PYthagoras the Samian, and some others of the ancient Natural Philosophers, held that the Souls of Men were immortal; and that to foretell future Events at the very point of Death, when the Soul is even parting with the Body, is the Effect and Consequent of this Truth. To which Homer witnesses, when he brings in Hector, when he was even breathing his last, telling Achilles that he should die within a very short time afterwards. The same is attested of many others of later Times, and confirm'd especially by the Death of Alexander the Macedonian, who dying at Babylon, and being ask'd by his Commanders and those about him, at the time he was giving up his last Breath, Who should succeed him? he answer'd The most Worthy ; For I foresee, says he, that great and grievous Quarrels amongst my Friends, will be the Sacrifices to me after my Funeral. Which hapend accordingly; for the Chiefest of his Commanders fell together by the Ears about the Principality; and great Wars, after the Death of Alexander, broke forth amongst them: Whose Actions are contain'd in this Book; which will clearly evidence, to the studious Reader, the Truth of what is now said:
The former comprehended all the things done by Alexander, to the time of his Death. This present Book, relating the Actions of those who succeeded, ends with the Year next before the Reign of Agathocles, which makes an History of Seven Years.
Quarrels about a Successor to Alexander. Arideus made King. The Provinces divided amongst the Chief Commanders. Matters contain'd in Alexander's Note-Books. Meleager executed by Perdiccas. The Grecians revolt. A Description of Asia. Pithon sent against the revolting Grecians, who were all cut off. The Lamian War; The cause of it. Alexander's Epistle to the Exiles. Leosthenes the Athenian General. Lamia besieg'd. Leosthenes kill'd: Antiphilus plac'd in his room.
WHen Cephisodorus was Chief Magistrate of Athens, the Romans created Lucius Furius and Decius Jovius Consuls: About which time, Alexander being now dead without Issue, and so the Government without a Head, there arose great Dissentions and Differences about the Empire. For the Foot were for setting up of Arideus the Son of Philip, a weak-spirited Man, labouring under many natural Infirmities: But the Chiefest of the Nobility and Esquires of the Body met together in Council; and being join'd with the Squadron of Horse call'd the Social, they resolv'd to try it out with the Macedonian Phalanx.
Therefore they sent the most eminent Commanders (among whom Meleager was the Chief, to the Foot, to require them to observe Commands. But Meleager (who was the most Eminent Man of the Phalanx) as soon as he came to the Battalion which was of the greatest Account and Esteem in the Army, he said nothing at all of the Business for which they were sent; but, on the contrary, highly commended them for their Choice, and stirr'd them up against the Opposers. Whereupon the Macedonians created Meleager their Captain, and with their Arms made out against the contrary Party. Those of the King's Life-guard and Esquires of the Body, march'd likewise out of Babylon in order to fight; but the most Interested and Popular Men amongst them, endeavour'd all they could to make Peace on both sides. Upon which it was presently agreed, that Arideus the Son of Philip should be made King, and call'd Philip, and that Perdiccas, to whom the late King, when he was upon the point of death, deliver'd his Ring, should be invested with the Executive Power of the Kingdom; and order'd that the Esquires of the Body and the Chief Commanders should govern the Provinces, and all be observant to the Commands of the King and Perdiccas.
Page 575Arideus being thus made King, he call'd together a General Council of the chief Commanders; and to Ptolomeus Lagus he committed the Government of Aegypt; to Laomedon of Mitylene, Syria; to Philotas, Cilicia; to Python, Media; to Eumenes, Cappadocia and Paphlagonia, and the bordering Countries which were never entred by Alexander all the time of his Wars with Darius, through want of convenient Opportunity. To Antigonus he assign'd the Command of Lycia, and the greater Phrygia; to Cassander, Caria; to Meleager, Lydia; to Leonatus, Phrygia all along the Coast of the Hellespont: And in this manner were the Provinces divided. In Europe, Thrace, with the Nations bordering upon the Sea of Pontus, were committed to Lysimachus; and Macedonia with those bordering upon it to Antipater: As for the rest of the Asian Provinces, it was thought most adviseable not to alter but to leave them under the Government of the former Lord Lieutenants. The Province next adjoining was intrusted with Taxilis, and the Kings bordering upon him: But the Province adjoining to Mount Caucasus (call'd Parapamisus) was assign'd to Oxiertes, King of the Bactrians, whose Daughter Rhoxana, Alexander had marry'd. Arachesia and Gedrosia to Sybirtius: Ariana and Drangina to Stasanoris of Solos: Bactriana and Sardiana were allotted to Philip; Parthia and Hyrcania to Phrataphernes; Persia to Peucestes; Carmania to Tlepolemus; Media to Atrapas. The Province of Babylon to Archon; and Mesopotamia to Arcesilaus. Seleucus he created General of the brave Brigade of the Social Horse. Hephestion was the first Commander of that Brigade, then Perdiccas, and the third was this Seleucus. He order'd that Taxiles and Porus should enjoy the absolute Authority within their own Kingdoms, as Alexander himself had before appointed. The care of the Funeral, and of preparing a Chariot to convey the King's Body to Hammon, was committed to Arideus.
But as for Craterus, the most Noble of Alexander's Captains, he was some time before sent by Alexander with Ten thousand of the old Soldiers that were discharg'd from further Service in the Persian War, into Cilicia, to put in Execution some Instructions in writing given him by the King; which after the King's Death, his Successors determin'd should be no further proceeded in: For Perdiccas finding in the King's Commentaries not only the vast Sums of Money intended to be expended in the Funeral of Hephestion, but likewise many other things of extraordinary Cost and Charge design'd by the King, he judg'd it far more advisable to let them alone: But lest he should seem to take too much upon him, and by his private Judgment to detract from Alexander's Wisdom and Discretion, he referr'd all these Matters to the determination of a General Council of the Macedonians. The Chief and the most considerable Heads of the King's purposes contain'd in his Books of Remembrance were these, That a Thousand long Ships, larger than those of three Tire of Oars, should be built in Phaenicia, Syria, Cilicia, and Cyprus, in order to an Invasion upon the Carthaginians, and others inhabiting the Sea Coasts of Africa and Spain, with all Islands adjoyning as far as Sicily. 2. That a Plain and Easie way should be made straight along through the Sea Coasts of Africa to Hercules his Pillars. 3. That Six magnificent Temples should be built, and that Fifteen hundred Talents should be expended in the Cost of each of them. 4. That Arsenals and Ports should be made in Places convenient and fit for the Reception of so great a Navy. 5. That the new Cities should be planted with Colonies, and that People should be transplanted out of Asia into Europe, and others out of Europe into Asia, to the end, that by Intermarriages and mutual Affinities he might establish Peace and Concord between the two main Continents of the World.
Some of the Temples before-mention'd were to be built in Delos, Delphos, and Dodona; Some in Macedonia, as the Temple of Jupiter in Dio; Diana's Temple in Amphipolis; another to Minerva in Cyrnus: To which Goddess he design'd likewise to build a Temple in Ilium, inferior to none, for Splendor and Magnificence. Lastly, To adorn his Father Philip's Sepulchre, he design'd to erect a Monument equal to the biggest Pyramid in Aegypt, seven of which were by some accounted the most stately and greatest Works in the World.
These things being laid before them, the Macedonians, though they highly commended and approved of Alexander's designs, yet because they seem'd things beyond all measure impracticable, they decreed all to be laid aside. Then Perdiccas caus'd those Soldiers that were Turbulent, and exceeding Inveterate against him, to the number of Thirty, to be put to Death: Afterwards, out of a private Grudge he executed Meleager, (who betray'd his Embassy, and carry'd on the Mutiny) as one that sought to undermine him.
About this time the Grecians in the upper Provinces revolted, and got together a great Army: Against whom he sent Pithon one of the chiefest Commanders. But we conceive it much conducing to the better Understanding of the History of things that were afterwards done, if in the first Place we declare the Cause of the Revolt, and the Situation Page 576 of Asia, and the Nature and Extent of the Provinces: For by this means laying before the Eyes of the Readers a Map of the Countries, and the Distances of Places one from another, the Relation will be more Plain and Easie.
From Taurus therefore in Cilicia, to Caucasus and the Eastern Ocean, a ridge of Mountains stretch forth in a straight and continued Line throughout all Asia: As distinguished by several Peaks and Risings of the Hills from them; Mount Taurus has gain'd particular Names. By this means, Asia being divided into two parts, one rises towards the North, the other descends towards the South; and according to these several Climates the Rivers run contrary ways; some take their Course into the Caspian Sea, others into the Euxine, and some into the Northern Ocean. These Rivers lying thus opposite one to another, part empty themselves into the Indian Sea, and another Part into the Ocean adjoyning to this Continent; some likewise fall into the Red Sea. In this manner likewise are the Provinces divided. For some lye towards the North, and others bend to the South. The first towards the North borders upon the River Tanais, that is to say, Sogdiana with Bactria, and next to them Area and Parthea. This Province surrounds the Hyrcanian Sea, which lies within its Limits and Bounds. The next is Media, call'd by many Names from the Places included in it, and is the greatest of all the Provinces. Then follows Armenia, Lycaonia, and Cappadocia, all of a very sharp and cold Air. Bordering upon these in a direct Line are Phrygia, both the Greater, and that lying to the Hellespont: In an oblique Line lie Lydia and Caria. Pisidia stretches sorth it self in length; and in a Parrallel Line equal with Phrygia on the right Hand; and to the side of Pisidia lies Lycia. The Greek Cities are situated upon the Sea Coasts of these Provinces; whose Names it is not necessary for our purpose here to recite.
Thus situated (as we have related) are the Northern Provinces. As to the Southern, the first is India, under Mount Caucosus, a very large and populous Kingdom; for it's inhabited by many Indian Nations; the greatest of which is that of the Gandarides, against whom Alexander made no attempt by reason of the Multitude of their Elephants. This Territory is divided from the further India, by the greatest River in those parts, being thirty Furlongs broad. The rest of India (conquer'd by Alexander) a rich and fruitful Country, and watered with many Rivers, borders upon this of the Gandarides: Within this Part, besides many other Kingdoms, were the Dominions of Porus and Taxilis. The River Indus (from which the Country takes its Name) runs through it. Separated from the Province of India next to it was Arachosia, Gedrosia, and Carmania, and with these was join'd Persia, wherein are situated the Provinces of Susiana and Sittacina. Next follows the Province of Babylon, extending it self as far as to Arabia the Desart. On the other side, where begins the Descent, you have Mesopotamia lying between two Rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, from whence it had its Name.
The higher Syria, and the Countries upon the Sea Coasts adjoyning to it, as Cilicia, Pamphilia,Syria Cava, within which is Phaenicia, lie close to the Province of Babylon. Upon the Borders of Syria Cava, and the Desart next adjoining to it, (through which runs the River Nile, and so divides between Syria and Aegypt) appears Aegypt it self, the Best and Richest of all the Provinces. All these Countries are scorching hot; for the Southern Climate is contrary in its nature to the Northern. These Provinces (conquer'd by Alexander) which we have thus describ'd, were divided amongst the Chiefest of his Commanders.
But the Grecians that inhabited the Upper Provinces, who (through fear while Alexander was alive) endur'd their being cast forth into the utmost Corner of the Kingdom; now when he was dead, being touch'd with a Desire to return into their own Country, Revolted, and to that end unanimously chose Philo, an Enean born, to be their Captain, and had got together a considerable Army of above Twenty thousand Foot, and Three thousand Horse, all old expert Soldiers, and Brave and Valiant Men.
Intelligence being brought of this Revolt, Perdiccas chose by lot out of the Macedonian Squadrons, Three thousand Foot and Eight hundred Horse. Pitho, one of the Squires of the Body to Alexander, a Man of a high Spirit, and a skiiful Commander, was chose General by the Army, and to him Perdiccas deliver'd the Soldiers chosen, as is before declar'd, and Letters likewise to the Lord-Lieutenants, whereby they were order'd to furnish him with Ten thousand Foot and Eight thousand Horse, against the Rebels. Pitho being a Man of am ambitious Spirit, was very ready to undertake this Expedition: For he purpos'd to gain by all fair means possible these revolting Greeks, and by joining their Forces to his own to set up for himself, and reduce all those upper Provinces under his own Subjection. But Perdiccas smelling out his Design, gave him express Order, That having overcome those Rebels he should put them all to the Sword, and divide the Spoil Page 577 amongst the Soldiers. Pithon therefore march'd away with these Men thus deliver'd, and when he had receiv'd those that were to join him from the Lord Lieutenants, he made towards the Rebels with the whole Army. And having by a certain Enean corrupted Lipodorus, who commanded a Brigade of Three thousand Men among the Rebels, he routed them all. For in the height of the Engagement when the Victory was doubtful, the Traytor withdrew from the rest of his fellow Soldiers, and with his Three thousand Men march'd up to the top of a rising Ground, whereupon the rest (thinking that he had fled) broke all their Ranks, and took to their Heels. Pithon being thus Victor, sent a Trumpet to the Rebels, ordering them to lay down their Arms, and upon Capitulation licensed them to repair every Man to his own home. It was no small joy to Pithon to see things brought to such a pass as suited directly to his designs; for he had now all confirm'd by Oath, and the Grecians intermixt among the Macedonians. But the Macedonians remembring the Orders Perdiccas had given, making nothing of their Oaths, broke Faith with the Grecians. For on a sudden, they fell unexpectedly upon them, and put every Man of them to the Sword, and seiz'd upon all they had: And so Pithon being defeated in his design, return'd with the Macedonians to Perdiccas. And this was the state of Affairs in Asia at that time.
In the mean time, in Europe the Rhodians cast out the Garison of the Macedonians, and freed their City. And the Athenians began a War against Antipater, which was call'd the Lamian War. It's in the first place necessary to declare the Causes of this War, that the Progress of it may be the better understood.
Alexander, a little before his Death, had order'd all the Exiles and Out-law'd Persons of the Greek Cities to be recall'd, as well to advance his own Honour and Esteem, as to gain the Hearts of many in every City by his Clemency, who might stand up for his Interest against the Innovations and Defections of the Grecians. At the approach therefore of the time of Celebrating the Olympiads, he sent away Nicanor, a Native of the City Stagira, with a Letter concerning the Restitution of the Bandities of Greece, and commanded it to be proclaim'd by the Common Cryer, who declar'd him that was Victor, who executed the Command, and read the Letter in these Words,—
WE were not the Cause of your Banishment, but will be of the Return of you all into your own Country, excepting such as are Banish'd for outrageous Crimes: of which things we have written to Antipater, requiring him to proceed by Force, against all such as shall oppose your Restitution.
When these Orders were proclaim'd, the People set up a great Shout, testifying their approbation: For those of them that were present at the Solemnity, readily laid hold on the King's Mercy, and return'd their Thanks with Expressions of their Joy, and applauses of his Grace and Favour: For all the Banish'd Men were then got together at the Olympiads, above the Number of Twenty thousand. Many there were who approv'd of their Restitution as a prudent Act; but the Aeolians and Athenians were much offended at it, for the Aeolians expected that the Oenians who were banish'd out from among them, should have undergone due punishment for their Crimes. For the King had made a great Noise with his Threats, that he would not only punish the Children of the Oenians, but that he himself would execute Justice upon the Authors themselves. Whereupon, the Athenians would not yield by any means to part with Samos, which they had divided by lot. But because they were not at present able to cope with Alexander, they judg'd it more adviseable to sit still, and watch till they found a convenient Opportunity, which Fortune presently offer'd them: For Alexander dying in a short time afterwards, and leaving no Children to succeed him, they grew confident that they should be able not only to regain their Liberty, but likewise the Sovereignty of all Greece.
The vast Treasure left by Harpalus, (of which we have particularly spoken in the preceding Book) and the Soldiers that were disbanded by the Lord-Lieutenants of Asia, were great Supports and Encouragements for the carrying on of this War; for there were Eight thousand of them then about Tenarus in Peloponensus: They sent therefore privately to Leosthenes. the Athenian, wishing him that without taking notice of any Order by them, of his own accord so to dispose of matters, as to have those Soldiers in readiness when occasion serv'd. Antipater likewise so contemn'd Leosthenes, that he was Careless and Negligent in preparing for the War, and so gave time to the Athenians to provide all things necessary for that Affair.
Page 578 Hereupon, Leosthenes very privately Listed these Soldiers, and (beyond all expectation) had ready a brave Army: For having been a long time in the Wars in Asia, and often engag'd in many great Battles, they were become very expert Soldiers. These things were contriv'd when the Death of Alexander was not generally known: But when a Messenger came from Babylon, who was an Eye witness of his Death, the People of Athens declar'd open War, and sent part of the Money left by Harpalus, with a great number of Arms to Leosthenes, charging him no longer to conceal or palliate the Matrer, but to do what was most conducible to the Service of the Common-wealth. Whereupon, having distributed the Money among the Soldiers as he was commanded, and arm'd those that wanted, he went into Aetolia, in order to carry on the War with the joint Assistance of both Nations. The Aetolians join'd very readily, and deliver'd to him for the service Seven thousand Soldiers. Then he stirr'd up his Messengers, the Locrians and Phocians, and other neighbouring Nations, to stand up for their Liberties, and to free Greece from the Macedonian Yoke. But in the mean time, the Wealthy Men among the Athenians dissuaded them from the War, but the Rabble were for carrying it on with all the Vigour imaginable: Whence it came to pass, that they who were for War, and had nothing to live upon but their Pay, were far the greater Number: To which sort of Men Philip was us'd to say, War was as Peace, and Peace as War. Forthwith therefore, the Orators (who were in a Body together, and clos'd with the Humours of the People) wrote down the Decree, That the Athenians should take upon them the Care and Defence of the Common Liberty of Greece, and should free all the Greek Cities from their several Garisons; and that they should rig out a Fleet of Forty Gallies of Three Tire of Oars, and Two hundred of Four Tire of Oars; and that all Athenians under Forty years of Age should take up Arms; That Three of the Tribes should keep Watch and Ward in Athens, and the other Seven should be always ready to march abroad: Moreover, Ambassadors were sent to all the Cities of Greece to inform them, That the People of Athens in the first place look'd upon all Greece to be the common Country of every Grecian, and that they had heretofore repuls'd the Barbarians at Sea, who invaded them with a Design to Inslave Greece, and that now they had determin'd to oppose the Macedonians for the common Good, with their Navies, Lives and Fortunes.
The Wiser sort of the Grecians judg'd the Athenians more forward than prudent in passing this Decree, and what they had design'd seem'd to carry an honourable Aspect, but nothing of Profit and Advantage to the State: For that they made a stir and bustle unseasonably, and began a War against mighty and victorious Armies when there was no necessity for it; and though they had the repute of a prudent People, yet they consider'd not the notorious Ruine and Destruction of Thebes.
However, notwithstanding the Ambassadors came to the Cities, and by their usual florid way of address had heated and egg'd them on to the War, yet many confederated in the League; some in the Names of their several Cities; and others in the Names of whole Countries. As for the rest of the Grecians, some sided with the Macedonians, and others stood Neuter. But all the Aetolians generally (as is before said) enter'd into the Confederacy; and after them all the Thessalians, except them of Pellena. Likewise the Oetaeans, except the Heracleans. The Phthiotians amongst the Acheans, except the Thebans. The Elians, except the Maleans. Then generally all the Doreans, Locrians, and Phocians join'd in the League: Also the Enians, Clyzeans, and Dolopeans. To these join'd likewise the Athamanes, Leucadians, and Molossians, under the Command of Arypteus: But this Man play'd the Impostor in the Confederacy, and afterwards underhand treacherously aided the Macedonians.
A small Part likewise of the Illyrians and Thracians (out of hatred to the Macedonians) came into the League together, with the Carystines out of Euboea; and at length out of Peloponnesus the Argives, Sicyonians, Eleans, Messenians, and those that Inhabited Acta. All these before nam'd, confederated with the Grecians.
The People of Athens also sent Auxiliaries to Leosthenes, out of the Cities Five thousand Foot and Five hundred Horse, and Two thousand Mercenaries; who were oppos'd by the Boetians in their march through Boetia, for the Reasons following.
Alexander, when he raz'd Thebes, granted the Territories of the City to the neighbouring Boetians; who divided the Lands of those miserable People amongst themselves by Lot, and thereby gain'd large Possessions; who understanding that the Athenians (if they prevail'd) design'd to restore the Country and Lands to the Thebans, sided with the Macedonians; and while the Boetians were Encamp'd at Platea, Leosthenes came with part of his Forces into Boetia, and drawing up the Athenians into Battalia, fell upon the Inhabitants, routed them, and set up a Trophy, and then return'd to Pylas. Here (after he Page 579 had block'd up all the Passages) he Encamp'd for some time, expecting the Macedonian Army.
But Antipater, who was left Viceroy of Europe by Alexander, as soon as he heard of his Death at Babylon, and of the Divisions of the Provinces sent to Craterus in Cilicia, to come to him with all the Force he had for his Assistance. For he being sent away some time before into Cilicia, had ready Thirty thousand Macedonians, who were dismiss'd from the Service in Asia, with which he was returning into Macedonia. He likewise solicited Philotas (who had the Province of Phrygia near the Hellespont under his Command) to assist him, and promis'd to him one of his Daughters in Marriage. For as soon as he heard of the Insurrection of the Grecians against him, he left Sippas with a considerable Body of Men, General in Macedonia, with Orders to raise many more; and he himself march'd out of Macedonia into Thessaly with Thirteen thousand Foot and Six hundred Horse: (For at that time there was great scarcity of Soldiers in Macedonia, by reason of the Recruits sent into Asia;) With these Forces sail'd along the whole Fleet near at hand, which Alexander had sent into Macedonia with a vast Treasure out of the King's Treasuries.
The Navy consisted of an Hundred and ten Gallies of three Tire of Oars. The Thessalians indeed at the beginning joining with Antipater, had sent to him many brave Horses; but afterwards, being brought over by the Athenians into the contrary Interest, they turn'd off with their Horse to Leosthenes, and join'd with the Athenians for the recovery of the Liberty of Greece.
The Athenians therefore growing very strong by many flocking thus in to them, the Grecians over power'd the Macedonians and overcame them in a Battel. Antipater being routed, not daring to abide in the Field, nor judging it safe to return into Macedonia, fled to Lamia, where he drew in his Army into the City, repair'd the Walls, furnish'd himself with Arms Offensive and Defensive, and with Corn and Provision, waiting for supplies out of Asia.
Leosthenes with all his Forces coming up close to Lamia, fortify'd his Camp with a deep Trench and Rampire: And first he drew up his Army in the face of the City, to provoke the Macedonians to fight; But they not daring to Engage, he daily assaulted the Walls with fresh Men succeeding one another. But the Macedonians made a stout Defence, and many of the Grecians through their Rashness and Imprudence were cut off: For having a strong Body of Men in the City, and well furnish'd with all sorts of Weapons, and the Walls of the City with great Expence being strong and well built, the Besieg'd easily repuls'd the Enemy.
Leosthenes therefore perceiving he could not gain the Town by force of Arms, block'd it up, to hinder all supplies of Provision, supposing the Besieg'd would be presently subdu'd by Famine, and want of Bread. To this end he rais'd a Wall, and drew a deep Trench round about it, and so penn'd them up. Afterwards, the Aetolians (being call'd away upon the occasion of some Publick concerns) got leave of Leosthenes to return home, and so all of them march'd back into Aetolia.
But while Antipater with his Army was in these desperate Straights, and the City near lost for want of Provision, Fortune on a sudden turn'd the Scale to the Advantage of the Macedonians. For Antipater made a Sally upon them that were busy'd in opening the Trenches; where Leosthenes coming in to their Relief, receiv'd a Blow upon the Head with a Stone, which fell'd him to the Ground, and so was carry'd off half dead into the Camp, and died the Third day after; and was honourably Bury'd upon the account of the Noble Service he had perform'd in the War. The Athenians commanded Hyperides to set forth his Praise in a Funeral Oration, who was esteem'd the Chiefest of the Orators at that time, both for his Eloquence, and particular hatred of the Macedonians: For Demosthenes the most famous Orator was then fled, being condemn'd as if he had receiv'd Bribes from Harpalus. Antiphilus, a Prudent and Valiant Commander, was created General in the room of Leosthenes. And this was the State of Europe at that time.
Ptolemy gains Aegypt. Leagues with Antipater. Lysimachus enters Thrace. Leonatus comes to relieve Antipater, and is routed. The Grecians beaten at Sea. Perdiccas conquers Ariarathes Prince of Cappadocia; Crucifies him; Delivers the Province to Eumenes. The Grecians quite routed by Craterus and Antipater The Athenians at length submit after all the rest but the Aetolians. The End of the Lamian War. The War in Cyrene by Thimbro. Ophellas routs Thimbro. Cyrene gain'd by Ptolemy. Larinda Sack'd. The Destruction of the Isaurians by themselves. Perdiccas affects the Kingdom of Macedon; is oppos'd by Antigonus. The Aetolians block'd up by Craterus and Antipater. Antigonus discovers Perdiccas his Design. Peace made with the Aetolians. Perdiccas marches against Ptolemy into Aegypt.
IN Asia, Ptolemy, one of them that had a share in the Division of the Provinces, without any difficulty possess'd himself of Aegypt, and carry'd himself with great Mildness and winning Behaviour towards the People; and having a Treasure of Eight thousand Talents, rais'd an Army of Mercenaries: And many out of love flock'd to him upon the account of the Goodness of his Disposition.
He enter'd into League with Antipater, when he was assur'd that Perdiccas design'd to dispossess him of Aegypt.
At that time Lysmachus broke into some parts of Thrace, and found Seuthas, the King, Encamp'd with Twenty thousand Foot, and Eight thousand Horse. But Lysimachus (though he had not above Four thousand Foot, and only Two thousand Horse) was not affrighted with the Multitude of the Enemy: And though he was so much inferior in number, yet his Valour was such, that he enter'd into a hot and sharp Engagement, and after the loss of a great number of his Men (but many more of the Enemy's) he return'd to his Camp almost Victorious. Upon which, both Armies drew off the Field, and each made greater Preparations, in order to decide the Controversie by the Sword.
As for Leonatus, he promis'd speedy Aid to Antipater and the Macedonians, being sollicited by Hecateus, who was sent to him for that purpose. Landing therefore in Europe, as soon as he came into Macedonia, he rais'd a great number of Soldiers there, and having got together an Army of above Twenty thousand Foot, and Two thousand and Five hundred Horse, he march'd through Thessaly against the Enemy.
Hereupon, the Grecians drew off from the Siege and burnt their Tents, and sent away all their sick Men and heavy Baggage to Melitea: And with the rest of the Army (ready and prepar'd for Battel) march'd straight away, and met Leonatus his forces before Antipater had join'd him, and their two Armies were come up together. The Grecians in the whole were Two and twenty thousand Foot, (for the Aeolians were return'd home some time before, and many other of the Grecians were gone into their own Country) and as to their Horse (which were above Three thousand Five hundred) they fought together in one Body; amongst whom were Two thousand Thessalians, (Brave and Valiant Men) upon whom they most rely'd for the obtaining of the Victory. The Horse on both sides fought stoutly a long time, where the Thessalians by their extraordinary Valour at length prevailing, Leonatus, (though he fought with great Courage and Resolution) was driven and penn'd up within a Morass, and over-loaden with his Arms (after he had receiv'd many wounds) was there slain, and carry'd off dead by his own Men to the Carriages. The Greeks having now gain'd so famous a Victory (in which Menon the Thessalian commanded the Horse) the Macedonian Phalanx to avoid the Horse, withdrew out of the plain and open Field, and betook themselves to the steep and rocky Hills, and by the strength of the Places there, defended themselves.
However, the Thessalian Horse attempted to break in upon them, but through the Disadvantage of the Places, were not able to do any thing. The Grecians therefore being Masters of the Field, set up a Trophy, and left off all further pursuit. The next day, as soon as Antipater came up with his Troops, he join'd himself to the broken Army, and so all the Macedonians making one Camp, he took upon him the Management of the whole.
Page 581 But perceiving that the Thessalians were too strong for him in Horse, he judg'd it most advisable to be quiet for the present, hot daring to attempt to force his Way by the Sword. And therefore he march'd off over Hills, and other craggy Places, not easie to be pursu'd. Antiphilus the Graecian General (who gain'd this glorious Victory over the Macedonians) continu'd with his Army in Thessaly, observing the Motions of the Enemy: And this was the happy Success at that time of the Graecians.
But because the Macedonians were Masters at Sea, the Athenians built so many Ships more as to make up their Fleet an Hundred and seventy Sail: But the Macedonian Fleet consisted of Two hundred and forty, under the Command of Clitus their Admiral, who engag'd in two Sea Fights at the Echinade Islands with Eeton the Athenian Admiral, and beat him in both, sinking many of his Enemies Ships.
About this time Perdiccas (having with him King Philip and the King's Army) undertook an Expedition against Ariarathes Prince of Cappadocia, who though he submitted not to the Empire of the Macedonians, yet Alexander being busi'd in his Wars with Darius, pass'd him by, so that he enjoy'd the Principality of Cappadocia a long time without any Disturbance; and in the mean time he laid up a vast Sum of Money out of the Publick Revenues, and rais'd an Army both from Foreigners, and from among his own People: And claiming the Kingdom as his own just Right, he prepar'd to try it out with Perdiccas, having an Army of Thirty thousand Foot, and Fifteen thousand Horse: At length it came to a Battel, in which Perdiccas was Victor, who kill'd Four thousand upon the spot, and took Six thousand Prisoners, amongst whom was Ariarathes himself, whom together with all his Kindred he first scourg'd, and then crucifi'd. Then he pardon'd all the rest, and after he had settl'd Affairs in Cappadocia, deliver'd up the Province to Eumenes of Cardia, to be govern'd by him as his Share, according to the Allotment in the first Agreement.
About the same time Craterus arriv'd in Macedonia out of Cilicia in order to assist Antipater, and to repair the Losses of the Macedonians. He brought along with him Six thousand Foot which Alexander had taken over with him at first into Asia, and Four thousand of those that he had listed in the way as he march'd, besides a Thousand Persian Darters and Slingers, and Fifteen hundred Horse. As soon as he came into Thessaly, he join'd his Forces at the River Peneius to Antipater's, yielding the chief Command of the Army to him. The whole Army, together with those that came with Leonnatus, amounted to above Forty thousand Foot, Three thousand Darters and Slingers, and Five thousand Horse. The Graecians at that time encamp'd over-against them, being much inferior in Number to the Enemy: For many, by reason of the late Victory, slighted the Macedonians, and were return'd to their several Countries to look after their own private Affairs. For which cause, there were many left in the Camp that observ'd no due Order or Discipline: They were in the whole Five and twenty thousand Foot, and Three thousand five hundred Horse, in whom they plac'd great Confidence of Victory, by reason of the Valour of the Men, and the plain Champain Country that lay before them. At length Antipater drew out his Forces every day into the Field to provoke the Graecians to fight; who after they had waited some considerable time for the return of their Soldiers out of the Cities through the urgency of their present Circumstances, were forc'd to venture all and ingage the Enemy.
Drawing up therefore into Battalia, and designing to decide the Matter by the Horse, they plac'd them in the Van before the Foot; whereupon the Horse on both Sides presently fell to it: And while they were thus hotly engag'd, (and the Thessalian Horse had the better of the Day,) Antipater broke in with his Battalion upon the Foot, and made a great Slaughter among them; so that the Graecians not being able to stand the Enemy's Shock, (who bore them down with their Multitudes pouring in upon them,) they retreated in all hast (but in good order) to the Fastnesses and difficult Passes near at hand. And so having gain'd the higher Ground by that Advantage they easily repuls'd the Macedonians. In the mean time the Graecian Horse (though they had the better) yet perceiving that their Foot was gone, forthwith made after them. And by this means the Horse (leaving off the Fight) were so broken and dispers'd, that the Macedonians got the Day. There were slain of the Graecians in this Battel above Five hundred, of the Macedonians an Hundred and thirty.
The next day Memnon and Antiphalus call'd a Council of War, where it was debated, whether they should expect Aid from the Cities, and wait to see if soldiers sufficient could be rais'd, and so try it out to the last; or yielding to the Time, and bearing their present Disasters, they should send away Agents to treat upon Terms of Peace. At length they concluded to send Heralds to treat accordingly; who executing their Orders, Page 582Antipater answer'd them, That he expected that every City should treat severally by its own Ambassadors; and that he would not upon any Terms make a General Peace. But the Graecians would not admit of any Treaty with the several Cities apart, therefore Antipater and Craterus besieg'd the Cities of Thessaly, and took them by Storm, the Graecians not being able to relieve them. This so terrifi'd all the rest, that they transacted the Affairs of their several Cities by their own Ambassadors; towards whom he carry'd himself with all Demonstrations of Courtesy and gaining Behaviour, and made Peace with every one of them. Every City therefore being desirous to provide for its own safety, all of them by that means obtain'd Peace. But the Aetolians and Athenians, (the implacable Enemies of the Macedonians,) though they were thus deserted by their Confederates, consulted with their Commanders about carrying on of the War. But Antipater having by this Artifice thus broken the Confederacy, led his whole Army against the Athenians; upon which the People (being forsaken of their Confederates) were greatly terrifi'd, and knew not which way to turn themselves; and all having their Eyes upon Demades, cry'd out, That he should be sent Ambassador to Antipater to treat for Peace in their behalf. But he refus'd to come into the Senate: For he had been thrice condemn'd for violating the Laws, and so become infamous, and disabled by the Law to sit in Council: But being restor'd by the People to his former Credit and Reputation, he forthwith (together with Phocion, and others join'd with him in Commission) undertook the Embassy. When Antipater had heard what they had to say, he told them, That he would make Peace with the Athenians upon no other Terms, but upon giving up all they had into his Hands: For the same Answer the Athenians gave to Antipater when he sent Ambassadors to them at the time he was shut up in Lamia. Hereupon the People being not able to resist, were brought to a necessity to give up all the Power and Government of the City into the dispose of Antipater; who with great Humanity and Generosity granted their City their Estates and all other Things to them back again. But he dissolv'd the Government by a Democracy, and order'd that the Value of every Person's Estate should be the Rule for the chusing of Magistrates; as that those who were worth above Two thousand Drachma's might be capable of being Magistrates, and giving of Votes for chusing of them. As for those that were not of such Estates, he remov'd them as Turbulent and Factious, not suffering them to have any thing to do in any publick Business; and granted new Seats and Estates in Thessaly to any that would remove thither. Upon which, above Two and twenty thousand of that sort of Citizens were transplanted out of their own Country. The Government of the City, and Country belonging to it, was given to the rest who had the Estates before limited and appointed, of whom there were about Nine thousand. And these govern'd the State for the future according to the Laws of Solon. And all their Estates were left to them intire, and untouch'd. But they were forc'd to receive a Garison under Menyllus the Governor to keep them in aw, and prevent new Stirs and Disturbances. As for the Matter of Samos, it was referr'd to the Decision of the Kings. And thus the Athenians (beyond their Expectation) were kindly us'd, and were at Peace. And for the future, (Governing the Commonwealth without Tumults and Seditions, and quietly following their Husbandry,) they grew very rich in a short time.
Antipater being return'd into Macedonia, honourably and bountifully rewarded Craterus according to his Desert, and gave him Phila his eldest Daughter in Marriage, and then Craterus return'd into Asia. Antipater carry'd himself with the same Moderation and winning Behaviour towards all the Cities of Greece, well ordering and reforming their Governments, whereby he wan Praise and Renown in every Place.
As for Perdiccas, he restor'd the City and Territory of Samos to the Samians, and caus'd all those that had been Exiles above Three and forty Years, to return into their Country. Having now gone through the Occurrents in the Lamian War, we shall pass to the War in Cyrene, lest we should straggle too far into Times far distant from the continu'd Course and Connexion of the History. But to make Things more clear and evident, we must have recourse to Matters done a little before.
After Harpalus had left Asia, and at length arriv'd with his Mercenaries in Creet, as in the Book next before this is related; Thimbro, one of his special Friends, (as he thought him to be) having assassinated Harpalus, possess'd himself both of the Monies, and Soldiers, to the Number of Seven thousand Men. He got likewise the Navy into his Hands, and putting the Soldiers aboard, sail'd to the Country of the Cyrenians; where joining with the Cyrenian Exiles, he made use of their Conduct for the prosecuting of his Designs, because they were well acquainted with the Ways, and Passes in the Country. Upon the approach of the Cyrenians, Thimbro fought them, and routed them, killing many upon the spot, and taking many Prisoners. Then he possess'd himself of the Port, Page 583 and forc'd the conquer'd Cyreneans (now in a great Fright) into a Composition, and to buy their Peace at the Price of Five thousand Talents of Silver, and that they should deliver to him one half of all their Chariots ready and fitted for any warlike Expedition. He sent likewise Ambassadors to other Cities, soliciting them to join with him, as if he purpos'd to conquer all the Lower Africa. He seiz'd likewise upon all the Merchants Goods in the Haven, and gave them for Plunder to his Soldiers, the more to encourage them to stick to him in the War.
But in the height of his Prosperity, a sudden Blast of Fortune brought him very low upon the following occasion. Mnasiclus, one of his Captains, a Cretian born, an expert Commander, began to quarrel with him about the Division of the Spoil; and being of a bold and turbulent Spirit, he thereupon Deserted, and went over to the Cyrenians; where making great Complaints of Thimbro's Cruelty and Breach of Faith, he persuaded them to dissolve the League and assert their Liberty. Thereupon they stopt their hands, and would pay no more of the Talents of Silver agreed upon, having only paid Sixty.
Thimbro hereupon accus'd them of Treachery and breach of Faith, and seiz'd upon Eight hundred of the Cyrenians that were in the Port, and laid close Siege to Cyrene; but not being able to prevail he drew off, and return'd to the Port. The Barceans and Hesperitans sided with Thimbro: Whereupon the Cyrenians drew out part of their Forces out of the City, and with them wasted and spoil'd the neighbouring Territories; to whose assistance Thimbro (whose aid was desir'd) march'd out with what Soldiers he had then ready at hand. The Cretian taking advantage of that opportunity when he conceiv'd few were left in the Port, advis'd them that were left in Cyrene to set upon the Port, who readily comply'd with him, and he himself was the Principal Actor in the Attempt, which was easily accomplish'd by reason of Thimbro's absence, so that whatever Merchandize was left in the Port he restor'd to the Merchants, and fortify'd the Haven with all the Care and Diligence imaginable.
This first Disaster greatly discourag'd Thimbro, having both lost so convenient a Post, and likewise his Carriages. But afterwards plucking up his Spirits, and taking of Taricha by Assault, his Hopes reviv'd. However, not long after he again sustain'd a mighty Loss: For the Soldiers belonging to the Fleet by being excluded the Harbour, were in great want of Provision, and therefore every day rov'd up and down the Fields to get what they could for the supply of their Necessities. Thereupon, the Africans lying in Ambush, fell upon them as they were roving all over the Country, and kill'd multitudes of them, and took many Prisoners: The rest escap'd to their Ships, and sail'd away towards the Confederate Cities; but were overtaken with so violent a Storm, that many of their Ships were swallow'd up by the Sea, and of the rest, some were driven to Cyprus, and others to the Coasts of Aegypt. Notwithstanding which distresses, Thimbro went on still with the War: For he sent some of his Friends into Peloponnesus, to list Soldiers of those Strangers that were then still at Tenarus: For there were then many Disbanded, wandring up and down, seeking to be Listed by any that would employ them, to the number of Two thousand and Five hundred and upwards. Those that were sent took these into Pay, and set sail with them straight towards Cyrene: Before whose arrival the Cyrenians hearten'd by their Successes, had fought with Thimbro, and had cut off great numbers of his Men; By reason of which losses Thimbro gave up all for gone, as to the War against Cyrene; but the unexpected arrival of the Soldiers from Tenarus, so strengthen'd his Army that he took fresh Courage, and resum'd his former Hopes of Victory.
The Cyrenians perceiving that the War was renew'd, crav'd supplies from the neighbouring Africans and Carthaginians; and having rais'd an Army compos'd of their own Citizens and others, to the number of Thirty thousand men, they resolv'd to lay all at stake, and try it out in a Battel. A very sharp Battel therefore was fought, in which Thimbro was Victor, with the slaughter of a Multitude of his Enemies; which chear'd up his Spirits to that degree, as if he should be presently be Master of all the neighbouring Cities. The Cyrenians after this Fight, having lost all their Commanders, join'd Mnasiclus the Cretian, with some others, in the chief Command of the Army. But Thimbro lifted up with his Victory, besieg'd the Haven of Cyrene, and assaulted the City every day: The Siege continuing long, the Cyrenians for lack of Bread sell out one with another; and the Rabble (being the greatest in number) thrust sorth the Rich out of the City; some of whom fled to Thimbro, others into Aegypt. Those in Aegypt address'd themselves to Ptolemy for assistance, to help them in their return, and prevail'd so far as that they went back with great Forces both for Sea and Land, under the Command of Ophellas their Governor. When their Return was nois'd abroad, those Exiles who were with Thimbro contriv'd to steal away in the Night, and join'd with those that were arriv'd; but being detected they were all knock'd on the Head.
Page 584 The Ringleaders of the Sedition in Cyrene being terrify'd with the return of the Exiles, made Peace with Thimbro, and resolv'd to join with him against Ophellas. But Ophellas routed Thimbro, and took him Prisoner, and recover'd all the Towns, and deliver'd the Cities with their Territories into the Hands of Ptolemy. And thus the Cyrenians and the neighbouring Cities lost their former Liberty, and became subject to Ptolemy.
Perdiccas and King Philip having overcome Ariarathes, and deliver'd the Province to Eumenes, and so departed out of Cappadocia. When they came into Pisidia, they determin'd to raze those two Cities, one of the Larandians, the other of the Isaurians: For in the life time of Alexander they had killed Balacrus the Son of Nicanor, who was appointed to be their General, and Governor of the Province. Laranda therefore they took upon the first Assault, and put all that were able to bear Arms to the Sword, and sold all the rest for Slaves, and laid the City equal with the Ground. As for the City of the Isaurians, it was large and well fortify'd, and mann'd with resolute and stout Men, and therefore after they had assaulted it two Days together, and had lost a great number of Men, they were forc'd to draw off. For the Inhabitants, being plentifully furnish'd with Weapons, and all other Things necessary for the enduring of a Siege, were resolute to undergo all Hazards, and readily sold their Lives for the Defence of their Liberty. But upon the third Day having lost many of their Citizens, insomuch as they were not able sufficiently to man their Walls for lack of Men, they put in execution a most Heroical Piece of Resolution, worthy for ever to be remembred. For perceiving that they were destin'd to inevitable Destruction, and had not Force sufficient for their Defence, they judg'd it not advisable to deliver up the City, and all that they had, to the Will of the Enemy, insomuch as their certain Ruin with the most barbarous Usage was obvious before their Eyes. Therefore they all unanimously resolv'd to die honourably together; to that end in the Night they shut up their Wives, Children and Parents in their Houses, and set them on fire, making Choice by that means to perish and be bury'd together. When the Flame mounted up into the Air, the Isamians threw all their Wealth, and every thing that was Valuable, or that might be of any advantage to the Enemy, into the Fire. The Besiegers were stricken with Admiration at the Sight, and ran here and there, seeking where to break into the City; but those that remain'd upon the Walls for their Defence, threw many of the Macedonians down headlong from the Battlements. At which Perdiccas much more admir'd, and enquir'd what was the Reason, that having set all their Houses and every thing besides on fire, they were so diligent and careful to defend the Walls. At length when Perdiccas with his Macedonians were drawn off from the City, the rest of the Isaurians cast themselves headlong into the Fire, and so every one's House became a common Sepulchre for himself and all his Relations. Perdiccas the next day gave the Ransacking of the City to the Soldiers, who (when the Fire was extinguish'd) found much Silver and Gold in the Rubbish; the City having been Rich and Prosperous a long time together.
After this Destruction, Perdiccas marry'd two Wives, Nicea the Daughter of Antipater, to whom he was contracted; and Cleopatra, Alexander's half Sister, the Daughter of Philip by Amyntas. Perdiccas indeed had entred into League with Antipater before he was establish'd in his Government, and upon that account the Marriage was consummate: But after he had gain'd the King's Forces, and was possess'd of the Superintendency and Administration of the Affairs of the Kingdom, he chang'd his mind: For affecting the Kingdom, his Design was to marry Cleopatra, concluding that for her sake, and by her Authority, the Sovereign Power would be yielded up to him by the Macedonians. But because he had no mind as yet to discover his Intentions, (to comply with the present Circumstances of Affairs) he marry'd Nicea, lest Antipater should oppose him in his Projects. But Antigonus smelling out what he was contriving, (and being one that had a great kindness for Antipater, and the most active Man of all the Commanders,) Perdiccas resolv'd to dispatch him, and take him out of the way.
Loading him therefore with false Accusations, and unjust Aspersions, his Design appear'd plainly to take away his Life. But Antigonus being a crafty Man, and of a bold Spirit, made as if he would defend himself against those Things that were laid to his Charge: But in the mean time he secretly prepar'd for his flight, and in the Night with his Servants and his Son Demetrius went aboard some Ships that belong'd to Athens, and sail'd into Europe, on purpose to confederate with Antipater. About that time Antipater and Craterus were in the Field against the Aetolians with Thirty thousand Foot, and Two thousand five hundred Horse: For they only remain'd unconquer'd of those that were engag'd in the Lamian War. But the Aetolians, though they were press'd upon by such mighty Forces, yet were not at all discourag'd; but having got together Ten thousand Page 585 brave, sprightly Men, betook themselves to the difficult Passes in the Mountains, where they had before dispos'd and lodg'd much of their Wealth, and all their Wives, Children, and Old People. And though they had quitted the Cities that was not Tenable, yet they plac'd strong Garisons in those that were fortisied; and so undauntedly waited for the approach of the Enemy.
Antipater and Craterus therefore having entered Aetolia, when they saw all the Cities that were weak and untenable forsaken of their Inhabitants, made towards them that were posted in the Fastnesses of the Mountains. At the first Assault they made upon those dreadful and unaccessable Precipices, they lost Multitudes of their Men; for the Valour of the Aetolians being supported and confirm'd by the Strength of the Places, easily repuls'd the Enemy that ran themselves, upon Difficulties that were insuperable. But afterwards, when Craterus his Soldiers in the Winter had secur'd themselves, by Huts and warm Tents, the Aetolians were forc'd to abide (in the depth of Winter) in Places cover'd over with Snow, where they remain'd in great lack of Provision; so that they were reduc'd to a most desperate Condition: For they were brought to that strait, that they must of necessity either leave the Mountains, and fight with an Army far superiour in number to themselves, and with Commanders who were every-where famous for their Conduct, or if they staid longer, certainly to perish with Hunger and Cold.
And now all hopes of Deliverance being despair'd of, suddenly and unexpectedly appear'd a Release at hand from all their Miseries, as if some God in a special manner had had Compassion of such Brave and Noble Souls: For Antigonus, who fled out of Asia, and was now come into the Camp, inform'd them what Perdiccas was inhatching and contriving; and that having marry'd Cleopatra, he was ready as King to come over with his Army into Macedonia, to wrest the Kingdom out of their hands. At which strange and unexpected News, Antipater and Craterus, and all those with them were so affrighted, that they call'd a Council of War, where, upon Consultation, it was resolv'd, that Matters should be ended and compounded with the Aetolians as well as they could; and that Forces should be forthwith transported into Asia; and that Craterus should be General in Asia, and Antipater have the Chief Command in Europe; that Ambassadors should likewise be dispatch'd to Ptolemy (who was Perdiccas's Enemy, and their Friend, and design'd to be cut off as well as they) to move him to join with them as a Confederate. Hereupon they forthwith struck up a Peace with the Aetolians, intending notwithstanding in due time afterwards, to root them up and all their Families, and to send them into some remote and desart Corner of the World far from Asia. The Pacification according to the Terms before agreed upon, being put into writing, and sign'd, they prepar'd themselves for the Expedition.
Perdiccas, on the other side, calling together his Friends and General Officers, consulted with them whether he should transport his Army into Macedonia, or march first against Ptolemy. All agreeing that Ptolemy was first to be conquer'd, lest he should obstruct his Expedition into Macedonia, he sent away Eumenes before with a considerable Army, to secure the Passes at the Hellespont, to prevent all passage that way: And he himself march'd out of Pisiclia with all his Forces towards Egypt. And these were the things done this Year.
The Description of Alexander's Funeral Chariot. Ptolemy honour'd in Egypt. Perdiccas prepares for Egypt against Ptolemy. Eumenes beats Neoptolemus, who deserted. The Battel between Eumenes and Craterus, who was kill'd with Neoptolemus. Combate between Neoptolemus and Eumenes. Perdiccas comes into Egypt: Assaults the Fort call'd the Camel's Wall; His miserable Loss in the River Nile; is kill'd. Ptolemy makes Arrideus and Pytho Protectors of the Kings. Eumenes condemn'd to die. The Etolians invade Thessaly. Polyspherchon routs the Etolians. The Provinces again divided by Arrideus. Antigonus routs Eumenes, who flies to Nora. Antigonus besieges Nora. Eumenes his Invention to exercise the Horse. Ptolemy gains Syria and Phoenicia by Nicanor.
WHen Philocles was Chief Magistrate at Athens, and Caius Sulpitius and Quintus Aulius were created Roman Consuls, Arrideus (to whom was committed the Care of conveying away Alexander's Body to his Sepulchre, having now the Chariot ready upon which he was to be carry'd) prepar'd himself for the Journey. But forasmuch as the whole Business and Concern was manag'd as became the Majesty of Alexander, and upon that account did not only exceed all others in respect of Expence, State, and Pomp, (for the Charges amounted to many Talents) but also in respect of Curiosity of Workmanship, we conceive it fit to recommend something to Posterity in writing concerning it. And first was provided a Coffin of beaten Gold, so wrought by the Hammer as to answer to the Proportion of the Body; it was half fill'd with Aromatick Spices, which serv'd as well to delight the Sense as to preserve the Body from Putrefaction. Over the Coffin was a Cover of Gold, so exactly fitted, as to answer the higher part every way: Over this was thrown a curious Purple Coat embroider'd with Gold, near to which were plac'd the Arms of the Deceas'd, that the whole might represent the Acts of his Life. Then was provided the Chariot, in which the Body was to be convey'd, upon the top of which was rais'd a Triumphant Arch of Gold, set thick and studded over with precious Stones eight Cubits in breadth, and twelve in length: Under this Roof was plac'd a Throne of Gold, join'd to the whole Work, foursquare, on which were carv'd the Heads of Goat-Harts, and to these were fastned Golden Rings of two Hands breadth in the diameter; at which hung, for Show and Pomp, little Coronets of various beautiful Colours, which, like so many Flowers, gave a pleasant Prospect to the Eye. Upon the top of the Arch was a Fringe of Network, where hung large Bells, to the end the Sound of them might be heard at a great distance. On both sides the Arch at the Corners stood an Image of Victory in Gold, bearing a Trophy: A Peristthylium of Gold supported the Archwork, the Chapiters of whose Pillars were of Ionian Workmanship: Within the Peristthylium, by a Network of Gold of a finger's thickness in the Workmanship, hung four Tables one by another equal to the Dimensions of the Wall, whereupon were portray'd all sorts of living Creatures: The first Table represented a Chariot curiously wrought, wherein Alexander sate with a Royal Scepter in his Hand: About the King stood his Life-Guard compleat in their Arms; the Macedonians on one side, and the Persians that bore Battle-Axes on the other; and before them stood the Armor-Bearers: In the second, Elephants adorn'd in their Warlike Habiliaments follow'd them of the Guard, on which sate Indians before, and Macedonians behind, arm'd according to the Customs of their several Countries. In the third might be seen Squadrons of Horse drawn up in Battalia: In the fourth appeared a Fleet order'd in a Line of Battel. At the entrance into the Arch stood Lions in Gold, with their Faces towards them that approach'd to enter. From the middle of every Pillar an Achanthus in Gold, sprouted up in Branches spiring in slender Threads to the very Chapiters: Over the Arch about the middle of the Roof on the outside was spread Purple Carpet in the open Air, on which was plac'd a vast Golden Crown, in form of an Olive Coronet, which by the reflection of the Sun-Beams darted such an amazing Splendor and Brightness, that at a distance it appear'd as a Flash of Lightning. Under the Seats or Bottom of the whole Work ran two Axle-trees, about which mov'd four Persian Wheels, whose Spokes and Nathes were over-laid with Gold, but the Felloes were shod with Iron: The Ends and Out-parts of the Axes were of Gold, representing the Heads of Lions, every one holding a Dart in in his Mouth. In the very Centre of Page 587 the Arch, about the midway in the length, was artificially fix'd a Pole, by the help whereof the Arch might (in rough places, and where it was apt to be shaken) be preserv'd from being over-turn'd. There were four Draught-Trees, to every of which were fix'd four Courses of Yoaks, and to every Course were bound four Mules, so that the Mules were sixty four in number, the choicest for Strength and Largeness that could be got: Every Mule was adorn'd with a Crown of Gold, and Bells of Gold on either side their Heads; and on their Necks were fitted Rich Collars set and beautified with precious Stones.
And in this manner was the Charriot set forth, the Sight of which was more stately and pompous than the Report; so that the Fame of it brought together Multitudes of Spectators: For the People out of every City where-ever it was coming met it, and ran back again before it, never satisfy'd with the Delight they took in viewing and gazing. And suitable to so stately a Show, a vast Company of Workmen and Pioneers (that plain'd the Ways for its passage) attended it.
And thus Arrideus (who had spent two Years in Preparations) brought the King's Body from Babylon to Aegypt. Ptolemy, in Honour of the King met the Corps with his Army as far as Syria, where he receiv'd it, and accompanyd it with great Care and Observance: For he had resolv'd not as yet to conduct it to the Temple of Hammon, but to keep the Body in the City which Alexander himself had built, the most Famous almost of any City in the World. To this end he built a Temple in Honour of Alexander, in Greatness and Stateliness of Structure becoming the Glory and Majesty of that King; and in this Repository he laid the Body, and honour'd the Exequies of the Dead with Sacrifices and magnificent Shows, agreeable to the State of a Demi God. Upon which account he was deservedly Honour'd, not only by Men, but by the Gods Themselves: For by his Bounty and Generosity he so gain'd upon Men, as they flock'd from all Parts to Alexandria, and chearfully listed themselves into his Service, notwithstanding the King's Army was then preparing War against him: And though he was then in imminent Danger, yet all readily ventur'd their Lives to preserve him. And the Gods Themselves, for his Virtue, and kind and obliging Temper towards all, rescu'd him out of all his Hazards and Difficulties that seem'd insuperable: For Perdiccas, who before suspected the increase of his Power, had resolv'd (bringing the Kings along with him) of an Exepedition into Egypt with the Strength of his Army: To that end he had deliver'd to Eumenes a considerable Body of Men, with sufficient number of brave Officers, with Command to march to the Hellespont, to stop the Passage of Antipater and Craterus over into Asia. Amongst the Commanders the most Illustrious were Alcetas his Brother, and Neoptolemus: But these he order'd in all things to be observant to Eumenes, because he was both a skilful and prudent General, and a constant and faithful Friend. Eumenes therefore, with the Forces deliver'd him, came to the Hellespont, and compleated his Army with Horse (rais'd out of his own Province lately gain'd) in which his Troops were before only deficient.
But after that Antipater and Craterus had transported their Army out of Europe, Neoptolemus, out of Envy to Eumenes (having a considerable Army of Macedonians under his Command) secretly sent Messengers to Antipater, and colleaguing with him, contriv'd how to intrap Eumenes; but his Treachery being discover'd, he was forc'd to fight, and in the Battel lost almost all his Men, and was very near being cut off himself. Eumenes being thus Conqueror (after this great Slaughter) join'd the rest of those that were left, to his own Army; and so did not only by this Victory increase his Forces, but strengthen'd himself with a great number of Macedonians that were excellent Soldiers. Neoptolemus fled off the Field with three hundred Horse, and went over to Antipater. Whereupon a Consultation was had between them, in reference to the Concerns of the War; in which it was determin'd to divide the Army into two Bodies; one to march under Antipater into Cilicia to fight with Perdiccas, and the other with Craterus to fall upon Eumenes; and when he was routed, then Craterus to return to Antipater; that so the whole Army being join'd together in one Body, and having Ptolemy their Confederate, they might be better able to deal with the King's Army.
Eumenes having Intelligence of the Enemy's march, gather'd Forces together from all Parts, especially Horse; for because he had not Foot able to cope with the Macedonian Phalanx, he rais'd a great Body of Horse, by whose assistance he hop'd to be in a Condition to overcome the Enemy.
And now at length the Armies drew near one to another; whereupon Craterus drew up his Men together, in order, by a set Speech to encourage them to fight; in which Harangue he promis'd, That if they were Conquerors, they should have all the Pillage of Page 588 the Field, and all the Bag and Baggage as a Prey to their own use: All being thus encourag'd, he drew up his Army in Battalia; the Right Wing he commanded himself, the Left he gave to Neoptolemus: His Army in the whole consisted of Twenty thousand Foot, most of them Macedonians, Men famous for their Valour, in whom he plac'd the Confidence of his Victory; with these, there march'd along with him above Two thousand Horse. Eumenes likewise had Twenty thousand Foot of divers Nations, and Five thousand Horse, on whole Valour chiefly he had resolv'd to venture, and lay all the Stake in this Battel.
The Horse on both sides moving forward in two Wings a great distance before the Foot, Craterus with a Body of choice Men made a brave Charge upon the Enemy, but his Horse stumbling, he was thrown out of the Saddle to the Ground, and not being known, was by the confus'd throng of Horse trampl'd under Foot, and so unfortunately lost his Life; upon whose Fall the Enemy was so encourag'd, that dispersing themselves up and down, they made a terrible Slaughter. The Right Wing being thus distress'd, and at length totally routed, was forc'd to retreat to the Foot. But in the left Wing commanded by Neoptolemus, oppos'd to Eumenes, there was a very sharp Engagement, the two Generals singling out one another: For being known to each other by their Horses, and other special Marks, they fought hand to hand, and by combating thus singly, they put a Remark upon the Victory; for after they had try'd it out by their Swords, they presently began an admirable and new sort of Encounter, Anger and Revenge mutually stirring up each other: For letting their Bridles fall upon their Horses Necks, they catch'd hold with their left hands one upon another, and so grappling together, their Horses (violently pressing forward) ran from under them, leaving them both tumbling on the Ground together. And though it was a difficult matter for either of them, after so violent a Fall, to rise again, and besides being press'd down by the weight of their Arms, yet Eumenes (rising first) wounded Neoptolemus in the Ham (with so great a Gash and Cut), that he lay Hamstrung groveling upon the Ground, and by reason of the grievousness of the Wound, was not able to raise himself upon his Feet: But the Stoutness and Courage of his Mind overcoming the Weakness of his Body, he got upon his Knees, and gave his Adversary three Wounds upon his Arm and Thigh; but none of them being mortal, (while they were yet warm) Eumenes gave Neoptolemus a second Blow upon his Neck, and kill'd him outright.
In the mean time great Slaughter was made among the rest of the Horse on both sides; so that while some were kill'd and others wounded, the Fortune of the Day at the first was very uncertain: But as soon as it was nois'd abroad that Neoptolemus was slain, and both Wings broken, the whole Body fled, and made away to the Phalanx as to a strong Wall of Defence. But Eumenes (content with keeping of his Ground, and the Possession of the Bodies of both the Generals) sounded a Retreat to his Soldiers. Then he set up a Trophy, and after he had bury'd the Slain, he sent to the Phalanx, and to them that were thus routed, to let them know, That whoever would, should have liberty to take up Arms with him, or to go their way wherever they pleas'd. The Macedonians accepted of these Terms of Peace, and upon Oath of Fidelity given, they had liberty to march away to the next Towns to supply themselves with Provision. But they dealt treacherously with Eumenes; for recollecting their Forces, and furnishing themselves with Provision, in the Night they stole away and went to Antipater. Eumenes indeed did all he could to revenge this Breach of their Oaths, and to that end forthwith endeavour'd to pursue the Phalanx; but by reason of the Strength of the Enemy, and his own Indisposition, (through the Wounds he had receiv'd,) he was not able to do any thing effectually, and therefore he judg'd it better to forbear from further Pursuit. Having therefore gain'd so glorious a Victory, and cut off two eminent Commanders, his Name grew very famous. Antipater having receiv'd those that had escap'd, after they were refresh'd hasted away to Cilicia, and to aid Ptolemy. But Perdiccas hearing of the Victory gain'd by Eumenes, prosecuted his Expedition into Aegypt with much more Assurance. When he came near to the River Nile, he encamp'd not far off Pelusium; and while he was cleansing an old Sluce, Nile so overflow'd, that it defeated all his Design, and spoil'd his Works, and many of his Friends deserted the Camp, and went over to Ptolomy. For he inclin'd to Cruelty, and having remov'd the rest of the Captains from the Sovereign Command, he made it his only Business to be sole Monarch, and absolute Tyrant.
Ptolemy on the contrary was courteous and mild, and gave free Liberty to the rest of the Captains to advise him in all his Enterprizes. Besides, he had put strong Garisons into all the convenient Places of Aegypt, and had furnish'd them with all sorts of Weapons, and other Things that were necessary. By which means he succeeded in every Page 589 thing for the most part that he undertook, while many that lov'd the Man chearfully expos'd themselves to undergo all Hazards for his sake. But Perdiccas, to repair his Losses, call'd together the Commanders, and having regain'd some by Gifts, and others by large Promises, and all by smooth Words, he hearten'd himself so as to bear up against the Hazards and Difficulties that were coming apace upon him. And when he had order'd them all to be ready for a March, about Evening he mov'd from thence with his whole Army. Not acquainting any whither he would lead them, he march'd all Night with a swift March, and at length encamp'd upon the Banks of the Nile, not far from a Castle call'd the Camel's Wall.
When it was Day he pass'd his Army over, the Elephants leading the Way, and next to them the Targateers, with those that carry'd the Sealing Ladders, and other things he had occasion to use in a Siege: His best Horse at length brought up the Rear, with whom he intended to attack the Ptolemeans, if it happen'd that they appear'd. In the middle of their March Ptolemy's Horse shew'd themselves, making forward in a swift Career for the Defence of the Town; who though they hasted away to enter the Fort, and by sounding of Trumpets and shouts of Men gave sufficient notice to all of their Approach, yet Perdiccas was not at all amus'd, but boldly led up his Army close to the Fort; and forthwith the Targateers with their Ladders mounted the Wall; and those that rid the Elephants threw down the Fortifications, and demolish'd the Bulwarks. Whereupon Ptolemy, with those of his own Guard about him, to encourage the rest of his Officers and Friends manfully to behave themselves, catch'd hold of a Sarissa and mounted the Bulwark, and so being on the higher Ground, struck out the Eyes of the foremost Elephant, and wounded the Indian that sate upon him. And as for those that seal'd the Walls. he hurl'd them down shamefully cut and wounded (together with their Arms) into the River. After his Example Ptolemy's Friends valiantly bestirr'd themselves, and by killing the Indian that govern'd the next Elephant, the Beast became unserviceable. The Assault continuing long, Perdiccas his Soldiers assaulted the Wall by turns, striving with all the Vigour imaginable to gain the Fort by Storm. On the other hand Ptolemy calling to his Friends now to approve their Faithfulness and Loyalty to him by their Courage, fought like a Hero, and gave an Example of Valour to all the rest. In this sharp Dispute, many fell on both Sides. The Ptolemeans had the advantage in the Height of the Place, and the Perdicceans in Greatness of their Number, which far exceeded the other. At length the whole Day being spent in the Assault, Perdiccas rais'd his Siege, and march'd back to his Camp, and in the Night decamp'd, and with a quiet and silent March came into a part of the Country over-against Memphis, where Nile (dividing it self into two Parts) made an Island sufficient to receive and encamp the greatest Army. Into this Place therefore he pass'd over part of his Army, though the Passage was very difficult through the depth of the River; for the Water reaching up to the Chin, the Soldiers could not stand upon their Legs, and were likewise cumber'd with their Arms. Perdicca, therefore discerning the Unruliness of the River, plac'd the Elephants on the Left, to break the force of the Stream. The Horse went on the Right, by whose Help he took up them that were hurry'd down by the Current, and set them safe on the Shoar on the other side. But there happen'd in this Passage that which was strange and unusual: For when the first were gotten over, those that follow'd were in very great Hazard. For the River rose on a sudden, without any apparent Cause, and swept away whole Sholes of Bodies at a time, which put all into a Consternation. The Cause of this Inundation could not be found out, though it was enquir'd into. Some imputed it to a Dyke or Sluce in the higher Grounds, whose Banks might be broken down, and so all its Water ran into Nile, by which means the Ford was so much the higher. Others conceiv'd it was great Rains that fell in the Lands above that increas'd the Waters of the River. But it was neither of these. But the true Cause why the Passage at first was without danger, was because the Sand then was firm and unmov'd; but afterwards when by the treading of the Horses and Elephants, and the Passage of the Army, the Sand was stirr'd and carry'd away by the Force of the River, the Ford by this means was, as it were, dug into, and made into Holes, and so the Passage was deeper in the middle of the River. Perdiccas therefore not being able to pass the rest of his Army over, fell into a great strait, being those that were got to the other side were very unequal to the force of the Enemy, and those on this side the River were not able to succour them. Hereupon he commanded all those that were landed in the Island, to return. The Army thus forc'd to repass the River, those that could swim, and were strong-bodied Men, with great difficulty recover'd the other side of the Nile; but most of them lost their Arms. The rest who were not so skilful, some of them were drown'd, and others were carry'd down the Stream, and Page 590 fell into the Hands of the Enemy. Very many for a long time toss'd and tumbled hither and thither, were at length devour'd by Crocodiles. Above Two thousand having perish'd in this manner, (among whom were some eminent Commanders,) the Hearts of the Soldiers were much turn'd against Perdiccas. But Ptolemy caus'd all those Bodies to be burnt that were brought dead down the River to him, and having perform'd all Funeral Obsequies and Observances due to the Dead, he sent their Ashes and Bones to their Kindred and Friends.
This far more inrag'd the Spirits of the Macedonians against Perdiccas, and knit their Hearts in affection to Ptolemy. When the Night came on, the Camp was full of Cries and Lamentations, that so many Men should miserably perish without a Stroke stricken, amongst whom there were no fewer than a Thousand, who were swallow'd by the monstrous Crocodiles.
Hereupon many of the Commanders rail'd against Perdiccas; and the whole Phalanx of Foot being totally disaffected, discover'd their Hatred by their Murmurings and Threats: And a Hundred of the chief Commanders deserted him; of whom, the chiefest of them was Pithon, who had conquer'd the Rebellious Greeks, not inferiour in Valour and Reputation to any of Alexander's Commanders. Afterwards some of the Horse enter'd into a Conspiracy, and made to his Tent, and in a Body fell upon him, and kill'd him.
The next day, when the Soldiers were in a Consult, Ptolemy came to them, and saluted the Macedonians, and made an Apology for what he had done. And seeing that they wanted Provision, he furnish'd the Army with abundance of Bread, and supply'd the Camp with all other Things that were necessary. But though he was upon this account in great Grace and Favour with the Soldiers, and so able easily to gain the Protectorship of the Kings, yet he demanded it not, but bestowed the chief Command upon Python and Arrhideus, to whom in Gratitude he was much oblig'd. For when the Macedonians appointed a Consult concerning that honourable Trust and high Command, by the Advice of Ptolemy they all unanimously created Python and Arrhideus (who convey'd the the King's Body) to be Protectors of the Kings, investing them with Sovereign Authority. And in this manner Perdiccas, after he had enjoy'd the Sovereign Command for the space of Three Years, lost both it and his Life together. After his Death, News was brought, that Eumenes had won the Day in Cappadocia, and that Craeterus and Neoptolemus were both slain. Which News, if it had arriv'd the Day before Perdiccas his Death, that prosperous Success would have been a Protection to his Person, so as none durst have lifted up their Hands against him.
But the Macedonians now hearing how Eumenes had succeeded, condemn'd him and all his Adherents (to the number of Fifty Noble Lords, amongst whom was Alcetas the Brother of Perdiccas,) to die. And at that very time they put to Death those that were Perdiccas his chiefest Friends, then in their Hands, with his Sister Atalanta, the Wife of Attalus the Admiral of the Fleet. For at and after the Death of Perdiccas, Attalus the Admiral lay with the Fleet before Pelusium; and when News was brought him of the Death of Perdiccas and his Wife, he loos'd from thence, and arriv'd at Tyre; where Archelaus, a Macedonian Governor of the City, kindly receiv'd him, and deliver'd up to him the City, and faithfully restor'd to him the Money intrusted in his Hands by Perdiccas, to the Value of Eight hundred Talents. And thus Attalus abiding at Tyre, receiv'd all Perdiccas's Friends that fled to him from the Camp at Memphis.
After Antipater was gone over into Asia, the Aetolians, in pursuance of their League made with Perdiccas, mach'd into Thessaly with a Design to divide Antipater's Army. They had Twelve thousand Foot, and Four thousand Horse, commanded as General by Alexander an Aetolian.
In their March they besieg'd the Locrians in Amphissa, and harrass'd their Country, and took some of the neighbouring Towns and Villages. They routed likewise Polycles, Antipater's General, and kill'd him, with a great number of his Men. Of the Prisoners they took, some were sold for Slaves, and others were ransom'd. Afterwards they broke into Thessaly, and brought over many there to join with them in the War against Antipater, insomuch as they made up in the whole a Body of Five and twenty thousand Foot, and Fifteen hundred Horse; while they were taking in the Cities, the Acarnanians bearing a Grudge to the Aetolians, invaded Aetolia, wasted and spoil'd the Country, and besieg'd the Cities. When the Aetolians heard what Danger their Country was in, they left the rest of their Forces in Thessaly under the Command of Menon of Pharsalis, and they themselves speedily march'd back with their own Soldiers into Aetolia, and struck such a Terror into the Acarnanians, that they presen• reliev'd their Country. While Page 591 they were thus employ'd, Polyspherchon, who was left General in Macedonia, came into Thessaly with a brave Army, and fought and routed the Enemy, killing Menon the General, and cutting off most of his Army, and so recover'd Thessaly.
As for the Affairs of Asia, Arrhideus and Pytho, Protectors of the Kings, leaving the River Nile, came with the Kings, and the whole Army to Triparadisus in Higher Syria. There Euridice the Queen taking upon her to intermeddle and pry too curiously into Matters that concern'd her not, and to controul the Protectors; Pytho and his Friends hereby became much disgusted, and perceiving that the Macedonians were more observant to her Commands than to theirs, they call'd a Council, and gave up the Protectorship Whereupon the Macedonians chose Antipater Protector, with absolute Authority. A few days after Antipater going to Triparadisus, found Eurydice stiring up the Macedonians to a Sedition against him; whereupon there arose no small Mutiny in the Army. Antipater hereupon call'd a General Council, and so argu'd and canvass'd the Business with them, that he allay'd the Spirit of the People, and brought Eurydice (through fear of him) into a better Temper.
After these Things were over, Antipater made a second Division of the Provinces, and allotted to Ptolemy that whereof he was then in Possession. For it was not Practicable to remove him, because it appear'd Ptolemy had gain'd Aegypt as a Conqueror. Syria he gave to Laomedon of Mitylene; and Cilicia to Philoxenus. Of the other Provinces, he assign'd Mesopotamia and Arbelitis to Amphimachus; the Province of Babylon to Seleucus, and Susiana to Antigonus, because he was the first that set the Wheel a going in order to overthrow Perdiccas. To Peucestas he granted Persia; to Tlepolemus, Carmania; to Pithon, Media; and to Philip, Parthia. Aria and Drangana he allotted to Stasandrus the Cyprian; Bactriana and Sogdiana to Stasanorus of Solium, born in the same Island; Parapamisada, to Oxyartas the Father of Rhoxana, whom Alexander marry'd; and India, bordering upon Parapamisada, to Pithon the Son of Agenor. Of the Kingdoms next adjoyning, that which border'd upon the River Indus, continu'd under the Power of Porus; that which lay to Hydaspes, remain'd with Taxilis. For these Kings were not to be Dispossess'd, but with the Royal Army, and a skilful and expert General. As to the Northern Provinces, he gave the Government of Cappadocia to Nicanor, and the Greater Phrygia and Cilicia to Antigonus, to hold them as he did before. Lastly, to Cassander he assign'd Caria; to Clitus,Lycia; and to Arrhideus, Phrygia at the Hellespont. Antigonus he appointed General of the Royal Army, and commanded him to pursue and destroy Eumenes. To Antigonus he also join'd Cassander and Clearchus, that if he secretly projected any thing, he might be discover'd. He himself march'd with the Kings and his Troops towards Macedonia, that he might conduct the Kings back into their own Country.
Antigonus therefore being declar'd absolute Commander of Asia, drew out the Forces out of their Winter-Quarters to fight with Eumenes, and to that end furnishing himself with all necessary Preparations for the War, he march'd towards Eumenes, who then lay in Cappadocia; where one call'd Perdiccas, one of his chief Commanders, had deserted him, and lay encamp'd with Three thousand Foot and Five hundred Horse (that follow'd him) about three days March distant. But Eumenes sent out Phenices of Tenedos with Four thousand good Foot and a Thousand Horse against him; who, with a swift March, fell upon the Rebels on a sudden in the Night when they were asleep, and took Perdiccas and all his Army Prisoners, about the second Watch of the Night. Eumenes put to Death the chief Ringleaders of the Defection, and spar'd the rest of the Soldiers, and mix'd them amongst his own, and by this means gain'd all their Affections. After this, Antigonus, by a Correspondence with one Apollonides, General of the Horse on Eumenes his side, by large Promises so effected the Business, that he prevail'd with him to betray Eumenes, and come over to him in the heat of the Fight. Eumenes was then encamp'd in Cappadocia, in Places very convenient for Engagement with Horse. Antigonus therefore made thither with his whole Army, and possess'd himself of the higher Ground under the Foot of the Mountains: He had at that time above Ten thousand Foot, (of whom most were Macedonians, brave and valiant Men,) and Two thousand Horse, and Thirty Elephants. Eumenes had no less than Twenty thousand Foot, and Five thousand Horse. Presently a sharp and bloody Battel was fought, in which Antigonus (through the sudden and unexpected Desertion of Apollonides with his Horse, and going over to the other side,) got the Day, killing Eight thousand Men of the Enemy upon the place, and possessing himself of all their Bag and Baggage, so that the Eumeneans (through the Slaughter that was made) were in a Consternation, and by the loss of all their Carriages, were brought to an utter Desperation. Hereupon Eumenes design'd to fly into Armenia, to perswade some of the Inhabitants to join with him in Arms; but being prevented by a swift Pursuit, and Page 592 perceiving his Men to run away from him to Antigonus, he possess'd himself of a strong Fort call'd Nora. It was indeed very small, not above Two Furlongs in compass, but in Strength impregnable. For the Houses were built upon a very high Rock, and it was wonderfully fortisy'd both by Nature and Art. Besides, there was there laid up great store of Corn, Fuel, and other Things of that kind, so that all that fled for shelter thither, might be abundantly supply'd with all Things necessary for many Years together. Those that were his fast Friends, accompany'd him in his Flight, and resolv'd at the last and utmost Extremity to die with him. They were in Number, both Horse and Foot, about Six hundred.
Antigonus being now strengthen'd with the Forces of Eumenes, and the Revenues of his Provinces, and having gotten together a great Mass of Treasure, began to aspire to Matters of higher Concern; for none of the Asian Commanders were as yet so Potent, as to dare to contend with him for the Sovereign Command. For the present, indeed he bore a fair outside towards Antipater, but secretly had resolv'd, that when he had firmly settl'd his Affairs, he would neither regard him nor the Kings. And in the first place, he block'd up them in the Fort with a double Wall, and with deep Trenches and Works of Earth of a wonderful height. Then he enter'd into Parley with Eumenes, willing him to renew their ancient Friendship, and endeavour'd to perswade him to join with him as an Associate in all his Affairs. But Eumenes foreseeing a change of Fortune at hand, insisted upon Terms, and that degree of Favour that seem'd very unequal and unfit to be granted to one in his present Circumstances: For he requir'd, as of Right, to be restor'd to all his Provinces, and to be fully acquitted and discharged of all pretended Offences whatsoever. Antigonus promis'd to acquaint Antipater with his Demands, and leaving sufficient Strength for continuing the Siege, he march'd against the Generals, (that were moving towards him with all their Forces,) viz. Alcetas the Brother of Perdiccas, and Attalus the Admiral of the Fleet. Some time after, Eumenes sent Ambassadors to Antipater to treat upon Terms of Peace, (amongst whom was Hieronymus a Colonel, who wrote the History of the Successors.) In the mean time he himself having experienc'd many Changes and Turns of Fortune, was not at all discourag'd, knowing very well what quick and sudden Alterations had happen'd on both Sides. For he saw that the Macedonian Kings were but only vain and insignificant Shadows of Princes, and those many valiant Commanders that were with them, so manag'd their Commands one after another, as to seek only the Advancement of their own private Interests. Therefore he hop'd, (as the Truth fell out afterwards to be,) that many would desire his Help and Assistance, both upon the account of his Skill im Martial Affairs, as of his Constancy and Faithfulness.
But when he saw that the Horse could not be Exercis'd in a Place so strait and craggy, and so were unserviceable for Horse-Engagements, he ingeniously found out a new and unusual way for the Exercise of them: For he ty'd up their Heads by Chains to a Post or strong Stake, and drew them up so high, as that they should stand upon their hinder Feet, and but just touch the Ground with the Ends of their fore Feet. Whereupon the Horse presently striving to get his fore Feet to the Ground, did so curvet and caper, that Legs, Thighs, and every Member was in action, and by this Motion the Horse was all on a Foam; and thus they were all Exercis'd to the highest degree. He himself fed of the meanest Food with the rest of the Soldiers, and by this eating with them in common, not only gain'd to himself the Love of all his Fellow-Soldiers, but caus'd them to be at perfect Peace and Concord one with another. In the mean time Ptolemy in Aegypt (Perdiccas with all the King's Army being broken in pieces) enjoy'd that Country as a Conqueror: And casting his Eye upon Phoenicia and Celo-Syria, (as lying very commodiously to Aegypt,) he us'd his utmost Endeavour to possess himself of the Cities of those Countries. To that end he created Nicanor, one of his Friends, General, and sent him into those Parts with a considerable Army, who coming into Syria, took Laomedon, the Governor of that Province, Prisoner, and brought all Syria under his own Power. He gain'd also all the Cities of Phoenicia, and put Garisons into them, and having in a short time finish'd a troublesom Expedition, return'd into Aegypt.
Antigonus routs Alcetas in Pisidia, and takes Attalus. Alcetas receiv'd into Termessus, and there protected. He's murder'd there treacherously, his Body inhumanly us'd by Antigonus. Antipater's Death. Antipater put Demeas, one of the Athenian Ambassadors, to Death. Polysperchon made Chief in Macedonia. Cassander conspires to out him. Antigonus his Plots to be Sovereign of all. Arrideus secures himself in Phrygia, besieges Cyzicum. Antigonus goes to raise it. Eumenes got out of Nora by Antigonus his Order. Antigonus his further Acts. The various Fortunes of Eumenes. A Council in Macedonia call'd by Polysperchon against Cassander. The Decree of the Council. Polysperchon invites Olpmpias out of Epyrus into Macedonia. Writes to Eumenes to join with the Kings.
AFterwards when Apollodorus executed the Office of Lord-Chancellor at Athens, and Quintus Publius and Quintus Poplias Consuls at Rome, Antigonus, after the Defeat of Eumenes, determin'd to march against Alcetas and Attalus. For those only remain'd of all Perdiccas his Friends and Kindred who were skilful Commanders, and had Forces sufficient to cope with him for the Sovereign Power. To this end he march'd away with his whole Army out of Cappadocia, and made for Pisidia, where Alcetas then lay, and came with a swist March suddenly and unexpectedly to Critopolis, (as it was call'd,) having march'd Two thousand five hundred Furlongs in 7 Days and 7 Nights time, and by that means was upon them before they were aware; and there he first possess'd himself of certain Hills, and other difficult Passes in the Country. When Alcetas his Party had intelligence of the Enemy's approach, they presently drew up a Phalanx in order of Battel, and by a fierce Charge endeavour'd to drive the Horse down the Hills, who had now gain'd the Tops of the Mountains. Hereupon began a sharp Engagement, in which many falling on both sides, Antigonus with a Body of Six thousand Horse bore down with all his Might upon the Enemy, endeavouring to cut off all ways and means of Retreat to Alcetas; this done, those upon the Tops of the Mountains, by the Advantage of the steepness and difficulty of the Places, easily put the Phalanx to flight. Hereupon Alcetas his Men being surrounded with the Multitude of their Enemies, and all Passes block'd up between them and their Foot, they look'd upon themselves all as dead Men. Therefore seeing no other Remedy or Means left to escape, Alcetas (with the Loss of Multitudes of his Men) at length with much ado broke through his Enemies, and got to the Foot. Hereupon Antigonus marching down from the Hills with his whole Army, and his Elephants, the Enemy (who were far inferior in Number) were mightily terrify'd: For all the Confederates were not above Sixteen thousand Foot, and Nine hundred Horse; whereas the Forces of Antigonus (besides Elephants) were above Forty thousand Foot, and Seven thousand Horse. Those therefore, with Alcetas, (considering that they should meet with Elephants in the Front, and be surrounded with Multitudes of Horse, and forc'd to engage with Foot far exceeding them, both in Number of Men, and in the Skilfulness of their Arms, and besides had the Advantage of the higher Ground,) fell into Confusion and Amazement; nay, the Enemy hasted and came upon them so fast, that they were not able to draw up their Men in due order of Battel; so that the whole Army was presently broken in pieces, and Attalus Docimus and Polemo, and many other Commanders, were taken Prisoners. But Alcetas, with his Life-Guard, his Children, and those Pisidians that sided with him, got into Termessus, a City of Pisidia. Then Antigonus came to an Agreement with the Captains, his Prisoners, and the rest he dispos'd of among his own Troops, using them with all Humanity, and by this means greatly encreas'd his Army. But about Six thousand Pisidians (valiant Men) resolv'd to stick to Alcetas, and promis'd they would never desert him upon any Terms whatsoever: For they lov'd him intirely for the Reasons following. For,
When Alcetas, after the Death of Perdiccas, had no Confederates in Asia, he determin'd by some acts of Kindness or other to engage the Pisidians; because he knew he should thereby gain a Warlike People, that had a Country very difficult to enter, and full of strong Forts, to be his Confederates. Therefore in every Expedition he always bestow'd special Marks of Honour upon them above all the rest of his Confederates. For he so divided the Spoil of his Enemies, that the Half was ever allotted to them. Moreover, by Page 594 his Familiarity and Freedom in Converse, daily Invitations of the most eminent Persons amongst them to his Table, and by his Bounty and Liberality in bestowing upon them many large Gifts and Rewards, he ingross'd to himself the Love of all: So that now (having anchor'd all his Hopes, and plac'd his chiefest Confidence in them,) he was not frustrated in his Expectation. For when Antigonus encamp'd with his whole Army before Termessus, and demanded Alcetas to be deliver'd up to him, (and the Elders of the City had determin'd to give him up,) all the young Men got together, and resolv'd to run all Hazards, and the utmost Extremity, for his Preservation. The Elders indeed at first endeavour'd to disswade the young Men, and draw them off from their former Resolve, wishing them not to involve their Country in War for the sake of one Macedonian. But when they saw that they could not allay the Heat of the young Men, they secretly consulted together, and in the Night sent away a Messenger to Antigonus, and by him faithfully promis'd, That they would deliver Alcetas up to him, either dead or alive. To this end they desir'd him, That by assaulting the City for some Days, he would decoy the young Men to sally out, and while he was skirmishing with them, to feign a Flight; by this means, when the young Men were out of the City, and busy in Pursuit, they should have an Opportunity to accomplish their Design. Antigonus assented hereunto, and drew off from the City at a further Distance, and so egg'd on the young Men to Skirmishes, and light Pickeerings. The Elders now discerning Alcetas left alone, they employ'd the faithfullest of their Servants, and the most active Men of the City, (that were not engag'd with him,) and with them (in the Absence of the young Men) set upon him; but could not take him, for he kill'd himself with his own Hand, lest he should fall alive into the Power of the Enemy: But they laid his Body upon a Bier, casting over it a course Cloth, and carry'd it out of the Gates, and, unknown to them that were skirmishing, deliver'd it to Antigonus. By this Device they freed their Country, and prevented a War; but they could not avoid the Fury of the young Men. For when they return'd, and understood what was done, (through that ardent Love and Affection they bore Alcetas,) they were so enrag'd at their Governors, that they first possess'd themselves of a part of the City, and resolv'd to set the Houses on fire, and after to issue out with their Arms, and betake themselves to the Mountains, and wast and destroy all the Country round belonging to Antigonus. But afterwards they alter'd their Purpose as to the burning of the City, and began, by robbing and spoiling miserably, to lay waste a great part of the Enemy's Country. In the mean time, Antigonus having receiv'd the Body of Alcetas, us'd it with all the Disgrace and Contumely imaginable for the space of three Days together, and then beginning to putrify, contemptuously cast it out without any Burial, and so march'd out of Pisidia.
But the young Men of Termessus bearing still a Love and Respect to the abus'd Body of the Dead, took it up, and decently bury'd it. He was of so kind and obliging a Nature, that there was something singular in him of Love and Respect to all those that deserv'd well, and therefore he was ever towards such unchangeable in his Love and Affection.
Antigonus having left Pisidia, made towards Phrygia with his whole Army. When he came to the City of the Cretiens, Aristodemus the Milesian brought him the News of Antipater's Death, and that the chief Command, together with the Protectorship of the Kings, was devolv'd upon Polysperchon the Macedonian. He was pleas'd with the News, and now his Hopes were exalted, for he made it his Business to Rule and Govern all the Affairs of Asia, and to gain the Absolute and Sovereign Command there without stooping to any. And thus stood the Affairs of Antigonus at this time.
In Macedonia, while Antipater was seiz'd with a grievous Sickness, (and old Age making way for his Dissolution,) the Athenians sent Demades (who was look'd upon as one that had manag'd Things with the Macedonians with a great deal of Honesty and Integrity) Ambassador to Antipater, to desire him to draw out the Garison from Munichia, as it was at first Articl'd and Agreed. Antipater at the first was very kind to Demades; but after the Death of Perdiccas, when some Letters of Demades (amongst others) were found amongst the King's Papers, wherein he press'd Perdiccas to hasten with all speed into Europe against Antipater; though he suppress'd his Resentment for a time, yet in truth he bore him a Grudge. Therefore when Demades had deliver'd his Message, (as he was Commanded,) and had something sharply debated the Matter concerning the Garison; Antipater, without giving any Answer, committed his Son Demeas (who was joint Ambassador with his Father) to the Executioners, who presently carry'd him away to the Prison, and for the Reasons before-mention'd cut off his Head.
Page 595 Afterwards, Antipater, when he was very near his End, appointed Polysperchon, the Eldest almost of all Alexander's Captains, and one in great Honour and Reputation with the Macedonians, to be Protector of the Kings, with chief and absolute Authority. And his Son Cassander he created Chiliarch, next in Power and Authority to Polysperchon. This Office was first made a Place of Honour and Credit by the Persian Kings, and afterwards by Alexander, when he grew great, and began to imitate this and other the Customs of the Persians. But Cassander relish'd not his Father's ordering of Matters, and judg'd it very dishonourable to his Family to have one that was nothing related, either in Blood or Affinity, to succeed in the Sovereign Command, when there was a Son who in Macedonia gave apparent and pregnant Evidences, both of Valour and Parts, sufficient to Govern the Affairs of the State in the room of his Father.
In the first place therefore he took a Journey into the Country with some of his Friends, where having both leisure and opportunity, he discours'd with them about the Chief Command, and dealt with every one of them privately apart by themselves, to contrive Ways and Means for him to gain the Principality, and by large Promises prevail'd with them to join together in their Assistance, for the accomplishment of what he desir'd. He likewise privately sent Ambassadors to Ptolemy, to renew the League, and pray his Assistance; and that he would to that purpose help him with Shipping out of Phaenicia, and send them with all speed to the Hellespont. In like manner he sent Ambassadors to the rest of the Cities and Captains, to sollicit them to join with them in Arms. But the better to conceal his Design, and that he might not be suspected, he spent his time for many days together in Hunting.
But Polyspherchon having gain'd the Guardianship of the Kings, call'd together a General Council of his Friends, and by their advice sent for Olympias, wishing that she would take into her Care Alexander's Son, who was then but a Child, and reside for the future as Queen Regent in Macedonia: For by reason of the Quarrels and Heart-burnings between her and Antipater, she had withdrawn herself into Epirus.
When the Death of Antipater was nois'd abroad in Asia, Stirs and Commotions began to change the face of Affairs there, while they that were in Power and Authority made it their Business, and sought every one how to advance his own particular Interest. The chief of whom was Antigonus, who (upon the account of his having conquer'd Eumenes in Cappadocia, and was join'd with his Forces, and Alcetas and Attalus in Pisidia, and besides was appointed by Antipater Viceroy of Asia, and had the Command of a great Army) bore himself very high, and swell'd with Pride in the Imagination of his own Greatness. And being now possess'd already (in his own Conceit) of the Sovereignty, he resolv'd neither to regard the Kings nor their Guardians: For in regard he had a greater Army, he was confident he could possess himself of all the Treasures laid up in Asia, being there was none able to oppose him. He had then in his Army Threescore thousand Foot, and Ten thousand Horse, and Thirty Elephants. And besides these, he doubted not but to raise more, whenever he had occasion; for that there was Money enough in Asia for the listing of Soldiers abroad in any place where he pleas'd.
Pondering these things in his Head, he sent for Hieronymus the Historian, Eumenes the Cardian's special Friend and Fellow-Citizen (he who fled to Nora) and having brought him to him by many rich Gifts and Presents, he sent him as an Agent to Eumenes, with Instructions to desire him to forget the Battel in Cappadocia, and to be his Friend and Confederate in the War; and that he should have a far larger Province, and much more Wealth than ever he enjoy'd before: And to let him know, That he should be Chiefest of his Friends, and share with him in the Advantages and Successes of all his Designs.
Then without any further delay he call'd his Friends together, and imparted to them his whole Design; and to those who were of greatest account among them, to some he allotted Provinces, to others Commands in the Army; and by raising the Hopes and Expectations of every one of them, he made them all very forward to assist him in carrying on his Intrigues: For he determin'd to pass through all Asia, and to remove all the Governours of the Provinces, and bestow them upon his Friends.
While he was in execution of these Projects, Arrideus the Governour of Phrygia〈◊〉 the Hellespont, understanding what he was contriving, resolv'd to secure his own Province, and to that end put sufficient Garisons into the principal Cities, and march'd against Cyzicum, being the greatest and most important City of all others for his purpose. He had with him above Ten thousand Foot of Mercenaries, a Thousand Macedonians. Five hundred Persian Darters and Slingers, and Eight hundred Horse, together with all sorts of Engines for Battery, both for shooting of Darts and casting of Stones, and all other things necessary for the carrying on of a Siege. He came upon the City on a sudden, and having surpriz'd most of the People when they were abroad in the open fields, he prest on Page 596 the Siege, and endeavour'd to force the Inhabitants (who were in a very great fright) to receive a Garison. The Cyzians, though they were thus surpriz'd, and that many were shut out that were in the Fields, and those that remain'd were altogether unable to defend the Place, looking upon it as their Duty to assert their Liberty, cowardly sent forth Ambassadors to treat concerning the raising of the Siege; and to let Arrideus know, That the City was ready to submit to any thing he thought fit, except the receiving of a Garison: But in the mean time they secretly arm'd all their young Men, and Slaves, that were fit for Service, and so lin'd the Walls round with Men for the Defence of the Town. But Arrideus still pressing the matter for the receiving of a Garison, the Ambassadors answer'd, That they would acquaint the Citizens with his Demands; which he consented unto, and so discharg'd them: and being thus freed, they spent all that Day, and the Night next following, in Preparations for the holding out of the Siege. Being thus deluded, he lost the Opportunity of accomplishing what he design'd: For the Cyzians, in regard the City was very strong, and well guarded on the Land side (for it was a Peninsula) and being Masters likewise at Sea, they easily repuls'd the Enemy. Moreover, they sent to them of Byzantium for Soldiers, and Darts, and all other Things that were necessary and useful against an Assault. All which were speedily and readily sent to them; whereby their Hopes were so reviv'd, that they were the more encourag'd to stand it out to the utmost. They presently likewise put forth their Long Ships to Sea, and fail'd along the Coast, and took in those that were in the Fields, and brought them back to the City. Having therefore thus increas'd the number of their Soldiers (after the killing a great many of the Besiegers) they forc'd the Enemy to raise the Siege; whereupon Arrideus (cheated by this Stratagem of the Cyzians) after a fruitless attempt, return'd into his own Province.
In the mean time, Antigonus lying at Celena, was inform'd of the Siege at Cyzicum, and therefore resolv'd to lay an Obligation upon that City (then in danger to be ruin'd) to favour him in his future Designs. To that end he detach'd out of his whole Army Twenty thousand of his best Foot, and Three thousand Horse, and with these march'd away with all speed to the Aid of the Cyzians; but came thither a little too late: And so though he made a show of a great Kindness to the City, yet he was wholly frustrated in his Design. But he sent Ambassadors to Arrideus, to expostulate Matters with him; first, Why he dar'd to besiege a Greek Confederate City without any Provocation: Then, to charge him with open Rebellion, and with a Purpose to make himself absolute Lord and Sovereign of the Province. Lastly, To command him to depart out of the Province, and thence-forward to live a private Life, and content himself with one only City for his Subsistence.
Arrideus hearing these Demands of the Ambassadors (and charging them with Insolency) told them he would not leave the Province; but that he would Garrison all his Cities, and was resolv'd to decide the matter with him by the Sword.
In pursuance of what he had said (having every where fortified his Towns and Cities) he sent away a General with part of his Army, commanding him to join with Eumenes, and to free the Fort from the Siege, and Eumenes from the Straits and Difficulties wherein he then was, and to persuade him to be his Confederate in the War.
Antigonus, in the mean time, eager to be reveng'd on Arrideus, sent away some of his Forces against him; and he himself march'd with a numerous Army towards Lydia, with a Purpose to depose Clitus the Lord-Lieutenant of that Province; who having before intelligence of his march, Garison'd all his principal Cities, and he himself sail'd over into Macedonia, to inform the Kings and Polysperchon of the Revolt and Impudence of Antigonus, and to crave their Aid and Assistance.
Antigonus at his first approach had Ephesus deliver'd up to him by the Assistance of some in the City: Afterwards, when Aesculus the Rhodian arriv'd at Ephesus with four Ships, wherein were Six hundred Talents of Silver sent out of Cilicia to the Kings in Macedonia, he seiz'd upon the Money, alledging he had occasion to use it for the raising and listing Soldiers: By which Act he sufficiently declar'd to the World, That he was altogether designing his own Interest, and was an apparent Enemy to the Kings. After this, he besieg'd those Cities that stood out, some of which he took by Assault, and others he gain'd by fair Words and Promises.
Having now related the Acts of Antigonus, we shall pass over to those Things that happen'd to Eumenes. This Man had the frequent Experience of sudden Turns and Changes of Fortune, being sometimes in low, and other times again (beyond all Expectation) in very prosperous Circumstances.
Page 597 In former times, when he assisted Perdiccas and the Kings, he gain'd the Province of Cappadocia, and those Places that as Members belong'd to it, where he liv'd in the height of Prosperity, commanding both Men and Money at his Pleasure: For he conquer'd Craterus and Neoptolemus, two famous Captains, who then Commanded the before-unconquer'd Troops of the Macedonians, and kill'd them both in the Fight: So that now he seem'd to be invincible, when on a sudden his Fortune was so chang'd, that he was routed by Antigonus in a great Battel, and forc'd to fly with a few Friends to a very little Fort for shelter. Being then shut up, and hemm'd in with a double Wall, he had no Friend left that could help him in his Distress; but after he had been coop'd up a Year together, now utterly despairing of Deliverance, unexpectedly and on a sudden appear'd an opportunity of Freedom from all his Troubles: For Antigonus, who a little before had straitly besieg'd him, and earnestly sought to take away his Life (the Scene being chang'd) now seeks to him to be a Partner with him in his Concerns; and so (upon a mutual Stipulation upon Oath between them) he was freed from the Pressures and Hardships of the Siege. And thus after a long time being unexpectedly deliver'd, he continu'd a while in Cappadocia, where he again got together his old Friends, and his former Fellow-Soldiers that were dispers'd and scatter'd up and down in the Country; and was so wonderfully belov'd, that many of his Associates and Companions in the same Hopes and Expectations, presently flock'd to him, ready to join in Arms, and be observent to all his Commands. To conclude, within a very few days he had got together above Two thousand Soldiers, who chearfully listed themselves, besides those five hundred Friends, who indur'd the Siege with him in the Fort: And, by the Assistance of Fortune, he was at length rais'd to that height, that he gain'd the Kings Forces, and defended the Interest of the Kings against all that dar'd to deprive them of their Sovereign Authority. But we shall give a more exact account of these Matters shortly hereafter, in their proper time and place. And so having now in short related the Affairs of Asia, we shall pass to Things done in Europe.
Cassander, though he was excluded from the Chief Command of Macedonia, yet was not at all discourag'd, but resolv'd to gain it; for he look'd upon it as a base and dishonourable thing, that the Sovereign Authority enjoy'd by his Father, shou'd now be manag'd by others. But discerning that the Macedonians favour'd Polysphercon, he privately discours'd with some of his Friends, and then sent them (that nothing might be suspected) to the Hellespont: He himself in the mean time continuing for some days together in the Country, and spending his time in Hunting, made every one believe that he had no Thoughts or Designs of aspiring to the Sovereign Command. But when he got all things ready for his Journey, he secretly slipt out of Macedonia, and made to the Chersonesus, and thence forward to the Hellespont; where passing over, he went to Antigonus in Asia, craving his Assistance, and told him that Ptolemy would join with him. Antigonus readily embrac'd the Offer, and made him large Promises of Assistance, and engag'd forthwith to supply him with Forces both for Land and Sea-Service. But all this was nothing but Dissimulation, pretending as if he join'd with him upon the account of the Love and Kindness he always bore towards Antipater; whereas in truth he design'd to divert Polysperchon with fierce and bloody Wars, to the end he might with more ease subdue Asia in the mean time; and so without any hazard, gain the Sovereign Command of all at last.
While these things were in acting, Polysperchon, the Kings Protector, having a prospect of a great War he was like to have with Cassander (and conceiving that it was not fit to undertake any thing, without consulting first with his Friends) assembled all his Captains, and all those that were of Chief Authority among the Macedonians. And forasmuch as it was apparent, that Cassander was strengthen'd with the Forces of Antigonus, to gain all the Cities of Greece; and that some of them were Garison'd with his Father's Forces, and others were govern'd by an Oligarchy, influenc'd chiefly by the Friends and Favourites of Antipater: And besides all this, that Ptolemy, who had the Power in Aegypt, and Antigonus, who had openly and apparently deserted the Kings, were Confederates with Cassander; and that both were richly stor'd with Men and Money, and had the Command of many Potent Cities and Provinces: For these Reasons he appointed a Consultation to consider how the War should be manag'd against them. After the matter was banded to and fro with variety of Opinions, it was at length resolv'd that the Cities of Greece should be restor'd to their Liberties, and the Oligarchy every where abolish'd: For by this means they conceiv'd they should weaken the Interest of Cassander; and much advance their own Reputation, and gain strong and powerful Confederates. Hereupon they that were present, forthwith sent to the Ambassadors of the Cities; and wishing them to be Courageous, promis'd to restore them to their several Democracies; and deliver'd to the Page 598 Ambassadors the Decree in Writing, that every one of them (when they return'd into their Countries) might the better inform the People of the Kindness of the Kings and Captains to the Grecians. The Decree was in this form:
SInce it has ever been the Practice of our Ancestors, to express their Acts of Grace in the manyInstances of their Bounty towards the Grecians, Our selves are likewise desirous to preserve and keep on foot what they determin'd; and are willing to evidence to the World the Kindness and Good-will we shall ever be careful to preserve towards the Greeks: And whereas it's well known that even in the Life-time of Alexander, and before the Kingdom devolv'd upon Us, we were of Opinion, That all ought to be restor'd to that Peace and Form of Government which was order'd and appointed by our Father Philip, and writ to all the Cities at that time concerning that Affair: Yet afterwards it so fell out, that some unadvisedly, when we were far remote from Greece, made War upon the Macedonians; which unruly Persons being supprest and subdu'd, by the Help and Conduct of our Captains, many Cities were thereby involved in great Troubles, and brought under the Smart and Sense of many Inconveniencies: Impute therefore the Cause of all those Sufferings (as justly you may) to those Commanders. But now in Reverence and due Regard to that ancient Constitution, we grant to you our Peace, and the same Kinds of Government which you enjoy'd under Philip and Alexander, and full Power and Authority to manage all other things, according to the several Rules and Orders by them prescrib'd. We likewise recall all them who have either voluntarily withdrawn themselves, or have been forc'd away by the Command of our Captains, from the time that Alexander first landed in Asia. It is likewise our Pleasure, That all those thus re-call'd by us, enjoy their Estates without quarrelling or remembrance of former Injuries, and that they be restor'd to the Franchises and Liberties of their several Cities; and whatever Decree is made against them, let it be abrogated, except such as are banish'd, by due course of Law, for Murther or Sacrilege. But we do not hereby intend to re-call the Exiles of Megalopolis, nor Polyenerus, who are condemn'd for Treason; nor the Amphisseans, nor the Tricceans, nor the Pharcadonians, nor the Heracleots. But as for all others, let them return before the 30th Day of the Month Xanthicus. But if there be any Laws or Orders made by Philip or Alexander against them, let them be brought to us, that such course may be taken therein, as may be most for the Service and Advnatage of us and of the Cities. Let the Athenians enjoy all other things as they did in the time of Philip and Alexander; and the Oropians hold Oropus as now they do. Yet we restore Samos to the Athenians, because our Father Philip before gave it to them. Let all the Grecians make a Law, That none take up Arms or act any thing against us; otherwise, That such be banish'd, and forfeit all their Goods. And we have order'd that Polysperchon shall manage these and all other Matters: And let all be observant to him, in what we have before written to you; for those that do contrary to what we have prescribed, we shall not in the least pardon.
This Decree being transmitted to all the Cities, Polysperchon writ to Argos, and the rest of their Cities, commanding them, That all that were in any Command in the Commonwealth under Antipater, should be forthwith banish'd; and that some should be put to death, and their Estates confiscated; that being reduc'd to extremity, they might be in no capacity to assist Cassander. He sent Letters likewise to Olympias, Alexander's Mother, who was then in Epirus for fear of Cassander, to intreat her to return with all speed into Macedonia, and take care and charge of Alexander's little Son, till he was of age, and capable to take upon him the sole Management of Affairs. He writ moreover to Eumenes, that he would stick to the Interest of the Kings, and not League by any means with Antigonus; but make his choice, either to come over into Macedonia, in order to join with him in the Protectorship of the Kings, or abide in Asia, and to receive both Men and Money from them to make War upon Antigonus, who had now openly declar'd himself a Rebel against the Kings, who would be sure to restore him the Province which Antigonus had forc'd from him, and likewise all other Privileges and Advantages which he ever at any time before enjoy'd in Asia. And besides, he alledged, that it became Eumenes above all other Men to protect the Royal Family, as consonant to all those Demonstrations of his Loyalty, in his late appearances on the behalf of the Kings; and if he stood in need of Forces, he himself, together with the Kings, would come over into Asia with the whole Army. These were the Transactions of this Year.
Polysperchon courts Eumenes to assist the Kings. Eumenes his Prudence amongst the Macedonian Captains. Ptolemy sends to the Captains and others not to assist Eumenes. Antigonus contrives to kill Eumenes; who marches into Phoenicia. Nicanor deceives the Athenians, and still keeps Munychia, and subtilly gets the Pyreum. Order'd by Olympias to deliver the Pyreum and Munychia to the Athenians; but he shifts it off. Alexander, Son of Polysperchon, enters Attica; secretly corresponds with Nicanor, and displeases the Athenians. Phocion's hard Usage at his Trial in Athens, is condemn'd, and executed. Cassander arrives at the Pyreum. Polysperchon comes against him, but returns. Besieges Megalopolis, but is there much damnify'd, his Elephants spoil'd by a Stratagem. A Sea-Fight between Clitus and Nicanor. Nicanor beaten. Clitus afterwards routed by Nicanor, is kill'd in his Flight to Macedonia. Antigonus goes after Eumenes. Eumenes near losing his Army by the Breach of a Dyke in Babylonia. The Greek Cities revolt to Cassander. The Athenians make Peace with him. He kills Nicanor.
ARchippus being chief Magistrate of Athens, and Quintus Aelius and Lucius. PapiriusRoman Consuls, the Letters from Polysperchon were deliver'd to Eumenes presently after his Release out of the Fort; in which were contain'd, besides what was before declar'd, That the Kings had bestow'd of their Bounty upon him, Five hundred Talents to repair his Losses he had lately sustain'd, and had sent Letters to the Governors and Treasurers of Cilicia to pay to him the said Five hundred Talents, and what other Monies he should have occasion for, either for raising of Soldiers, or any other necessary Uses. And that they had order'd a Thousand MacedonianArgyraspides, with their Officers, to be observant to him, and readily and chearfully to serve him upon all Occasions, as he that was appointed General with full and absolute Power and Authority over all Asia. There came likewise Letters to him from Olympias, by which she earnestly intreated him to be Assistant both to her and the Kings; for that he only remain'd the most Faithful of all the Friends they had, who was able to relieve the desolate State and Condition of the King's Family. She likewise desir'd him to advise her, Whether it was better for her to remain still in Epirus, (and not trust him who claim'd the Guardianship of the Kings, but in truth sought the Kingdom,) or to return? Hereupon Eumenes forthwith writ to her back again, That he conceiv'd it most Advisable for her at the present to continue in Epirus till the War was ended: That he himself was resolv'd to be ever Faithful and Constant in his Love and Duty towards the Kings, and not in the least to adhere to Antigonus, who was aspiring to gain the Kingdom: And because Alexander's Son, by reason of the Tenderness of his Age, and the Covetousness of the Captains, stood in need of Help, he look'd upon it as his Duty to expose himself to the utmost Hazards for the Preservation of the Kings. Hereupon he forthwith commanded all his Soldiers to decamp, and so march'd out of Cappadocia, having with him about Five hundred Horse, and above Two Thousand Foot: For he had no Time to wait upon the slow March of them, who had promis'd to join with him; because a great Army of Antigonus (under the Command of Menander) was near at hand, and it was now no staying for him in Cappadocia, being a declar'd Enemy of Antigonus: But though this Army came three Days too late, (and so lost their Opportunity,) yet they resolv'd to pursue the Troops with Eumenes; but not being able to reach him, they return'd into Cappadocia. For Eumenes making long Marches, presently recover'd Mount Taurus, and so got into Cilicia: Here Antigenes and Tautamus, the Captains of the Argyraspides, with their Friends, (in Obedience to the Kings Letters,) met Eumenes, after a long and tedious March, and joyfully Congratulated him for his unexpected Deliverance out of his great Troubles, promising to be ready on all Occasions at his Command. There met him likewise about Three thousand Argyraspides out of Macedonia, with great Demonstrations of Love and Affection. This sudden and almost incredible Change was the Subject of every Body's Admiration; when they consider'd how the Kings and Macedonians (a little before) had condemn'd Eumenes and all his Fellows to Die, and now having forgot that Sentence denounc'd against him, not only pardon'd him, but promoted him to the highest Place of Command in the whole Kingdom. And it was not without just Page 600 Cause, that they who consider'd the wonderful Changes that attended Eumenes should be taus affected: For who that does but observe the different Accidents in the course of Man's Life, would not be amaz'd at the various Turns and Changes of Fortune to and fro, first on one side, then on another? Or who, trusting in the present Supports of a prosperous Fortune, would upon that account be so far transported, as to forget the Infirmity of Human Nature? For every Man's Life (as dispes'd and order'd by the Providence of some one of the Gods) has been chequer'd (as it were) with the reciprocal Turns of Good and Evil in all Ages of the World. So that it is a Wonder, that not only what is strange and unaccountable, but that even every thing that falls out should be surprizing and unexpected. Therefore who can sufficiently value History? For by the variety and change of Affairs, (there represented,) a Check is given to the Pride of the Fortunate, and allays the Grief and Misery of the Unprosperous. Which Things Eumenes then wisely considering, and weighing beforehand the Instability of Fortune, he manag'd his Affairs with the more Caution and Prudence. For thinking with himself that he was but a Stranger, and had no Right to Kingly Power and Authority, and that the Macedonians (who were now under his Command) not long before judg'd him to Die; and that the Commanders and Captains were all inflam'd with the Heat of ambitious Designs, he conceiv'd that in a short time he should be despis'd and envy'd, and at length be brought into danger of his Life. For none are willing to submit to the Commands of those that they look upon to be their Inferiors, nor be Lorded over by them, who ought rather to be under the Commands of others themselves. Seriously therefore pondering these Things with himself, in the first place he refus'd to accept of his Five hundred Talents order'd him by the King's Letters for the Repair of his former Losses, and Refitting of himself with Necessaries: For he said, He needed not so large a Sum, seeing he pretended to no Principality there; and that which he now enjoy'd was not of his own Choice, but was forc'd by the Kings to undertake the present Service. To conclude, he said, That by reason of the continual Fatigues of War he was so worn out, that he was not able to endure those Hardships, and runnings from Place to Place, any longer, especially being that a Stranger had no Right to Command; and by Law was excluded from the Authority due to be executed by such as were of the same Nation with the Macedonians: For he said, There was represented to him a wonderful Apparition in his Dream, which he judg'd very necessary to discover to them all, for that it might (as he conceiv'd) conduce much to the promoting of Peace and Concord, and the Publick Good. He declar'd, That in his Sleep Alexander, the late King, seem'd to appear to him (as he was when living) adorn'd in his Royal Robes, and sitting on his Throne giving out Orders to his Captains, and (as in his Health) disposing and managing all the Affairs and Concerns of the Kingdom.
All were very well pleas'd with what he said; and thereupon every thing was presently prepared for the purpose, for the King's Treasury was very rich; and that stately Work was forthwith finish'd, and the Throne was set up; whereon were plac'd the Diadem, Scepter, and the Arms he us'd to wear. Then was plac'd an Altar with Fire upon it, upon which all the Captains one after another cast Frankincense, (taken out of a Golden Casket,) and other costly sweet Odours, and ador'd Alexander as a God. After this were order'd a great number of Seats, upon which the Captains and great Commanders sate together, and there consulted and debated all the weighty and important Affairs. Eumenes in the mean time carrying himself with an equal Respect and Deference in all publick Meetings towards all the Captains, and suppling them with fair and courteous Language, not only avoided the Strokes of Envy, but thereby gain'd all their Hearts. By the same Artifice (through the Prevalency of Superstition relating to the King) he so elevated the Hopes and Expectations of the whole Army, as if some God were to be their General. In like manner he behav'd himself towards the Argyraspides, and thereby so gain'd their Favour, that they counted him highly worthy to be the Protector of the Kings.
Then he pick'd out the fittest Persons from among his Friends, and furnish'd them with great Sums of Money, and employ'd them to hire Soldiers up and down upon large Pay. Whereupon some of them forthwith went into Pisidia and Lycia, and the bordering Countries, and diligently put in execution what they were commanded. Others went into Cilicia, and some into Coelo-Syria and Phoenicia, and others sail'd to the Cities in Cyprus. This Listing of Soldiers being nois'd abroad, and reported what large Pay was Page 601 offer'd, many came flocking in from the Cities of Greece, and enroll'd their Names for this Service; so that in a short time they had rais'd above Ten thousand Foot, and Two thousand Horse, besides the Argyraspides, and those who came along with him.
The Forces of Eumenes being thus on a sudden increas'd to an incredible Number, Ptolemy arriv'd with the Fleet at Zaphyrium in Cilicia, and sent away some Commanders to sollicit the Argyraspides not to side with Eumenes, whom all the Macedonians had condemn'd to die. He sent likewise to the Governors of the Garison in Quindi, desiring them not to help Eumenes with any Money, and he would bear them out: But no Man regarded what he said, because the Kings and their Protector Polysperchon, and Olympias the Mother of Alexander, had written to them to be obedient in all things to Eumenes as to the Commander in Chief, and General of the Kingdom.
But of all others, Antigonus was most displeas'd and uneasie at the Growth and Advancement of Eumenes; for he look'd upon him as the most powerful Enemy he had set up against him by Polysperchon, because he had deserted the Kings: Therefore he resolv'd by some Stratagem to cut him off; to which end he employ'd one of his Friends, Philotas, and deliver'd to him Letters to the Argyraspides, and the rest of the Macedonians, (that sided with Eumenes,) and sent along with him Thirty Macedonians (who were crafty and fair-spoken Men) with Orders to deal with Antigenes and Tautamus, the Captains of the Argyraspides, privately and apart by themselves, to destroy Eumenes, promising them great Rewards, and larger Provinces; and that they should likewise apply themselves to their Fellow-Citizens and Acquaintance amongst the Argyraspides, and by Bribes draw them to cut off Eumenes: But they were not able to prevail with any, except Tautamus, one of the Captains of the Argyraspides, who being corrupted by Bribes, promis'd not only for himself, but undertook to draw over his Collegue Antigenes to this foul Design: But Antigenes being a prudent and faithful Man, not only refus'd, but prevail'd with him that was before corrupted to alter his Purpose: For he told him, That it was more expedient that Eumenes should live than Antigonus; for he being already grown Great, when he became more Powerful would thrust them all out of their Governments, and give to them which of his Friends he pleas'd: But as for Eumenes, being but a Stranger, he durst not attempt to gain the Sovereign Authority, but would be content with his present Command, and to gain their Favour, would secure to them their Provinces, and perhaps add more to them. And in this manner were all the Projects against Eumenes frustrated and brought to nought. In the mean time Philotas delivering a Letter of Antigonus to the Commanders, writ to all the Captains and Soldiers in general; the Argyraspides and other Macedonians got together by themselves unknown to Eumenes, and commanded it to be read openly to them: In which were Accusations against Eumenes, and Advice to the Macedonians forthwith to seize upon him and put him to Death, and if they did not, that he would come presently and fall upon them with his whole Army, and do exemplary Justice on them for their Disobedience. Upon the hearing the Contents of these Letters, the Macedonians and their Captains were greatly terrify'd: For one of these two was unavoidable, either to fall under the revengeful Displeasure of Antigonus by adhering to the Kings, or to be punish'd by Polysperchon and the Kings for observing the Commands of Antigonus. While all the Soldiers were in these distracted Thoughts, Eumenes comes in amongst them, and hearing the Letters read, advis'd them to obey the Orders of the Kings, and not to give any regard to an open declar'd Rebel; and having spoken many things pertinent to the present Occasion, he not only avoided the present imminent Danger, but inclin'd all the Soldiers to him in a firmer Bond of Duty and Affection than ever they were before. And thus this Man, who was again on a sudden even involv'd in insuperable Dangers, yet was so wonderfully Fortunate, as thereby to strengthen himself the more. Ordering therefore his Army to march, he made for Phoenicia, and endeavour'd to get Shipping from all Sea-Towns along as he went, in order to make up a strong Navy, that by having a Fleet in Phoenicia, he might be Master of the Sea, and have what Forces he pleas'd, and be able to transport Polysperchon at any time with safety out of Macedonia into Asia against Antigonus. To this purpose there he continu'd in Phoenicia.
While these Things were acting, Nicanor (who held Munychia) hearing that Cassander had left Macedonia, and was gone to Antigonus, and that Polysperchon was suddenly expected with an Army in Attica, earnestly sollicited the Athenians to stand firm in their Affections to Cassander. But when none would consent to what was desir'd, but all were rather for the Garison to march away with all speed; at first he over-perswaded the People with fair Words to forbear a few days, and that he would afterwards do what should be most for the Good of the City. But after the Athenians had been quiet for some days, Page 602 secretly in the Night he brought Soldiers by little and little into Munychia, so that now he had got in strength sufficient to defend the place, and to oppose those that design'd a Siege.
Hereupon the Athenians perceiving Nicanor meant nothing in what he did, for the advantage and safety of the City, they sent a Messenger to the King and Polysperchon, desiring their assistance according to the Purport of their Letters, whereby they restor'd the Grecians to their Liberties: Then they had frequent Assemblies and Consultations among themselves, how to manage the War against Nicanor: And while they were busying their Heads about these Affairs, he drew out many of his Mercenaries secretly in the Night, possess'd himself of the Walls of the Pireum, and the Mouth of the Harbour. The Athenians hereupon, were vex'd to the Heart, to see how they were gull'd and cheated as to Munychia, and had carelesly lost the Pireum. They sent therefore some of the greatest Persons of Quality, and such who were Nicanor's special Friends (that is to say) Phocion the Son of Phocus, Conon the Son of Timotheus, and Clearchus the Son of Nausicles, as Agents to Nicanor, to debate the late transactions they had with him, and requiring him to permit them to enjoy their Laws and Liberties, according to the late Edict in that behalf. To whom he answer'd, That they must go to Cassander, for he had his Commission to be Governor of the Garison from him, and had no power to treat of himself.
About this time came a Letter from Olympias to Nicanor, commanding him to deliver Munychia and the Pyreum to the Athenians: He understanding that the Kings and Polysperchon had recall'd Olympias into Macedonia, and committed the young Son of Alexander to her Care and Tuition; and had restor'd her to her former Royal State and Dignity, (the same that she enjoy'd when Alexander was living) meerly out of fear promis'd to re-deliver them, but always contriv'd some colourable excuse or another, and so protracted the Business. The Athenians in former times had ever a great esteem for Olympias, and now purposing (in the Reality of their Affections) to celebrate those publick Honours which were decreed to her, (and hoping that the Liberties of the City would be by her perfectly restor'd to them, and put out of the reach of all future danger) were very jocund and exceedingly pleas'd.
In the mean time the Promises of Nicanor not being perform'd, Alexander, the Son of Polysperchon, came with an Army into Attica: The Athenians indeed thought that he came to restore to them Munychia and the Pyreum; but the Event prov'd the contrary, for he seiz'd upon both for the Service of the War: For some who had been Antipater's Friends, (and among them Phocius) fearing some Punishment from the Laws, met Alexander, and advising him what to do, persuaded him to retain the Forts in his own Hands, and not restore them to the Athenians till the War was ended with Cassander: Hereupon, Alexander Encamp'd at the Pyreum, and would not permit the Athenians to treat with Nicanor; but by his separate Treatise with him, and secret and private Transactions of Affairs between them, he gave manifest Indications of the Injury design'd the Athenians. The People therefore met together in a Common Assembly, and Depos'd the present Magistrates; and set up such as most favour'd the Democracy, and condemn'd them that were of the Oligarchy; Some to Death, and others to Banishment and Confiscation of Goods: Amongst whom Phocton was one who had the Chief Command in the time of Antipater.
These being all forc'd out of the City, fled to Alexander the Son of Polysperchon, and endeavour'd to engage his help for their Preservation: Alexander kindly receiv'd them, and writ on their behalf to his Father, to protect Phocion and his Friends, as those that favour'd his Interest, and engag'd readily to afford their assistance in all his Concerns: The Athenians likewise sent an Embassy to Polysperchon to accuse Phocion, and to sollicite for the restitution of Munychia, and restoring them to their ancient Laws and Liberties. Polysperchon indeed had a very great desire to retain the Pircum, because that Port might be of weighty concern and importance in the carrying of the War, but was asham'd to act contrary to the Edict divulg'd by himself; and fearing lest the Grecians should desert him, if he dealt so basely with that City, which was the Metropolis, he chang'd his Mind: Having therefore heard the Ambassadors, he courteously dismist those from the Athenians with a Gracious Answer; but seiz'd upon Phocion and all his Followers, and sent them bound to Athens, granting Power to the People, either to Pardon them, or put them to death: Whereupon a General Assembly being call'd in Athens, Judgment of Death was resolv'd upon Phocion and the rest that were accus'd: This was carry'd on by those who had been banish'd under Antipater, and others that favour'd not that Government, both these strongly urg'd to have them put to death.
Page 603 The sum of the Accusation was this; That after the Lamian War they endeavour'd for the most part to Inslave their Country, and to abolish the Democracy, and the Ancient Laws: Time being allotted to the Accus'd to plead their Cause, Phocion began to speak for himself; but the People tumultuously cry'd out against all that he said, and rejected his Defence, so that the Accus'd knew not what Course to take: When the Tumult ceas'd, Phocion began again to speak, whereupon the whole Multitude set up a shout on purpose, that what he said should not be heard: For the Common People (being not long before excluded from having any share in the Administration of the Government, and now newly restor'd beyond all expectation to their Right) bore an inveterate Hatred against those who depriv'd the Citizens of their Laws and Liberties.
While Phocion was thus overborn, and even in a desperate Condition strugling to preserve his Life; those that were next to him, understood the Justice and Equity of his Cause; but those at a distance could hear nothing for the Noise and Clamour that was made by the tumultuous Rabble, but only discern'd the various trembling motions of his Body, through the inevitable danger that seem'd to threaten him. At length Phocion in despair of his own Life, cry'd out aloud, desiring them to condemn him to Die, but to spare the rest.
But the Common People being Fierce and Inexorable; some of Phocion's Friends stood up to make his Defence. Hereupon the People were quiet for a while, and heard what they said at first; but when they proceeded so far as to press Arguments for the clearing of his Innocency, they were cast out with tumultuous and contradicting Clamours: At length being all condemn'd by the unanimous Voice of the People: they were carry'd away to the Gaol there to be executed, and were follow'd by many Honest and Sober Men, who bewail'd their Condition, and the greatness of their Misery: For upon serious Consideration of the inconstancy of every Man's Fortune, it affrighted many to see that Magistrates and Persons of eminent Quality, and Men that had shew'd many acts of kindness in the course of their Lives, should neither have Liberty to plead for themselves, nor otherways enjoy the Benefit of Law. But many of the Rabble being incens'd against Phocion unmercifully, even rent his Heart in pieces with Scoffs and Scorns, and bitterly upbraided him with the Misery of his present Condition. For Hatred smother'd towards Men while in Prosperity, when it breaks forth with Anger against them in time of their Adversity, becomes altogether Savage and Implacable. Being therefore all put to Death (according to the Custom of the Country) by drinking a Potion of Hemlock, all their Bodies were cast forth unburied, out of the Bounds and Limits of Attica: And this was the end of Phocion, with others that suffer'd with him in the same Calamity.
After this, Cassander having got Five and thirty long Ships, and Four thousand Men, Sail'd into the Pireum, and being receiv'd by Nicanor, Governor of the Fort, possess'd himself of the Pireum and the Harbour: But Munychia Nicanor kept himself, with a Force sufficient to defend the Place. At this time Polysperchon and the Kings lay in Phocis; where being inform'd of Cassander's being landed at the Pireum, Polysperchon marched into Attica, and Encamp'd near the Pireum: He had with him Twenty thousand Macedonian Foot, and Four thousand Confederates, a Thousand Horse, and Sixty five Elephants; he resolv'd therefore to besiege Cassander: But because Provision was scant, and the Siege was likely to be long and tedious, he was forc'd to leave so many of the Soldiers in Attica as the Country was able to maintain, under the Command of Alexander, and he himself marched into Peloponnesus with the greater part of the Army, to reduce the Megalopolitans to the Obedience of the Kings; for they being for an Oligarchy sided with Cassander. While Polysperchon was busied in these Affairs, Cassander sail'd with his Fleet to the Aegeans, and brought them in to join with him; but the Salaminians (who were disaffected) he closely besieg'd, and being well furnish'd both with Men and Arms, he assaulted them several days together, and reduc'd them to very great Extremities: But when the City was near being taken by Storm, Polysperchon sent a considerable Force both by Sea and Land to attack the Besiegers; at whose approach Cassander being affrighted, he rais'd the Siege, and sail'd back to Pireum. Then Polysperchon pass'd over to Peloponnesus, to settle Matters there for the Service and Advantage of the Kings. Coming there he call'd a Senate, and spoke to them concerning their joining with him as Confederates in the War; he sent likewise Commissioners to the Cities, with Orders to put to Death them that were created Magistrates in the Oligarchy by Antipater, and to restore the People to their ancient Laws.
Many obey'd the Order, so that while Slaughters and Banishments fill'd the Cities, they that favour'd Antipater's Party were ruin'd and destroy'd; and the Democratital Governments being restor'd to their ancient Laws, all join'd with Polysperchon: The MegalopolitansPage 604 only kept close to Cassander, therefore he determin'd to besiege their City. The Megalopolitans hearing what was design'd by Polysperchon, order'd by a publick Decree tobring in every thing into the Town that was in the Fields: Then taking an account of their strength they found that in ancient Citizens, Strangers and Servants, they were in number Fifteen thousand who were able to bear Arms; They forthwith therefore form'd some into Regiments; others they appointed to work in the Fortifications; and to some were allotted the care and charge of Guarding of the Walls; so that at one and the same time, some were employ'd in drawing a deep Trench round the City, some carrying Earth out of the Fields, and others repairing and making up the Breaches in the Walls, others hammering of Arms, and others were busy in making of Darts and Artillery: So that the Dangers which threatned, and the forwardness of the Inhabitants put the whole City in action: For the Greatness of the Kings Army, and the wonderful strength of the Elephants that attended them, was nois'd abroad in every place. And now all things were ready and prepar'd, when Polysperchon approach'd with his Army, and Encamp'd near the City, dividing his Forces into two Camps, one of Macedonians, and another of Confederates; and then brings to the Walls wooden Towers of that height as to overtop them; and upon the Towers Men placed with all sorts of Weapons, and with these he drave them off, who were placed upon the Rampiers.
In the mean time, the Walls being Undermin'd, and the Props and Supporters set on fire, three of the largest Towers were overwhelm'd and tumbled down, with the ruin of the like number of Turrets plac'd between them. This great and sudden Destruction caus'd the Macedonians to set up a shout, and the strangeness of the thing amaz'd the Besieg'd: And now the Macedonians rush through the Breach into the City, and the Megalopolitans before in parties, now all together (having the advantage of the Difficulty of the Place occasion'd by the Rubbish) made up to one part, and bravely bore the Brunt of the Enemies attack, and beat them off: Then they cast up another Work of Earth to guard the Breach; and working Night and Day without any intermission, rais'd another Wall between them and the Enemy; which was presently compleated; for being they were furnish'd with every thing that was necessary, and had many Hands at work, the Megalopolitans quickly repair'd the damage sustain'd. As for those that assaulted them from their Wooden Towers, they ply'd them with their Engines of Artillery, and with Darts and Stones out of Bows and Slings, gall'd and wounded many of their Enemies. After many were kill'd and wounded on both sides, till Night approaching, Polysperchon sounded a Retreat, and drew off his Men into the Camp.
The next day he remov'd the Rubbish before the Breach, to make way and passage for the Elephants, for he thought by the strength of these Creatures to break through into the City: But the Megalopolitans by the help and conduct of Damides (who in the Wars under Alexander, experimentally knew the Nature and Use of the Elephants) altogether baffl'd the Enemy: For he making use of his own Reason and Industry against the Beasts Strength and Violence, made their strong Bodies Useless and Unserviceable; for in a great number of Planks he drave sharp Spikes, and then strew'd them here and there in deep Trenches cover'd with Earth, so as that the Points of the Spikes might not be seen, and thus over these he left the Passage into the City: But he suffer'd none of the Soldiers to stand in the Front, but plac'd a great number of Darters and Archers, and Engines of Artillery in the Flank.
Polysperchon therefore having clear'd the Place, and now approaching with the throng of his Elephants, an unexpected misfortune befell them: For none appearing in Front to oppose them, the Indians press'd them forward to make their way into the City, who by the great weight of their Bodies press'd down upon the Spikes, so that their Feet being wounded, and even pierc'd through, they were so founder'd, that they were neither able to go forward, or return back: And besides, showers of all sorts of Darts and Arrows being poured upon them from the Flankers, some of the Indians were kill'd, and others so wounded, that they were not able to do any further service.
In the mean time, the Elephants (through the multitude of Darts, and the strange and unusual Wounds by the Spikes) were so cruelly tormented, that they forc'd back through their own Men, and trode down many under foot: At length the strongest and most formidable amongst them fell down, others became altogether Unserviceable, and some kill'd many of their own Men.
Upon this Success the Megalopolitans were greatly encourag'd; but Polysperchon wish'd he had never undertaken the Siege; and because he could stay no longer there, he left part of the Army to carry it on, and betook himself to matters of more necessary consequence. Then he sent away Clitus the Admiral with the Fleet, Commanding him to Page 605 lie upon the Coasts of the Hellespont, to stop the Passage of the Forces out of Asia into Europe, and to join with Arrhideus, who had fled to the City of the Ganians, being Enemy to Antigonus. After he had pass'd over the Hellespont, and taken in the Cities of the Propontis, he strengthen'd his Army with the Forces of Arrhideus. Nicanor the Governor of Munychia, on the other side, being sent away with the whole Fleet by Cassander, sail'd to those Parts where Clitus lay: He join'd likewise with the Navy of Antigonus, so that he had a Fleet of above a Hundred Sail.
Hereupon there was a Fight at Sea near Byzantium, wherein Clitus was Conqueror, and sunk Seventeen of the Enemy's Ships, and took no fewer than Forty, together with all their Men. The rest got into the Haven of Chalcedon. Clitus being thus successful, suppos'd the Enemy by reason of this great loss durst never engage more at Sea.
But Antigonus having intelligence of this Defeat of the Fleet, by his Industry and admirable Conduct, presently repair'd it: For having sent for several Transport Ships in the Night from the Byzantians, on these he put on board Darters, Slingers, and other light-arm'd Men, sufficient for the present design, and in the Night transported them to the other side; who before Day setting upon the Enemy at Land (who had left their Ships and were there Encamp'd) put Clitus and his Men into great Terror and Confusion; who in that sudden Fear and Amazement leap'd into their Vessels; so that through the cumber of their Luggage, and multitude of Prisoners, the Tumult and Disorder exceeded.
In the mean time, Antigonus had fitted out some Long Ships, and Mann'd them with many of his stoutest Foot Soldiers, and bid them boldly attack the Enemy, for they were sure to be Conquerors. Hereupon they came up with Nicanor in the Night, and about break of Day fell in suddenly upon the Enemy still in confusion, and presently upon the very first Charge put them to flight; some of the Enemy's Ships they broke in pieces with the Beaks of their own, and brush'd off the Oars of divers; some they gain'd without fighting; being deliver'd up by the Men themselves that were on board. At length all the rest (except the Admiral's Ship) fell into their Hands. Clitus forsook his Ship and got ashore, and design'd to have preserv'd himself by getting into Macedonia; but in his way falling amongst some of Lysimachus his Soldiers, he was slain.
Antigonus his Reputation for Skill and Prudence in the management of Martial Affairs, was much advanc'd by this remarkable Victory. Hereupon he was very earnest and intent to be Master at Sea, and (without the least doubt of the matter) to gain the Sovereignty of Asia. To this end he pick'd out of his whole Army, Twenty thousand Foot, and Four thousand Horse, that were the briskest and most active Men, and march'd towards Cilicia to break Eumenes before he grew too strong. But Eumenes understanding the hot Temper of Antigonus, march'd away into Phaenicia to regain it for the Kings, then unjustly detain'd from them by Ptolemy: But not having an opportunity to do what he design'd, he remov'd out of Phaenicia, and march'd with his Army through Caelo-Syria, to get into the higher Provinces. Afterwards he lost some of his Men at the River Tigris, by an attack upon him in the Night by some of the Inhabitants. In the like manner he was fallen upon in the Province of Babylon, by Seleucus, near the River Euphrates, and was in great danger to have lost all his Army; where by the Breach of a Dyke his whole Camp was very near being over-flow'd and drown'd. But setting his Wits at work he fled to a high Bank of Earth, and diverting the Water another way, preserv'd both himself and his Army.
And so beyond his expectation he escap'd Seleucus, and got into Persia with Fifteen thousand Foot, and Thirteen hundred Horse. Having refresh'd his Soldiers after all their Toils and Labours, he sent to the Governors and Captains of the higher Provinces to fur¦nish him with more Men and Money. And in this State were the Affairs of Asia this Year.
But as for Europe, after the Losses and Misfortunes of Polysperchon at Megalopolis, many of the Greek Cities revolted from the Kings to Cassander. And because the Athenians could not get rid of the Garison either by the help of Polysperchon or Olympias, one of the most eminent Citizens made bold to say in the publick Assembly, That it was for the Interest of the City to close with Cassander. At the first there was a great Hurly-burly, some being for and others against what was said: But the advantage being more calmly debated and consider'd, by common consent it was at length decreed, That Peace should be made with Cassander, upon such Conditions as could be obtain'd by their Ambassadors. In pursuance whereof, (after some Meetings) these were the Terms of Peace agreed upon, That the Athenians should quietly enjoy the City, the Territory and all the Profits, together with the Shipping and all other things, and should for the future be Page 606 Friends, and Confederates with Cassander; but that Cassander should for the present hold Munichia till the War was ended with the Kings: And that the Common-wealth should pay a Tribute of Ten Minas; and that an Athenian should be constituted Protector and Guardian of the City, whom-ever Cassander pleas'd. Whereupon Demetrius the Phalerian was chosen; who being invested with the Office, kept the City in perfect Peace, and carry'd himself very obligingly towards all the Citizens.
After this Nicanor brought his Fleet into the Pireum, adorn'd with the Beaks of Ships gain'd in the late Victory: Upon the account of which success he was at the first highly honour'd by Cassander, but afterwards perceiving that he grew Proud and Haughty, and still detain'd the Fort of Munichia with his own Soldiers, he had a jealousie of him that he intended to revolt, and therefore laid a Trap for him and cut him off. Then he march'd into Macedonia, where many of the Inhabitants revolted to him; many likewise of the Greek Cities were inclin'd to join with Cassander. For Polysperchon seem'd to be slothful and careless in managing the Affairs both of the Kingdom and the Allies. Cassander on the other hand, behaved himself with great Candor towards all, and approv'd himself industrious in the Management of Publick Affairs, so that he gain'd many who countenanc'd him in his seeking to obtain the Supream Authority.
But now because Agathocles the Year next following became Tyrant of Syracuse, we shall, as we design'd at the beginning, put an end to this Book, and begin the next with Agathocles his advance to the Throne, and go on with the Affairs proper and pertinent to our History.
The Histories of Herodotus written in 440 BC is considered to be the founding work of history in Western literature. His history included stories and fables but he claimed to have traveled extensively and learned about many countries through direct observation.
The thesis of Stolen Legacy is that the Egyptians created what is wrongly called Greek philosophy. Dr. James argues that the African origin of Greek Philosophy is well known but rarely discussed. Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus the Sicilian wrote in significant detail about the contributions of Egypt. Egyptian technology and libraries were unmatched and Greek philosophers such as Pythagoras and Plato studied there. The contribution of Africa to the intellectual foundation of modern knowledge is tremendous but unacknowledged.
The Library of History by Diodorus the Sicilian is one of the most highly regarded universal histories in antiquities. His work includes the history of Egypt, Asia, Africa, Greece and Europe. His book is a must read for research of ancient history.
Bible Study The King James Bible (kjv), World English Bible (web) and Bible in Basic English (bbe) are all examples of public domain books. The King James Bible (kjv) online uses the content from these books and open source software to enhance Bible study capabilities. The site includes the verse of the day, search tools, christian literature and links to related content. It demonstrates the use of open source to create a valuable service.