick Affairs. For a Tent had been before erected to Alexander, and his Throne plac'd therein, to which they us'd to resort, (offering Incense as to a God) and there debate all Matters of Weight, and special Concern. This Advice being Approv'd and Applauded by all, they met there every day, as in a City govern'd by a Democracy. Afterwards being come to Susa, there Eumenes was supply'd with what Monies he had occasion for out of the King's Exchequer. For the Kings by their Letters had order'd the Treasures, that they should issue to Eumenes alone so much Money as he at any time requir'd. Hereupon he gave the Macedonians Six Months Pay before-hand, and to Eudamus (who brought the Elephants out of India) he paid Two hundred Talents, under colour to defray the Charge and Expence of the Elephants, but in truth the more to engage him to his Interest. For if Contests should arise, that Party would have the greatest Advantage with whom he sided, by reason of the Terror occasion'd by the use of these Beasts. The rest of the Governors, every one maintain'd their own Soldiers they brought with them. This done, Eumenes continu'd for some time in Susa, and there refresh'd his Army.
In the mean time Antigonus, who Winter'd in Mesopotamia, resolv'd forthwith to set upon Eumenes before he grew too strong: But when he heard, that the Provincial Governors with their Forces, together with the Macedonians, were join'd with him, he let his Soldiers rest, and made it his Business to raise more. For he saw that he had need of a great Army, and reason to make more than ordinary Preparations for the War.
In the midst of these Preparations, Attalus, Polemo, Docimus, Antipater, and Philotas, who before were Commanders in Alcetas his Army, and were taken Prisoners, and now kept close Prisoners in an extraordinary strong Castle, hearing of Antigonus his intended Expedition into the higher Provinces, (conceiving now they had gain'd a fair opportunity,) hir'd some of their Keepers to suffer them to escape. Having therefore gotten Arms, about Midnight they set upon the Guard: They themselves were but Eight in Number, (surrounded with Four hundred Men,) yet Valiant and Expert Soldiers through their Experience in the War with Alexander. Xenopithes, the Governor of the Castle, they threw off from the Walls headlong down a steep Rock, a Furlong high; and as to the rest, some they kill'd upon the place, and others they hurl'd down, and then set the Houses on fire. Hereupon they took into the Castle Five hundred Men that were without expecting the Issue: It was indeed very well stor'd with Provision, and all other Things necessary: But they consulted together, whether it was better to stay there, and trust to the Strength of the Place, waiting for Relief from Eumenes, or to get away, Page 615 and wander about in the Country, making use of a Change and Turn of Fortune when it might happen. Much Canvassing and Disputing there was on both sides: Docimus was for leaving the Place; but Attalus declar'd, he was not able to endure Labour, by reason of the Hardship of his late Imprisonment.
Whilst they were thus at Difference amongst themselves, above Five hundred Foot and Four hundred Horse were drawn out of the Neighbouring Garisons, and got together in a Body, besides Three thousand of the natural Inhabitants and upwards gather'd from all Parts of the Country; these created one from among themselves to be their General, and laid close Siege to the Castle.
Being therefore thus unexpectedly again coop'd up, Docimus acquainted with a Passage under-ground, where no Guard was set, by a private Messenger kept Correspondence with Stratonice the Wife of Antigonus, who was not far distant from the Place: And afterwards he, with one other in his Company, through this Pass slipt out to her; but, contrary to her Promise, he was seiz'd and secur'd. And he that came out with him; undertook to conduct the Enemy into the Castle, and accordingly brought in a great Number, and with them gain'd one of the highest Rocks within the Fort.
And although Attalus, and all those with him, were far inferiour in Number, yet they defended the Place couragiously, fighting valiantly every day, till at length they fell into the Enemies hands after a Siege of Sixteen Months.
Antigonus marches after Eumenes to Tigris. Eumenes cuts off many of his Men at Pasitigris. Antigonus goes into Media. Eumenes comes to Persepolis. The Description of Persia. Peucestes his great Feast. Eumenes his Policy. His Tale of the Lion. A Battel in Pareteceni, between Antigonus and Eumenes. Antigonus returns into Media. The Story of Ceteus his two Wives striving which should be burnt. Eumenes marches to Galiene; Cassander to Macedonia. Olympias goes to Pydna; is there besieg'd. The Epirots forsake their King, and join with Cassander. Antigonus designs to surprize Eumenes, who stops his March by a Stratagem. The last Battel between them in Gabiene. Eumenes basely deliver'd up. Antigonus returns to Media. The dreadful Earthquakes in the Country of Rhages.
AFterwards Democlides was chief Governor at Athens, and Caius, Junius and QuiniusEmilius were Consuls at Rome. At that time was celebrated the Hundred and sixteenth Olympiad, at which time Deinomenes the Laconian gain'd the Victory. About this time Antigonus march'd out of Mesopotamia and came to Babylon, and made a League with Seleucus and Pitho, and having strengthen'd himself with Forces receiv'd from them, made a Bridge of Boats over the River Tigris, and pass'd over his Army, and hasted away with a swift March after the Enemy. Of which, Eumenes having Intelligence, he sent to Xenophilus, Governor of the Citadel at Susa, not to give any Money to Antigonus, nor by any means to come out to Parly with him.
He himself march'd with the Army to Tigris, a day's Journey distant from Susa, where he came into the Country of the Uxians, a free People. The River is in some Places three, and in others four Furlongs broad. The depth in the middle of the Channel was equal with the height of the Elephants. It runs in a Current from the Mountains Seven hundred Furlongs, and empties it self into the Red Sea. There are many Sea Fish and Whales in this River, which appear chiefly at the Rising of the Dog-Star.
The Eumeneans had the River before them for a Defence, and mann'd the Bank all along from the Head of the River to the Sea, with Forts every where built upon the Bank, and there waited for the Enemies approach. But because those Forts requir'd a great number of Men to keep them, in regard they stretch'd out a great length, Eumenes and Antigenes sollicited Peucestes to send for Ten thousand Archers more out of Persia; who at first refus'd, complaining how he was deny'd to be General of the Army. But afterwards upon mature Deliberation with himself he comply'd, concluding that if Antigonus prevail'd, he should lose both his Province, and be in danger of losing his Life Page 616 besides; careful therefore to preserve his own Interest, and hoping thereby with more ease to gain the chief Command by having more Men than any of the rest, he brought Ten thousand Archers more into the Camp according to their Desire.
: For Persia is full of long and narrow Valleys, and has many high Watch-Towers, upon which were plac'd some of the Inhabitants that were Men of loud and strong Voices: When the Voice was heard by those in the next Division, they imparted it in the same manner to the other, and they again to the rest, one after another till what was Commanded came at length to the end of the Province.
While Eumenes and Peucestes were busy about these Affairs, Antigonus came with his Army to the King's Palace in Susa, and made Seleucus Lord-Lieutenant of the Province, and leaving with him a sufficient Army, order'd him to besiege the Cittadel, Xenophilus the Treasurer refusing to obey his Commands; but he himself march'd away with his Army against the Enemy, through a hot scalding Country, very dangerous for Foreign Armies to pass. Therefore they were forc'd to march in the night, and encamp near the River before Sun-rising: However he could not secure himself from all the Inconveniencies and Mischiefs of that Country: For though he did all that was possible for him to do, yet through the excessive Heat of the Season, (being about the rising of the Dog-Star,) he lost a great Multitude of his Men. Coming at length to the River Coprates, he prepar'd what was necessary for the passing over of his Men. This River issues from a Mountainous Country, and runs into Tigris, and is Four Acres broad, and was Fourscore Furlongs distant from Eumenes his Camp. The Stream is so rapid and swift, that there's no passing over without Boats, or a Bridge. Having therefore got together a few Flat bottom'd Boats, in them he put over some of his Foot, ordering them to draw a Trench and cast up Works to defend it, and there to attend the coming over of the rest.
Eumenes having Intelligence by his Scouts of the Enemies Designs, pass'd over the Bridge of Tigris with Four thousand Foot and Thirteen hundred Horse, and found above Three thousand Foot and Three hundred Horse of Antigonus his Army got over ; and no less than Six thousand who were forraging up and down the Country: These he suddenly set upon and routed them, and presently put the rest to flight. As for the Macedonians (who stood their Ground) being overpower'd with Number, he forc'd them all to the River, where running headlong into their Boats, and overcharging them, they sunk down: Upon which many of them endeavouring to swim, some few of them escap'd, but the rest were all drown'd. Others that could not swim, (judging it more advisable to fall into the Enemies hand, than certainly to lose their Lives in the River,) were taken Prisoners, to the number of Four thousand. Antigonus, for want of Boats, was not able to help them, though he saw such Multitudes perish. Conceiving therefore that it was impossible to pass the River, he march'd back to the City Badaca, seated upon the River Ulaie. By reason of the vehement Heat, this March was very sweltering and troublesome, and many of the Army were tir'd out, so that they were Heartless, and even at their Wits end: But when he came to the City before-mention'd, staying there some days, he refresh'd his Army. Thence he judg'd it advisable to march to Ecbatane in Media, and making that the Seat of War, to take in all the higher Provinces.
There were two Ways that led to Media, and both were difficult; that over the Mountains was pleasant, and the High-way; but scorching hot, and very long, almost Forty Days Journey. That through the Country of the Cosseans was strait, narrow, and steep, leading through the Enemies Borders, and barren and scant of Provision, but a short Cut, and more cool; yet it was not easie for an Army to march this way, unless Agreement were made with the Barbarians, who inhabit the Mountains.
They have been a Free People time out of Mind, and inhabit in Caves, and feed upon Acorns and Mushrooms, and the salted Flesh of wild Beasts. But he look'd upon it as a dishonourable thing for him who commanded so great an Army, to court these Barbarous People with smooth Words, or gain them by rich Gifts. He pick'd out therefore the choicest of his Targateers, and divided the Archers and Slingers, and such like light-arm'd Men into two Bodies, and deliver'd them to Nearchus, with command to go before him, and first secure the Streights, and difficult Passes. These being posted all along in the Way, he himself led the Phalanx, and Pitho commanded the Rear.
Page 617 They that were sent with Nearchus, had endeavour'd to possess themselves of a few Watch Towers; but being hindred and prevented of many, and the most Necessary and Commodious Places, they lost many of their Soldiers, and being set upon on every side by the Barbarians, they had much ado to make their way through them. And as for those that follow'd Antigonus, (having enter'd the Streights) they fell into dangers that were inextricable: For the Natives being well acquainted with the Places, and having before possess'd themselves of the Steep and Craggy Rocks, cast down massy Stones upon the Soldiers Heads as they passed by; and besides making use of showers of Arrows, they so gall'd them, that they were neither able (through the inconveniency of the Place) to annoy their Enemies, nor avoid their shot: And in regard the Passage was very craggy and difficult, the Elephants, Horses, and heavy arm'd Men, were involv'd both in Toils and Hazards at one and the same time, and in no capacity to help themselves.
Antigonus being brought into these streights; now repented that he did not follow the Counsel of Pitho, who had advis'd him to have bought his Passage by Money. But after the loss of many of his Men, and the rest still in imminent hazard, after nine Days troublesome march, he came at length to the Inhabited Parts of Media.
One Mischief on the Neck of another thus falling upon the Army, the intolerable Distresses they were brought unto, stirr'd up the Soldiers to cry out against Antigonus, insomuch as they gave him very harsh and bitter Words.
For in Forty Days time, they had three several times been miserably slaughter'd; but by fair Words, and plentiful Provision of all things necessary, he at length quieted them. Then he commanded Pitho to go over all Media, to get together Horsemen and Horses and Carriages, which he easily perform'd, the Country abounding with Horses and Cattle. For Pitho return'd, bringing along with him Two thousand Horsemen and a Thousand Horses, ready furnish'd, and so many loads of Munition as that the whole Army might be compleatly arm'd, together with Five hundred Talents out of the King's Treasury.
Antigonus form'd the Horse into Regiments, and distributed the Horses among those that had lost their own, and gave the Draught-Beasts freely among those that wanted them, whereby he regain'd the former Love of the Soldiers.
In the mean time, the Governors of the Provinces, and Captains of the Forces with Eumenes, when they heard that the Enemy was in Media, were in various Opinions what to resolve upon: For Eumenes, Antigenes, and the rest who came up from the Sea-Coasts, were for returning thither again. But those who came from the higher Provinces (upon the account of their Friends and Relations that were left at home) were for defending those Parts. The Contest waxing hot, Eumenes considering that one part of the Army (which was now divided into two) was not strong enough to cope with the Enemy, comply'd with the Governors of the Upper Provinces. Decamping therefore from Pasitigris, he mov'd towards Persia, and came to the Regal Seat of the Kingdom, Persepolis, at the end of Four and twenty days march.
The Country in the first Entrance into it, and as far as the Ladders (as they are call'd) is Flat and Low, exceeding Hot, and barren of Provision; but the rest is higher, of a wholesome Air, and very Fruitful: Wherein are many shady Valleys, variety of Pleasant Gardens, natural Walks bounded on either side with all sorts of Trees, and water'd with refreshing Springs. So that those that pass this Way, many times stop here and solace themselves in these pleasant Places with great delight.
Here the Inhabitants brought in to Peucestes abundance of all kinds of Prey and Booty, which he largely distributed among the Soldiers, to gain their Favour and Good will. In this Tract inhabit the most Warlike of the Persians, being all Archers and Slingers, and is far more populous than any of the other Provinces.
When they came to Persepolis, the King's Palace, Peucestes the Governor, and General of the Province, order'd a magnificent Sacrifice to the Gods, and to Alexander and Philip, and to that end sending almost over all Persia for Beasts to be sacrific'd, and abundance of all other Provisions, necessary for a Festival and publick Solemnity, he Feasted the whole Army.
In this Festival the Guests were placed in four Rounds, including one within another, the greatest surrounding all the rest, which was ten furlongs in Compass, and was fill'd with Mercenaries and Confederates.
The second Round was eight Furlongs, in which were plac'd the Macedonian Silver Targateers, and the rest of Alexander's Fellow-Soldiers. The other Circle was of four Furlongs, and fill'd with inferior Officers, special Friends, Commanders, and Horse-men.
Page 618 That in the midst of all was two Furlongs, wherein the Generals, Masters of the Horse, and the Nobility of Persia, had their several Tents allotted them, and in the midst of them were plac'd the Altars of the Gods, and of Alexander and Philip.
The Tents were made of green Booths of Trees, cover'd with Arras, and all sorts of Tapestry Hangings; Persia plentifully affording every thing for Pleasure and Delight.
The Rounds were at that convenient distance one from another, as that the Guests found nothing of trouble or uneasiness, but every thing that was prepar'd was near at hand. All being thus gracefully manag'd, with the general applause of the common Soldiers, thereby expressing how great Peucestes was in their Favour and Esteem, he was suspected by Eumenes, conceiving that Peucestes did this to ingratiate himself with the Army, and thereby to gain the Sovereign Command; he therefore forg'd a Letter, by which he rais'd up the Spirits of the Soldiers, and made them more Courageous, and brought down the haughty Spirit and Pride of Peucestes; but advanc'd his own Reputation with the Army, with the hopes of good Success for the future. The Contents of the Letter were these: That Olympias with Alexander's Son (having kill'd Cassander) had fully recover'd the Kingdom of Macedon, and that Polysperchon with the main Power of the King's Army and his Elephants, had put over into Asia against Antigonus, and was then in Capadocia. This Letter was writ in Syriack Characters, in the Name of Orontes, Governor of Armenia, an intimate Friend of Peucestes. These Letters going for current, because of the continual Correspondence between him and the Lord-Lieutenants; Eumenes order'd them to be carry'd about, and shew'd to the Captains and most of the Soldiers. Hereupon, the whole Army chang'd their Mind, and all Eyes were upon Eumenes as the chief Favourite, and therefore resolv'd to depend upon him, as he whose Interest in the Kings would be able to advance whom he pleas'd, and to punish whom he thought fit.
When the Feasting was ended, Eumenes the more to terrify them that were regardless of his Orders, and that affected the Sovereign Command, call'd in Question in due form of Law, Sibertius the Governor of Aracosia, Peucestes his special Friend. For Peucestes sending away some Horse into Aracosia, had secretly commanded Sibertius to intercept the Carriages coming from thence. Whereupon, Eumenes brought him into that eminent Danger, that unless he had privately withdrawn himself he had been knock'd on the Head by the Soldiers. By this piece of Policy, having terrify'd others, and advanc'd his own Honour and Reputation, he put on a new Face again; and so gain'd upon Peucestes with smooth Words and large Promises, that he became both kind and courteous to him, and chearful and ready to afford Aid and Assistance to the Kings. Desiring likewise to be assur'd of the rest of the Governors and Captains by some Pledges, which might engage them not to forsake him, he pretended to want Money, and desir'd them to contribute every one according to his Ability to the Kings.
Hereupon, receiving Four hundred Talents from among so many of the Captains and Generals as he thought fit, those whom he before suspected of Treachery or Desertion, became most Faithful Attendants and Guards to his Person, and stuck close to him in all Encounters.
While he thus prudently manag'd Affairs, and was providing for the Future, News was brought by some who came out of Media, that Antigonus was marching with his Army into Persia: Whereupon he mov'd forward, with a design to meet and engage the Enemy.
The second Day of their march he sacrific'd to the Gods, and plentifully feasted the Army, wishing them to continue Firm and Faithful to him: But minding to comply with the humour of his Guests, who lov'd to drink freely, he fell into a Distemper, which caus'd him to lye by it, and so hinder'd his March for some Days.
In the mean time the Army was greatly dejected, to consider, that the most Expert and Bravest Commander of all the Generals, should be now Sick at the very time (as they thought) they were even ready to fight the Enemy.
But his Distemper abating, and after a little time having recover'd himself, he pursu'd his March, Peucestes and Antigenes leading the Van; and he himself in a Litter follow'd after with the Elephants, to prevent disturbance by the Croud, and the Inconveniency by the straightness of the Places they were to pass.
And now the two Armies were within a days march one of another, when the Scouts on both sides brought an account of their approach, and what numbers they were, and ways they took. Whereupon, each Party prepar'd for Battel: But at length they parted without fighting; for there was a River and a deep Trench between the two Armies. Both indeed were drawn forth in Battalia, but by reason of the Badness of the Ground they could not come to fight: Wherefore, drawing off one from another three Furlongs space, they Page 619 spent four Days in light Skirmishes, and foraging the Country thereabouts, being pinched with want of all things necessary. The fifth day Antigonus, by his Agents, again sollicited the Governors of the Provinces and the Macedonians, to desert Eumenes, and commit themselves to his Protection. For he promis'd that he would leave to every one of them their own several Provinces, and would bestow large Territories upon the rest, and others he would send into their own Country, loaden with Honours and great Rewards; and as for those that were willing still to bear Arms, he would give them Places and Posts in the Army suitable to their several Circumstances: But the Macedonians would not harken to any thing of these Terms, but sent away the Messengers with great Indignation and Threats: Upon which Eumenes came amongst them, and gave them Thanks, with Commendations of their Fidelity, and told them an old Story, but very pat to the present Occasion; That a Lion falling in Love with a young Lady, treated with her Father to bestow her upon him in Marriage; who answer'd, That he was very willing to give the young Woman to be his Wife, but that he was afraid of his Claws and Teeth, lest when he was marry'd, according to the Nature of his Kind, he would devour the poor Girl. Hereupon, the Lion beat out his Teeth, and tore off his Claws: Upon which the Father perceiving that now he had lost whatever before made him formidable, fell upon him and easily cudgell'd him to Death. And that now Antigonus was acting a Part not much unlike to this: For he courted them with fair Promises, till such time as he can get the Army into his Power, and then he'll be sure to cut the Throats of the Commanders. This fine Story thus handsomely told, was highly applauded by the Army; and hereupon he dismiss'd them.
The next Night some Deserters from Antigonus came in, and gave Intelligence, that he had order'd his Army to march at the second Watch. Hereupon, Eumenes upon serious Thoughts, and musing of what his Designs might be, at length hit upon the truth of the Matter, that the Enemy's purpose was to march to Gabene, which was a Country three days march distant, then untouch'd, abounding in Corn and Forage, sufficient to supply the greatest Army plentifully with all sorts of Provision; and besides, was a Place of great advantage, full of Rivers and deep Gutters that were unpassable. Contriving therefore to prevent the Enemy, he put in execution the like project; and sent away some of the Mercenaries (whom he hir'd for Money) under colour of Run-aways, with order to inform Antigonus that Eumenes would fall upon his Camp that Night. But Eumenes himself sent away the Carriages before, and commanded the Soldiers with all speed to eat their Suppers and march: All which was presently dispatch'd.
In the mean time, Antigonus, upon the Intelligence receiv'd from the Deserters, resolv'd to fight the Enemy that Night, and therefore put a stop to his march, and plac'd his Army in order of Battel.
During which hurry of Antigonus, and while he was preparing to meet his Enemy, Eumenes stole away with his Army and made towards Gabene before. Antigonus for some time waited with his Soldiers at their Arms, but receiving Intelligence by his Scouts, that Eumenes his Army was gone, he perceiv'd a Trick was put upon him. However, he went on with what he before design'd; and to that end, giving the Word of Command to his Army to march, he posted away with that haste and speed, as if he had been in a Pursuit.
But when he understood that Eumenes was got six Hours march before him, and so perceiving he was not able at so great a distance to overtake him with his whole Army, he contriv'd as follows; he deliver'd the rest of the Army to Pitho, willing him to come softly after him; and he himself posted away with the Horse: About spring of Day he came up even with the Rear of the Enemy's Army, as they were marching down a Hill; upon the Top of the Mountain he made a Halt, and presented himself to the View of the Enemy
Eumenes, at a convenient Distance, seeing the Enemy's Horse, conceiv'd the whole Army was near at hand, and therefore made a Stand; and drew up his Men in order of Battel, as if they should forthwith Engage. In this manner these two Generals put Tricks one upon another, as if they were striving which should out-wit one the other; hereby shewing, that all their hopes of Victory lay and were grounded upon their own Stratagems.
By this means therefore, Antigonus put a stop to the Enemy's march, and gain'd time for his Army to come up to him; which at length joining with him he drew up in Battalia, and in that order march'd down the Hill in a terrible manner upon the Enemy. The whole Army, (with those brought in by Pitho and Selencus) amounted to above Eight and Twenty thousand Foot, Eight thousand and Five hundred Horse, and Sixty Page 620 five Elephants. Both the Generals rang'd their Armies in an Array that was strange and unusual, as if they strove which should excell each other even in this piece of Art also. In the Left Wing Eumenes plac'd Eudamus the Captain of the Elephants from India, who had with him a Body of an Hundred and fifty Horse: In Front of these were drawn up Two Squadrons of choice Horse arm'd with Launces, Fifty deep; and were all join'd to them who were plac'd upon the rising Ground near the Foot of the Mountain. Next to them was drawn up Stafandrus, with Nine hundred and fifty of his own Horse. After these, he order'd Amph•machus Lord-Lieutenant of Mesopotamia, who had under his Command Six hundred Horse. Next to them were drawn up the Horse from Arachosia, lately commanded by Sibycitus, but by reason he was then fled, the Command was given to Cephalus. Close to these were Five hundred Horse from Paropamisada, and as many Thracians from the upper Colonies. In the Van of all these stood Five and forty Elephants, drawn up in a Half-Moon, lin'd with so many Archers and Slingers as was thought fit.
Then he drew up his main Body of Foot in a Phalanx in this manner: At the farthest Point were plac'd above Six thousand Foreign Soldiers, then five Thousand out of several Countries arm'd after the manner of the Macedonians; after these were drawn up no more than Three thousand Argyraspides, but Men never conquer'd, and for their Valour dreaded by the Enemy. And lastly, after all Three thousand Targateers of the Life-Guard; which, together with the Argyraspides, were commanded by Antigenes and Tautamus. And in the Van of this Phalanx stood Forty Elephants, lin'd with light-arm'd Men. Next to the Phalanx in the Right Wing he drew up Eight hundred of Carmanian Horse, under the Command of Tlepolimus the Governor of that Province; and after them Nine hundred who were call'd Companions. Then the Squadron of Antigines and Peucestes, being Three hundred Men in one Troop. In the utmost part of the Wing was plac'd Eumenes his own Regiment, consisting of as many Horse; and before these was a Forlorn-Hope made up of Eumenes his Servants, plac'd in two Bodies, consisting of Fifty Horse apiece. There were likewise Two hundred Horse drawn up into Four Squadrons, and plac'd in the Flank at a distance from the main Wing, to be a Guard to that part. And besides all these, he plac'd Three hundred Horse, cull'd out of all the Provinces for strength and speed, to be a Guard to the Rear of his Squadron: And in the Van of this Wing thus array'd, were plac'd Forty Elephants, for the better Defence of the whole. Eumenes his whole Army amounted to Five and thirty thousand Foot, Six thousand and one hundred Horse, and One hundred and fourteen Elephants.
Antigonus observing from the Top of the Hills how the Army of the Enemy was drawn up, drew up his likewise so as might be most convenient to the present Circumstances. For taking notice that his Enemy's Right Wing was very strongly guarded with Horse and Elephants, he fronted them with the choicest of his own Horse, who being in small Parties at a considerable distance one from another, might Charge in manner of a Running Fight, wheeling off one after another, and so still renew the Fight by fresh Men. And by this means, the Strength of that part of the Enemy's Army, wherein they plac'd their greatest Confidence, was wholly eluded. For in this Phalanx he had plac'd about a Thousand Archers and Launceteers on Horseback out of Media and Armenia, who had ever been us'd to this way of Charging by Turns. Next to them were drawn up Two thousand and Two hundred Tarentines, who came up with him from the Sea Coasts, who were Men very expert in laying Ambuscades, and contriving other Stratagems of War, and had a great Respect and Kindness for him: A Thousand likewise out of Phrygia and Lydia; Fifteen hundred under the Command of Pitho; and Four hundred Spear-Men led by Lysanias. After all these follow'd those call'd the Anthippi, and them out of the higher Provinces, to the number of Eight hundred. And of this Body of Horse was the Left Wing compleated and made up, all under the Command of Pitho. In the main Battel, of Foot were plac'd in the Front Nine thousand Foreigners; next to them Three thousand Lycians and Pamphilians, and above Eight thousand out of divers Nations, Arm'd after the Macedonian manner; and in the Rear were the Macedonians, to the number of Eight thousand, which Antipater had formerly sent as Recruits when he took upon him the Government of the Kingdom. In the Right Wing of Horse, close to the Right of the Phalanx of Foot, were first plac'd Five hundred Mercena•ies; next to them a Thousand Thracians, and as many Confederates; and close after them were a Thousand call'd Companions. These were all commanded by Demetrius the Son of Antigonus, which was the first time he appear'd in Arms to assist his Father: In the utmost part of the Wing were plac'd Three hundred Horse, with which Antigonus himself engag'd. This Squadron consisted of Three Troops of his Servants, and as many of Page 621 thers, drawn up in equal Distances one from another, supported by a Hundred Tarentines. Round this Wing were plac'd Thirty of the strongest of his Elephants in form of an Half-Moon, interlin'd with light-arm'd Men: Many of the other Elephants he plac'd in the Front of the Phalanx of Foot, and a few with some Horse in the Flank on the Left. The Army array'd in this manner, he march'd down upon the Enemy in an oblique Battel: For he order'd the Right Wing to be stretch'd out far in length, and the Left to be much contracted, designing with this to make a Running Fight, and to Engage Hand to Hand with the other.
And now the Armies drew near one to the other, and Signal of Battel being given on both sides, Shouts eccho'd one to another, and the Trumpets sounded a Charge. And first the Horse with Pitho fellon, although they had no Forlorn either of Men or Elephants for a firm Defence, yet overpowering the Enemy in Number and Swiftness, made use of that Advantage: But looking upon it not safe to encounter the Elephants in the Front, they wheel'd about, and pour'd in showers of Shot upon the Enemy in the Flank, and with little or no Prejudice to themselves, by reason of their speed, and nimbleness of their Horses, for they forely gall'd the Enemy, who were neither able to fall upon the Assailants by reason of the Weight of their Arms, nor in a Capacity to avoid them as Occasion requir'd. Hereupon Eumenes seeing how the Right Wing was distressed by Multitudes of Archers on Horseback, sent for some of the swiftest Horse from Eudamus, who commanded the Left Wing; and by this Body of Horse brought in from the other Wing, (though it were but small) he made so fierce a Charge upon the Enemy, being seconded by his Elephants, that he easily put the Pithonians to flight, and pursued them as far as to the Foot of the Mountains.
In the mean while the Foot fought stoutly a long time together; at length, after many falling on both sides, the Eumenians routed them by the Valour of the Silver Shields. For though they were now very old, yet by frequent use of their Arms in many Battels, they so excell'd all others, both as to Courage and Skill in their Weapons, that none were able to stand before them. And therefore at this very time, though they were only Three thousand, yet they were the very Strength and Support of the whole Army.
When Antigonus perceiv'd that his Left Wing was routed, and the whole Phalanx put to flight, though he was advis'd (being that part of the Army with him was yet intire) to retreat to the Mountains, and receive in again those that were fled, yet he would not hear of it; but prudently making use of the present Opportunity, both sav'd his own Men, and gain'd likewise the Advantage.
For the Argyraspides, with Eumenes and the rest of the Foot, having put the Enemy to flight, continu'd their Pursuit to the Foot of the Mountains: Upon which, Antigonus, through an open Passage made into the Enemies main Body, with a Party of Horse fell upon the Flank of Eudamus his Regiments which were in the Left Wing and by his sudden and unexpected Charge put them to flight, and after the slaughter of Multitudes, sent away some of the swiftest of his Horse to recall his own Men that were before fled, and so caus'd them to rally at the Foot of the Mountains. And Eumenes also perceiving the flight of his Men, hasten'd to the Relief of Eudamus, and recall'd by sound of Trumpet those of his that fled. And now the Stars began to appear, when the Generals having recall'd their flying Men on both sides, prepar'd for Fight afresh; such was the Heat and Vigour both of the Officers and Common Soldiers. The Night was very clear and serene, and the Moon at Full; and the Armies being about Four Acres distant one over-against another, the clattering of Arms, and the neighing of Horses, seem'd on both sides as if they had been in the midst of one another. It was now Midnight when they had drawn off about Thirty Furlongs from the Place of Battel where the Dead lay, and by reason of the Troublesomness of the March, and the Toils and Grievances of the Fight, with the want likewise of Provision, both sides were but in an ill Condition: Therefore they were forc'd to leave off fighting, and encamp. Eumenes had a design to have march'd back to the Slain in order to have bury'd them, as a sign of his being absolute Victor: But the Army refus'd, and all were instant with loud Cries to return to their Carriages, which were then at a great distance from them, so that he was forc'd to submit. For being there were so many that affected the chief Command, he had no Power to move the Army by Threats, nor saw at that time any convenient opportunity to gain upon them that were Obstinate by Arguments and Intreaties. But Antigonus on the contrary was an Absolute General, without any dependance upon the Popularity, and therefore forc'd the Soldiers to encamp near the Dead Bodies; and so gaining Page 622 the Priviledge of burying the Dead, he rais'd a Doubt who was Victorious, saying, That he who had Power to bury his Dead, was ever to be esteem'd Conqueror of the Field.
In this Battel, there were kill'd on Antigonus his side Three thousand and Seven hundred Foot, and Fifty four Horse, and above Four thousand wounded. On Eumenes his Party were slain Five hundred and Forty Foot, but very few Horse, and above Nine hundred hurt.
Antigonus, after the Battel was over, perceiving that the Spirits of his Soldiers were very low, resolv'd with all the hast he could, to remove far off from the Enemies Camp, and that his Forces might march the more readily, he sent away the wounded Men and heavy Baggage to a Town near at hand. Then having bury'd the Dead, about Break of Day, (detaining with him the Herald that was sent to him by the Enemy to beg the Bodies of the Dead,) even at that very Hour he commanded his Soldiers to dine. At Night he discharg'd the Herald, and gave Leave to come and bury the Dead the next day. He himself presently at the first Watch of the night mov'd with his whole Army, and by continu'd and long Marches, got a long way off from the Enemy to a Country untouch'd, where he had plenty of Provision for the refreshing of his Army: For he march'd as far as to Gamarga in Media, a Country under the Command of Pitho, abounding in all Things for the maintaining of the greatest Armies. Eumenes having Intelligence by his Scouts that Antigonus was gone, would not follow after him, both because his Army was in want of Provision, and in other ill Circumstances, as likewise for that he had a great desire to inter his Dead in the most solemn manner he possibly could.
Upon which occasion, here sell out a strange Accident at this time, very unusual and dissonant from the Laws of the Grecians: For there was one Ceteus, who commanded them that came out of India, and fought with great Resolution, but di'd in this Battel: He left two Wives behind him, who follow'd him all along during the Campagne: One he had but lately marry'd, the other had been his Wife for some years before; and both lov'd their Husband exceedingly. It had been an ancient Custom in India, for Men and Women to marry themselves with their own mutual Liking, without consulting the Advice of their Parents. And in regard that in those former times young People would rashly marry one another, and often repent afterwards, as being deceiv'd in their Choice; many Wives were corrupted, and through their inordinate Lusts fell in Love with other Men; and because they could not with their Credit and Reputation leave them they first chose, they would often poison their Husbands; to the more ready effecting of which, the Country did not a little contribute, by bearing many and divers sorts of Poisonous Plants, some of which never so little bruis'd either in Meat or Drink, do certainly kill the Party. This wicked Art growing still more and more to Perfection, and many being destroy'd by this Means, and though several were punish'd for these Pieces of Villany, yet other would not be reclaim'd, nor restrain'd from the like Practices; another Law therefore was made, That Wives should be burnt together with their dead Husbands, except they were with Child, or had born Children; and that she who would not observe the Common Law of the Land, should remain a Widow, and, as one convicted of that Impiety, should be excluded from all sacred Rites, and all other Benefit and Privilege of the Laws. This being thus establish'd, hence-forward this Wickedness of the Wives was chang'd into a contrary Practice. For being that every Wife, to avoid that insufferable Disgrace, was voluntarily to Die, they became not only careful to preserve the Health, and provide for the Well-being of their Husbands, as that which was likewise their own Preservation; but the Wives strove one with another, as who should gain the highest pitch of Honour and Reputation. An Example of which sell out at this time. For although by the Law one only was to be burnt with the Husband, yet at the Funeral of Cetius, both strove which should die, as for some Honourable Reward of their Virtue: Whereupon the Matter was brought before the Generals for their Decision. The Younger declar'd, That the other was with Child, and therefore her Death could not satisfy the Law: The Elder pleaded, That it was a greater Piece of Justice, that she who was before the other in Years, should be preferr'd before her in Honour: For in all other Cases, the constant Rule is to yield more Honour and Respect to the Elder, than to the Younger. The Captains being inform'd by the Midwives, that the Elder was with Child, preferr'd the Younger before the other: Upon which, she lost her Cause, went out weeping and wailing, renting her Vail in pieces, and tearing her Hair, as if some sad and dreadful News had been told her: The other rejoicing in the Victory, made forthwith to the Funeral Pile crown'd by the Women of her House with Attires call'd Mitres, and by her Kindred brought forth Page 623 most richly adorn'd, as to some Nuptial Festival, setting forth her Praises all along as they went, in Songs fitted for that occasion.
As soon as she came to the Pile she threw off her Attire, and distributed them amongst her Servants and Friends, leaving these behind her, as tokens of Remembrances for them that loved her. Her Attire was multitudes of Rings upon her Fingers, set with all manner of precious Stones of divers Colours. Upon her Head were a great number of little Golden Stars, between which were plac'd sparkling Stones of all sorts. About her Neck she wore abundance of Jewels, some small, others large; increasing by degrees in bigness as they were put on one after another. At length she took leave of all her Family and Servants, and then her Brother plac'd her upon the Pile, and to the great Admiration of the People (who flock'd thither to see the Sight) with an Heroick Courage she there ended her Life.
The whole Army solemnly in their Arms march'd thrice round the Pile before it was kindled: She in the mean time (disposing of her self towards her Husband's Body,) discover'd not by any Screeks or otherwise, that she was at all daunted at the Noise of the Crackling Flames, so that the Spectators were affected some with Pity, and others with Admiration, and extraordinary Commendation of her Resolution. However, there are some who condemn this Law as Cruel and Inhumane.
After the Funeral was over, Eumenes march'd from Patetacine to Gabiene, which being yet untouch'd, was in a condition to supply the Army with all Things necessary, which was distant from Antigonus his Army (going through the Countries inhabited) Five and twenty Days Journey; but passing through the Desarts, (where there's no Water,) 'tis but Nine Days Journey: Being thus far distant one from another, he there winter'd, and so gave his Army time to refresh themselves.
As for the Affairs of Europe, Cassander, while he lay at the Siege of Tegea, hearing of the return of Olympias into Macedonia, and of the Death of Eurydice and King Philip, and what was done to the Sepulchre of Jollas his Brother, agreed with the Taegeans, and march'd with his Army into Macedonia, leaving his Consederates in great Trouble and Perplexity. For Alexander the Son of Polysperchon was then entred Peloponnesus, and ready to set upon the Cities with a great Army. And the Aetolians to ingratiate themselves with Olympias and Polsyperchon, seiz'd upon the straight Passes at Pylas, and block'd up the Passage to stop Cassander in his march: But he perceiving that it was very difficult for him to force his way through those narrow Streights, by the help of some Ships and several Boats out of Eubea and Locris, pass'd over into Thessaly. And hearing that Polysperchon lay with his Army in Perrhabea, he order'd away Callas his General, with some Forces to fight him. In the mean time, Dinias being sent away to secure the Streights, possess'd himself of those Passes before the Forces of Olympias could reach them.
As soon as Olympias heard that Cassander was entring Macedonia with a great Army, she created Aristonous General, and commanded him to fight Cassander. She her self (taking along with her the Son of Alexander and Roxana his Mother, and Thessalonica the Daughter of Philip the Son of Amyntas, Deidamia the Daughter of Eacides King of Epirus, and Sister of Pyrrhus (who afterwards made War upon the Romans) and the Daughters of Attalus, and other Kindred and eminent Relations) enter'd into Pydna, so that a great throng of People, Useless and Unserviceable for War, attended upon her: Neither was there Provision in that Place sufficient for such a Multitude, to hold out any long Siege. All which disadvantages, though they were clear Evidences of the greatness of the Danger, yet she was resolv'd to stay here, expecting many Greeks and Macedonians to come in to her assistance by Sea.
There were with her some Horse from Ambracia, and many of the Troops of the Houshould; and the rest of Polysperchon's Elephants: The other had been before taken by Cassander at his former irruption into Macedonia; who now having recover'd the Passes at Perrhebea, so as that he had his way open to Pydna, begirt the Town round with a Mud-wall from Sea to Sea; and sent for Shipping and all sorts of Weapons and Engines of Battery from his Confederates, with a design to block up Olympius both by Sea and Land.
But when he had Intelligence that Eacides, King of Epirus, was coming with a strong Army to the Relief of Olympias, he deliver'd some Forces to the Command of Atarchias, with Orders to meet the Epirots, who presently executing what he was commanded, possess'd himself of the Passes into Epirus, so that Eacides was wholly deseated in his Design.
For the Epirots were forc'd against their Wills to the Expedi•ion into Macedonia, and therefore mutiny'd in the Camp: However, Eacides, desirous by any way possible to R•heve Olympias, cashier'd all those that favour'd not his Design; taking in those who were Page 624 willing to run the same risk with himself; he was indeed very forward to Engage, but had not yet force enough; for the Party that stuck to him was very small.
In the mean time, the Epirots that were sent away into their own Country, revolted from the King, and his People, by a common Decree of the State, Banish'd him the Kingdom, and Consederated with Cassander; like to which never before hapned in Epirus from the time that Neoptolimus, the Son of Achilles, reign'd there. For the Kingdom ever descended from the Father, by Right of Succession to the Son, till this time.
When Cassander was thus supported by the Confederacy of the Epirots, and had sent Lyciseus both as General and Viceroy into Epirus, they in Macedonta, who before were at a stand, whether they should Confederate with Olympias or not, now (seeing no hopes remaining for the retrieving her Affairs) join'd with Cassander. So that now the only Prop remaining to rely upon for Relief was Polysperchon, and this was presently in a strange manner shatter'd and broken in Pieces; for when Callas, who was sent as Geneneral by Cassander, sate down with his Army near to Polysperchon in Perrebia, he so corrupted most of his Soldiers with large Bribes, that very few remain'd, especially of those that were look'd upon to be most Faithful: And thus low were the Affairs of Olympias sunk in a very short time.
As for the Affairs of Asia at this time; Antigonus then Wint'ring in Gadamalis, otherwise Gaderlis, looking upon his Army too weak for the Enemy, contriv'd how to fall upon them unawares, and to Out wit them. Eumenes his Soldiers were so scatter'd and dispers'd in their Winter-quarters, that some of them were six days march distant one from another. But Antigonus judg'd it not adviseable to march through the Countries that were Inhabited, both in regard the Journey would be very long and tedious, and likewise presently known to the Enemy, but conceiv'd it much more for his advantage to lead his Army through the dry and barren Desarts, though it were far more troublesome, for that it was much the shorter Cut; and by that means his march would be secret, and so he might fall upon the Enemy suddenly and unexpectedly, as they lay dispers'd and scatter'd in their Quarters, never dreaming of any such thing.
Upon these Considerations he commanded his Soldiers to be ready for a March, and to prepare for themselves Ten Days Victuals such as need not the Fire. He himself gave it out, that he would march through Armenia: But on a sudden, contrary to the Expectation of his whole Army, in the Depth of Winter, he march'd towards the Desarts. In their march he order'd Fires to be made in the Day, but to be put out in the Night, left that any seeing them far off from the Mountains, might discover his approach to the Enemy: For the Desart was almost all wholly Plain and Champaign, surrounded with many high Hills, from whence it was easie a long way off to discover the Fires. But when the Army had spent Five days in this tedious Journey, the Soldiers for very Cold, as for other necessary Uses, fell to making of Fires by Night as well as by Day; which some of the Inhabitants of the Wilderness espying, they presently the very same day sent away Messengers upon Dromedaries to give Intelligence thereof to Eumenes and Peucestes. This Beast will commonly run Fifteen hundred Furlongs a Day.
Peucestes being inform'd, that the Enemy's Army was seen half way of their march, began to think of running away as far as he could, being afraid the Enemy would be upon him before he could get the Forces together, from every Quarter where they then lay dispers'd. Eumenes perceiving the Fright he was in, bid him be of good Heart, and continue upon the Edge of the Wilderness, for he had found out a way that Antigonus should not come into those Parts in three or four days. And having done that, they should be able within that time easily to get all their Forces together; and so the Enemy being tir'd out, and starv'd for want of Provision, would all fall into their hands. All wonder'd at this strange Undertaking, and every one was earnest to learn what it was that should give a stop to the Enemy. Eumenes hereupon commanded all the Captains and Soldiers that were then at hand, to follow him with a great number of Urns full of Fire, and then chose out some of the Highest Ground in the Country, which look'd every way towards the Wilderness, and there mark'd out several Places within the Compass of Seventy Furlongs, and allo•ted to every Captain a Post distant about Twenty Cubits one from another, with Command to kindle a Fire in the Night in every Place; and at the first Watch to make the greater Fires, as if they were then still upon the Guard, and going to Supper and refreshing themselves; at the Second, that the Fires should be less; and the Third to be left near Out and Extinct, that so at a Distance it might seem as if the Army were certainly there Encamp'd together.
The Soldiers observing the Order given them, some of the Inhabitants of the Mountains over against them (Friends to Pitho the Governor of Media) perceiv'd the Fire, Page 625 and supposing the Army was really there Encamp'd, ran down into the Plain, and inform'd both Pitho and Antigonus; who being amaz'd, (and as it were Thunder-struck at this strange and unexpected News) made an Halt, and Consulted with those that brought them the News what Course was best to be taken. For Men that were tyr'd out, and in want of every thing that was necessary, to Engage with an Enemy prepar'd, and furnish'd with plenty of all sorts of Provision, was alledg'd to be a desperate and hazardous Adventure. Concluding therefore that they were betray'd, and that the Enemies Forces were drawn together, (upon Intelligence given them of what was design'd) it was resolv'd not to march forward, but turn aside to the Right; and so the Army mov'd into both parts of the Countries inhabited, to the end the Soldiers might refresh themselves after their toilsom March.
In the mean time, Eumenes having by this Stratagem thus deluded the Enemy, got all his Army together from all Parts where they were in their Winter-Quarters, and fortifying his Camp with a Rampire and a deep Trench, he there receiv'd his Confederates as come in to him, and plentifully furnish'd his Camp with all things necessary.
But Antigonus, after he had march'd through the Desert, receiving Intelligence from the Inhabitants, that the rest of Eumenes his Forces were almost all come to him; but that his Elephants coming out of their Winter-Stations, were not far off with a very slender Guard, sent out Two thousand Horse-Lanceliers, Two hundred Tarentines, and all his light-arm'd Foot to intercept them: For setting upon them as they were without a sufficient Guard, he hop'd he might easily make himself Master of 'em; and so deprive the Enemy of the main Strength of his Army. But Eumenes fearing the worst that might happen upon that account, sent away (for a further Guard) Five hundred of his best Horse, and Three thousand light-arm'd Foot.
As soon as Antigonus his Soldiers came in sight, the Commanders of the Elephants drew them into a square in the form of a Tile, and plac'd the Carriages in the middle, and so march'd on. They were supported in the Reer with no more than four hundred Horse. The Enemy then pouring in all their Force upon them, and pushing on still with great Violence, the Horse in the Reer being over-power'd, made away. The Masters of the Elephants stood for some time, gall'd with Darts and Arrows on every side, not able to endamage or touch the Enemy: And just now when they were ready to give up all, in comes unexpectedly the Eumeneans, who Extricate them out of all their Dangers. A few Days after, the Armies Encamp'd within forty Furlongs one of another; and now being about to lay all at stake, both sides prepar'd for Battel.
Antigonus drew up his Horse into two Wings, and committed the Left to Pitho, and the Right to his Son Demetrius, where he himself intended to Charge; the Foot was in the middle Battel, and all the Elephants he plac'd in the Front of the whole Army, interlin'd with Light-arm'd Men. His whole Army was Two and twenty thousand Foot, and Nine thousand Horse, besides those that were listed in Media; and Elephants Sixty five.
When Eumenes understood, that Antigonus had plac'd himself in the Right Wing with the best of his Horse, he himself fronted him with the Choicest of his own, in the Left; for here he plac'd most of the Governors of the Provinces, with the Best of that Horse which they themselves brought into the Field, and with these he ventur'd himself.
In this Wing likewise was Mithridates, Son of Ariobarzanes, descended from one of those seven Persians, who slew Smerdis, one of the Magi, a Man of exemplary Valour, and brought up in the Feats of War from his very youth. In the Front of this Wing he plac'd Threescore of the best of his Elephants, drawn up in form of an Half-Moon, interlin'd with Light-arm'd Men.
As to the Foot, the Targateers were plac'd in the Front; then the Argyraspides; and in the Rear all the Foreigners, and those that were arm'd after the manner of the Macedonians, and so many Elephants and Light-arm'd Men were plac'd in the Front of the main Battel of the Foot, as was thought sufficient. In the Right Wing were drawn up such Horse and Elephants as were judg'd the most Weak and Feeble of all the rest, and over these was appointed Philip as Commander, who was order'd to retire leisurely as he fought, and diligently to observe the Event of the other side.
Eumenes his Army amounted to Thirty six thousand and seven hundred Foot, Six thousand and fifty Horse, and a Hundred and fourteen Elephants.
A little before the Battel, Antigenes, General of the Argyraspides, had sent a Macedonian Horseman to the Enemy's Phalanx, with Command to ride up as close to them as possibly he could, and proclaim with a loud Voice what he had order'd him. Hereupon, when he was come up within hearing of that Part of the Army where Antigonus his Page 626Macedonian Phalanx was drawn up, he cry'd out with a loud Voice thus, Oh ye Villains! Ye fight against your Fathers, who ventur'd their Lives, and perform'd all those Noble Acts with Philip and Alexander, whom you shall shortly experience to be Men worthy those Kings and those former Conquests! The Youngest of the Argyraspiaes at that time were at least Threescore years of Age; but most of the rest were Seventy, and some older; all of them for Strength and Skill in their Weapons unconquerable: For continual Practice of their Arms had made them Expert and Daring.
Proclamation being made, as we have before said, there were many harsh Words and discontented Speeches cast out in Amigonus his Army. That they should be forc'd to fight against their own Countrymen, and with those that were so much older than themselves. In Eumenes his Army on the other hand, they were continually crying out while the Army was drawing up, to be led out against the Enemy: Eumenes seeing the Alacrity of the Soldiers, lift up the Ensign of Battel, upon which forthwith the Trumpets sounded a Charge, and the whole Army set up a shout for the Onset. The Elephants in the first place fought one with another; then the Horse Charg'd on both sides. The Field was very Large, Sandy, and Waste, so that so much Dust was rais'd by the Trampling of the Horses, as that a Man could not see what was done, though but at a small distance from him: Which Antigonus observing, sent forthwith away some Median Horse, and a Body of Tarentines, to set upon the Baggage of the Enemy.
For he hop'd by reason of the Dust that was rais'd (as the thing in truth prov'd) that they would not be discern'd, and that if he got possession of the Carriages, he should easily bring the whole Army into his power. Hereupon, those that were sent forth secretly slipping by the Enemies Wing, set upon the Pages, Scullion Boys, and others that were with the Baggage, and about five Furlongs distant from the Place of Battel.
There they found a Multitude of Useless and Unserviceable Rabble, and a very small Guard in the Place, so that they were presently put to flight, and the rest all fell into the Enemies hands. In the mean time, Antigonus charging the Enemy with a strong Body of Horse, so terrify'd Peucestes, Governor of Persia, that he with his Horse got out of the Dust, and drew Fifteen hundred more after him. But Eumenes, though he was left but with a very few in the out Skirts of the Wing where he was, yet counted it base to flag or fly; judging it more honourable to be Faithful to his word, in the Quarrel of the Kings, and to die in an honest and just Cause with Resolution, made a fierce Charge upon Antigonus; so that now there was a sharp Dispute between the Horse; where the Eumeneans excell'd the other in Heat and Resolution, but the Antigontans them in Num. and Multitude; and many fell on both sides. At which time, the Elephants fighting one with another, the Leader on Eumenes his side, engaging with one of the Stoutest of the other, was there slain. Hereupon, Eumenes perceiving his Horse to be worsted on every hand, withdrew with the rest of the Horse out of the Fight, and pass'd over to the other Wing, and join'd himself to those with Philip, whom he had order'd to make a leisurely Retreat. And thus ended the Engagement between the Horse.
But as to the Foot, the Argyraspides (or Silver Shields) in a full Body flew with that Violence upon the Enemy, that some they kill'd upon the spot, and they rest they put to flight: For they were not to be withstood; who though they engag'd with the Enemy's main Battel, yet they signaliz'd both their Valour and Dexterity to that degree, that they kill'd above Five thousand without the loss of one Man, and put the whole Foot to flight, though they were far more in number than themselves.
When Eumenes understood, that all the Carriages were taken; and that Peucestes was not far off with the Horse, he endeavour'd to get all to rally in a Body together again, and to try their Fortune in a second Engagement with Antigonus: For he concluded, if he prevail'd he should not only recover his own Carriages, but likewise possess himself of the Enemy's: But Peucestes would not hear of fighting any more, but got further off, so that Eumenes was forc'd to yield the Day.
Then Antigonus dividing his Horse into two Bodies, he himself with one sought how to intrap Eumenes, observing which way he made; the other he delivered to Pitho, with Orders to fall upon the Argyraspides, who then were forsaken by their Horse; who forthwith setting upon them, as he was commanded, the Macedonians drew up in form of a Square, and got safe to the River, exclaiming against Peucestes, as the Cause of the routing of the Horse.
When Eumenes came up to them in the Evening, they consulted together what was then fittest to be done. The Governors of the Provinces were for returning with all speed into the Higher Provinces; but Eumenes was for staying where they were and fighting, and in regard the Enemies main Battel was broken and cut off, and that they were Page 627 then equal in Horse on both sides. But the Macedonians seeing that they had lost their Carriages, Wives, and Children, and whatever was dear to them, declar'd they would neither do the one or the other. And so at that time, without agreeing in any thing, they parted. But afterwards, the Macedonians secretly corresponding with Antigonus seiz'd upon Eumenes, and deliver'd him up into his Hands. And having receiv'd their Carriages, and Faith taken for security, they all march'd away together: Whose Example the Governors of the Provinces and most of the other Captains and Soldiers follow'd, forsaking their General, chiefly consulting their own Safety and Preservation.
Antigonus having thus strangely and unexpectedly possess'd himself both of Eumenes and his whole Army, seiz'd upon Antigenes, Captain of the Argyraspides, and put him alive into a Coffin, and burnt him to Ashes. He put to death likewise Eudamus, who brought the Elephants out of India, and Celbanus and some others: Who upon all occasions appear'd against him. But for Eumenes, he put him in Prison, and took time to consider how to dispose of him. For he had in truth an earnest desire to have gain'd so good a General to his own Interest, and to have oblig'd him upon that account; but because of the great Kindness and strict Correspondency which pass'd between him and Olympias, and the Kings, he durst not absolutely rely upon him; for but a while before, though he had deliver'd him out of the straits he was in at Nora in Phrygia, yet he presently upon it fell in and sided with the Kings; and therefore, upon the pressing Importunity of the Macedonians he put him to Death. But in respect of his former Familiarity with him, he caus'd his Body to be burnt, and his Bones to be put into an Urn, and deliver'd to his nearest Friends. Amongst those that were Wounded and Prisoners, was Hieronymus of Cardia, Historiographer, who having been ever in great Esteem with Eumenes during his Life, after his Death found great Favour also with Antigonus.
Antigonus returning into Media with his whole Army, spent the rest of the Winter in a Town not far from Ecbatane, where stood the Palace-Royal of that Province. He distributed his Army here and there all over that Province, and especially in the Country of Rhages; so call'd from the Calamities it had miserably suffer'd in former times. For being heretofore full of Rich and populous Cities, there hapned such terrible Earthquakes in those Parts, that both Cities and Inhabitants were swallow'd up altogether, not one left, and the very Face of the Country was so chang'd, that new Rivers and Ponds appear'd in the room of the Old.
The Innundations at Rhodes. Antigonus kills Pitho, getting him into his power by Dissimulation. Then marches into Persia. Revolters from Antigonus cut off in Media. He divides the Asian Provinces, and contrives to destroy all the Argyraspides. Gets great Treasure in Susa. Cassander besieges Olympias in Pydna; The great Distress to which it was reduc'd. Amphipolis surrender'd to Cassander. He kills Olympias. Marries Thessalonices; Builds Cassandra. Imprisons Rhoxana and her Son Alexander. His Expedition into Peloponnesus against Alexander, the Son of Polysperchon: The History of Thebes. Cassander rebuilds Thebes.
ABout this time hapned a Flood near the City of Rhodes, which destroy'd many of the Inhabitants. The first Flood did little prejudice, because the City was but then newly built, and far larger in Compass: But the second was more Mischievous, and destroy'd Multitudes. The last fell out at the Beginning of the Spring, accompany'd with violent Storms of Rain, and Hail-stones of an incredible Bigness; for they were a Mina in weight, and sometime more, so that they not only beat down Houses, but kill'd many Men. And in regard Rhodes was built in Form of a Theatre, and that the Water ran for the most part into one Place, the lower Parts of the City were presently fill'd with Water, (for that the Winter being now look'd upon to be over) no care was taken to cleanse the Channels and Aqueducts; and the Pipes likewise in the Walls were choked up; so that the Waters flowing in altogether on a sudden, all the Ground about the Deigma, (as it is call'd) and the Temple of B•cchuss was fill'd with Water; and now it rising up like a standing Pond to the Temple of Esculapius, all were in a Consternation, Page 628 and could not agree together what should be done, in order to their Preservation. Some were for making to the Ships, and others for hasting to the Theatre. Some now almost surrounded with the Evil that threaten'd them, in great Terror and Amazement climb'd up to the top of the highest Altars, and others to the top of the Pedestals of the Statues. The City being in this Danger to be overwhelm'd and ruin'd, with all its Inhabitants, on a sudden they were unexpectedly deliver'd: For the Wall burst asunder in a large Breach, and the Water that stood on an Heap made its way through, and ran with a violent Current into the Sea, and so every one presently had free passage to his own House.
It was of great advantage to these distressed People, that this Inundation was in the day time: For most of the Citizens ran to the highest parts of the City for shelter. And another advantage was, that the Houses were not built of Tile, but of Stone; so that they who got to the House-tops escap'd without any great Damage: However, there perish'd in this common Calamity above Five hundred Souls; and some of the Houses were born down to the Ground, and others very ill torn and shaken. And in this danger was Rhodes.
Antigonus, while he Winter'd in Media, discover'd Pitho plotting to draw over the Soldiers then in their Winter-Quarters, partly by Bribes, and partly by fair Promises to his own Interest, and to make a Turn and Defection in the Army. But Antigonus cover'd and conceal'd his Design, and made show as if he gave no Credit to the Informers, but chid them as those that contriv'd only to set him and Pitho together by the ears. In the mean while, he caus'd it to be nois'd abroad, That he intended to leave Pitho, with a considerable Army for his Defence, Lord-Lieutenant of the higher Provinces; and he wrote likewise to him, and desired him to hasten to him with all speed, that after they had consulted together of some weighty Affairs, they might forthwith march away into the Lesser Asia. Thus he manag'd his Business, whereby to remove all ground of Suspicion, and to get the poor Man into his hands, upon an expectation and hopes to be left Governor of those Provinces: For it was a difficult matter to take one by force who was in so great Repute with Alexander, and for his Valour advanc'd by him to Places of Honour; and who being then Governor of Media, was a help and support to the whole Army.
Pitho was at that time in the furthest Parts of all Media in his Winter-Quarters, and had now corrupted many, who had promis'd to join with him in the Defection. His Friends likewise acquainting him by their Letters with Antigonus his Purpose, possess'd him with an Expectation of mighty Things: And thus guil'd, to Antigonus he went; who having now seiz'd his Prey, brought him before a Council of War even of his own Confederates, where he was easily convicted, and forthwith had his Head chopp'd off.
Hereupon Antigonus gathering all his Army together, committed the Government of Media to Orontobates a Median born; but made Hippostratus General of the Army, who had Three thousand 500 foreign Foot-Soldiers under his Command. He himself taking with him the Body of his Army, went to Ecbatana, where receiving Five thousand Talents of massie Silver, he march'd into Persia; and it cost him twenty days march before he arriv'd at the Capital City Persepolis.
In the mean time, while Antigonus was on his march, Pitho's Friends, who were concern'd with him in the Conspiracy (the chief of whom was Meleager and Menoetas) and other Well-willers of Eumenes and Pitho, who were scatter'd abroad into Corners, met together, to the number of Eight hundred Horse; and in the first place wasted the Territories of the Medes who refus'd to join with them. Then receiving Intelligence where Hippestratus and Orontobates lay encamp'd, they broke in upon them in the night, and were not far off from effecting what they design'd; but being overpower'd by number, and having only entic'd some of the Soldiers to run the same course with them, they were forc'd to retreat; yet some of the nimblest of them (all being Horse-men) made many sudden Incursions upon the Country, and caus'd a great Consternation and Hubbub amongst them; but were atlast inclos'd in a place compass'd about with Rocks, and were there all kill'd or taken. But Meleager and Cranes the Median, and some of the better sort of them stood it out to the last, and died with their Swords in their hands. And this was the Condition of the Conspirators in Media.
As for Antigonus, as soon as he came into Persia, the People honour'd him as a King, as he that was now undoubtedly absolute Lord of all Asia: There calling together a Council of his Nobility, he propounded to them the matter concerning the Government of the Provinces: In which Consultation they left Carmania to Tlepolemus, and Bactria to Stasanor; for it was no easie matter to expel them, having gain'd the Hearts of the People by their fair Deportment, and likewise were associated with potent Confederates. Page 629Eritus he sent into Aria; who dying shortly after, was succeeded by Evagoras, a Man of wonderful Valour and Prudence. Oxyatres likewise, the Father of Roxana, was permitted to enjoy the Province of Parapamisus, as he did before: For neither could he eject him without a long expence of Time and a very great Army.
But he sent for Sibyritus, a Well-willer of his, out of Arachosia, and bestow'd upon him the Government of that Province, and gave him the most turbulent of the Silver Shields, under colour of serving him in the War, but in truth with a design to have them all cut off; for he gave him private Instructions to employ them in such Services as that by degrees they might all be destroy'd. Amongst these were those that betray'd Eumenes, that Vengeance might in a short time after overtake these perfidious Villans for their Treachery against their General. For Princes, by reason of their great Power, may reap advantage by the wicked Acts of others; but private Men who are the Actors, for the most part are by those means brought into miserable Disasters.
Antigonus moreover finding that Peucestes was much belov'd in Persia, made it one of his first Works to strip him of that Government. At which all the Natives greatly repin'd; and a Chief Man amongst them call'd Thespias spake openly against it, and said, That the Persians would be govern'd by no other Man but Peucestes; whereupon he flew Thespias, and made Asclepiodorus Governor of Persia, and committed to him a considerable Army; and held on Peucestes with vain Hopes of preferring him with higher Preferments elsewhere, until he had drawn him quite out of the Country.
While Antigonus was on his way to Susa, Xenophilus, who had the keeping of the King's Treasure there, being sent by Seleucus, went and met him at Pasitigris, and offer'd him his Service in whatsoever he pleas'd to command him. Antigonus receiv'd him very graciously, and seem'd as if he honour'd him above all the Friends he had, fearing left he might alter his Mind, and keep him out when he came thither. But when he came into the Castle of Susa, he possess'd himself of it, and there seiz'd upon the Golden Vine, and store of other such Rarieties, to the value of Fifteen thousand Talents: All which he turn'd into ready Money, besides what he made of Crowns of Gold, and other Presents and Spoils taken from the Enemy, amounting to Five thousand Talents more, and a like quantity collected out of Media, besides the Treasure had from Susa; so that in the whole he heap'd together Five and twenty thousand Talents. And thus stood the Affairs of Antigonus at that time.
Since we have handled the Affairs of Asia, we shall now pass over into Europe, and relate what was done there concurring and cotemporary with the former. Cassander having shut up Olympias in Pydna in Macedonia, could not assault the Walls by reason of the Winter Season; but he block'd up the City with his Forces on every side, and drew a Mud-wall from Sea to Sea; and to prevent all Relief by Sea as well as by Land, he guarded the Mouth of the Harbour with his own Shipping. Insomuch as their Provisions being near spent, the Besieg'd were reduc'd to that Extremity of Want, that they were near starv'd. For they were brought to that strait, that every Soldier was allow'd but Five Choenices of Bread-Corn every Month, and the Elephants were fed with Sawdust. At last they kill'd the Draught-Beasts and Horses for Meat.
While the City was in this State, and Olympias earnestly expecting Foreign Aid, the Elephants pin'd away for want of Food. And the Horse-men that were Foreigners almost all dy'd, having no proportion of Bread allotted them, and many of the other Soldiers far'd no better. Some of the Barbarians (Hunger overcoming what Nature would have otherwise dreaded and abhorr'd) fed upon the Carkasses of the Dead.
The Town being now fill'd with dead Bodies, the Colonels and Captains of the King's Guards buri'd some, and threw others over the Walls; insomuch as not only the Queens, (who were bred up deliciously all their Days,) but even the Soldiers, who were always inur'd to Hardship, could not indure the Sight, nor Stink of the Carkasses.
And now the Spring came on, and the Famine increas'd every day, whereupon most of the Soldiers came up in a Body, and intreated Olympias to suffer them to leave the Place because of the Scarcity, who (not being able to supply them with Bread, nor in a condition to raise the Siege) let them go; and they were all kindly received by Cassander, and dispos'd of into several Towns and Cities round about. For he hop'd, that the Macedonians coming to understand by them how weak Olympias was, would conclude her Affairs Desperate and Remediless. And he did not miss the Mark in his Conjecture; for they who were just now sending Relief to the Besieged, presently alter'd their Purpose, and sided with Cassander. Only Aristonous and Monimus of all the Macedonians continu'd firm and faithful to Olympias, of whom Aristonous was Governor of Amphipolis, and the other of Pella. At length Olympias perceiving that many went over to Cassander, and those who were her Friends were not able to help her; without further delay got ready a Galley of Page 630 Five Oars on a Bank, with a design to rescue her and all her Kindred out of the present Danger: But being discover'd to the Enemy by some of the Deserters, Cassander sail'd to the Place, and seiz'd the Vessel. Whereupon Olympias looking upon her self in a desperate Condition, sent an Herald to Cassander to treat upon Terms of Pacification; but he insisting upon the delivering up of her self to his Mercy, with much ado she at length prevail'd only for the preservation of her Person: Being therefore now possess'd of the City, he sent some away to summon Pella and Amphipolis.
Monimus the Governor of Pella hearing how Things went with Olympias, presently surrender'd: But Aristonous at first resolv'd to hold out and maintain the Cause of the Kings, in regard he had a strong Garison, and had been then lately Prosperous and Successful. For a few days before, he had fought with Crateuas, one of Cassander's Captains, and cut off many of the Enemy, and drave Crateuas himself, with Two thousand of his Men, into the City Bedys in Bisaltia, and there besieg'd him, took him and disarm'd him, and then upon mutual Pledges of Faith given and taken, discharg'd him. Being encourag'd upon this account, and knowing nothing but that Eumenes was still living, and concluding he should be sure of Aid and Relief from Alexander and Polysperchon, he refus'd to surrender Amphipolis.
But as soon as he receiv'd Letters from Olympias, (whereby she commanded him upon the Faith of his former Engagement to restore the City,) he observ'd her Commands, and deliver'd it up, upon assurance of his own Preservation. But Cassander perceiving that he was a Man of great Interest by reason of the Honours conferr'd upon him by Alexander, and minding to take all such out of the way as might be in a Capacity to make any Disturbance, by the help of Crateuas his Kindred he put him also to Death. Then he incited the Relations of such as were put to Death by Olympias, to prosecute her in the General Assembly of the Macedonians, who thereupon very readily comply'd with what they were put on to do; and though she her self was not then present, nor had any Person there to plead her Cause, yet the Macedonians condemn'd her to Die. Cassander thereupon sent some of his Friends to Olympias, and advis'd her to get out of the way, and promis'd to procure for her a Ship, and cause her to be convey'd safe to Athens. And this he did not as any ways minding her Preservation, but as one conscious of her own Guilt by her flight, it might be judg'd a just Vengeance upon her if she perish'd and was cut off, as she was in her Voyage. For he was afraid as well of the Fickleness of the Macedonians, as of the Dignity of her Person. But Olympias refus'd to fly, but said, She was ready to defend her Cause before all the Macedonians.
Cassander therefore fearing lest the People calling to mind the worthy Acts and Kindnesses of Philip and Alexander towards the whole Nation should change their Minds, and so take upon them to defend the Queen, sent to her a Band of Two hundred Soldiers well Arm'd and Accouter'd, with Orders to dispatch her forthwith; who rushing on a sudden into the Palace, as soon as they saw her, (in Reverence to her Person,) drew back, without executing what they were commanded. But the Kindred of those she had put to Death, both to ingratiate themselves with Cassander, and likewise to gratify their own Revenge for the Death of their Relations, cut her Throat, she not in the least crying out in any Womanish Terror or Fear to spare her. In this manner died Olympias, the greatest and most honourable Woman in the Age wherein she liv'd, Daughter of Neoptolimus King of Epirus; Sister of Alexander, who made the Expedition into Italy; Wife of Philip, the greatest and most victorious Prince of all that ever were before in Europe; and lastly, the Mother of Alexander, who never was exceeded by any for the many great and wonderful Things that were done by him.
Cassander now seeing all Things go on according to his Heart's Desire, in his Hopes and Expectations was already possess'd of the Kingdom of Macedon: He therefore now marries Thessalonices Daughter of Philip, and Sister of Alexander by the same Father, ambitious to be related in Affinity, and esteem'd as one of the Royal Family. He built likewise Cassandria (calling it after his own Name) in Pallene, and Peopled it by Inhabitants drawn out of the Cities of the Chersonesus, and out of Potidea and many other neighbouring Cities, and plac'd there likewise those Olynthians that were left, of whom there were still a considerable Number. To this City he laid a large and rich Territory, and made it his earnest Care to advance the Glory and Splendour of this Place; so that it grew up in a short time to that degree of Power, as to excell all the Cities of Macedonia.
Cassander likewise minding to cut off all the Posterity of Alexander, (that there might be none of his Line left to succeed in the Kingdom,) purpos'd to kill the Son of Alexander, and Roxana his Mother. But for the present being willing first to observe what People's Page 631 Discourses were concerning the cutting off of Olympias, and having as yet no certain Account how Things went with Antigonus, he committed Roxana and her Son close Prisoners to the Castle at Amphipolis under the Charge of Glaucias, then by him made Governor, and one of his Friends, in whom he plac'd great Confidence. He likewise took away from the young King those Children that were bred up with him as his Companions, and order'd that he should be no longer attended as a King, nor regarded otherwise than as a private Person.
And now Ruling the Kingdom in all Things as King, he Royally and Sumptuously Interr'd at Aegis, Eurydice and Philip, the late King and Queen; and Cinna, whom Alcetas had put to Death, gracing the Dead with the Solemnity of Funeral Sports and Plays.
Then he rais'd Soldiers out of Macedonia for the Expedition resolv'd upon into Peloponnesus. While he was employ'd in these Affairs, Polysperchon, who was then besieg'd in Naxius in Perrebea, when he heard of the Death of Olympias, in despair of retrieving of his Affairs in Macedonia, with a few in his Company broke out of the City, and pass'd through Thessaly, together with Aeacides, and came into Aetolia, where he judg'd he might safely abide, and observe how Things went, for that there was a good Understanding between him and this Nation.
But Cassander having now rais'd a considerable Army, marches out of Macedonia with an intent to drive Alexander the Son of Polysperchon out of Peloponnesus: For he with his Army was the only Enemy left, and had possess'd himself of many convenient Posts and Towns there. Through Thessaly he march'd without any opposition; but found the Pass at Pylas guarded by the Etolians, whom having with much difficulty beaten off, he came into Boeotia, where getting all the Thebans together that were remaining from all Parts, he set upon repeopling of Thebes, conceiving now he had a fair opportunity put into his hands for the rebuilding of that City, famous both for its renowned Actions, and the ancient Stories concerning it. And by so good a Work, he concluded he should reap the Fruit of an Immortal Fame and Glory.
This City had felt very many Changes and Turns of Fortune, and those to the utmost Extremity, being sometimes in danger of being raz'd to the Ground. Of which, to say something briefly will not be any foreign Digression.
After Deucolion's Flood, when Cadmus had built the Cittadel, call'd Cadmea after his own Name, the People call'd Spartans or Sparsans flock'd thither in droves, call'd so by some, because they flock'd together from all Places; others call'd them Thebigens, because the Natives of Thebes were forc'd away by the Flood, and dispers'd here and there up and down in the Country. When these were again return'd, they were afterwards expell'd by force of Arms by the Ench•lensians, and then even Cadmus himself was forc'd to fly to the Illyrians. After this, when Amphion and Zethus rul'd, and there first built the City, (as the Poet says,)
The Inhabitants were again expuls'd, when Polydorus the Son of Cadmus return'd into the Kingdom, where all Things were then carelesly manag'd, by reason of the sad Condition of Amphion for the Loss of all his Children.
Then again in the time of the Reign of his Posterity, (when all the Country was call'd Boeotia, from one Boeotus the Son of Melanippes and Neptune, who reign'd there,) the Thebans were expell'd the third time by the Epigoni of Argos, when they took the City by force. Those that escap'd of those that were expell'd, fled to Alalcomenia and the Mountain Tilphosius; but after the Death of these Argives, they return'd into their own Country.
In the time of the Trojan War, when the Thebans were in Asia, those who stay'd at home, together with other Boeotians, were expell'd by the Pelasgians: and after they had endur'd many and various Calamities in the course of near four Generations, (according to the Oracle relating to the Crows,) they return'd, and inhabited Thebes.
From this time this City continu'd in a State of Prosperity near Eight hundred Years. And the Thebans at the beginning had the chief Command over all the rest of their Country.
Page 632 Afterwards when they attempted to be Sovereign Lords of all Greece, Alexander the Son of Philip took it by Storm, and raz'd it to the Ground. In the Twentieth Year next after, Cassander, to make himself Famous, and advance his own Reputation, he so far prevai•d with the Boeotians for their Concurrence, as that he rebuilt the City, and restor'd it to those Thebans that were then remaining of the old Stock. Many of the Greek Cities afforded their Assistance to the rebuilding of this Place, out of Compassion to the distressed Condition of the Thebans, and the ancient Fame and Glory of the City. The Athenians built the greatest part of the Walls, and others assisted according to their several Abilities; and Contributions were sent not only from all Parts of Greece, but from some both in Sicily and Italy. And thus the Thebans came to be restor'd to the ancient Seat of their Ancestors. Then Cassander mov'd with his Army towards Peloponnesus; and when he found that Alexander the Son of Polysperchon had fortify'd the Isthmus with strong Guards, he turn'd aside to Megara; and there he fitted out some Boats, and in them transported his Elephants to Epidaurus, and the rest of his Army in other Ships. Thence coming to Argos, he forc'd them to quit their Confederacy with Alexander and join with him. Afterwards he brought over to him all the Cities and Towns, with the Territories of Messina, except Ithom; and Hermonides he took in upon Articles of Agreement: But upon Alexander's marching down to fight, he left Two thousand Men at Geraneia, near the Istmos, under the Command of Molycus, and and return'd into Macedonia.
Antigonus his Army feasted by Seleucus in Babylon. Falls out with Seleucus, who flies to Ptolemy, and is kindly receiv'd. Ptolemy, Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus, join against Antigonus, They send Ambassadors to him, who Winters in Cilicia He goes into Phoenicia, and there builds Ships; besieges Tyre. The Praise of Phyla, Wife of Demetrius. Aristodemus raises Forces for Antigonus in Peloponnesus. The Acts of Ptolemy, one of Antigonus his Captains. Antigonus his Policy. Tyre deliver'd. The Agreement of Ptolemy's Captains and the rest at Cyprus. The Acts of Seleucus. A Fleet comes to Antigonus from the Hellespont and Rhodes. Things done in Peloponnesus. Cassander's Acts there, and in Greece. The great Victory by Sea and Land obtain'd by Polyclitus Seleucus, his Lieutenant: He's rewarded by Ptolemy. The Acts of Agathocles in Sicily. The Romans War with the Samnites.
AT the end of the former Year, Praxibulus was created chief Magistrate at Athens, and Spurius Nautius and Marcus Popilius bore the Office of Consuls at Rome; at which time Antigonus left one Aspisa a Native, Governor of Susiana. He himself resolving to carry away with him all the Monies, prepar'd Carriages and Camels for that purpose to bring it down to the Sea-side, and so having it along with him, march'd with his Army towards Babylon, which he reach'd in Two and twenty days March; where Seleucus the Governor of the Provinces received him with Royal Presents, and feasted the whole Army. But when Antigonus demanded an Account of the Revenue, he told them, He was not bound to give any Account of that Province which the Macedonians had bestow'd upon him as a Reward of his Service in Alexander's Life-time. The Difference growing wider and wider every day, Seleucus remembring Pitho's fall, was thereupon the more afraid, lest Antigonus should catch an Opportunity to put him also to Death. For he seem'd to have a Design to cut off (as soon as possible he could) all Men in Power, and such as were in a Capacity to struggle for the chief Command: Whereupon, for fear of the worst, he forthwith made away with Fifty Horse only in his Company, intending to go into Egypt to Ptolemy. For his Kindess and courteous Behaviour towards all that came to him for Protection and Shelter, was cry'd up in every Place. When Antigonus came to understand this, he rejoic'd exceedingly, in that he was not forc'd to destroy his Friend and potent Confederate, but that Seleucus by his own voluntary Banishment had seem'd to deliver up the Province of his own accord, without a Stroke struck.
Afterwards the Caldeans came to him, and foretold, That if Seleucus got absolutely away, he should be Lord of all Asia, and that in a Battel between them Antigonus himself Page 633 should be kill'd. Whereupon being sorry that he had let him go, he sent some away to pursue him; but having follow'd him some little way, they return'd as they went. Antigonus was wont to slight these kind of Divinations in other Men, but at this time he was so amaz'd and affrighted with the high Esteem and Reputation of these Men, that he was very much disturb'd in his Thoughts: For they were judg'd to be Men very expert and skilful through their exact and diligent Observation of the Stars: And they affirm, that they and their Predecessors have study'd this Art of Astrology for above Twenty thousand Years. And what they had foretold concerning Alexander's Death, if he enter'd into Babylon; was found true by late Experience. And in truth, as those Predictions concerning Alexander came afterwards to pass, so what they now said relating to Seleucus were likewise in due time accomplish'd. Of which we shall treat particularly when we come to the Times proper for that purpose.
Seleucus, when he was got safe into Egypt, was entertain'd by Ptolemy with all the Expressions of Kindness and Affection that might be; where he bitterly complain'd against Antigonus, affirming that his Design was to expel all Persons of eminent Quality out of their Provinces, and especially such as were in Service under Alexander; which he back'd with Arguments from Pitho's being put to Death, and Peucestes being depriv'd of the Government of Persia, and from the Usage he himself had lately met with; and all these, though they had never done any thing to deserve it, but rather upon all Occasions perform'd all the Acts of Kindness and Service to him that was in their Power, and this was the Reward of all they reap'd from their Service. He reckon'd up likewise the Strength of his Forces, his great Treasure, and his late Successes, which so puff'd him up, that he was in hopes to gain the Sovereign Command over all the Macedonians.
Having by these Arguments stirr'd up Ptolemy to make War against him, he sent some of his Friends over into Europe, to prevail with Cassander and Lysimachus with the like Arguments to appear in Arms against Antigonus. Which Orders being forthwith executed, Foundations were laid for a mighty War, which afterwards follow'd.
Antigonus upon many probable Conjectures, conceiving what was Seleucus his design, sent Ambassadors to Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus, to desire them, that the ancient Friendship might be preserv'd and maintain'd amongst them. And then having made Pithon, who came out of India, Lord-Lieutenant of the Province of Babylon, he broke up his Camp, and march'd towards Cilicia. As soon as he came to Mallos, he distributed his Army into Winter-Quarters, about the Month of November: And he receiv'd out of the Treasury in the City of Quindi Ten thousand Talents, and Eleven thousand Talents out of the yearly Revenues of that Province. So that he was very formidable both in respect of his great Forces and the vastness of his Treasure. And now being remov'd into the Upper Syria, Ambassadors came to him from Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus, who being introduc'd as he sate in Council, demanded all Cappadocia and Lycia, to be be deliver'd up to Cassander; Phrygia, bordering upon the Hellespont, to Lystmachus; all Syria to Ptolemy; and the Province of Babylon to Seleucus; and all the common Stock of Moneys which he had incroach'd upon since the Battel with Eumenes, to be shar'd equally amongst them; which if he refus'd, then they were to let him know, that their Masters intended with their joint Forces to make War upon him. Whereunto he answer'd roughly, That he was now making a War upon Ptolemy; and thereupon, the Ambassadors return'd, without any effect of their Embassy: And upon this Answer, Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus entred into a League amongst themselves, and gathered their Forces together, and made it their business to provide Arms, and all other things necessary for the War.
And now Antigonus perceiving how many great and potent Adversaries had confederated against him, and what a Storm was ready to fall upon him, sought the Alliance and Confederacy of other Cities, Nations, and Princes; and to this purpose dispatch'd away Agisilaus to the King of Cyprus, Idomineus and Moschion to Rhodes, and one Ptolemy, his own Brother's Son, with an Army to raise the Siege of Amisus in Cappadocia, and to drive out those that were sent thither by Cassander. He commanded him likewise to go to the Hellespont, and fall upon Cassander, if he attempted to pass over out of Europe into Asia. He sent away likewise Aristodemus the Milesian, with a thousand Talents, with Orders to enter into a League of Amity with Alexander and Polysperchon, and to hire Soldiers, and make War upon Cassander: And he himself dispos'd Becons and Courriers throughout all Asia, which was wholly at his Command, hereby to give and get Knowledge of all things that pass'd, and to manage his Affairs with the greater Expedition.
Page 634 Having taken this Order, he marches into Phaenicia to provide a Fleet: For at that time the Enemy had the Command of the Sea, being furnish'd with abundance of Shipping, when he himself had not one. Encamping near to Tyre, with design to Besiege it, he sent for the petty Kings of Phaenicia, and Governors of Syria, and dealt with them to join with him in the Building of Ships, because all the Ships that belong'd to Phaenicia were then with Ptolemy in Aegypt. He gave them likewise Order to bring him with all speed Four Millions and Five hundred thousand Bushels of Wheat; for to so much came the yearly Expence of his Army. Then he got together Hewers of Timber, Sawers, and Ship Carpenters, from all Parts, and caus'd Timber to be brought down from Mount Lebanon to the Sea-side, employing therein Eight thousand Men to Work, and a Thou-Beasts for Carriage This Mount runs through Tripolis, Byblia, and Sidonia, and abounds in most beautiful tall Cedars and Cypress Trees. He appointed three Arsenals in Phaenicia, one at Tripolis, another at Byblia, and the Third at Sidon; a Fourth he had in Cilicia, whither Timber was brought from Mount Taurus; and a Fifth in Rhodes, where the Inhabitants suffer'd him to build Ships of Timber, convey'd thither at his own Charge.
While Antigonus was thus employ'd and lay Encamp'd by the Sea side, Seleucus came with a Fleet of an Hundred Sail out of Aegypt, quick Sailers, and Royally furnish'd, and in a scornful manner skirr'd under the Noses of them; which not a little troubled the Minds of his new Associates, and those that join'd with him in the carrying on of the Work. For it was very apparent, that the Enemy now being Master at Sea, would be sure to waste and spoil those who out of kindness to Antigonus had join'd with their Adversaries.
But Antigonus bid them be of good chear, for before the end of Summer, he said, he would be at Sea with a Fleet of Five hundred Sail.
Agesilaus, in the mean while, return'd with his Embassy out of Cyprus, and brought word, that Nicocreon, and the most potent Kings of that Island had already confederated with Ptolemy; Nevertheless, that Citticus, Lapitbius, Marius, and Cyrenites, would join with him: Whereupon, he left Three thousand Men under the Command of Andronicus, to maintain the Siege against Tyre, and he himself march'd with the rest of the Army against Gaza and Joppe, which stood out against him, and took them by force; and such of Ptolemy's Men as he found there, he took and distributed them among his own Regiments, and plac'd Garisons in both those Cities to keep them in Obedience. Which done, he return'd to his standing Camp about Tyre, and prepar'd all necessaries for a Siege against it. At the same time, Aristo, who was intrusted by Eumenes to carry Craterus his Bones, delivered them to Phila to be buried, who was marry'd first to Craterus, and at that time to Demetrius the Son of Antigonus, who was a Woman of excellent Parts and Prudence; for by her prudent Behaviour and Carriage towards every Soldier in the Army, she was able to qualify and moderate those that were most Turbulent, and she put forth the Daughters and Sisters of those that were Poor, at her own Charge; and prevented the Ruine of many that were falsly accus'd. Its reported, that Antipater her Father, (who was the most prudent Prince that Govern'd in this Age) was us'd to consult with Phila his Daughter, in the most weighty Affairs, while she was but yet a Girl. But the Prudence of this Woman will more fully appear in the following Narration, and when things tended to a Revolution, and the fatal Period of Demetrius his Kingdom. And thus stood the Affairs of Antigonus and Phila at this time.
Amongst the Captains sent away by Antigonus, Aristodemus pass'd over to Laconia, and having got leave of the Spartans to raise Soldiers, got together Eight thousand out of Peloponnesus; and upon Conference with Polysperchon and Alexander, join'd them both in a firm League of Amity with Antigonus, and made Polysperchon General over the Forces in Peloponnesus; but prevail'd with Alexander to pass over into Asia to Antigonus.
Ptolomeus, another of his Captains, going into Cappadocia with an Army, and there finding the City of Amisus besieg'd by Asclepidorus, a Captain of Cassander's, rais'd the Siege and secur'd the Place; and so having sent away Asclepidorus packing upon certain Conditions, recover'd that whole Province to Antigonus; and marching thence through Bithynia, came upon the back of Zibytes King of the Bithynians, whilst he was busie in besieging of two Cities at once, that of the Assarenians, and the other of the Calcedonians, and forc'd him to raise his Siege from both; and then falling to Capitulations both with him and the Cities that were besieg'd, after Hostages receiv'd, remov'd thence towards Ionia and Lydia; for that Antigonus had written to him to secure that Coast with all possible speed, having intelligence that Seleucus was going into those Parts with his Fleet; whither indeed he came and besieg'd Erythras: But hearing of the Enemies approach left it, and went away as he came. Mean while, Alexander the Son of Polysperchon,Page 635 came to Antigonus, who made a League with him; and then calling a general Council of the Army and the Strangers there resident, declar'd unto them how Cassander had murder'd Olympias, and how villainously he had dealt with Roxana and the young King, and that he had forc'd Thessalonices to marry him, and that it was very clear and evident that he aspir'd to the Kingdom of Macedonia. Moreover, that he had planted the Olynthians, the most bitter Enemies of the Macedonians, in the City call'd after his own Name; That he had rebuilt Thebes that was raz'd by the Macedonians: Having thus incens'd the Army, he made and wrote an Edict, That Cassander should be taken as an open Enemy, unless he raz'd the two Cities, releas'd the King and Roxana his Mother, and return'd them safe to the Macedonians: And lastly, Unless he submitted to Antigonus, as General and sole Protector of the Kingdom; and free all the Greek Cities, and withdraw all the Garisons out of them.
When the Army had approv'd of this Edict by their Suffrages, he sent Courriers away to publish it in all places: For he hop'd, that by this Means all the Grecians, in expectation of having their Liberties restor'd, would be his Consederates, and readily assist him in the War, and that all the Governors of the Higher Provinces, who before suspected him, as if he design'd to deprive the Posterity of Alexander of the Kingdom, (now that it clearly appear'd that he took up Arms in their behalf) would observe all his Commands of their own accord.
Having dispatch'd all these Matters, he sent back Alexander with Five hundred Talents into Peloponnesus, with his hopes rais'd in expectation of mighty Matters: And he himself with Shipping had from Rhodes, and others he had lately built, set sail for Tyre; where being now Master at Sea, he so block'd it up for thirteen Months together, that no supply of Victuals could be brought thither, and thereby reduc'd the Inhabitants into so great distress, that at length (upon suffering the Soldiers to march away with some small things that were their own) the City was surrender'd to him upon Terms; and he plac'd a Garison in it for its Defence.
In the mean time, Ptolemy hearing what a Declaration Antigonus with the Macedonians had made, concerning the Liberty of the Grecians, made the like himself, as desirous that all the World should take notice, that he was no less zealous for the Liberty of Greece than Antigonus was: For both of them well considering of how great moment it was to their Affairs to gain the good Will of the Grecians, strove one with another which should oblige them most by Acts of Grace. Then he join'd to his Party the Governor of Caria, who was a Man of great Power, and had many great Cities under his Command. And thô he had before sent Three thousand Soldiers to the Kings in Cyprus, yet he hastned away many more, to reduce those who had there sided against him. Those sent were Ten thousand, under the Command of Myrmidon, an Athenian born, and an Hundred sail of Ships, Commanded by Polyclitus: And the General over all he made his Brother Menelaus.
These coming into Cyprus, join'd then with Seleucus and his Fleet, and in a Council of War advis'd what course was fit to be taken. The Result of which was, that Polyclitus with Fifty sail should pass into Peloponnesus, and there should make War upon Aristodemus, Polysperchon, and his Son Alexander: That Myrmidon should go with an Army of Foreigners into Caria, there to help Cassander against Ptolemy, a Captain of Antigonus, who pressed hard upon him; and that Seleucus and Menelaus staying in Cyprus, should bear up Nicocreon the King, and the rest of their Confederates, against their Enemies.
Having thus therefore divided their Forces, Seleucus went and took Cyrinia and Lapithus; and having drawn over Stasiecus, King of the Malenses, to his Party, he forc'd the Prince of the Amathusians to give him Hostages for his Fealty for the time to come. As for the City Citium (seeing it would come to no Agreement with him) he fell to besiege it with his whole Army.
About the same time came Forty Ships out of the Hellespont and Rhodes, under the Command of one Themison, their Admiral, to Antigonus; and after them came Dioscorides with Fourscore more; though Antigonus had already a Navy of his own, new built in Phenicia, to the Number of an Hundred and twenty Ships, with those that he left at Tyre; so that he had in the whole Two hundred and forty Men of War, of which there were Ninety of four Tire of Oars; Ten of Five, Three of Nine; Ten of Ten; and Thirty open Gallies.
Antigonus dividing this Navy into Squadrons, sent Fifty of them into Peloponnesus, and the rest he committed to Dioscorides, his own Brother's Son, with this Charge, That he should guard the Seas, and help his Friends as their occasion requir'd, and that he should gain unto his Party such of the Islands as hitherto stood out against him. And in this Posture stood the Affairs of Antigonus.
Apolenides being made Commander of the Argives by Cassander, in the Night broke into Arcadia, and surpriz'd the City of the Stymphalions. And while he was absent, some of the Argives (Enemies to Cassander) corresponded with Alexander the Son of Polysperchon, and promis'd to deliver up the City into his Hands. But Alexander being too slow, Apolonides comes to Argos before him; and surpriz'd Five hundred of the Conspirators that were in a Senate in the Prytaneum, and kept them in, and burnt them there alive; most of the rest he banish'd, and some few more he took and put to Death.
Cassander having intelligence, that Aristodemus was arriv'd in Peloponnesus, and that he had listed there great numbers of Soldiers, in the first place sought to draw off Polysperchon from Antigonus; but not being able to prevail, he march'd with an Army through Thessaly and came into Boeotia; where having assisted the Thebans in raising of their Walls, he pass'd into Peloponnesus, and first having taken Cencrea, he Spoil'd and Harrass'd all the Territory of Corinth. Then he took two Castles by Storm, and upon future Faith and Allegiance, dismiss'd all the Garison Soldiers that were plac'd there by Alexander. Afterwards he besieg'd Orchomenon, and being let into the Town by Alexander's Enemies, he put a Garison into the City; Those that sided with Alexander took Sanctuary in Diana's Temple, whom he gave up to the Citizens to do with them as they thought fit; whereupon the Orchomenians drew them all out of the Temple by Force, and against the common Laws of Greece put them all to Death.
Cassander went thence into Messenia, but finding the City strongly Garison'd by Polysperchon, he thought not fit for the present to besiege it, but march'd into Arcadia, where he left Damides Governor of the City, and return'd to Argolides, and there celebrated the Nem'an Games, and return'd into Macedonia. When he was gone, Alexander with Aristodemus lay before the Cities in Peloponnesus, to expell the Garisons of Cassander, and endeavour'd all he could to restore the Cities to their Liberties: Which coming to the Ears of Cassander, he sent to him Prepelaus to work upon him to desert Antigonus, and enter into a League of Friendship and Amity with himself; promising, that if he would do so, he would give him the Sovereign Command of all Peloponnesus, and create him General of the Army, and would advance him to high Places of Honour and Preferment. Alexander seeing he was now like to attain that for which from the beginning he made War upon Cassander, enters into a League with him, and so is made General of all the Forces in Peloponnesus.
In the mean while, Polyclitus, Secleucus his Lieutenant, sailing from Cyprus came to Cencrea; where hearing of the Defection of Alexander, and finding no Enemy there to Encounter, he chang'd his Course and set sail for Pamphylia; and from thence arriving at Aphrodisiades in Cilicia, he there understood that Theodotus, Admiral of Antigonus his Navy, pass'd by from Patara, a Port in Lycia, with the Rhodian Fleet, furnish'd with Mariners out of Caria; and that Perilaus with a Land-Army coasted along by the Shore, for the defence of the Fleet if need should be: In this case he out-witted them both; for he Landed his Men in a Place out of view, where the Land-Army must of necessity pass, and himself with the Fleet went and lay behind a Foreland, waiting for the coming of the Énemy; there the Enemy's Foot fell into an Ambush, and Perilaus himself being taken Prisoner, and his Men all either kill'd or taken. The Fleet at Sea seeing the Land-Army engag'd, hasted to their Relief; but then Polyclitus coming upon them in this Confusion, with his Ships drawn up in a Line of Battel, put them easily to flight; so that Polyclitus took all their Ships and most part of the Men in them, and amongst the rest Theodotus himself their Admiral, sorely martyr'd with Wounds, of which he shortly after died.
Polyclitus having sped so well on all hands, sail'd back first to Cyprus, and then to Pelusium, where Ptolemy richly rewarded him for so great a Service, and withal promoted him to a far higher Dignity and Place of Honour than he was in before, as the Author of so great a Victory: But releas'd Perilaus and some other Prisoners, which Antigonus desir'd by a Messenger sent to him for that purpose. And then himself going to a Place call'd Ecregma, came to a Parly with Antigonus, but Antigonus refusing to grant him what he demanded, he left him and return'd.
Having now given an account of the Affairs of the European Greeks, both in Greece and Macedonia, we shall run over to the Parts lying towards the West.
Agathocles, Prince of Syracuse, having possess'd himself of a Castle belonging to the Messenians, promis'd to restore it upon receiving of Thirty Talents of Silver: Which when the Messenians had paid, he not only broke his Faith, but endeavour'd to have seiz'd upon Messina it self. For being inform'd that part of the Walls were fallen down, he Page 637 sent a Party of Horse by Land from Syracuse, and he himself in some Ships call'd Hemiolias, went by Sea, and arriv'd in the Night close under the Walls of the City: But they coming to understand his Design before-hand, wholly defeated him in what he had contriv'd. However, He came to Mylas, and upon laying Siege to the Castle, had it deliver'd up to him; and then return'd to Syracuse. In Harvest-time he made a second attempt upon Messina, and Encamping near the City, made continual Assaults, but was not able to effect any thing considerable: For many Exiles were flock'd into this Place from Syracuse, who both for the sake of their own Preservation, and out of Hatred to the Tyrant, fought most Courageously.
About this time came Ambassadors from Carthage, arguing the Case with Agathocles, and complaining of the Breach of Articles; and making Peace with the Messenians, they forc'd the Tyrant to restore the Castle, and then sail'd back into Africa.
After which Agathocles went to Abecenus, one of his Confederate Cities, and there he put to Death Forty, whom he look'd upon to be his Enemies.
In these times the Romans were at War with the Samnites, and took Ferentum by Storm; and the Inhabitants of Nuceria (call'd Alphatema) were, by the Persuasions of some Persons, prevail'd with to desert the Romans, and join in League with the Samnites.
The Acts of Aristodemus, Antigonus his General in Peloponnesus. The Dimeans in Achaia seek to free themselves from Cassander's Garison: They take the Cittadel. Alexander, Son of Polysperchon, Assassinated. The praise of Cratesipolis his Wife. The Acts of Cassander in Etolia, and other Parts of Greece. The Cruelty of the Etolians. Cassander sends an Army into Caria; and Aristotle with a Fleet to Lemnos. The Acts of Cassander's Army in Caria. Antigonus Leaves his Son Demetrius in Syria to watch Ptolemy. His troublesome March into Asia. The Affairs of Sicily. Acrotatus his Misgovernment and Cruelties in Sicily. The Acts of Agathocles. The Affairs of Italy.
WHEN the former year was ended, Nichodorus was created Archon at Athens, and Lucius Papirius chosen the Fourth, and Quintus Publius the second time Consul at Rome. At that time Aristodemus, made General by Antigonus, hearing of the Defection of Alexander the Son of Polysperchon, after he had open'd the Justice of the Cause before the Senate of the Etolians, sollicited them to be assistant to the Affairs of Antigonus. Then passing into Peloponnesus with the Mercenaries, found Alexander with the Eleans besieging Cyllene, and coming in nick of time rais'd the Siege; and then leaving a Garison to defend the Place, he mov'd towards Actria, and frees Patras from the Garison of Cassander; but Egeum he took by Force, and being possess'd of the Place, was ready to restore the Egeans to their Liberty, according to the former Decree, but that he was prevented by this Accident. The Soldiers began to Plunder; and upon that occasion many of the Citizens were kill'd, and the greatest part of the Town was burnt down to the Ground.
After which he sail'd back into Etolia; the Dymeans, who were aw'd by a Garison of Cassander's in the Castle, separated their City from the Cittadel by a Wall drawn round it, and encouraging one another to stand up for their Liberties, besieg'd the Castle, and infested it with continual Assaults. Of which Alexander receiving Intelligence, he came upon them with his Army on a sudden, and drave them within their Walls, and enter'd pell-mell with them into the City, and took it: Some of the Dymeans he put to the Sword, others he Imprison'd, and many of them he Banish'd. After Alexander went away, the rest of them were quiet for a little while, being both terrify'd with the greatness of the late Calamity, and likewise wanting the Assistance of their Confederates. But some time after, they made application to Aristodemus his Mercenaries, who march'd to them from Egeum. Whereupon, they again assaulted the Cittadel, and took it, and freed the City, and put many of the Garison to the Sword, and put to Death such of their own Citizens as favour'd Alexander's Party.
Page 638 Amongst these Turns and Changes of Fortune, while Alexander with his Army was marching from Sycion, he was kill'd by Alexion, a Sycionian, and some others, who pretended themselves to be his Friends. His Wife, Cratesipolis, after his Death, took upon her the Management of Affairs, and kept the Army in due Obedience: Her obliging Carriage and Bounty was such, as that she was greatly belov'd of the Soldiers; for she was continually affording all the help she could to them that were in Distress, and relieving and supporting many that were in Want: Besides, she was a Woman of admirable Prudence in managing Affairs, and of Courage beyond the natural Temper of her Sex. For when the Sycionians in contempt of her, (after the Death of her Husband) rose up in Arms for the Recovery of their Liberty, she executed her Revenge by cutting off Multitudes of them in a Field-battel; and crucify'd Thirty of those she had taken Prisoners; and so having settled the Affairs of the City, she reign'd over the Sycionians, having under her Command multitudes of Soldiers ready upon all occasions for any Undertaking, though never so hazardous. And this was then the State and Condition of Peloponnesus.
Cassander perceiving that the Etolians assisted Antigonus, and were then likewise engag'd in a War with their Neighbours the Acarnanians, judg'd that the most probable way to bring down the Etolians, was for him to join with the Acarnanians. To this end, he march'd out of Macedonia with a great Army, and came into Etolia, and Encamp'd near the River Campylus. Here he invited the Acarnanians to a common Consult, where he set forth how they had been vex'd for many Generations past, by War from their unruly and troublesome Neighbours; and therefore advis'd them, that they should leave their little Forts and Castles, (though they were fortify'd) and betake themselves to a few Cities, lest being so dispers'd and scatter'd in their Habitations, they should not be able to get together to assist one another, when the Enemy at any time should suddenly and unexpectedly break in upon them. The Acarnanians follow'd his Advice, and the most of them remov'd to Stratopolis, which was the strongest and largest of their Cities. The Oeniades and some others, went to Saurion; the Doreans with the rest to Agrinium.
Cassander hereupon, left Lyciscus his General in those Parts, with a considerable Body of Men, with Orders to assist the Acarnanians; and he himself march'd with his Army to the City Leueades, and by Treaty gain'd them for Consederates. Then with a swift March he came suddenly into Adria, and took in Apollonia his first approach. Thence marching into Illyria, he pass'd over the River Hebrus, and fought with Glaucius the Illyrian King, and routed his Army; after which he made Peace with him, upon Condition, that he should not make War upon any of his Confederates. Then he took in Epidamnum, and placing there a Garison return'd into Macedonia.
After Cassander had left Etolia, the Etolians joining together, to the Number of Three thousand besieg'd Agrinium, girting it round with a Trench and a Breast-work. But the Inhabitants that came before out of the Country, treated and agreed with the Enemy, That upon delivery up of the City their Persons should be secure, and they should have liberty to depart and leave the Place. Whereupon, after Faith given for their security, they went out, and when they were in their way, the Etolians Falsly and Treacherously, when the other never suspected any thing, pursu'd 'em, and kill'd 'em almost every Man.
Cassander being return'd into Macedonia, as soon as he heard how the Cities in Caria (that had Confederated with Ptolemy and Seleucus) were infested by the War, put over an Army into Caria, both to help the Confederates, as also in time to divert Antigonus, that he might have no leisure to come into Europe. He commanded also by his Letters Demetrius, Phalerius, and Dionysius Governor of the Fort of Munychia, to fit out forthwith Twenty Ships for Lemnos. Who thereupon, presently dispatch'd away the Ships, under the Command of Aristotle, their Admiral, and he arriving at Lemnos, and being there join'd with Seleucus and his Fleet, he prevail'd with them of Lemnos to desert Antigonus. But they afterwards retracted what they had before engag'd to, and thereupon he wasted and harrass'd the Country, and drew a Trench round the City and besieg'd it.
About this time Seleucus arriv'd at Coos; whose coming there being nois'd abroad, Dioscorides, Admiral of Antigonus his Fleet, sail'd to Lemnos, and drave Aristotle out of the Island, and took many of his Ships, together with all their Men on board.
One Cassander and Prepalaus were Commanders of the Forces sent into Caria by Cassander; who hearing that Ptolemy, Antigonus his General in those Parts, had distributed his Army into their Winter-Quarters, and that he himself was busie in the burying of his Father, sent away Eupolemus with Eight thousand Foot and Two thousand Horse, to a Place call'd Caprima, in Caria, to lie in Ambushment for him there: But Ptolemy getting Page 639 notice thereof by some that fled over to him, got together out of the next Winter-Quarters Eight thousand and Three hundred Foot, and Six hundred Horse, and falling about Midnight into the Enemies Trenches, and finding them near all fast asleep, took Eupolemus Prisoner, and forc'd all his Men to submit to discretion. And this was then the Condition of those sent by Cassander into Asia.
But Antigonus perceiving that Cassander aim'd at the Sovereignty of Asia, left his Son Demetrius in Syria, with instructions to intercept Ptolemy's Men, whom he suspected were then coming with an Army further up into Syria; and to that purpose left with him Ten thousand Foot of other Nations, Two thousand Macedonians, Five hundred out of Lycia and Pamphilia, Persian Archers and Slingers Four hundred, and Five thousand Horse, and above Forty Elephants; and four Men for his Counsellors, Nearchon, Pitho Son of Agenor, who came lately from Babylon, Andromicus of Olynthus, and Philippus; all Men of mature Age and Judgment, and such as had attended upon Alexander in all his Wars: For Demetrius himself was but a young Man, not above Two and twenty years of Age. Upon Antigonus himself, while he past with the rest of his Army over Mount Taurus, there fell a mighty Snow, wherein he lost many of his Men. Whereupon, he return'd back into Cilicia, where he advis'd himself of a better Way to pass that Mountain, and with little damage to his Army; and so coming to Celenae in Phrygia, he there put his Army into their Winter-Quarters. Then he sent for the Fleet out of Phenicia, of which Medius was Admiral, who by meer chance in his way met with a Fleet of Thirty six Sail belonging to the City of Pydna, and defeated them, and brought the Ships with all their Men under his Subjection. In this Posture stood the Affairs both of Greece and Asia at this time.
In the mean time in Sicily the Exiles of Syracuse, who were then in Agrigentum, stirr'd up the great Men of the City not to suffer Agathocles in that manner to make a Prey of the Cities; alledging that it was better to set upon the Tyrant before he grew too strong, than to loiter till he was in greater power, and then to be forc'd to Contend with him when it was more hazardous: Whereupon the Agrigentines approving of his Advice, decreed by their suffrages War against him; and joining in Confederacy with the Geloans and Messenians, they sent some of the Exiles to the Lacedemonians with Orders to procure a General to be sent to them from thence. For they suspected that some of their own Citizens were too much inclin'd to Tyranny themselves, but judg'd that Foreigners if they remembred the Government of Timolion the Corinthian, would better manage the publick affairs. When they arriv'd therefore in Laconia they found Acrotatus, the Son of King Claomenes, much hated by many of the young Noblemen at home, and therefore very desirous to be imploy'd abroad. For when the Lacedemonians after the Fight with Antipater had acquitted those that escap'd in that Battel from all Censures of Disgrace, he only oppos'd the Decree; so that many were offended at him, especially those that were liable to the penalty of the Laws. And upon that account they had lain in wait for him, and beaten him, and were constantly seeking to intrap him: Being therefore for this reason desirous of a foreign Command, he very freely comply'd with the Agragentines; and thereupon without the Order of the Ephori (resolving upon the Voyage) he set Sail with a few Ships for Agrigentum: But being driven back by a Storm into Adria, he arriv'd in the Territory of the Apolloniates; where finding the City besieg'd by Glocias, King of the Illyrians, he perswaded the King to raise the siege, and enter into a League of Friendship with the Apolloniates. Then he sail'd to Tarentum, and there Solicited the People to join with him in procuring the Restoration of the Syracusians to their Ancient Liberties, and so far prevail'd, that they Decreed to assist them with Twenty Sail of Ships. For on the account of his Kindred and the nobleness of his Family, his words were of great Weight and Credit. While the Tarentines were making preparations, he himself sail'd to Agrigentum, and there took upon him the Command of the Army; whereupon the People were in high expectations, in so much as that all concluded that an end would be presently put to the Tyranny: But in a short time it plainly appear'd that he did nothing worthy, either the Nobility of his Birth, or the reputation of his Country. But on the contrary became more cruel and bloody than the very Tyrants themselves, and so fell into the Hatred of the People: He degenerated likewise from the custom of his Country in his manner of living; and so indulg'd himself in voluptuousness, that he seem'd more like a Persian, than a Spartan. After he had lavish'd away the greatest part of the publick Revenues, partly by his misgovernment, and partly by robbing of the Treasury; in the Conclusion he invited Sosistratus (the most eminent person among the Exiles, and one who had been a General of Armies) to Supper, and treacherously kill'd him, having not anything in the least to lay to his charge, but only that he might take out of the way Page 640 a stout and valiant man, and one that was able to discern and discover his Miscarriages: Which wicked fact being presently nois'd abroad, the Exiles in a Body came upon him, and every body else forsoook him, and in the first place they depos'd him, and presently after attempted to stone him to death; to avoid therefore the rage of the People he stole away in the night and landed privatly in Laconia: After his departure the Tarentines recall their Fleet they had before sent into Sicily.
Hereupon the Agrigentines Geloans and Messenians by the mediation of Amilcar the Carthaginian General, make peace with Agathocles; the Conditions of which were as follow; that Heraclea Selinum and Himera, part of the Greek Cities, should belong unto the Carthaginians, as they did before; all the rest under the power of the Syracusians should be free to be govern'd after their own Laws. But afterwards Agathocles, when he saw the coast clear, and Sicily free and clear'd from all appearance of an Enemy, he fell upon the Cities, and without any difficulty brought them under his subjection; and gaining many in a very short time, strongly fixt himself in the Principality. For in the multitude of his Confederates, the greatness of his Yearly Revenues, and the power of a mighty Army, he grew very strong. For besides his Confederates and those rais'd from among the Syracusians, he had of mercenaries Ten thousand Foot and Three thousand and fifty Horse; he furnish'd himself likewise with all sorts of Arms, foreseeing that the Carthaginians (who had smartly rebuk't Amilcar for making the Peace) would in a short time make War upon him. And such was the estate of Sicily at this time.
In Italy the Samnites having now been in Wars with the Romans for many Years last past, took Plistia, wherein was a strong Roman Garrison; and prevail'd with the Soranions to massacre all the Romans that were there, and to confederate with the Samnites.
Afterwards while the Romans were besieging of Satricula, they came upon them with a strong Army resolving to raise the siege; upon which follow'd a sharp Engagment, and after many kill'd on both sides the Romans carry'd the day; and then presently after they took the Town, and gain'd several other neighbouring Towns and Castles. And now the War was brought over amongst the Cities of Apulia; whereupon the Samnites Listed all that were of Age to bear Arms, and march'd out and Incampt close to the Enemy, being now resolv'd to win or lose all. The People of Rome therefore to prevent the worst, sent thither a great number of Souldiers: And because they were accustom'd in perilous times to choose one of the most Noble and Eminent Persons to be their General, with full and absolute power and Authority; they therefore pitch'd upon Quintus Fabius and Quintus Aulius, Master of the Horse, for that honourable imployment. These Generals afterwards fought the Samnites at Lautulas, where they sustain'd great loss of their men; and the whole Army fled outright, only Aulius (being asham'd of the dishonour) oppos'd the whole Body of the Enemy, not out of any hopes or expectation of gaining the Victory, but to have it manifest and apparent to all from his own valour, that his Country was unconquerable. Not sharing therefore with the rest of the Citizens in the Dishonour of the flight, he dy'd there a glorious and honourable death.
The Romans now fearing lest they should lose all Apulia, sent Colonies into Luceria, the most famous City of all those parts; and this prov'd of great advantage to them by the frequent Eruptions made upon the Samnites. For by the help and advantage of this City they became Conquerors, not only in this war, but several times afterwards; and even to our own present Age they have constantly made use of this City as a strong Fort and Citadel of War against all the neighbouring Nations.
Several Cities revolt, Lysimachus comes against them. Philip, Cassander's General, Routs the Epirots and Etolians. Cassander agrees with Antigonus. Antigonus gaines the Cities in Caria. Cassander's Acts in Greece. The Samnites Routed by the Romans. Polemon sent by Antigonus into Greece, to set the Cities at liberty. The Acts of Antigonus and Cassander. Polemon's Acts in Greece for Antigonus. Ptolemy goes against Cyrene and Cyprus; Then against Demetrius. The Battle with Demetrius at Gaza. Ptolemy takes Tyre. The Acts of Antigonus his Commanders in Greece. The Epirots make Alcetas King, who is beaten by Lyciscus, Cassander's General, and he's beaten again by the other. Cassander goes against the Apolloniats. Seleucus recovers Babylon with a small Army. Demetrius Routs Cilles, Ptolemy's General. Ptolemy returns to Egypt, first wasts Samaria, Gaza, Joppa, &c. Athaneus sent against the Nabatheans by Antigonus. The Customs of the Arabians. Atharieus kill'd, with most of his Men! Demetrius sent against them. Description of the Asphaltes, or Lake of Sodom. Demetrius sent against Seleucus in Babylon. The Wars between the Romans and Samnites in Italy. The Acts of Agathocles in Sicily.
THE Affairs of this Year being brought to this Conclusion, Theophrastus became chief Magistrate of Athens, and Marcus Petilius and Caius Sulpitius were invested with the Consular dignity at Rome. Then the Callentinians, the Inhabitants residing in the parts on the left hand of Pontus, cast out the Garrison put upon them by Lysimachus, and recover'd their liberty. In the same manner the Istrians freed their City, and Confederated with the neighbouring inhabitants to joyn together in a War against their Prince. The Thracians and Scythians likewise joyn'd with their Neighbours; so that all the Forces together were of that strength, that they were able to cope with the most potent Army.
Lysimachus hearing what was done, march'd with his Army against the Rebels, and passing through Thrace, when he had got over Mount Emus, Incampt near Odessus, which (upon blocking it up) the Inhabitants in a great Consternation deliver'd up to him: Reducing likewise the Istrians in the same manner, he marcht thence against the Callantians; about which time the Thracians and Scythians came in with a great Army to the assistance of their Confederates: Upon which Lysimachus advancing forwards, fac'd them, and forthwith lifting up his Ensigns for Battle, the Thracians were so terrifi'd that they marcht off and went their way. But the Scythians he Ingag'd, and Routed them, killing a great number, and driving the rest out of the Country. Then he laid close Siege to the City of the Callentinians, setting all his wit at work, and making it his main and only business how he might be reveng'd on the Authors of the defection. While he was busying himself in this concern, News was brought him that Antigonus had sent two Armies to the assistance of the Callentinians, one by Land and another by Sea; and that Lyco the Admiral was with the Navy in Pontus, and that Pausanias was Incampt with a great Land Army at Hieron. At this News Lysimachus was much concern'd, and thereupon leaving a considerable Body to maintain the Siege, he speedily march'd away with the main strength of the Army designing to ingage the Enemy; and being ready to pass over Emus, he found Seuthes King of Thrace (who had revolted to Antigonus) obstructing his passage with a great Body of Men; upon which they ingag'd and he forc'd his way through the Barbarians with the loss of a great number of his own men, but many more of the Enemies.
Then he fell upon the Pausanians, finding them in the Streights, whither they had fled. These he gain'd by force, and having kill'd Pausanias, he discharg'd some of the Soldiers upon Ransom, and others that took up Arms with him he distributed amongst his own Troops. And thus stood the affairs of Lysimachus. But when this Enterprise succeeded not, Antigonus sent Telesphorus into Peloponnesus with a Fleet of Fifty Sail, and a considerable number of Soldiers, with Orders to free all the Cities that they might live according to their own ancient Laws. This he did, hoping by this means to gain credit amongst the Grecians as one that really intended the procurement and preservation of Page 642 their Liberties; and by this method he concluded he should find out how things stood with Cassander.
Telosphorus therefore as soon as he arriv'd in Peloponnesus, went to Alexander's Garrisons, and set them all free, except Sicyon and Corinth. For in these Polysperchon had plac'd great numbers of Souldiers, trusting to them and the strength of the places.
In the mean time Philip being sent by Cassander as General to make War upon the Etolians; as soon as he came with his Army into Acarnania, the first thing he did was to harrass and spoil Etolia; but not long after hearing that Eacides King of Epirus (who was now Restor'd to his Kingdom) had rais'd a strong Army, he made against him with all speed: For he endeavor'd all he could to Fight him before the Etolians had joyn'd him. And finding the Epirots ready prepar'd to fight, he forthwith engag'd, and kill'd multitudes of them, and took many Prisoners; amongst whom it happn'd that there were about Fifty of the Faction that were the instruments to restore Eacides whom he sent away bound to Cassander. Afterwards the broken Troops of Eacides Rallying again, joyn'd with the Etolians, and Philip set upon e'm and Routed e'm a second time with the slaughter of many, amongst whom was Eacides himself.
Having effected such great matters in so short a time, the Etolians were so terrifi'd that they forsook their unfortifi'd Cities, and fled with their Wives and Children unto the fastnesses of the Mountains, where it was very difficult to come at them: And this conclusion had the affairs of Greece at that time.
As for Asia Cassander, though he was chief Governour there yet overpress'd with the weight of the War, he agreed with Antigonus upon these terms; that he should deliver all the Soldiers into the hands of Antigonus, and should grant Liberty to all the Greek Cities there to Govern according to their own Laws; and that he should keep the Province he formerly possess'd as by grant from him, and should be ever after Antigonus his firm friend.
And for the true performance of these Conditions he deliver'd to him his Brother Agathonas as Hostage; but within a while after he repented of what he had done, and got his Brother out of their clutches that had him in custody, and sent an Ambassador to Ptolemy and Seleucus, to desire them to send him Aid with all speed: At which Antigonus was highly incens'd and sent away Forces both by Sea and Land with Orders to free all the Cities, and Created Medius Admiral of the Fleet, and Docimus General of the Forces at Land.
These Commanders coming to Miletum dealt with the Inhabitants to stand for their Liberties, and took the Cittadel with the Garrison therein, and restor'd the ancient Laws to the Cities.
In the mean time Antigonus took Tralles; and then lay before the City Caunus, and sending for his Fleet took that likewise, except only the Castle; about which he cast a Trench and made continual assaults upon it in those parts where there was any hopes of Entry: He had sent Ptolemy to the City Jassus with a considerable Army, but he was fain to come back and joyn again with Antigonus; and so all those Cities in Caria came at that time into his hands.
Within a few days after came Ambassadors from the Etolians and Beotians with whom Antigonus entred into a League of Confederacy; but going to Cassander to the Hellespont to Treat with him upon terms of Peace, he return'd without effecting any thing, for they could not hit it upon any score: Whereupon Cassander casting aside all hopes of any accommodation, resolv'd again to pursue the settlement of his Affairs in Greece. To that end he sail'd away with a Fleet of Thirty Sail and laid close Siege to the City Oreum, which he so fiercly assaulted that he took it by Storm; presently upon this came in Telesphorus from Peloponnesus with Twenty Ships, and a Thousand Soldiers, and Medius out of Asia with a Hundred Sail to the relief of Oreum; who spying Cassander's Ships then at Anchor in the Harbour, burnt four of them, and disabled almost all the rest. But the Athenians coming in to their relief, Cassander in scorn and contempt of the Enemy falls upon them afresh, and in the Ingagement sinks one, and takes three, together with all their Men: And thus were Affairs then manag'd in Greece.
In Italy the Samnites wasted and spoil'd the Towns and Country round about that sided with their Enemies: But the Roman Consuls march'd into those Parts with an Army, in order to succour their Confederates; and there encamping near Cinna in the face of the Enemy, they allay'd the Fears of the City. A few days after, the Armies on both sides drew up in Battalia, and fought a bloody Battel, wherein multitudes fell on both sides; but at length the Romans breaking through the main Body of their Enemies, totally routed them, and pursu'd them a long way, and kill'd above Ten thousand.
Page 643 In the mean time, the Campanians (not knowing of this Battel) in contempt of the Romans, rebell'd: Whereupon the People of Rome forthwith sent out a strong Army against them, under the Command of Caius Menius, as General, with absolute and unlimitted Power, with whom was join'd, according to the Custom of the Romans, Marcus Follius, Master of the Horse. These Consuls sitting down with their Army near Capua, the Campanians at first resolv'd to fight them; but afterwards hearing of the Rout and Slaughter of the Samnites, thinking the Romans would fall upon them with their whole Forces, they made Peace with them: For they gave up the Ringleaders of the Defection who after they were examin'd, prevented the Sentence of Condemnation by murder ing themselves. But the Cities were pardon'd, and so return'd to their former Allegiance.
The former Year being ended, Polemus executed the Place of the Chief Magistrate at Athens, and Lucius Papirius the Fifth, and Caius Junius the Second Consulate at Rome, in which Year was celebrated the Hundred and seventeenth Olympiad, in which Parmenio of Mitylene carry'd away the Prize. At this time Antigonus sent Polemon into Greece, to set at liberty all the Grecian Cities, and with him a Hundred and fifty Long Ships, under the Command of Medius his Admiral; on board of which Vessels were Five thousand Foot and Five hundred Horse. Having made a League with the Rhodians, he receiv'd likewise Ten Ships of War more from them, to help forward the restoring of the Greek Cities to their Liberties. About the same time Ptolemy arriv'd in the Harbour of Boeotia (call'd the Deep) with the whole Fleet, and receiv'd from the Boeotians Two thousand and Two hundred Foot, and Thirteen hundred Horse. He sent likewise for Shipping from Oreum, and wall'd Sagonea, and there rendezvous'd his whole Army; for he was in good hopes that the Chalcideans would confederate with him, who were the only Eubeans that were Garison'd by the Enemy. But Cassander was jealous of Chalcis, and therefore rais'd his Siege before Oreus, and sent for his Forces thither.
Antigonus being inform'd that the Armies lay encamp'd one over-against another in Eubea, recall'd Medius with the Fleet into Asia; and forthwith got his Forces together, and with a swift March made for the Hellespont, with a purpose to pass over into Macedonia, that he might either seize upon it while Cassander was busie in Eubea, and the Country void of sufficient defence; or that by forcing him to come in with Aid for the defence of the Kingdom, he might thereby divert him from prosecuting the War in Greece, and necessitate him to endeavour the preservation of his Concerns nearer at home.
But Cassander coming to understand what he design'd, left Plistarchus to guard Chalcis, and he himself march'd away wtth the whole Army, and took Oropus by Assault, and brought over the Thebans to be his Consederates, and enter'd into a Truce with the rest of the Boeotians; and having so done, he left Eupolemus to defend Greece, and return'd into Macedonia with his Head full of Care, concerning the Enemy's March into that Country.
When Antigonus came to the Propontis, he solicited the Byzantines by his Ambassadors to join with him as his Consederates; but it prov'd that there were there at the same time Agents from Lysimachus, treating with them not to engage in any thing either against him or Cassander. Whereupon the Byzantines resolv'd to sit quiet at home, and stand upon even Terms of Peace and Amity with both sides.
This unlucky Accident giving a stop to Antigonus his further Progress in this Affair, together with the approach of the Winter, he distributed his Soldiers in the Towns round about into their Winter-Quarters.
In the mean time, the Corcyreans assisted the Apolloniates and them of Epidamnus, and upon Terms of Agreement sent away Cassander's Soldiers; and thereupon restor'd Apollonia to their ancient Liberties, and Epidamnus they deliver'd up to Glaucias, King of the Illyrians.
But Ptolemy, Antigonus his General, upon Cassander's return into Macedonia, and the Consternation Chalchis was in, had the City deliver'd up to him, and so freed the Chalcidains from receiving any further Garison; to the end every one might take notice, that Antigonus was sincere, and did really design to restore all the Greek Cities to their Liberties: For it was a City of eery great Moment and Concern to such as were ambitious of gaining the Sovereignty of Greece, and valued a Place of Strength for that purpose.
Palemon likewise took Oropus, and deliver'd it up to the Boeotians, and made all Cassander's Soldiers Prisoners at War; and after he had brought in the Eretrians and Carystians to Page 644 join as Confederates, he led his Army into Attica, Demetrius Phalerius being then Chief Magistrate of the City. For those Athenians that desir'd to be restor'd to their ancient Laws, had not long before sent some privately to Antigonus to treat with him upon that account; and now being more resolv'd and encourag'd upon Ptolemy's drawing near to the City, they forc'd Demetrius to make a Truce, and send an Agent to Antigonus, in order to treat of a League with him.
Out of Attica he march'd into Boeotia, and took the Citadel Cadmea, and freed the Thebans from that Garison. Thence he went forward into Phocis, and reducing several Cities there, he cast out the Garisons of Cassander in every Place where-ever he came. Then he invaded Locris; and because the Opuntians join'd with Cassander, he besieg'd them, and prest upon the Place with continual Assaults.
About the same time the Cyrenians revolted from Ptolemy King of Aegypt, and besieg'd the Castle there so fiercely, as if they would presently have taken it; and when Messengers came from Alexandria, persuading them to desist, they struck off their Heads, and fell to work against the Castle more fiercely than ever they did before. Ptolemy being exceedingly mov'd hereat, sent one Agis, a Captain of his, thither with an Army, and withal a Navy to assist him by Sea, under the Command of Epenetus. Agis vigorously pursuing the War against those Rebels, took Cyrene by Storm, and committed the Authors of this Sedition to Prison, and then sent them bound to Alexandria, and disarm'd the rest: And so having set things in order there (as he saw cause) return'd into Aegypt.
Ptolemy having had this good Success at Cyrene, took Shipping, and with his Fleet pass'd over out of Aegypt into Cyprus, against those who rebell'd against their Kings; and having gotten Pygmalion (whom he found Corresponding with Antigonus) he put him to death. Then he took Praxippus King of the Lapithi and Prince of Cerynnia, who was suspected of a Revolt, and laid them fast: He took likewise Stasiecus, a petty King of the Malieans, and destroying their City, remov'd the Inhabitants from thence to Paphos; which done, he made Nicocreon Commander over all Cyprus, and gave him the Cities, together with the Revenues of all the Kings which he had cast out of their Dominions, and then went with his Army into the Upper Syria, and sack'd the Cities Posideum and Potamos of the Carians. That done, he went with a flying Army into Celicia, and took Mallus, and sold all the Inhabitants for Slaves, and wasted all the Region thereabouts; and having stor'd all his Army with rich Plunder, sail'd back again to Cyprus. He so shar'd with his Soldiers in all Hazards and Dangers, that he stirr'd them up by his Example chearfully and readily to undergo all manner of Difficulties.
Mean while, Demetrius, the Son of Antigonus, kept in Coelo-Syria, expecting the coming of the Egyptians; but when he heard of the taking of so many Cities, he left Pithon to Command in those Parts, leaving his Corseletiers and Elephants with him, and he with his Horse and Companies of light-arm'd Soldiers hasted away with all speed toward Cilicia, to aid them that were in distress there; but coming too late, and finding the Enemies all gone, he return'd speedily to his Camp again, spoiling many of his Horse by the way; for in six days time he made away from Mallus Four and twenty days Journey by their ordinary Stages; so that through their immoderate Travel, none of their † Servants or Horse-boys were able to keep them company.
Ptolemy therefore seeing all go every where as we would have it, for the present return'd into Aegypt. But not long after, being put on by Seleucus (for the hatred that he bore unto Antigonus) he resolv'd to march into Coelo-Syria, and there to try it out with Demetrius: Wherefore gathering all his Army together, he march'd from Alexandria to Pelusium, having with him Eighteen thousand Foot, and Four thousand Horse, whereof some were Macedonians, and some hired Soldiers: As for the Egyptians, some serv'd to carry their Darts and Weapons, and other Luggage of the Army, and some for Soldiers; and having pass'd the Desart from Pelusium, he encamp'd near the Old City of Gaza in Syria, not far from the Enemy.
Demetrius, on the other side, call'd all his Army out of their Winter-Quarters, and appointed them to Rendezvous at Gaza, there to attend the Enemy's approach. His Friends indeed advis'd him not to sight with so Great a General, who had the advantage of a far more numerous Army; but he rejected their Council, and confidently prepar'd himself for Battel; tho' he was then but a mere Boy, and was to undertake so hazardous an Engagement without his Father. Calling therefore now the Soldiers as they stood at their Arms, he mounted an Ascent rais'd by Earth, and there stood as if he were in Amaze and Astonishment: Upon which, all the Soldiers cry'd out with one Voice, Be Courageous; and presently there was a deep silence before the Herald could command it: Page 645 For being that he had but newly taken upon him the Sovereign Command, none took any Offence at his Deportment, in relation either to Civil or Military Affairs, which is frequently the Lot of Old Captains, who have many times all their Faults ript up together at one time. For the Common People are not long pleas'd with the same Things; and whatever grows stale in the Use, has a pleasant Gust in the Change and Alteration. And besides the expectation of his coming to the Kingdom (his Father being now old) conjoin'd in his Succession both the Supreme Command and the Good-will of the People together. Moreover, he was a very proper and comely Person, and being clad in Royal Armour, appear'd in that Majesty as possess'd the Beholders with Awe and Reverence, and rais'd up the Spirits of the Army with high Expectations of Great Things to come. He was likewise of a mild Disposition, becoming a new Prince and General, by which he wan the Love of all, insomuch as even those as were not as yet reduc'd into Orderly Regiments, flock'd to him to receive his Commands, being much concern'd upon the account of his Youth, and the hazardous Battel that was presently to be fought. For he was not only to try the Fortune of War against a greater number of Men, but against the most Eminent and Expert Commanders of the Age, Ptolemy and Seleucus, who had been Captains under Alexander in all his Wars, and had been often Generals of their own Armies, never conquer'd to that day.
Demetrius therefore, after he had with winning and obliging Expressions courted the Soldiers, and promis'd Rewards suitable to every Man's Merit, drew up the Army in Battalia. In the Left Wing (where himself intended to be) he plac'd first Two hundred choice Horse, amongst whom, with other of the Nobility, was Pitho, who had serv'd under Alexander, and had been made General of all the Forces by Antigonus, and Fellow-Partner with him in all his Concerns. In the Front he plac'd Three Regiments of Horse, and as many Flankers to support them: At a distance out from the Wing were Three other Regiments of Tarentines, to the end that Five hundred Horsemen with Lances, and a Hundred Tarentines, might be ready at hand as the King's Lifeguard. Next he plac'd Eight hundred Horse, which were call'd Associates; and after them Fifteen hundred out of several Nations; and before the whole Wing stood as a Guard Thirty Elephants, lin'd with light-arm'd Men, of whom a thousand were Darters and Archers, and Five hundred Persian Slingers. And in this manner was the Left Wing drawn up, with which he intended to make the Onset: Then was rang'd the main Battel, consisting of Eleven thousand Foot, of whom Two thousand were Macedonians, and a Thousand Lycians and Pamphylians, and Eight thousand hir'd Soldiers.
In the Right Wing he drew up the rest of the Horse, to the number of Fifteen hundred, under the Command of Andronicus, who had Orders to keep in an oblique Line, and make a running Fight of it, still observing how it went with Demetrius. The rest of the Elephants, to the number of Thirteen, he plac'd before the main Battel of the Foot lining them with as many light-arm'd Men as were sufficient. And in this manner Demetrius drew up his Army.
As for Ptolemy and Seleucus, at the first they made it their Business to place their greatest Strength in their Left Wing, not knowing what the Enemy design'd: But being afterwards inform'd by their Scouts what was done, they forthwith so drew up, as that the greatest Strength being in their Right Wing, they might be the better able to engage with Demetrius in the Left; and therefore in that Wing were drawn up Three thousand of the best Horse, amongst whom they themselves intended to charge. Before these were plac'd those who bore an artificial Palisado before them, sharp-pointed with Iron, and fasten'd together with Chains, prepar'd against the Shock of the Elephants; for this being drawn out in length, it was an easie matter by this means to put a stop to their further Career. In the Front of this Wing were plac'd light-arm'd Soldiers, who were commanded to ply the Elephants and their Riders with Darts and Arrows as they came on. The Right Wing being thus drawn up, and the rest of the Army so dispos'd as the present Occasion at that time most requir'd, they led forth the Army with a great Shout towards the Enemy; who, on the other side, drawing down upon them, the Fight was begun by the Horse in the Fronts of both Wings, where the Demetrians had much the better; but within a little time after the Ptolemeans and Seleucians (having surrounded the Wing) made a fierce Charge with their whole Body; upon which (through the Resolution of both Parties) there follow'd a very sharp Engagement. Upon the first Onset they fought with their Lances, where many were kill'd, and as many wounded on both sides. Then they fell to it with their Swords, and there thronging together, thrust one another through, and fell in heaps together.
Page 646 The Generals exposing themselves to the utmost Hazard, led on their Men, and encourag'd their Troops to stick to it like valiant Men. The Horse that were plac'd to guard the Wings, were all Brave and Gallant Men, and having their Commanders (who fought together with them) Eye-witnesses of their Valour, strove to outvie one another. And now the Fight between the Horse had been for a long time doubtful, when the Elephants (forc'd on by the Indians) made so terrible an Onset, as if it had been impossible for any to have stood before them: But when they came up to the Palisado, the Archers and Darters sorely gall'd both the Beasts and their Riders; and being still forc'd on forward and whipt up by the Indians, some of them stuck upon the sharp Points of the Palisado, with which (together with the multitude of Darts and Arrows that gall'd them) they were in that Pain and Torment, that they caus'd an horrible Tumult and Confusion. For these Creatures in plain and even Places bear down all before them, but in those that are Rough and Craggy, they are of no use or service, because of the tenderness of their Feet. Ptolemy therefore wisely foreseeing of what advantage this Palisado would be, by that means frustrated the Rage and Fury of the Beasts. At length, most of the Indians that rid them being kill'd, all the Elephants were taken; upon which the greatest part of Demetrius his Horse were in such a Consternation that they forthwith fled; and he himself was left with a very few that attended him; but not being able with all the Arguments he could make, to persuade his Men to stand their Ground and not forsake him, he was forc'd likewise to retreat. A great part of the Horse that follow'd the other, retir'd in good Order, and kept themselves unbroken till they came to Gaza, so as that none of the Pursuers durst hastily fall upon them. For the Field being a large even Plain, they had the more Liberty to draw off in order and retreat in a form'd Body. Some likewise of the Foot, (who judg'd it the best course to forsake their Colours and look to themselves) cast away their Arms, and follow'd the Horse.
About Sun-setting he pass'd by Gaza; but some of the Horse left him and enter'd the City, to fetch out some Luggage. The Gates therefore being open, and the Streets full of Sumpter Horses, and all busie in leading and carrying out their Goods, there was such Disorder and Thronging at the Gates, that upon the approach of the Ptolimeans, none could get up to them to shut them to prevent their Entry; so that the Enemy breaking in, the City thus fell into the hands of Ptolemy. And this was the Issue of this Battel.
Demetrius, without stop or stay, about Midnight came to Azotus, having from the Place of Battel rid above Thirty Mile. Thence he sent a Trumpet to beg the Bodies of the Dead, being very earnest to perform the last Office of right due to them that were slain. Many of his Nobility were there slain, amongst whom, the most eminent was Pitho, join'd in equal Commission with himself, and Beotus who had long liv'd with Antigonus the Father, and was ever privy to all his Designs, and partaker of all his Councils. There were slain in this Battel on Demetrius his side, above Five hundred, of whom the greatest part was Horse, and the Chief of his Nobility; and Eight thousand and upward were taken Prisoners.
Ptolemy and Seleucus, not only granted him the dead Bodies, but sent him back his own Pavillion, with all the Furniture belonging to it, and all such Prisoners as were of his Houshold, free and without Ransom; withal letting him know, that they fought not with Antigonus for these things, but because he had not restor'd those Provinces to the Governors that were conquer'd by their joint Arms in the War first against Perdictas, and then against Eumenes; and for that after he had renew'd his League of Friendship with Seleucus, he had most Unjustly, and against all Right depriv'd him of the Province of Babylon. Other Prisoners Ptolemy sent into Egypt, with Orders to distribute them amongst the several Regiments in his Fleet.
After Ptolemy had with great Pomp and Solemnity bury'd those that were slain in the Battel, he march'd with his Army against the Cities of Phenicia, besieging some, and persuading others to yield. Demetrius in the mean time (being no longer able to hold out) dispatch'd away a Messenger with Letters to his Father, to pray him to come away speedily to his help; and he himself coming to Tripoli in Phenicia, sent for the Soldiers that were in Cilicia and elsewhere in Garisons remote and far distant from the Enemy's Quarters, to come to him. But Ptolemy keeping with his Army still in the open Field, march'd into the Coasts of Sidon, and Encamping near Tyre, sent to Andronicus, Governor of the Garison there, to render up the City to him, making him large Promises both of Wealth and Honour. But he not only answer'd, That he would never betray the Trust which Antigonus and Demetrius had put in him, but also us'd many reviling Speeches against Ptolemy; but a little while after he was surpriz'd by a Mutiny of his own Soldiers, and fell into his Hands; and thereupon expected nothing but Death for his refusal to deliver up Page 647 the City, and for his reviling Language: But Ptolemy not only forgot the Injury, but highly rewarded him, and took him into the number of his Friends, and honourably preferr'd him. For this Prince was of a most affable and gentle Disposition, and very Kind and Generous, which much contributed to the Increase of his Power, and the Advancement of his Honour and Reputation, and induc'd many upon that account to join with him, as his Allies and Confederates. For he honourably receiv'd Seleucus when he was cast out of Babylon, and made him and the rest of his Friends partners with him in that Plenty, and state of Prosperity that he himself enjoy'd: And therefore, when Seleucus desir'd some Forces from him to go along with him to Babylon, he very readily granted them, and withal promis'd he would assist him in every thing to his Power, till he had recover'd his former Government. In this Condition stood the Affairs of Asia at that time.
In Europe, Telesphorus, Antigonus his Admiral, who then lay with the Fleet at Corinth, seeing how Ptolemy was preferr'd before him, and that all the Concerns of Greece were intrusted in his hands, accus'd Antigonus upon this Account, and deliver'd up to him those Ships he had with him. Then picking out so many of his Soldiers as were willing to join with him in his designs, he began to play his own Pranks. For pretending to be at one with Antigonus, he enter'd Elis, and fortify'd the Citadel, and enslav'd the City. He robb'd likewise the Temple at Olympus, and took thence above Fifty Talents of Silver, wherewith he rais'd and hir'd Foreign Soldiers. And thus Telesphorus, out of Envy to the Advancement of Ptolemy, became a Traytor to Antigonus.
But Ptolemy, Antigonus his General in Greece, (as soon as he heard of the Defection of Telesphorus, and that he had seiz'd upon the City of the Elians, and robb'd the Temple at Olympus) march'd with an Army into Peloponnesus: And coming to Elis, raz'd the Citadel to the Ground, restor'd the Elians to their Liberty, and the Money to the Temple.
Afterwards, he so far wrought upon Telesphorus, that he regain'd Cyllene, wherein Telesphorus had put a Garison, and restor'd it to the Elians.
In the mean time, while these things were in acting, the Epirots (Eacides their King being dead) deliver'd up the Kingdom to Alcetas, who had been before him banish'd by his Father Arybilus. This Alcetas was an inveterate Enemy to Cassander, and therefore Lyciscus, Cassander's General in Acarnania, march'd with an Army into Epirus, hoping he should easily depose him, the Affairs of the Kingdom being then scarce well settled.
Lyciscus to this end Encamping at Cassopia, Alcetas sent his Sons, Alexander and Teucrus, to all the Cities, to raise as many Soldiers as possibly they could; and he himself march'd forward with what Forces he had, and when he came near the Enemy, made an Halt, waiting for the coming up of his Sons.
But Lyciscus, who far exceeded him in number, pressing upon him, the Epirots, in a great Terror and Amazement, ran over to the Enemy: Whereupon, Alcetas being thus forsaken, fled to Eurymenas, a City in Epirus; while he was closely besieg'd in this Place, in comes Alexander with an Aid to the Relief of his Father; upon which follow'd a sharp Engagement, in which many of Lyciscus his Men were cut off, amongst whom (besides other Persons of great account) were Micythus, a great Captain, and Lysander the Athethenian, Cassander's Lord-Lieutenant of Leucadia.
Afterwards, Dinias coming in to the Assistance of those thus worsted, there hapned a second Engagement, in which Alexander and Teucer being routed, they, together with their Father, fled to a strong Castle thereabout for shelter. Lyciscus presently took Eurymenas, plunder'd it, and raz'd it to the Ground.
Cassander at this time hearing of the Defeat of his Forces, (but having no intelligence of the Success which follow'd) hasted away into Epirus to succour Lyciscus: But when he came to understand how well things had succeeded on his side, he made Peace, and enter'd into a League of Friendship with Alcetas. Then with part of his Army he march'd into Adria, in order to besiege the Apolloniates, who had cast out his Garison, and join'd with the Illyrians. But the Inhabitants were not at all affrighted, but having sent for aids from others that were their Confederates, they drew up in Battalia before their Walls: Upon which, there was a sharp Dispute for a long time together; but the Apolloniates over-powering the other in number put their Enemies to flight. Cassander therefore having lost many of his Men, and wanting Forces sufficient, and perceiving the Winter to draw on a pace, return'd into Macedonia.
After his departure, the Leucadians, assisted by the Corcyrians, drave out the Garison of Caessander. As for the Epirots, they were quiet under the Royal Government of Alcetas for a time; but when he grew more Severe and Tyranical, they Murder'd both him and his two Sons, Hesioneas and Nisus, who were but then young Children.
Page 648 In Asia, Sele•ous, after the routing of Demetrius at Gaza in Syria, (receiving from Ptolemy no more than Eight hundred Foot, and Two hundred Horse) march'd towards Babylon with that Confidence as to believe, that though he had no Forces at all with him, yet he should be able to go up into the Higher Provinces, only with his own particular Friends and Servants; being verily persuaded, that the Babylonians (for the former Love and Affection they bare him) would readily come in and side with him; and that now he had a fair Opportunity to accomplish his Design, Antigonus being with his Army at a great distance from the Place.
However, though he went on with such assuredness of Mind, yet his Friends that were with him, (seeing the inconsiderable Number of his Soldiers, and on the other hand the great Strength of his Enemies against whom he was marching, and the fulness of Provision, and number of the Confederates wherewith they were supply'd and furnish'd) were greatly discourag'd: Which Seleucus taking notice of, spoke to them to this effect: It becomes not the Captains and Fellow. Soldiers of Alexander, in the Expeditions of War, to confide only in the strength of Arms and confluence of Wealth, but in their Military Art and Prudence, through which he accomplish'd great and wonderful Things, by all for ever to be admir'd: But it is our Duty rather to believe the Gods who have assur'd us, that this Expedition shall be Prosperous and Successful. For he told them, That in Consulting the Oracle at Branchides, some considerable time before the God call'd him King; and that Alexander stood by him in his Sleep, and clearly discover'd to him the Royal Dignity, to which in due time he should be advanc'd; and further declar'd, That whatever was Great and Glorious amongst Men, was always to be attained by Hazards and Toil. And withal, carrying himself Fairly and Amicably to all his Soldiers he was honour'd by every body, and all were willing to run with him the Hazard of this desperate Enterprize.
On then he march'd, and coming with them into Mesopotamia he there dealt with such Macedonians as he found dwelling in Carran, and some of them by Persuasions, and some of them by plain Force he drew to go along with him in this Expedition. As soon as he enter'd into Babylon, the Inhabitants came in flocking to him, and offer'd him their Service; for he had before carry'd himself in the most obliging manner to all for the space of Four years together when he was Governor of the Province, thereby to gain the good will of the People, and to secure an Interest for himself, if at any time afterwards he should have an Occasion to contend for the Sovereign Command. Polyarchus also came in to him, who bare some kind of Office among them, with above a Thousand Men compleatly arm'd. But they who stood for Antigonus, when they perceiv'd the general and irresistable Inclination of the Multitude towards him, fled all to the Castle, which was commanded by Diphilus; and Seleucus fell presently to besiege it, and having taken it by Force, deliver'd such Children and Friends of his as Antigonus (when Seleucus for fear fled away from Babylon into Aegypt) had there committed to Prison. This done, he fell to raising of Soldiers in the Country, and having bought Horses, distributed them among such as were fit to ride them. And withal, carrying himself with all Fairness and Affability towards all sorts; made them all ready to run any hazard with him, and so in a trice recover'd all his Government of Babylon. But afterwards, Nicanor, whom Antigonus had made Governor of the Province of Media, march'd against him with Ten thousand Foot, and Seven thousand Horse; and Seleucus without delay went out to meet him: Having with him in all a little above Three thousand Foot and Four hundred Horse; and passing the River Tigris, when he heard that the Enemy was not far off, he hid his Men in the Fens there near at hand, purposing to set upon Nicanor at unawares; who when he came to the Bank of Tigris, and found no Enemy there, went and Encamp'd near to a Post-house of the Kings, little thinking the Enemy had been so near. But the Night following (through a careless Regard and Contempt of the Enemy) not keeping a due Watch Seleucus fell upon him, and rais'd a great Tumult in his Army: For the Persisians putting themselves forward to fight, Evager their General, with sundry others of their Commanders were slain. After which Broil, the greater part of Nicanor's Army, what for the present Danger they were in, and what for the Disgust they had to Antigonus his Government, left him and came to the Service of Seleucus. Whereupon, Nicanor fearing lest at the next bout his Soldiers would deliver him up to Seleucus, fairly stole away with some few of his friends, and fled through the Desart. Seleucus having by this means gotten a potent Army about him, and continu'd his fair Carriage to all Men as before, easily procur'd the Provinces of Media and Susa, and other Countries bordering thereupon, to come under his Subjection; and sent Ptolemy word how he had sped, having now gotten a full Royal Power and Majesty into his hands.
Page 649Ptolemy continu'd still in Coelo-Syria after the great Victory gain'd over Demetrius, whom he heard was return'd out of Cilicia, and lay encamp'd in the Upper Syria; whereupon, he sent one of his Nobility about him, call'd Celles (a Macedonian Born) with a great Army, Commanding him either to drive him out of every part of Syria, or to coop him up and tread him to dirt where he lay. While he was upon his March, Demetrius understanding by his Scouts, that Celles lay carelesly with his Army at Myus, leaving his Carriages behind him, March'd away with a Company of Light-footed Lads, who travell'd all Night, and a little before Day fell in upon Celles his Camp, took it Without a stroke struck, and Celles himself pris'ner; by which Victory (it was judg'd) he was quit with them for the former Loss he had sustain'd. Yet because he thought Ptolemy himself was coming after with all his Army, he therefore pitcht his Camp in a place where he had a Bog on the one hand, and a Lough on the other. Demetrius writ Letters of this his good Success to his Father Antigonus, wishing him either to send an Army speedily, or to come himself in Person into Syria. Antigonus was then at Cellnas in Phrygia, and having read the Letter, was wonderfully pleas'd with the News, both because the Victory was gotten by his own Son's Conduct (who was so young) and for that he had shewn himself a Man worthy to wear a Crown hereafter. Upon this News, he himself with his Army march'd out of Phrygia, and having pass'd over Mount Taurus in a few days time he joyn'd with Demetrius.
Ptolemy hearing of the coming of Antigonus, call'd a Council of War, to advise whether it was better to stay where he was, and there to try it out with him in Syria, or to return into Egypt and Fight with him from thence, as he had done before with Perdiccas? The result of the Council was, That he should not hazard himself by ingaging with an Army far more numerous than his own, and where there were such multitudes of Elephants, and all under the Command of a General never yet Conquer'd; and that it was much safer for him to fight in Egypt, where he would be better supply'd with Provision, then the Enemy could be, and had places of Strength wherein he might confide. Determining therefore to leave Syria, before he went, he laid wast, and destroy'd the Principal Cities he held there at that time in his Possession, as Achon in Syrophenicia, Joppa, and Samaria; and Gaza in Syria. Then taking along with him out of the Country, whatever he could drive or carry (loaden with Wealth) he return'd into Egypt.
Antigonus, when he had without stroke stricken recover'd all Syria and Phenicia, took a Jouney into the Country of the Arabians, call'd the * Nabatheans; for thinking that they never much favour'd his proceedings, he appointed one of his Nobility, call'd Atheneus, with Four thousand Foot, and Six hundred light Horse to fall in upon them, and to bring away what spoil he could out of their Country.
It's worth our pains here to relate the Manners and Customs of these Arabians, for the information of them that are ignorant; by the use of which Customs they have hitherto secur'd themselves and preserv'd their Liberty. They live in the plain and open Fields, calling that Desert their Country, wherein are neither Inhabitants, Rivers or Springs, whereby any Enemys Army can be reliev'd. It's a Law amongst them, neither to Sow, Plant, Build Houses, or Drink any Wine; and he that is discover'd to do any of these, is sure to Die for it. And the reason of this Law is, because they conceive that those who are possess'd of such things, are easily (for fear of losing of what they have, or in hopes of gaining more,) forc'd to comply with the Will and Humour of those that are more powerful. Some of them breed up Camels; others imploy themselves in feeding of Sheep, roving to and fro in the Wilderness for that purpose. There are no few, indeed, of the Arabians, that though they give themselves to the Pasturage of Cattel in the Deserts, yet are far richer then the rest, but exceed not in number above Ten thousand. For many of them use to carry Frankincense, Mirrh, and other rich Perfumes down to the Sea side, which they traffick for, and receive from them that bring them from Arabia the Happy. They highly prize and value their Liberty, and when any strong Armies invade them, they presently fly into the Wilderness, as to a strong Fort and Castle for refuge; for being no Water is there to be had, none can follow them through these Deserts: But as to themselves, they have a sure and safe Retreat, by the help of Earthen Pots and Vessels hid in the Earth prepar'd before hand. For the Soil is a fat Clay, under which lies a soft Stone, in which they dig great Caves very narrow at the entrance, but enlarging by degrees as they grow in depth, till they come at length to that bigness, as to be a hundred Foot Square; these Caves they fill up to the Mouths with these Vessels fill'd with Rain-Water; then they lay all even with the rest of the Ground, and leave certain Marks where to find the place known to none but themselves. For the Cattel (driven away along with them) they take so much Water as Page 650 may serve them for Three Days, lest while they are in their flight in dry and parch'd places, they should be ever and anon put to a stop by the continual watering of their Cattle.
Their Food is Flesh, Milk and Roots. For Drink they have abundance of wild Honey, and a kind of Pepper growing upon some Trees, both which they mix together in Water for that purpose.
There are likewise other kinds of Arabians, some of whom imploy themselves in Husbandry, Selling of Corn, with other Provisions, and agree with the Syrians in all other things, except dwelling in Houses. And such were then the Customs of these Arabians.
Near at hand there was a Publick Meeting of these Arabians, whither all bordering Nations us'd to come, as to a common Mart to sell off to them their Commodities, and to buy from them the Merchandize of their Country. To this Mart the Nabatheans now went, leaving their Wealth and Old Men with their Wives and Children upon the top of a Rock. The place was very strong, but Un-Wall'd, and distant Two Days Journey from the Countrey that was inhabited. Atheneus watching his opportunity, march'd speedily to this Rock; and having march'd out of the Province of Edom the space of Two thousand and two hundred Furlongs in Three Days and Three Nights, late at Midnight (the Arabians knowing nothing of his coming) possess'd himself of the Place; of the Soldiers there sound, some he put to the Sword, and others he made Prisoners, and such as were wounded he there left behind him; and carry'd away the greatest part of their Mirrh and Frankincense, with Five hundred Talents of Silver, and staying there * not past Three Hours, for fear of the Countreys coming in upon him, return'd presently again. And now he and his Soldiers having gone Two hundred Furlongs, could go no further for very weariness, and therefore rested there, keeping neither Watch nor Ward, as presuming that the Country People could not reach thither in Two or Three Days after. But the Arabians receiving intelligence by some that saw the Army, presently got together, left the Fair and return'd to the Rock; where being more fully inform'd by the wounded Men, of what was done, they incontinently pursu'd the Greeks with Might and Main. And because Atheneus his Men kept no Watch, and after their long Journey lay weary and fast asleep, some of the Prisoners stole away from them; from whom, when their Country-men (whom they met) had learnt how the Enemies Camp lay, they hasted to the place, and coming upon them at Three of the Clock in the Morning, fell into their Trenches, to the number of Eight Thousand of them, and cut the Throats of some snorting in their Cabins; others that made resistance they slew. To make short, they utterly destroy'd all their Foot, only Fifty of their Horse got away, and they wounded too for the most part. And thus Atheneus, tho' he began well, yet through his own imprudence lost all in the close. And therefore some, not without Cause, are of Opinion, that it's easier to improve Misfortunes to the best advantage, than to carry it with Prudence under extraordinary Successes. For the first through Fear of what further mischief may afterwards follow, puts a Man on to a more exact and careful management of his Concerns; but by prosperous Adventures Men are many times flatter'd into gross negligence and security.
The Nabatheans having thus reveng'd themselves of their Enemies, and recover'd their Goods again, return'd to the Rock; and by a Letter of theirs, written to Antigonus in Syriac Characters, complain'd of Atheneus, and the wrong he had done them, and excus'd themselves. To whom Antigonus wrote back again cunningly, telling them, that Atheneus was well enough serv'd by them; blaming him for what he had done, and assuring them he had given him no such Orders. This he did to cover what he was really designing against them, and to make them the more secure, that thereby he might with more ease effectually accomplish what he was in contriving. For without some Stratagem it was no easie matter to overcome Men that wander'd up and down continually here and there, and had the Wilderness for an inaccessible Shelter and Refuge at the last.
The Arabians upon the receit of the Letter rejoyc'd that they seem'd at present to be free'd from their great fears; but yet they did not wholly rely upon his Letter; But being between Hope and Fear, plac'd Spies upon Watch-Towers and other high places, whence they might easily see afar off, when any Enemy made an incursion into Arabia; and they themselves put all things in readiness, waiting for the issue and event.
Page 651 But Antigonus having for a time carry'd himself as a Friend towards these Barbarians, now judg'd he had a fair opportunity to set upon them, having brought them, as it were, to his bait. To this end therefore he chose out of all his Army, Four thousand Foot light Arm'd, and the swiftest of Foot he could find, and added to them Four thousand Horse, willing them to take with them as many Days Victuals as they could well carry, and such as needed no Cooking; and assigning Demetrius his Son to Command them, he sent them away about the first Watch of the Night with this Charge, that he should by all means be reveng'd of them. He therefore Travell'd Three Days Journey through the Desert, hastning to fall upon them at unawares. But their Scouts perceiving the first approach of the Enemy towards their Borders, immediately gave notice of their coming to the Country: whereupon they presently got them to their Rock, where there was but one way up, and that made by Art, and there laid all their Baggage, and left a sufficient Guard to keep it; and the rest went and drove away their Cattle, some to one place and some to another in the Desert. Demetrius when he came to the Rock and saw all the Cattle driven away, presently went to Besiege it: but they that were within manfully defending it, by the advantage of the place, had all the day long the better of it; so that Demetrius was forc'd at last to draw off. The next Day when he approach'd again with his Forces to the Rock, one of the Barbarians cry'd out: What would'st thou have, O King, DEMETRIUS? or what has provok'd thee to make War upon us who inhabit the Wilderness, and in places where there's neither Water, Corn nor Wine, nor any thing else which you cannot be without. But as for us, who can upon no terms endure to be Slaves, we betake our Selves to a Country destitute of all things that are of absolute necessity to all other Men; and we chuse to live a solitary Life altogether, like the Beasts of the Field, without doing the least harm to any of you. Therefore we intreat you Demetrius, and your Father, that you injure not us, but that you would accept of some Presents, and march away with the Army from us, and receive the Nabatheans into the number of your Friends for the time to come.
Neither can you possibly stay here many days (though you had never so great a mind to do it) for want of Water and all other necessaries; neither can you ever force us to change our course of Life, tho' perhaps you may take some poor dispirited Pris'ners who will never endure to be brought under the Power of other Laws and Rules of Living
After this was said, Demetrius drew off his Army, and wish'd them to send Ambassadors to him to Treat of these Matters. Hereupon the Arabians sent their oldest Men, who (using the same Arguments with those before related) perswaded Demetrius to accept of such Gifts as were of greatest Esteem and Value among them, and so put an end to the War. Upon Hostages therefore given him, and such Gifts as were agreed upon between them, he drew off from the Rock, and so removing with his Army Three hundred Furlongs off, he encamp'd near to the Lake Asphaltes; the nature of which it's not fit to pass over without giving some account of it.
It lies in the midst of the Province of Edom; and stretches forth in length Five hundred Furlongs: but in breadth it is but Threescore. The Water is very bitter and stinking, so that neither Fish, nor any other thing us'd to the Water can live in it. And though many remarkable Rivers of very sweet Water empty themselves into it, yet it remains as corrupt and unsavory, both as to Tast and Smell as ever it did before. Every Year rises out of the middle of it great massy pieces of Bitumen and Pitch, sometimes bigger then Three Plethras, and sometimes a little less then one. And upon that account the Barbarous Inhabitants call the larger pieces Bulls, and the less Calves. These pieces of Pitch and Brimstone floating upon the Water, seem at a distance to be as so many Islands: There are evident Signs that sorgoe and give notice of the casting up of this Bituminous Matter, at least Twenty Days before. For a horrid smell of Brimstone and Pitch infects the Air round about the Lake at many Furlongs distance; and all Metals, whether of Gold, Silver or Copper near the place, change their natural Colour, which presently returns again as soon as the Brimstone is exhal'd. The places bordering upon it are so burning hot (by reason of the Sulphur and Brimstone under ground) and cast forth such an horrible stench, that the Inhabitants are very unhealthy, and short liv'd: yet the Country thereabouts being water'd with many pleasant Rivers and refreshing Springs, bears abundance of Palm-Trees; and in a certain Vale near to this place grows that they call Balm, from which they raise a great Revenue; inasmuch as this Plant grows in no other part of the World beside; and is of excellent use amongst Physitians for the healing and curing of Wounds, and other Distempers. The Inhabitants on both sides this Lake, are so earnest to carry away this Brimstone, that they fight one with nother; and they bring it off in a strange manner without Shipping. For they cast Page 652 in huge Bundles of Butrushes fastned close together, upon which Three or more of them place themselves, two of which ply the Oars that are fastn'd to the Bulrushes, and the third carrys a Bow and Arrows to defend themselves against such as attempt to make up upon them from the other side, or that offer them any violence. Assoon as they come to the Brimstone they get upon it, and hew it in pieces with Axes, as pieces of stone out of a soft Rock, and so loading the Bulrish Boat, they row back. If any fall into the Water through the deficiency of the Boat, yet he never sinks as in other waters, tho' he knows not how to swim, but lies upon the water as if he were the best swimmer in the World. For this Lake naturally bears any thing that has either a vegetative or an animal Life, except such things as are solid, and seem to be without Pores, as Silver, Gold, Lead, or the like; and these likewise are much longer and slower in sinking than when they are cast into other waters. And this profit and advantage the Barbarians reap from it; they Transport this Pitch into Egypt and there sell it for the use of embalming of the Dead; for if they do not mix this with other Aromatick Spices, the Bodies cannot be preserv'd long from putrefaction.
Antigonus at the Reign of Demetrius having heard the Relation of his Voiage blam'd him for his making Peace with the Nabatheans, saying that those barbarous people having so escapt would thereupon grow more insolent than before, concluding that they were not favour'd out of love or compassion of the Conqueror, but in dispair of the Conquest; but he commended him for discovering the Lake Asphaltes, seeing that from thence he might raise some yearly Revenue to himself, and made Hieronimus Cardianus the Historian his Treasurer for that Revenue, and commanded him to build Ships and gather together all the Bitumen, or liquid Brimstone that could be gotten out of that Lake: But Antigonus in the event was frustrated of his hope; for the Arabians coming together to the number of Six thousand Men set upon them as they were in their Ships, gathering this Brimstone, and shot them almost all to death with their Arrows; whereby Antigonus lost all hopes of making any standing Revenue that way, and forbore all further prosecution of that design both upon the account of the miscarriage already, and likewise for that he had matters of greater weight and concern then in his head.
For about that time a Courrier came, and brought Letters to him from Nicanor, Governor of Media, and others, how Seleucus was return'd and prosper'd in those parts: Whereupon Antigonus being much concern'd for the upper Provinces, sent his Son Demetrius with Five thousand Macedonian Foot, and Ten thousand Mercenaries, and Four thousand Horse with charge that he should march to the very Walls of Babylon, and having recover'd that Province should from thence march down to the Sea. Demetrius hereupon departed from Damascus in Syria, and went vigorously on to fulfil his Fathers Command. But Patrocles, whom Celeucus had made President of Babylon, so soon as he heard that Demetrius was falling into Mesopotamia, not daring to stay his coming (because he had but a smal power about him) commanded the rest to leave the City, and that passing the Euphrates they should flee some into the Deseart, others over the Tigris into the Province of Susa, and to the Persian Sea; and he himself with a company which he had about him trusting in the Barrs of the Rivers and Dikes of the Country thereabouts, instead of so many Fortresses and Bulwarks for his defence, kept himself still within the Bounds of his own Government, and cast about how to intrap his Enemy, sending ever and anon Tidings to Seleucus in Media how how things went with him, and desiring aid to be speedily sent to him.
Demetrius when he came to Babylon and found the City it self void of Inhabitants, fell presently to besiege the Forts and Castles that were therein,; and having taken one of them, gave the spoil thereof to his Soldiers: But having besieg'd the other for some days together, in hast, he departed, leaving Archelaus, one of his trusty friends, to maintain the Siege with Five thousand Foot and a Thousand Horse; and himself, seeing the time run out, which his Father had appointed him to finish his work in; return'd with the rest of the Army into the lesser Asia.
While those things were acting, the Wars between the Romans and the Samnites continu'd still in Italy, wherein there were daily excursions into one anothers Territories, Besieging of Cities and Incamping of Armies on both sides: For the Contest between the most warlike Nations of Italy was, which should gain the Empire and Sovereign Command of the whole, upon which account many great Battles were fought.
At length the Consuls of Rome with a part of their Forces Incampt in the face of the Enemy, watching for a fit opportunity to fall upon them, by which means they preserv'd their Consederate Cities from annoyance and disturbance from the Enemy. With Page 653 the rest of the Army Quintus Fabius the Dictator took Fretomanum, and carri'd away the persons of greatest quality that were Enemies, to the Romans, to the number of Two hundred and upwards, and brought them to Rome, and expos'd them as a publick Spectacle in the Forum; and when he had scourg'd them, according to the Roman Custom, cut off their Heads. He made likewise an inroad into the Enemies Territories, and took Celia and the Cittadel of Nota, with abundance of Spoil, and divided a great part of the Country by Lot among the Soldiers; the Romans hereupon incourag'd with these successes which fell out according to their hearts desire, sent a Colony into the Island call'd Pontia.
As for Sicily, after that Agathocles had made Peace with all the Sicilians, except the Messenians the Refugees of Syracuse, all flockt to Messina, because they saw that to be the only City that stood out against him. Agathocles therefore with all speed made it his business to break their Confederacy, and to that end sent away Pasiphilus his General with an Army to Messina, with private instructions to do what he thought fit, and most agreeable to the circumstances of Affairs as he should find them; hereupon he enter'd the Country on a suddain, and after he had taken many Prisoners, and got much spoil, he Solicited the Messenians to Peace and Amity, and that they would not suffer themselves so to be led aside as to join with the implacable Enemies of Agathocles.
Upon which the Messenians hoping to extricate themselves out of the War without Blows, cast out all the Syracusians Fugitives, and receiv'd Agathocles with his Army into the City; who at the first carri'd himself very courteously and obligingly towards all, and courted them to admit those Exiles that were in his Army, (and had been by them according to Law formerly banish'd) into the Freedom and Liberties of the City.
But afterwards he sent for such out of Tauromenium and Messina as formerly had oppos'd his Government, and put them all to death, to the number of Six hundred; for intending to make War upon the Carthaginians, he resolv'd to rid himself of every thing that lookt like an Enemy in Sicily: The Messenians therefore seeing their chief Citizens cut off that oppos'd the Tyrant, and that they themselves had driven those strangers out of the City that wish'd them so well, and that would have been their main strength against him, and had been forc't to receive those that had been formerly condemn'd for their notorious Crimes, much repented themselves of what they had done; but out of fear of the power of the Conqueror they were forc'd to stoop.
Thence he mov'd in the first place towards Agrigentum, with design to make a prey also of this City: But because the Carthaginians were there lately arriv'd with a Fleet of Sixty Sail, he desisted and left off that project, but wasted and harrass'd the Territories of the Carthaginians, and took some of their Forts and Castles by Storm, and gain'd others by surrender.
Among these Turmoiles Dinocrates, Captain of the Syracusian Exiles, sent to desire Aid of the Carthaginians before Agathocles had brought all Sicily under his own Power and Soveraign Command; he himself receiv'd all those Exiles which the Messenians had banish'd the City, and having now a very great Army, sent Nymphodorus one of his Trusty Friends with part of the Army to the City of the Centorippians: For this place being a Garrison of Agathocles, some of the Citizens had undertaken to betray it, upon condition they should be suffer'd to govern according to their own Laws. Upon this incouragement therefore breaking into the City in the night, the chief Commanders of the Garrison presently took the Alarum, and kill'd both Nymphodorus and all the rest that had enter'd within the Walls. Agathocles made use of this as an occasion and ground to accuse the Centorippians of Contrivances against his Government, and cut the Throats of all those that he look'd upon to be the Ringleaders of the Defection.
While he was thus imploy'd the Carthaginians enter'd the Port at Syracuse with a Fleet of Fifty Sail, but all that they did there was the sinking of two Transport Ships (one of which belonged to the Athenians) and cut off the Hands of all those that were on board: Which was lookt upon as a piece of extream Cruelty towards those that never offer'd them the least Injury; and this God made presently to appear; For soon after some Ships that were forc'd from the rest of the Fleet about Brutta, fell into the hands of Agathocles, where those Carthaginians that were taken were serv'd the same sawce with those that were by them taken Prisoners before.
But Dinocrates Commander of the Exiles having with him above Three thousand Foot and Two thousand Horse, seiz'd upon Galaria (as it is call'd) invited thither by the Inhabitants, and cast out those that sided with Agathocles, and then Encamp'd before the Walls of the City.
Page 654Agathecles presently sent against him Pasiphilus and Demophilus with Five thousand Men, who fought with the Refugees; whose Captains were Dinocrates and Philonides, who commanded separately in the two Wings. The Battel was doubtful for a long time together, while both Armies obstinately stood to it Tooth and Nail: But Philonides, one of the Captains, being slain, that Wing fled, and Dinocrates was thereupon forc'd likewise to give Ground, and Pasiphilus kill'd many of them in the Pursuit, and recover'd Galaria, and put to Death the Authors of the Defection.
Agathocles receiving Intelligence of what was done, resolv'd to fall upon the Carthaginians with his whole Army, who had then possess'd themselves of the Hill in Geloa, call'd E•••mes. To that end, without any further Delay he made up to them, and as soon as he came near, offer'd them Battel, being puff'd up with the Success of his late Victory. But the Barbarians durst not engage, and thereupon (supposing he was absolute Master of the Field without sighting) he return'd to Syracuse, and adorn'd the chiefest Temples there with the Spoils. And these were the Actions of this Year as far forth as is needful for us to give an Account.
Cassander, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus, make Peace with Antigonus. Cassander murders Rhoxana and her Son. The Governors take the Stile of Kings upon them. The Carthaginians raise Forces against Agathocles. Four thousand Geloans murder'd by Agathocles. The Battel between Agathocles and Amilcar the Carthaginian at Himera. Agathocles routed. Several Cities revolt from Agathocles.
WHen Simonides was Lord-Chancellor of Athens, and the Romans had created MarcusValerius and Publius Decius Consuls, Cassander, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus, made Peace with Antigonus, the Form of which was put into Writing, and contain'd the Terms following: That Cassander should be the Sovereign Lord of all in Europe, till Alexander the Son of Rhoxana came of full Age: That Lysimachus should have the chief Command in Thrace: Ptolemy should enjoy the Sovereign Power in Egypt, and the bordering Cities in Arabia and Africa: That Antigonus should be Lord of all Asia; And the Greeks should Govern according to their own Laws. But these Conditions they observ'd not long; but every one took one Occasion or other to incroach upon more than his Part came to.
Cassander seeing that Alexander the Son of Rhoxana now grew up towards Man's Estate, and hearing how it was the Discourse of some throughout all Macedonia, That it was now fit the young Man should be freed from his Prison, and assume the Government of his Father's Kingdom into his own hands; out of fear of being supplanted, commanded Glaucias the Keeper to murder both Rhoxana and the King, and to hide their Bodies when he had done, and by all means possible conceal their Deaths. This he effectually executed, and so by this means Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Antigonus himself, were freed from all Grounds of Fear upon the account of the King. For now all the Seed Royal being extinct, and no Successor remaining, every one of the Captains that had possess'd themselves of Provinces or Cities, took upon themselves the Titles and Stiles of Kings; and every one claim'd the Province, of which he was Governor, as a Conquer'd Kingdom. And thus stood the Affairs in Asia, Europe, Greece, and Macedonia.
In Italy, the Romans march'd with a great Body of Horse and Foot against Pollitium, a City of the Marucci; where they remov'd part of the Citizens, and made them a new Colony, giving them Interamna (as it's call'd) to inhabit.
In Sicily, the Power of Agathocles increas'd every day, his Forces growing stronger and stronger: Whereupon the Carthaginians being inform'd, that he had gain'd almost all the Towns and Cities through the Island, and that their Captains and Commanders there were not able to deal with him, they resolv'd to pursue the War with more Vigour. To this end they forthwith provided a Fleet of a Hundred and thirty Sail of Men of War, and made Amilcar (a Person of eminent Quality) General. and deliver'd to him Two thousand Soldiers rais'd out of the City, amongst whom, many were Men of Note: Out of Afric•, Ten thousand; from Tyrrhenia, a Thousand Mercenaries and Two Page 655 hundred Charioteers, and a Thousand Slingers from the Baleary Islands. They provided likewise a great Treasure, all sorts of Weapons, store of Corn, and all other Things necessary for carrying on the War, as they had occasion to use. And now when the whole Fleet had hois'd up Sail and were come into the open Sea, on a sudden a violent Storm arose, which sunk Sixty of the Gallies, and broke in pieces Two hundred of the Ships loaden with Corn and Provision. The rest of the Fleet, after much Hardship at Sea, with much ado got into Sicily. Many of the most eminent Men of Carthage were lost at this time, which occasion'd a publick Lamentation in that City. For when any Misfortune happens to that Place greater than ordinary, their Custom is to cover the Walls with black Cassocks or Cloaks.
Amilcar the General, after he was landed, muster'd those that were sav'd from the Storm; and to supply those that were lost, listed Foreign Mercenaries, and rais'd others from among the Confederates throughout all Sicily, whom he join'd with the rest of the Forces that were there before; and carefully providing every thing that was necessary for the War, he kept the Army in the Field, having under his Command about Forty thousand Foot, and near Five thousand Horse. Having therefore in a short time recruited himself, (and being accounted a Man of great Reputation for Honesty and Integrity,) he both reviv'd the Courage of the Confederates, and in no small measure struck a Terror into the Hearts of his Enemies.
On the other side, Agathocles perceiving that he was far overpower'd by the Carthaginians in Number of their Forces, concluded, that many of the Forts and Castles, and those Cities and Towns that bore him a Grudge, would revolt to the Enemy; especially he fear'd the City of the Geloans, because he heard all the Enemies Forces were encamp'd in their Territories: And besides, no small Detriment befel him at this time in his Fleet, for about Twenty Sail then at Sea together, with their Men, all fell into the Hands of the Carthaginians. However, he conceiv'd it fit to put a Garison into the Place for its Security, but durst not bring any Forces openly into the City lest the Geloans should prevent him, who had not then at any time before any Occasion offered them to rebel: And so by that means he might come to lose a Town that had been very useful and serviceable to him. Therefore (to prevent Suspicion) he sent into the City Soldiers by degrees, a few at a time, (as if they had come there for other Purposes,) till he had got so many into the Town as far exceeded the Citizens in Number. And then a while after he came thither himself, and charg'd the Geloans with a traiterous design to revolt: However, whether this were true or not, or that they were falsly accus'd by the Exiles, or that his Design was to scrape and get together what Money he could; he put to Death above Four thousand of the Geloans, and confiscated all their Estates; and threaten'd all the rest with Death that did not bring forth all their Money, whether Silver or Gold, coin'd or uncoin'd. Whereupon all (out of fear of this thundring Edict) forthwith obey'd his Command; whereby he heap'd together a vast Treasure, and became a Terror to all his Subjects. And though he was judg'd to deal too severely and cruelly with the Geloans, yet he order'd them to be decently buri'd without the Walls; and then leaving the City with a strong Garison, encamp'd with his Army over-against the Enemy. The Carthaginians possess'd the Hill Ecnomen, where formerly stood the Castle of Phaleris, as is reported, where they say the Tyrant had the Brazen Bull contriv'd to torment Offenders, by putting Fire under it, thereby causing it to grow scorching hot by degrees. And therefore, by reason of this horrid Cruelty executed upon poor miserable Creatures, the Hill was call'd Ecnomen. Agathocles possess'd himself of another Castle of Phaleris over-against them, which he call'd Phalerius: Between both Armies lay a River, which was as a Defence and Bulwark to both sides. There was an ancient Prophecy, That a great Battel should be fought, and Multitudes of Men destroy'd about this Place; and being that it was uncertain on which side the Slaughter should mainly fall, out of a superstitious Awe of the Gods, the Armies were more backward and slow to ingage; and therefore neither Party for a long time durst pass the River with their whole Forces, till a sudden and unexpected Occasion forc'd them to fight. For the Africans making a sudden Incursion upon the Enemy, stirr'd up Agathocles to do the same: For when the Greeks were driving away their Cattel, and some Carriage. Horses and other Beasts out of the Camp, some sally'd out from among the Carthaginians to pursue them. But Agathocles foreseeing what the Enemy would do, had before laid an Ambuscado of stout and resolute Men near the River, who, as soon as the Carthaginians had pass'd the River, and were in pursuit of those that were driving away the Cattel, rose out of the Ambush, and fell upon them as they were then in Disorder, and easily routed them and put them to flight. While the Barbarians were thus hew'd down, and flying to their Camp, Agathocles looking upon it now Page 656 as a sit time to ingage, led forth his whole Army against the Enemy; and falling upon them on a sudden, presently fill'd up a part of their Trench and cut through their Breast-work, and so forc'd their Camp. The Carthaginians amaz'd with this sudden Attack, having no time to put themselves in order of Battel, fell in as Fortune led them, and ingag'd the Enemy in the best manner they could: And in regard the hotest Work was near the Trench, the Ground all thereabout was strew'd with dead Carkasses; for the chiefest of the Carthaginians made to the Defence of that Place where they saw the Camp enter'd.
On the other hand, the Agathocleans incourag'd by the happy Success of their Attempt, and supposing they should put an end to the War by this one Battel, press'd resolutely upon the Barbarians: Amilcar therefore perceiving that his Men were too weak, and that the Grecians were continually pouring in more Men into the Camp, brings up a Thousand Slingers of the Baliary Islands, who wounded many by multitude of great Stones out of their Slings, and kill'd many that were forcing into the Camp, and broke in pieces the Shields and Armour of many of their Assailants. For these Men being us'd to cast Stones of Three Pound Weight, were always very serviceable, and contributed much in several Battels to the gaining of the Victory, as being those that were diligently taught and well exercis'd in the Art of Slinging from their very Childhood. And now at this time they gain'd the Point, driving the Grecians back again beyond the Out-works of the Camp. But Agathocles broke into it in other places; and just as the Camp was forc'd, unexpectedly arriv'd Succours from Carthage, which again reviv'd the Spirits of the Carthaginians, and those in the Camp fought the Enemy in the Front, and the new Supplies hem'd the Greeks in the Rear, and hew'd them down, so as the Fortune of the Day turn'd suddenly and unexpectedly. For the Grecians fled outright, some to the River Himera, and others to their own Camp, which was Forty Furlongs distant; and being a Plain and Champain Country, they were pursu'd with no fewer than Five thousand of the Barbarian Horse, so that the Plain all along was cover'd with dead Bodies, the River contributing much to the Destruction of the Greeks. For the pursuit being about Noon, and in the Dog-Days, many of them that fled were so parch'd with Thirst, by the Heat of the Weather and the Fatigue of their Flight, that they greedily swill'd themselves with salt Water, insomuch that as many (that had not the least Hurt) were found dead near the River as were kill'd by the Sword in the Pursuit. There were kill'd of the Barbarians in this Battel about Five hundred, but no fewer than Seven thousand of the Greeks.
Agathocles being thus grievously defeated, after he had receiv'd all those that had escap'd, burnt his Camp and went to Gela. But he had caus'd it to be rumour'd abroad, that he was gone strait away for Syracuse. It happen'd that Three hundred African Horse then in the Country fell in among some of Agathocles his Soldiers, who told them, that Agathocles was gone back to Syracuse, and thereupon the Horsemen enter'd Gela as Friends: But being thus deluded, they were all shot to Death by Darts: Yet Agathocles shut not himself up in Gela, because he could not get safe to Syracuse, but that he might divert the Carthaginians from Syracuse to the Besieging of Gela, that so by that means the Syracusians might have leisure enough to get in their Harvest, while he protracted the time at Gela. Amilcar indeed at the first intended to have besieg'd Gela; but hearing that there was there a strong Body of Men to oppose him, and that Agathocles was furnish'd with plenty of all things necessary, he laid aside that design, and made his approaches to the Forts and Castles, and had them all surrender'd to him; and to gain the good Opinion of the Sicilians, he carry'd himself Courteously and Obligingly towards all. The Camareans, Leontines, Cataneans and Tauromeneans, sent continually Ambassadors, and made their Applications to the Carthaginians. And a little time after, the Messenian. and Abacenians, and many other Cities who before were at variance amongst themselves, all went over to Amilcar; such was the Zeal of the Common People after the late Defeat, through the Hatred they bore against the Tyrant.
But Agathocles led away all the Forces that were yet left him, to Syracuse, and there repair'd the ruinous Parts of the Walls, and got in all the Corn and Fruits out of the Fields; and now contriv'd to leave a strong Garison for the Defence of the City, and to transport the Power and Strength of the Army into Africa, with an intent to draw the War out of the Island into the Continent. We shall therefore, as we at first design'd, begin the following Book with the passing of Agathocles into Africa.
The Histories of Herodotus written in 440 BC is considered to be the founding work of history in Western literature. His history included stories and fables but he claimed to have traveled extensively and learned about many countries through direct observation.
The thesis of Stolen Legacy is that the Egyptians created what is wrongly called Greek philosophy. Dr. James argues that the African origin of Greek Philosophy is well known but rarely discussed. Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus the Sicilian wrote in significant detail about the contributions of Egypt. Egyptian technology and libraries were unmatched and Greek philosophers such as Pythagoras and Plato studied there. The contribution of Africa to the intellectual foundation of modern knowledge is tremendous but unacknowledged.
The Library of History by Diodorus the Sicilian is one of the most highly regarded universal histories in antiquities. His work includes the history of Egypt, Asia, Africa, Greece and Europe. His book is a must read for research of ancient history.
Bible Study The King James Bible (kjv), World English Bible (web) and Bible in Basic English (bbe) are all examples of public domain books. The King James Bible (kjv) online uses the content from these books and open source software to enhance Bible study capabilities. The site includes the verse of the day, search tools, christian literature and links to related content. It demonstrates the use of open source to create a valuable service.