IT ought to be the special care of all Historians, not only in their Writings to observe whatever may be useful and profitable, but also to keep to a due Order and Method in the several parts of their History. This not only conduces much to direct and caution private Persons how to get and keep Estates, but is an extraordinary help to Writers, in composing of their Historical Treatises. For some there are, that though they are justly in high Esteem for their Eloquent Style, and Variety of Learning discover'd in their Writings, yet have been too careless in distributing their Matter under proper Heads; so that though the Readers may easily discern their great Pains and Industry, yet their manner of Writing deserves justly to be censur'd. Timaeus indeed was very exact in his Chronology, and extraordinarily industrious to abound in variety of Relations; but for his unseasonable and immoderate Censuresof others, may be justly tax'd and reprehended himself; who for his unbounded Liberty that he takes in this bitter Censuring, is call'd by some, the Detracter.
But Ephorus, on the contrary, in his Ʋniversal History, acts the part of an excellent Historian, both as to the Elegancy of his Style, and his accurate Method: For he divides his Books according to their several Subjects, keeping close in every Book to things of one and the same nature. Which way and order of Writing, I approve above all others, and therefore shall endeavour to imitate him as well as I can.
A Description of Sicily. The Aeolides or Lipari 〈…〉nds. Of Malta, Gaulus, Cercina, Corsica, Sardinia, Pityusa and the Baleares.
HAving design'd this Book for a Description of the Islands, we shall first begin with Sicily, being the chiefest and most remarkable for Ancient and Memorable Actions.
It was anciently call'd Trinacria, from its Shape. Afterwards by the Sicanians, the first Inhabitants, it was call'd Sicania; and at last it was call'd Sicily, from the Sicilians, who with all their People entirely transported themselves thither out of Italy.
In Circuit, it's Four Thousand, Three Hundred and Sixty Furlongs: For one of the Three Sides, from the Promontory Pelorus to Lilibeum, is a Thousand and Seven Hundred Furlongs; the other from Lilibeum to Pachinum, a Promontory of Syracuse, runs out in length a Thousand and Five Hundred Furlongs. The rest contains a Thousand, One Hundred and Forty Furlongs.
The Sicilians, the Inhabitants, from old Tradition, continu'd down to them from their Fore-fathers, say, that this Island is dedicated to Ceres and Proserpine. Some of the Poets feign, that at the Marriage of Pluto and Proserpine, this Island was given to the new Bride, by Jupiter for a † Present. The most approv'd Authors say, that the Sicanians who were the ancient Possessors, were the first natural Inhabitants of this Isle; and that the Goddesses which we have before-mention'd, appear'd first in this Island; and that the fatness of the Soyl was such, that Corn first grew here of it self, which the most Eminent of all the Poets confirms in these Words—
For in the Territory of Leontium, and in many other Parts of Sicily, there grows up wild Wheat at this very Day. If it be ask'd in what part of the World these Grains were first known, before the use of Corn was found out; it's most probable that they were first brought to the best and richest Country, and therefore upon that Account, we see that the Sicilians most especially worship those Goddesses who were the first Discoverers of these Fruits. That the Rape of Proserpine was in this Country (they say) is most clear and evident from hence, that neither of these Goddesses ever resided in any other Place, but in this Island, wherein they delighted above all others. The Rape, they say, was in the Meadows of Enna, not far from the City, a Place deck'd with Violets, and all sorts of other Flowers, affording a most beautiful and pleasant Prospect. It's said, that the fragrancy of the Flowers is such, that the Dogs sent out to hunt the Game, thereby lose the benefit of their Sense, and are made incapable by their Scent to find out the Prey. This Meadow-ground in the middle and highest part of it is Champain, and well water'd, but all the Borders round are craggy, guarded with high and steep Precipices, and is supposed to lye in the very Heart of Sicily: Whence it's call'd by some the Navel of Sicily: Near Page 177 at hand are Groves, Meadows and Gardens, surrounded with Morasses, and a deep Cave, with a Passage under Ground opening towards the North, through which they say, Pluto pass'd in his Chariot, when he forc'd away Proserpine. In this Place the Violets and other sweet Flowers flourish continually all the Year long, and present a pleasant and delightsom Prospect to the Beholders all over the flourishing Plain.
The say, that Minerva and Diana, who had both vow'd Virginity as well as Proserpine, were bred up together with her, and all Three wrought a Gown for Jupiter their Father, of the Flowers they had gather'd in Company one with another. And that they were exceedingly delighted in the Island upon the account of the familiar Converse they injoy'd one with another; so that each of them chose out a particular Place for their several Residences. Minerva made choice of those Parts near Himaera, where the Nymphs for the sake of Minerva open'd the Hot Baths about the time of Hercules his coming thither. The Inhabitants likewise dedicated the City to her (to this Day call'd Athenaeum) with the Country round about. To Diana was allotted by the Goddesses the Island at Syracuse, which from her was call'd both by the Oracles of the Gods and by Men, Ortygia. The Nymphs likewise to ingratiate themselves the more with Diana, made a mighty great Fountain in this Island, call'd Arethusa, wherein were bred many great Fishes, not only in Ancient Times, but there they remain to this very Day as Sacred and never toucht by any. But when some in time of War have made bold to feed upon 'em, they have suddenly by the apparent anger of the Goddess been afflicted with some remarkable Calamity, of which we shall write more fully in its proper Time and Place.
Proserpine injoy'd the pleasant Meadows about Enna in Common, with the other two Goddesses, and had a great Fountain call'd Cyane, in the Territories of Syracuse, consecrated to her. For they say, that Pluto after the Rape, carry'd away Proserpine in a Chariot to Syracuse, and there the Earth opening, both of them descended into Hell together, from which time in that Place arose the Spring and Lake call'd Cyane, where the Syracusians every Year celebrate a solemn Festival; at which they privatly Sacrific'd the lesser Victims, but publickly and openly they threw Bulls into the Lake; which manner of Sacrifice Hercules introduc'd, when he went over all Sicily with the Herds of Geryon. After the Rape of Proserpine, they say, Ceres (not being able to find out her Daughter) lighted Firebrands at the Irruptions of Aetna, and wandred through divers Parts of the World to seek her, and did much good where she came, especially where she was courteously receiv'd, bestowing Wheat upon the Inhabitants in a grateful return of their Civility. And because the Athenians entertain'd this Goddess with the greatest civility; therefore next to Sicily, they were the First upon whom she bestow'd this Grain; for which the People of Athens honour'd this Goddess above all others with splendid Sacrifices, and sacred Mysteries at Eleusis, which for their antiquity and sanctity are greatly esteem'd every where.
The Athenians generously communicated this Blessing of Corn to many others, and they imparted of the Seed to their Neighbours, so that by degrees the whole World was full of it.
The Sicilians therefore being the First that had the use of Corn, by reason of their Familiar Converse with Ceres and Proserpine who dwelt among them, instituted Sacrifices and Solemn Festivals to both these Goddesses, whose Names gave Reputation to the things; which Festivals were solemniz'd at such a time, as was most proper to point at the great benefit they had receiv'd: For they celebrated the Rape of Proserpine, in the time of Wheat Harvest, and perform'd these Sacrifices and Solemnities with that sanctity and application of Mind, as became them, who were oblig'd to be thankful for being prefer'd before all other People in the World with the First reception of so great a Blessing.
They had another Festival which they celebrated to Ceres at the time of Wheat Seedings; it continu'd for the space of Ten Days, and was remarkable for the Name of the Goddess; and during this time every thing was celebrated with great Pomp and Splendour; but the rest of the Worship was after the old way and Fashion. But it's a Custom among them during all these Ten Days, to use Obscene and Fifthy Language in their Converse one with another, because the Goddess being put into dumps of Melancholy for the loss of her Daughter, is put to the Smile they say, by smutty Discourse. That the Rape of ProserpinePage 178 was in this manner, as we have before declared, many of the Ancients both Poets and Historians do generally affirm. For Carcinus the Tragaedian, who came often to Syracuse, observing how Zealous the Citizens were in celebrating the Sacreds and Festivals of Ceres, has these Verses in his Poems.
It's not fit we should here omit giving an Account of the Kindness and Bounty of this Goddess to Mankind: For besides that she found out Corn, she taught the Art of Husbandry, and instituted Laws, whereby Men govern'd their actions according to the Rules of Justice and Honesty: For which reason they say, she was call'd the Law-maker And certainly none can bestow greater Benefits than these imparted by her, which include both Being and Well-being. But this concerning the Antiquities of Sicily shall suffice.
But its necessary to say in brief something of the Sicanians, the first Inhabitants of Sicily, because several Historians differ in their Relations concerning them. For Philistus says they were a Colony transplanted from Iberia into this Island, and came thither from the River Sicanus from whence they were call'd Sicani. But Timaeus (condemning the Ignorance of this Writer) proves clearly and evidently that they were the Original Inhabitants; whose Reasons to prove their Antiquity being many we conceive it needless to recite. The Sicanians anciently dwelt in Villages, and built little Towns upon Hills that were naturally strong, for their better Security against Thieves and Robbers. For they were not under one General Monarch, but every Town had each a several Prince. And at first they injoy'd the whole Island, and liv'd by Tillage and improvement of the Ground: But after that Aetna burst out in Flames in many Parts of it, and streams of Fire even overflow'd the neighbouring Territory, the Country lay wast and ruin'd for a great space and Tract of Ground together. And in regard the Fire continu'd thus to spoil the Country for many years together, the Inhabitants in a Consternation forsook the Eastern Parts of Sicily, and went down into the West. At length after many Ages the Sicilians with all their Families transported themselves out of Italy, and setled in that part of the Island before forsaken by the Sicanians. Where out of a covetous desire to gain more, they incroacht still further, and made incursions into the neighbouring Countries, so that there were frequent Wars between them and the Sicanians, till by a mutual Compact and agreement they settl'd the Boundaries of each others Territories; of which we shall give a particular account in their Proper place and time. The last that sent Colonies into Sicily were the Grecians, and those very considerable, who built Cities Page 179 upon the Sea Coasts. By the multitude of Grecians that resorted thither and the frequent and ordinary Commerce with them, they learnt both the Language, and the Grecians way of living, and lost (together with their own barbarous Dialect) their very Name likewise, and were call'd Sicilians. Having said enough of these, we shall now pass to the Islands called the Eolides, which are seven in number call'd Strongyle, Euonymus, Didyme, Phoenicusa, Hiera, Vulcania, and Lipara; in which last there's a City of the same name: These lie between Sicily and Italy in a direct line from East to West, and are distant from Sicily about an hundred and fifty Furlongs: They are much of an equal bigness; the greatest of them is in Circuit an hundred and fifty Furlongs. They have been all subject to great eruptions of Fire, the Passages of which by the openings of the Earth are apparent and visible at this day. But in Strongyle and Hiera to this very time violent Vapours burst out of the Earth, with a roaring dreadful noise; abundance likewise of Sand and Fiery stones are Vomited out of the Ground; the like to which may be seen about Mount Aetna: For some affirm that from these Islands there are Caverns within the Earth that run out as far Aetna, and so there's a Communication one with another, and therefore both these, and those Breaches and Casmas of the Earth at Aetna, cast forth their Flames at certain seasons by turns. They say that these Islands anciently were desert and uninhabited; and that afterwards Liparus Son of King Auson upon a sedition rais'd against him by his Brothers with a Fleet well man'd, Fled out of Italy into the Island, from him call'd Lipara, where he built a City of the same name, and till'd and cultivated the rest of the Islands. When he was old, Aeolus the Son of Hippotas, with some other of his Associats arriv'd in the Island, and marri'd Cyane the Daughter of Liparus; and investing the rest that he brought along with him, with the same Rights and Privileges that the natural Inhabitants injoy'd, he became supream Lord of the Island. Liparus afterwards having a desire to return into Italy, Aeolus assisted him in possessing the Country about Syrrentum, where (after he had reign'd with a general applause) he dy'd, and was bury'd in great state and funeral Pomp, and honour'd by the Inhabitants as a Demy God. This is that Aeolus (which they say) entertaind Ʋlysses in his Wandrings; and was reported to be pious towards the Gods, righteous towards Men, and kind and courteous to Strangers.
It's likwise reported that he taught Mariners the use of Sails; and by the diligent observance of Fire foretold the rising of Winds; whence he was feign'd to have a Sovereign power over the Winds; and for his Piety was call'd the Friend of the Gods. He had Six Sons, Astyochus, Xuthus, Androcles, Pheroemon, Jocastes and Agathurnus, who were all in great Reputation and esteem upon the account of the Fame of their Father's Vertues.
Amongst these Sons Jocastes reign'd as King over those Parts, lying upon the Sea-Coasts of Italy, as far as Rhegium. Pheroemon and Androcles injoy'd that Part of Sicily from the narrow cut of the Sea to Lilibaeum. That part of the Country that lyes Eastward was inhabited by the Sicilians; the other towards the West by the Sicanians, which several People were continually Quarrelling one with another: But they freely submitted to the Sons of Aeolus, for the sake of their Father's Eminent Piety, and their own gentle and sweet Dispositions. Xuthus reign'd in the Territory of Leontium, call'd from him Xuthia to this Day. Agathurnus possess'd the Region now call'd Agathynites, and built the City call'd Agathurnum, after his own Name.
Astyochus was Sovereign Lord of Lipara; and all of them imitating their Father's Piety and Justice, were in great Honour and Esteem. After the Posterity of Aeolus had reign'd successively for many Ages together, at last the Royal Line in Sicily was extinct. After which, the Sicilians were under an Aristocratical Government: But the Sicanians fell to odds one with another about the Sovereignty, and for a long time together were imbroil'd in a Civil War.
Many Years afterwards, when the other Islands (through the Severity of the Kings of Asia) were more and more empty'd of their Inhabitants, some of Cnydus and Rhodes determin'd to transplant themselves; to which end they created Pentathlus a Cnidian, their Captain (who deriv'd his Pedigree from Hippotes the Son of Hercules) and under his Conduct they transported themselves into Sicily, and arriv'd at Lilibaeum.
Page 180 This fell out in the Fiftieth Olympiad, in which Epitilidas the Laconian was Victor. At which time likewise it happen'd, that Aegestanes and Selinuntes were at War one with another; in which War (joyning with the Selinuntines) in one Battel, they lost many of their Men, and among the rest, their General Pentathlus. The Selinuntines being thus routed, those of these Strangers that surviv'd, determin'd to return Home; to which purpose they chose Gorgus Thestores and Epitherides, of the Houshold of Pentathlus, to be their Captains, who sail'd through the Tyrrhene Sea, to Lipara, where they were kindly receiv'd, and easily perswaded to enter into a League with the Inhabitants, and dwell among them, who were then scarce Five Hundred that remain'd of those that came over with Aeolus.
Afterwards when the Tyrrhenians infested the Seas with their Pyracies, (being vext with their Incursions) they prepar'd a Fleet for their Defence; and divided themselves into several Parts, some to till the Ground, and others to guard the Seas against the Pirats.
Then injoying their Estates in Common, and feeding together in Societies, they continu'd for some time in this Community of Life. Afterwards they divided Lipara (wherein was situated the Metropolitan City) amongst themselves; the rest of the Islands they Till'd and improv'd for the use of them all in Common.
At last they divided all the Islands for the space of Twenty Years; and when that time was expir'd, they again made a Division by Lot. Afterwards they overcame the Tyrrhenians in many Sea-Fights, and devoted the Tenths of the best of their Spoils to the Oracle at Delphos.
It remains we should shew by what means the City of Lipara in succeeding Ages grew to that height of Wealth, that they were not only happy in themselves, but renown'd and glorious Abroad.
This City is beautify'd by Nature with very large and fair Harbours, and furnish'd with famous Baths; for they are not only Medicinal, but by reason of their singular Properties and Qualities, afford much Pleasure and Delight; and therefore many in Sicily that are taken with strange and unusual Diseases, pass over into this Island, and by washing themselves in the hot Baths, are restor'd presently to perfect Health, even to Admiration.
And the Island it self to this Day, abounds in that famous Mineral of Allom, which brings in a great Revenue both to the Liparians and the Romans; For being in no other part of the World, and so very useful, the Inhabitants (upon good Reason) have the sole vending of this Commodity, and by setting what rate they please upon it, they grow prodigiously rich. Only indeed in the Isle of Melos, there grows a sort of small Allom, but not sufficient to supply any considerable number of Cities. This Island of Lipara is not large, but reasonably well stor'd with Fruit, and abounds with every thing necessary for the Sustenance of Man's Life; for it plentifully supplies the Inhabitants with all sorts of Fish, and bears Fruit most delicious to the Taste. But this may suffice to be said of Lipara, and the rest of the Aeolid Islands.
Next to Lipara Westward, lies a small Island uninhabited, call'd (upon a remarkable Accident) Ostales. For at the time when the Carthaginians were ingag'd in great Wars with the Syracusians, they were furnish'd with considerable Forces both at Sea and Land; amongst whom were many Mercenaries out of several Countries, which were always a turbulent sort of Men, and commonly accustom'd to raise many horrid Mutinies in the Army, especially when they receiv'd not their Pay at the Day when it was due. Some therefore there were at that time (about the number of Six Thousand) according to their usual Insolency and rude Behaviour (not receiving their Pay) first got into a Body together, and then with rude Shouts and Clamours, assaulted their Commanders. And when for want of Money, they still delay'd to pay them, they threatned they would prosecute their Right against the Carthaginians with Force of Arms, and thereupon laid hold upon their Officers; and though they receiv'd a Check from the Senate for their unruliness, yet they were the more furious and outragious. Whereupon the Senate privately order'd the Colonels and Officers to put all the Mutineers to Death; upon which Orders, they forthwith got them all on Ship-board, and (under colour of some Military Service to be perform'd) Page 181 transported them to the Island before-mention'd, and there landed them and left them: And though they storm'd and rag'd at this Misfortune, yet they were in no capacity to revenge themselves upon the Carthaginians, but at length were all famished to Death: And being that so great a Number (as if they had been Captives of War) perish'd in so small an Island, this strait place was fill'd with the multitude of dead Mens Bones; and for this reason the Island was call'd as aforesaid.
And in this manner these Mercenaries (by the fraud of their own Officers) were brought into these Extremities, and miserably perished for want of Food.
Having now gone through the Aeolides, we shall next view those Islands that lie on both Sides of them.
Southward over against Sicily, lie Three Islands, which have all safe and commodious Harbours, and each of them a City.
The first is Malta, about Eight Hundred Furlongs from Syracuse, furnish'd with very good Harbours; and the Inhabitants are very Rich; for it's full of all sorts of Artificers, amongst whom there are excellent Weavers of fine Linen. Their Houses are very Stately and Beautiful, adorn'd with graceful Eaves, and pargeted with white Plaister. The Inhabitants are a Colony of Phaenicians, who trading as Merchants as far as the Western Ocean, resorted to this Island upon the account of its commodious Ports, and convenient situation for a Sea-Trade; and by the advantage of this Place, the Inhabitants presently became famous both for their Wealth and Merchandize.
The next is Gaulus, furnish'd with several safe Harbours, and first inhabited by the Phaenicians.
Then follows Circina, lying to the Coasts of Africa, in which is a handsom City, and most commodious Ports, wherein may ride not only Merchant Men, but Men of War.
Having spoken of the Southern Islands, we shall return to the rest near to the Lipari, which lye in the Tyrrhenian Sea; for near to Populonium (as it's call'd) a City of Hetruria, lies Aethalia, distant from Lipara, near a Hundred Furlongs, so call'd from the great Mists and Fogs that rise there. This Island abounds with Iron Stone, which they dig and cut out of the Ground to melt, in order for the making of Iron; much of which Mettal is in this sort of Stone. The Workmen imploy'd first, cut the Stone in Pieces, and then melt them in Furnaces, built and prepar'd for the purpose. In these Furnaces, the Stones by the violent heat of the Fire, are melted into several Pieces, in form like to great Spunges, which the Merchants buy by Truck and Exchange of other Wares, and transport them to Dicearchia; and other Mart-Towns.
Some of these Merchants that buy of these Wares, cause 'em to be wrought by the Copper Smiths, who beat and fashion 'em into all sorts of Tools, Instruments and other shapes and Fancies; as some they neatly beat into the shape of Birds, others into Spades, Hooks, and other sorts of Utensils. All which are transported and carry'd about into several parts of the World by the Merchants.
There's another Island, by the Greeks call'd Cyrnon, and by the Romans and Natural Inhabitants Corsica, Three Hundred Furlongs distant from Aethalia. It's an Island of an easy Access, and has a beautiful large Harbour, call'd Syra•usium. There are in it two Cities Calaris and Nicaea.
The Phoceans built Calaris, at the time they were possessors of the Island, but were afterwards ejected by the Tyrrhenians. Nicaea was built by the Hetrurians, when they Lorded it as Masters at Sea, and subdu'd all the Islands that lye near adjoyning to Hetruria.
During the time the Cities of Corsica were subject to them, they exacted a Tribute from the Inhabitants, of Rozen, Wax and Hony, of which great plenty is produc'd in this Island. Corsican Bond-Slaves are naturally of such a Temper and Qualification, that for usefulness they are to be preferr'd before all others whatsoever. The Island is large, a great part of it Mountainous and Woody, and water'd with several small Rivers.
Page 182 The Inhabitants feed upon Milk, Honey and Flesh, which this Country affords plentifully, and exceed all other Barbarians in Justice and Humanity one towards another: For where any find Honey in hollow Trees in the Mountains, it's certainly his that finds it, without any further Dispute. The Sheep have all their Owners Mark set upon them, and that certainly secures the Property of their Masters, though there be no Shepherd to look after them. And in all other respects in their Converse and way of Living, every one of them in their several Stations observe the Rules of common Right and Justice. A very strange thing there is among 'em concerning the Birth of their Children; for when the Woman is in Labour, there's no care taken of her in the time of her Travel; but the Husband goes to Bed as if he were sick, and there continues for certain Days, as if he were under the Pains of a Woman in Travel.
Here grows in this Island abundance of extraordinary Box-Trees, which is the Reason that the Honey produc'd here, is many times very bitter. It's possess'd by Barbarians, whose Language is very strange and difficult to be understood; they are above the number of Thirty Thousand.
Next to this lies Sardinia, an Island as big as Sicily; it's inhabited by Barbarians, whom they call Iolaeians, sprung (as they they themselves suppose) from those few that inhabited the Country with Iolaus and the Thespidae. For at that time that Hercules instituted those so much Celebrated Games, having many Children by the Daughters of Thespius, by the Command of the Oracle, he sent them with a numerous Train, both of Barbarians and Grecians into Sardinia, to settle themselves in new Habitations.
Their Captain Iolaus (Hercules his Nephew on his Brother's side) possess'd himself of the Island, and built in it several famous Cities; and dividing the Country by Lot, call'd the People from himself, Iolaeians. He built likewise publick Schools and Temples, and left other Monuments for publick use, and general advantage, which remain to this Day.
For the most pleasant Fields of the Country are call'd after him, The Fields of Iolaus, or The Iolaeian Fields; and the People are still call'd Iolaeians from him. It was foretold likewise by the Oracle concerning his Colony, that if they were call'd after his Name, their Freedoms and Liberties should be secur'd to them for ever; and accordingly their Laws and Government have been preserv'd firm and unshaken to this Day. For though the Carthaginians, when they were in the height of their Power, took this Island, yet they could not inslave the People: for the Iolaeians fled to the Mountains, and made them Habitations under Ground, and kept and maintain'd many Herds and flocks of Cattel, which afforded them Food sufficient, both as to Milk, Cheese and Flesh. And thus leaving the Champain Parts of the Country, they were both freed from the Toyl of Plowing and Tilling the Ground; and besides, liv'd at ease in the Mountains, contented with a mean and moderate Provision, as we before said.
And although the Carthaginians often assaulted them with great Armies, yet the difficulties of the Places were such, and the windings and turnings within these Subterraneous Caves were so inexplicable, that they were ever the security of these Inhabitants from Bondage and Slavery. And lastly, the Romans, since they became Masters of the Place, have often attempted to reduce them by force of Arms, but were never able to prevail, for the Reasons before alledg'd. But to return to the ancient Times; Iolaus after he had settled all the Concerns relating to the Colony, return'd into Greece. The Thespiades after they had been Lords of the Island for many Ages, were at length expuls'd, and driven into Italy, and seated themselves in the Parts and Places about Cuma: The rest of the People return'd to their former Barbarism, and making choice of the best Captains from among their own Countrymen, have defended their Liberties to this Day.
Having said enough of Sardinia, we shall now go on with the other Islands.
Next to the before-mention'd Island, is Pityusa, so call'd from the multitude of Pine-Trees growing there, lying in the midst of the Sea, Three Days, and as many Nights Sayl from Hercules's Pillars, one Day and Nights Sail from the Coast of Africa, and only a Days Sayl from Spain; as large as Corcyra, and reasonably Fruitful. It bears some few Vines and wild Olive-Trees. Amongst other things it produces, it's most esteem'd for fine Wool. It's chequer'd with pleasant Champain Fields, and lovely Hills. There's a City in it call'd Ercsum, inhabited Page 183 by a Colony of Carthaginians: The Island is grac'd with famous Ports, and high Walls, and a great number of stately Houses. Barbarians of several Nations inhabit there, but most are Carthaginians, a Colony of whom settled there about a Hundred and Sixty Years after the building of Carthage.
There are other Islands over against Spain, which the Grecians call Gymnesiae, because in Summer-time the Inhabitants go naked. By the Natives and the Romans they are call'd Baleares, from casting of huge massy Stones out of Slings, wherein the Inhabitants excel all other People.
The Greater of these Islands is larger than all the rest of the Islands, except these Seven, Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, Crete, Eubaea, Corsica, and Lesbos. It's one Days Sail distant from Spain.
The Lesser lies more Eastward, and breeds and feeds all sorts of brave and large Cattel, especially Mules, which for the largeness of their Bodies, and the exceeding noise they make in their Braying, are remarkable above all others. Both these Islands are of a good and fertile Soyl, and are Peopled with above Thirty Thousand Inhabitants.
As to the Fruits of the Earth; they are altogether destitute of Wine; the want therefore of it makes 'em the more eager after it. Neither have they any Oyl amongst them; to supply which, they press out the Oyly part of Mastick, and mix it and Swines-Grease together, and with this Composition anoint their Bodies.
They love Women exceedingly, whom they value at such a Rate, that when the Pyrats bring any Women they have taken, thither, they'l give as a Ransom Three or Four Men for one Woman. They live in Caves hew'd in the Rocks, and spend all their Days in these Holes, dug up and down in the steepest part of the Rocky Mountains, by which means they provide for themselves both shelter and security.
They make no use either of Silver or Gold Coyn, but prohibit the importation of it into the Island; for which they give this Reason: For that Hercules in former times made War upon Geryon the Son of Chrysaores, for no other reason but because he was rich in Silver and Gold; and therefore that they may live more securely, and quietly injoy what they have, they have made it a standing Law to have nothing to do with that Wealth which consists in those Metals.
According therefore to this Decree, when once heretofore in a War they assisted the Carthaginians, they brought nothing of their Pay into their own Country, but laid it all out in Wine and Women.
They have a filthy Custom likewise amongst 'em concerning their Marriages; for in their Marriage Feasts, all their Friends and Houshold Servants, as they are in Seniority of Age, one after another, carnally know the Bride, till at length it come to the Bridegrooms turn, who has the honour to be last.
They have another strange Custom likewise about the burying of their Dead; they cut the Carcass in Pieces with Wooden Knives or Axes, and so put up all the Parts into an Urn, and then raise up a great heap of Stones over it.
Their Arms are Three Slings, one they wind about their Heads, another they tye about their Loyns, and the Third they carry in their Hands. In time of War, they throw much greater Stones than any other People, and with that Violence, as if a thing were shot out of an Engine; and therefore in the time of Assaults made upon Towns, they grievously gall those that stand upon the Bulwarks, and in Field-Fights break in pieces their Enemies Shields, Helmets, and all other defensive Armour whatsoever; and are such exact Marksmen, that (for the most part) they never miss what they aim at: They attain to this Skill by contiual Exercise from their very Childhood, for while they are very Young, they are forc'd under the tutorage of their Mothers, to cast Stones out of Slings. For they fasten a Piece of Bread for a Mark to a Pole, and till the Child hit the Bread, he must fast, and then at length the Mother gives him the Bread to eat.
Of Medera, Britain, Gallia, Celtiberia, Iberia and Tyrrhenia, and of the Inhabitants, and their Laws and Customs.
SInce we have gone through the Islands lying Eastward, on this side within the Pillars of Hercules, we shall now lanch into the main Ocean to those that lye beyond them; for over against Africa, lies a very great Island in the vast Ocean, of many Days Sayl from Lybia, Westward. The Soyl here is very fruitful, a great part whereof is Mountainous, but much likewise Champain, which is the most sweet and pleasant part of all the rest; for it's water'd with several navigable Rivers, beautify'd with many Gardens of Pleasure, planted with divers sorts of Trees, and abundance of Orchards, interlac'd with Currents of sweet Water. The Towns are adorn'd with stately Buildings, and Banquetting Houses up and down, pleasantly situated in their Gardens and Orchards. And here they recreate themselves in Summer Time, as in Places accomodated for Pleasure and Delight.
The Mountainous part of the Country is cloathed with many large Woods, and all manner of Fruit-Trees; and for the greater Delight and Diversion of People in these Mountains, they ever and anon open themselves into pleasant Vales, watered with Fountains and refreshing Springs: And indeed the whole Island abounds with Springs of sweet Water: Whence the Inhabitants not only reap pleasure and delight, but improve in Health and Strength of Body.
There you may have Game enough in Hunting all sorts of Wild Beasts, of which there's such plenty, that in their Feasts there's nothing wanting either as to Pomp or Delight. The adjoyning Sea furnishes them plentifully with Fish, for the Ocean there naturally abounds with all sorts.
The Air and Climate in this Island is very Mild and Healthful, so that the Trees bear Fruit (and other things that are produc'd there, are fresh and beautiful) most part of the Year; so that this Island (for the excellency of it in all respects) seems rather to be the Residence of some of the Gods, than of Men.
Anciently by reason of its remote situation, it was altogether unknown, but afterwards discover'd upon this occasion.
The Phaenicians in ancient Times undertook frequent Voyages by Sea, in way of Traffick as Merchants, so that they planted many Colonies both in Africa and in these Western Parts of Europe. These Merchants succeeding in their undertaking, and thereupon growing very rich, pass'd at length beyond the Pillars of Hercules, into the Sea call'd the Ocean: And first they built a City call'd Gades, near to Hercules his Pillars, at the Sea-side, in an Isthmus in Europe; in which, among other things proper for the Place, they built a stately Temple to Hercules, and instituted splendid Sacrifices to be offer'd to him after the Rites and Customs of the Phaenicians. This Temple is in great Veneration at this Day, as well as in former Ages; so that many of the Romans, famous and renown'd both for their Births and glorious Actions, have made their Vows to this God, and after Success in their Affairs, have faithfully perform'd 'em. The Phaenicians therefore upon the account before related, having found out the Coasts beyond the Pillars, and sailing along by the Shoar of Africa, were on a suddain driven by a furious Storm afar off into the main Ocean; and after they had lain under this violent Tempest for many Days, they at length arriv'd at this Island; and so coming to the Knowledge of the nature and pleasantness of this Isle, they were the first that discover'd it others: And therefore the Hetrurians (when they were Masters at Sea) design'd to send a Colony thither; but the Carthaginians oppos'd them, both fearing lest most of their own Citizens should be allur'd (through the goodness of the Island) to settle there, and likewise intending to keep it as a Place of Refuge for themselves, in case of any suddain and unexpected blasts of Fortune, which might tend to the utter ruin of their Government. For being then Potent at Sea, they doubted not but they could easily (unknown to the Conquerors) transport themselves and their Families into that Page 185 Island. Having now spoken sufficiently of the African Ocean, and the Islands belonging to it, we shall pass over to Europe.
For over against the French Shoar, opposite to the Hircinian Mountains (which are the greatest of any in Europe) there lye in the Ocean many Islands; the greatest of which is that which they call Britain, which anciently remain'd untoucht, free from all Foreign Force; for it was never known that either Bacchus, Hercules, or any of the ancient Heroes or Princes, ever made any attempt upon it by force of Arms: But Julius Caesar in our time (who by his great Atchievments gain'd the Title of Divine) was the first (that any other makes mention of) that conquer'd the Island, and compell'd the Britains to pay Tribute. But these things shall be more particularly treated of in their proper time: We shall now only say something concerning the Island, and the Tin that's found there.
In Form it's Triangular, like Sicily; but the Sides are unequal. It lies in an Oblique Line, over against the Continent of Europe; so that the Promontory call'd Cantium, next to the Continent (they say) is about a Hundred Furlongs from the Land: Here the Sea ebbs and flows; but the other Point call'd Belerium, is Four Days Sail from the Continent.
The last call'd Horcas or Orcas, runs out far into the Sea. The least of the Sides facing the whole Continent, is Seven Thousand and Five Hundred Furlongs in length; the Second stretching out itself all along from the Sea to the highest Point, is Fifteen Thousand Furlongs, and the last is Twenty Thousand. So that the whole Compass of the Island is Forty Two Thousand, Five Hundred Furlongs. The Inhabitants are the Original People thereof, and live to this time after their own ancient manner and custom: For in Fights they use Chariots, as it's said the old Grecian Heroes did in the Trojan War. They dwell in mean Cottages, covered for the most part with Reeds or Sticks. In reaping of their Corn, they cut off the Ears from the Stalk, and so house them up in Repositories under Ground; thence they take and pluck out the Grains of as many of the oldest of them as may serve them for the day, and after they have bruis'd the Corn, make it into Bread. They are of much Sincerity and Integrity, far from the Craft and Knavery of Men among us; contented with plain and homely Fare, Strangers to the Excess and Luxury of Rich Men. The Island is very Populous, but of a cold Climate, subject to Frosts, being under the Artick Pole. They are govern'd by several Kings and Princes, who for the most part are at Peace and Amity one with another. But of their Laws and other things peculiar to this Island, we shall treat more particularly, when we come to Caesar's Expedition into Britain.
Now we shall speak something of the Tin that's dug and gotten there. They that inhabit the British Promontary of Balerium, by reason of their Converse with Merchants, are more civiliz'd and courteous to Strangers than the rest are. These are the People that make the Tin, which with a great deal of Care and Labour they dig out of the Ground; and that being Rocky, the Meetle is mixt with some Veins of Earth, out of which they melt the Mettle, and then refine it: Then they beat it into Four-square Pieces like to a Dye, and carry it to a British Isle near at Hand, call'd Ictis. For at low Tide, all being dry between them and the Island, they convey over in Carts abundance of Tin in the mean time. But there's one thing peculiar to these Islands which lye between Britain and Europe: For at Full Sea, they appear to be Islands, but at low Water for a long Way, they look like so many Peninsula's. Hence the Merchants transport the Tin they buy of the Inhabitants, to France; and for Thirty Days Journey, they carry it in Packs upon Horses Backs through France, to the Mouth of the River Rhosne. But thus much concerning Tin. Now something remains to be said of Amber.
Over against Scythia above Gall in the Ocean, lies an Island call'd Basilea, upon which there's cast by the working of the Sea, abundance of Amber, not to be found in any other part of the World.
Page 186 Many of the ancient Historians have written incredible Stories of this Amber, which since have been experienc'd to be false: For many Poets and other Writers report, that Phaeton the Son of Sol, while he was but as yet a young Boy, prevail'd with his Father to give him liberty to drive his Chariot for one Day: Which Request obtain'd, the Youth not being able to manage the Reins, the Horses scorn'd the Charioteer, and forsook their ancient Course, and ran wildly and disorderly through the Heavens, and first set them on Fire, and by that means caus'd that Tract call'd the Milky Way; then burning up a great part of the Earth, many Countries were laid waste; at which Jupiter was so inrag'd, that he threw a Thunder-blot at Phaeton, and commanded Sol to guide his Steeds into their wonted Course: And that Phaeton himself fell down into the River Po, anciently call'd Eridanus; and that his Sisters greatly bewailing his Death, (through excessive grief) chang'd their Nature, and were transform'd into Poplar Trees, which Yearly to this Day distil their Tears, and by Concretion (they say) becomes this Electrum or Amber, which for Beauty and Brightness, excels all others of its Kind, and is distill'd most in that Country, when the Deaths of Young Men are solemnly bewail'd. But forasmuch as they that have invented this Story, have turn'd their Backs upon Truth, and that later Ages have disprov'd it by Experience of the Contrary, regard is rather to be had to true and Faithful Historians. For Amber is gather'd in this Island before-mention'd, and transported by the Inhabitants into the opposite Continent, from whence it's brought over to us in these Parts as is before declar'd.
After this Account given of the Western Islands, we conceive it not impertinent, if we briefly relate some things which were omitted in the former Books concerning the Neighbouring Nations in Europe.
In Celtica (they say) once rul'd a famous Man, who had a Daughter of a more Tall and Majestick Stature than ordinary, and for Beauty far beyond all others of her Sex. This Lady glorying much both in her Strength and Beauty, despis'd all that courted her, as judging none worthy of her Bed. It happened that Hercules at the time he was ingag'd in the War against Gallia, marcht into Celtica, and there built Alesia. When this young Virgin saw him, admiring both his Valour and stately Proportion, she readily admitted him to her Bed; yet not without the consent of her Parents. Of this Lady he begat Galetes, who for Virtues of Mind, and strength of Body, far excell'd the rest of his Nation. When he came to Man's Estate, and was possess'd of his Grandfather's Kingdom, he subdu'd many of the Neighbouring Countries, and perform'd many notable Atchievments by his Sword. His Valour being every where nois'd Abroad, he call'd his Subjects after his own Name, Galatians, and the Country Gallatia, Gall.
Having shewn the Original of the Name, something is to be said of the Country it self. Gall is inhabited by several Nations, but not all alike Populous: The greatest of them have in 'em Two Hundred Thousand Men, the least but Fifty Thousand. Of these there's one that has been an Ancient Ally of the Romans, and continues so to this Day.
In regard it lies for the greatest part under the Artick Pole, it's very cold, and subject to Frosts; for in Winter in Cloudy Days, instead of Rain, the Earth is cover'd with Snow; in clear Weather, every Place is so full of Ice and Frost, that the Rivers are frozen up to that degree, that they are naturally cover'd over with Bridges of Ice. For not only a small Company of Travellers, but vast Armies, with their Chariots and loaden Carriages, may pass over without any danger or hazard.
There are many great Rivers run through Gaul, which by their various Windings and turnings cut through and parcel the Champain Grounds, some of which have their Spring-heads from deep Lakes, others issue out from the Mountains, and empty themselves either into the Ocean or into our Seas.
The greatest that falls into our Sea, is the Rhosne, which rises out of the Alps, and at Five Mouths, disgorges itself into the Sea. Of those that empty themselves into the Ocean, the greatest are the Danube and the Rhine; over the last of which Caesar, call'd Divus, (in our time) to admiration, cast a Bridge, and past over his Forces, and subdu'd the Gauls on the other side.
Page 187 There are many other Navigable Rivers in Celtica, to write of which particularly would be tedious: Almost all of them are some times Frozen up, as if Bridges were cast over their Channels. But the Ice being naturally smooth, and therefore Slippery to the Passengers, they throw Chaff upon it that they may go the more firmly.
In many Places of Gaul, there's something strange and very remarkable, which is not fit to pass over in silence. For the West and North Winds in Summer are so fierce and violent, that they fling into the Air great Stones as big as a Man can grasp in his Hands, together with a Cloud of Gravel and Dust. Nay, the violence of this Whirlwind is such, that it forces Mens Arms out of their Hands, rents their Cloaths off their Backs, and dismounts the Rider from his Horse.
This excessive Cold and immoderate Temper of the Air, is the cause why the Earth in these Parts produces neither Wine nor Oyl; and therefore the Gauls to supply the want of these Fruits, make a Drink of Barley, which they call Xythus: They mix likewise their Hony-Combs with Water, and make use of that for the same purpose. They are so exceedingly given to Wine, that they guzle it down as soon as it is imported by the Merchant, and are so eager and inordinate, that making themselves drunk, they either fall dead asleep, or become stark mad. So that many Italian Merchants (to gratify their own Covetousness) make use of the Drunkenness of the Gauls to advance their own profit and gain. For they convey the Wine to 'em both by Navigable Rivers, and by Land in Carts, and bring back an incredible price: For in lieu of a Hogshead of Wine, they receive a Boy, giving Drink in truck for a Servant.
In Gaul there are no Silver Mines, but much Gold, with which the nature of the Place supplies the Inhabitants, without the labour or toyl of digging in the Mines. For the winding Course of the River washing with its Streams, the Feet of the Mountains, carries away great pieces of Golden Ore, which those imploy'd in this business gather, and then grind and bruise these Clods of Golden Earth; and when they have so done, cleanse them from the gross Earthy part, by washing them in Water, and then melt them in a Furnace; and thus get together a vast heap of Gold, with which not only the Women, but the Men deck and adorn themselves. For they wear Bracelets of this Mettal about their Wrists and Arms, and massy Chains of pure and beaten Gold about their Necks, and weighty Rings upon their Fingers, and Croslets of Gold upon their Breasts. The Custom observ'd by the higher Gauls in the Temples of their Gods, is admirably remarkable; for in their Oratories and sacred Temples of this Country, in honour of their Gods they scatter Pieces of Gold up and down, which none of the Inhabitants (their superstitious Devotion is such) will in the least touch or meddle with, tho the Gauls are of themselves most exceeding Covetous.
For Stature they are tall, but of a sweaty and pale Complexion, Red-Hair'd, not only Naturally, but they endeavour all they can to make it redder by Art. They often wash their Hair in a Water boyl'd with Lime, and turn it backward from the Forehead to the Crown of the Head, and thence to their very Necks, that their Faces may be more fully seen, so that they look like Satyrs and Hobgoblins. By this sort of management of themselves, their Hair is as hard a Horse's Mane. Some of them shave their Beards; others let them grow a little. The Persons of Quality shave their Chins close, but their Mustaches they let fall so low, that they even cover their Mouths; so that when they eat, their Meat hangs tangling in their Hair; and when they drink, the Liquor runs through their Mustaches as through a Sieve. At Meal-time they all sit, not upon Seats, but upon the Ground, and instead of Carpets, spread Wolves or Dogs Skins under them. Young Boys and Girls attend them, such as are yet but meer Children. Near at Hand they have their Chimneys, with their Fires well furnish'd with Pots and Spits full of whole Joynts of Flesh Meat; and the best and fairest Joynts (in a way of due honour and regard) they set before the Persons of best Quality: As Homer introduces the Grecian Captains entertaining of Ajax, when he return'd Victor from his single Combat with Hector, in this Verse—
Page 188 They invite likewise Strangers to their Feasts, and after all's over, they ask who they are, and what's their Business. In the very midst of Feasting, upon any small occasion, it's ordinary for them in a heat to rise, and without any regard of their Lives, to fall to it with their Swords. For the opinion of Pythagoras prevails much amongst them, that Mens Souls are Immortal, and that there is a Transmigration of them into other Bodies, and after a certain time they live again; and therefore in their Funerals they write Letters to their Friends, and throw them into the Funeral Pile, as if they were to be read by the Deceas'd. In their Journeys and Fights they use Chariots drawn with Two Horses, which carry a Charioteer and a Souldier, and when they meet Horsemen in the Battle, they fall upon their Enemies with their Saunians; then quitting their Chariots, they to it with their Swords. There are some of them that so despise Death, that they'l Fight naked, with something only about their Loyns. They carry along with them to the Wars for their Servants Libertines, chosen out of the poorer sort of People, whom they make use of for Wagoners, and Pedees. When the Army is drawn up in Battalia, it's usual for some of 'em to step out before the Army, and to challenge the stoutest of their Enemy to a single Combat, brandishing their Arms to terrify their Adversary. If any comes forth to fight with them, then they sing some Song in commendation of the valiant Acts of their Ancestors, and blazon out their own Praises: On the contrary they vilify their Adversary, and give forth slighting and contemptuous Words, as if he had not the least Courage. When at any time they cut off their Enemies Heads, they hang 'em about their Horses Necks.
They deliver their Spoils to their Servants, all besinear'd with Blood, to be carry'd before them in Triumph, they themselves in the mean time singing the triumphant Paean. And as the chief of their Spoils, they fasten those that they have kill'd, over the Doors of their Houses, as if they were so many Wild Beasts taken in Hunting. The Heads of their Enemies that were the chiefest Persons of Quality, they carefully deposite in Chests, emblaming them with the Oyl of Cedars, and shewing them to Strangers, glory and boast how that some of their Ancestors, their Fathers or themselves (though great Sums of Money have been offer'd for them) yet have refus'd to accept 'em.
Some glory so much upon this account, that they refuse to take for one of these heads its weight in Gold; in this manner exposing their barbarous Magnanimity. For it's brave and generous indeed not to sell the Ensigns of true Valour; but to fight with the dead Bodies of those that were Men like our selves, resembles the cruelty of wild Beasts.
Their Garments are very strange; for they wear party coloured Coats, interwoven here and there with divers sorts of Flowers; and Hose which they call Brac•. They make likewise their Cassocks of † Basket-work join'd together with Laces on the inside, and chequer'd with many pieces of work like Flowers; those they wear in Winter are thicker, those in Summer more slender.
Their defensive Arms are a Shield, proportionable to the height of a Man, garnish'd with their own Ensigns.
Some carry the shapes of Beasts in Brass, artifically wrought, as well for Defence as Ornament. Upon their Heads they wear Helmets of Brass, with large Pieces of Work rais'd upon 'em for ostentation sake, to be admir'd by the Beholders; for they have either Horns of the same Mettal joyn'd to them, or the shapes of Birds and Beasts carv'd upon them. They have Trumpets after the Barbarian manner, which in sounding make a horrid noise, to strike a terror fit and proper for the occasion. Some of them wear Iron Breast-plates, and hookt; but others, content with what Arms Nature affords them, fight naked. For Swords, they use a long and broad Weapon call'd Spatha, which they hang cross their right Thigh by Iron or Brazen Chains. Some gird themselves over their Coats, with Belts gilt with Gold or Silver. For Darts they cast those they call Launces, whose Iron Shafts are a Cubit or more in length, and almost Two Hands in breadth.
For their Swords are as big as the Saunians of other People; but the Points of their Saunians are larger than those of their Swords; some of them are straight, others bow'd and bending backwards, so that they not only cut, but Page 189 break the Flesh; and when the Dart is drawn out, it tears and rents the Wound most miserably.
These People are of a most terrible Aspect, and have a most dreadful and loud Voice. In their Converse they are sparing of their Words, and speak many things darkly and * figuratively. They are High and Hyperbolical in trumpeting out their own Praises, but speak slightly and contemptibly of others. They are apt to menace others, self-opinionated, grievously provoking; of sharp Wits, and apt to learn.
Among them they have Poets, that sing melodious Songs, whom they call Bards, who to their Musical Instruments like unto Harps, chant forth the praises of some, and the dispraises of others.
There are likewise among them Philosophers and Divines, whom they call Saronidae, and are held in great Veneration and Esteem. Prophets likewise they have, whom they highly honour, who foretel future Events, by viewing the Intrals of the Sacrifices; and to these Soothsayers all the People generally are very observant.
When they are to consult of some great and weighty matter, they observe a most strange and incredible Custom; for they sacrifice a Man, striking him with a Sword near the Diaphragma cross over his Breast, who being thus slain, and falling down, they judge of the Event from the manner of his Fall, the Convulsion of his Members, and the Flux of Blood; and this has gain'd among them (by long and ancient usage) a firm credit and belief.
It's not lawful to offer any Sacrifice without a Philosopher; for they hold that by these, as Men acquainted with the nature of the Deity, and familiar in their Converse with the Gods, they ought to present their Thank-Offerings, and by these Ambassadors to desire such things as are good for them. These Druids and Bards are observ'd and obey'd, not only in times of Peace but War also, both by Friends and Enemies.
Many times these Philosophers and Poets stepping in between Two Armies, when they are just ready to ingage near at Hand, with their Swords drawn, and Spears presented one against another, have pacify'd them, as if some wild Beasts had been tam'd by Inchantments. Thus Rage is master'd by Wisdom, even amongst the most Savage Barbarians; and Mars himself reverences the Muses.
And now it will be worth while to declare, that which Multitudes are altogether ignorant of. Those who inhabit the Inland Parts beyond Massylia, and about the Alps, and on this side the Pyrenean Mountains, are call'd Celts: But those that inhabit below this part call'd Celtica, Southward to the Ocean and the Mountain Hyrcinus, and all as far to Scythia, are call'd Gauls. But the Romans call all these People generally by one and the same Name, Gauls.
The Women here are both as Tall and as Couragious as the Men. The Children for the most part from their very Birth are gray-headed; but when they grow up to Mens Estate, their Hair changes in Colour like to their Parents. Those towards the North, and bordering upon Scythia, are so exceeding Fierce and Cruel, that (as Report goes) they eat Men, like the Britians that inhabit Iris.
They are so noted for a fierce and warlike People, that some have thought them to be those that anciently overran all Asia, and were then call'd Cimmerians, and who are now (through length of time) with a little alteration call'd Cimbrians.
Anciently they gave themselves to Rapine and Spoil, wasting and destroying other Countries, and slighted and despis'd all other People. These are they that took Rome, and rob'd the Temple at Delphos. These brought a great part of Europe and Asia under Tribute, and possess'd themselves of some of the Countries of those they subdu'd. Because of their mixture with the Grecians, they were at last call'd Gallo-Grecians. They often routed and destroy'd many great Armies of the Romans.
According to their natural Cruelty, they are as impious in the Worship of their Gods; for Malefactors after that they have been kept close Prisoners Five Years together, they impale upon Stakes, in honour to the Gods, and then with many other Victims upon a vast Pile of Wood, they offer them up as a burnt Page 190 Sacrifice to their Deities. In like manner they use their Captives also, as Sacrifices to the Gods. Some of them cut the Throats, burn or otherwise destroy both Men and Beasts that they have taken in time of War: Though they have very beautiful Women among them, yet they little value their private Society, but are transported with raging Lust to the filthy act of Sodomy; and lying upon the Ground on Beasts Skins spread under them, they there tumble together, with their Catamites lying on both sides of them. And that which is the most abominable is, that without all sense of Shame, or regard to their Reputation, they'l readily prostitute their Bodies to others upon every occasion. And they are so far from looking upon it to be any fault, that they judge it a mean and dishonourable thing, for any thus caress'd, to refuse the favour offer'd them.
Having spoken of the Celts, we shall now give an account of their Neighbours the Celtiberians. The Two Nations Celts and Iberians, heretofore breaking forth into a War about the Boundaries of their Countries, at length agreed to inhabit together promiscuously, and so marrying one with another, their Issue and Posterity (they say) afterwards were call'd Celtiberians. Two Potent Nations being thus united, and possess'd likewise of a rich and fertil Country, these Celtiberians became very famous and renown'd; so that the Romans had much ado to subdue them after long and tedious Wars with them. These Celtiberians bring into the Field not only stout and valiant Horsemen, but brave Foot, both for strength and hardiness able to undergo all manner of Labour and Toyl. They wear black rough Cassocks made of Wool, like to Goats Hair. Some of them are arm'd with the Gauls light Shields, others with Bucklers as big as Shields, and wear Greaves about their Legs made of rough Hair, and brazen Helmets upon their Heads, adorn'd with Red Plumes. They carry Two-edg'd Swords exactly temper'd with Steel, and have Daggers beside, of a Span long, which they make use of in close Fights. They make Weapons and Darts in an admirable manner, for they bury Plates of Iron so long under Ground, till the Rust hath consum'd the weaker part, and so the rest becomes more strong and firm: Of this they make their Swords and other Warlike Weapons; and with these Arms thus temper'd, they so cut through every thing in their way, that neither Shield, Helmet, nor Bone can withstand them. And because they are furnish'd with Two Swords, the Horse when they have routed the Enemy, light and joyn with the Foot, and fight to admiration.
There's another strange and wonderful Custom they have amongst 'em; for though they are very nice and curious in their Diet, yet they have a very fordid and filthy Practice, to wash their whole Bodies over with Urin, and rub their very Teeth with it, which is counted a certain means of Health to their Bodies. As to their Manners, they are very cruel towards their Enemies and other Malefactors, but very Courteous and Civil to Strangers: For to all such from what Place soever they come, they readily and freely entertain them, and strive who shall perform the greatest Office of Kindness and Respect. Those who are attended upon by Strangers, they commend and esteem them as Friends of the Gods. They live upon all sorts of Flesh in great Plenty, and their Drink is made of Honey, their Country abounding therewith: But they buy Wine also of the Merchants that Traffick thither.
Of those that border upon them, the most civiliz'd Nations are the Vaccaei, who every Year divide the Lands among them, and then Till and Plow it, and after Harvest, distribute the Fruits, allotting to every one their Share; and therefore it's Death to Steal, or underhand to convey away any thing from the Husbandman. Those they call Lusitanians, are most valiant of all the Cimbri. These in Times of War carry little Targets made of Bowel Strings, so strong and firm, as compleatly to guard and defend their Bodies. In Fights they manage these, so nimbly whirling them about here and there, that with a great deal of Art they avoid and repel every Dart that's cast at them.
They use hookt Saunians made all of Iron, and wear Swords and Helmets like to those of the Celtiberians. They throw their Darts at a great distance, and yet are sure to hit their Mark, and wound deeply: Being of active and nimble Bodies, Page 191 they can easily fly from, or pursue their Enemy, as there is occasion: But when they are under Hardships, they cannot bear near so much as the Celtiberians. In time of Peace, they have a kind of a light and airy way of Dancing, which requires great agility and nimbleness of the Legs and Thighs: In time of War they march observing time and measure; and sing the Paeans when they are just ready to charge the Enemy.
The Iberians, especially the Lusitanians, are singular in one thing that they do; for those that are young and prest with •ant, but yet are strong and couragious, get together upon the Tops of the Mountains, and furnish themselves with Arms; and having made up a considerable Body, make Incursions into Iberia, and heap up Riches by Thieving and Robbery; and this is their constant Practice in despite of all hazard whatsoever; for being lightly arm'd, and nimble of Foot, they are not easily surpriz'd. And indeed steep and craggy Mountains are to them as their natural Country, and to these they fly for shelter, because there's no way in those Places for great Armies to pass. And therefore though the Romans often set upon them, and in some measure have curb'd them, yet they were never able wholly to put an end to their Thieving and Robbing.
Having related what concerns the Iberians, we conceive it not impertinent to say something of their Silver Mines. For almost all this Country is full of such Mines, whence is dug very good and pure Silver; from whence those that deal in that Mettal, gain exceeding great Profit. And in the former Book we have spoken of the Pyrenean Mountains in Iberia, when we treated of the Acts and Atchievements of Hercules: These are the highest and greatest of all others; for from the South-Sea, almost as far as to the Northern Ocean, they divide Gall from Iberia and Celtiberia, running out for the space of Three Thousand Furlongs. These Places being full of Woods, and thick of Trees, it's reported that in ancient time this Mountainous Tract was set on Fire by some Shepherds, which continuing burning for many Days together, (whence the Mountains were call'd † Pyrenean) the parch'd Superficies of the Earth swet, abundance of Silver and the Ore being melted, the Metal flow'd down in Streams of pure Silver, like a River; the use whereof being unknown to the Inhabitants, the Phaenician Merchants bought it for Trifles given for it in Exchange, and by transporting it into Greece, Asia and all other Nations, greatly inricht themselves; and such was their Covetousness, that when they had fully loaded their Ships, and had much more Silver to bring Aboard, they cut off the Lead from their Anchors, and made use of Silver instead of the other.
The Phaenicians for a long time using this Trade, and so growing more and more wealthy, sent many Colonies into Sicily and the Neighbouring Islands, and at length into Africa and Sardinia: But a long time after the Iberians coming to understand the nature of the Metal, sunk many large Mines, whence they dug an infinite quantity of pure Silver (as never was the like almost in any other place of the World) whereby they gain'd exceeding great Wealth and Revenues.
The manner of working in these Mines, and ordering the Metal among the Iberians is thus; there being extraordinary rich Mines in this Country, of Gold as well as Silver and Brass, the Labourers in the Brass take a Fourth part of the pure Brass dug up, to their own use, and the common Labourers in Silver have an Euboick Talent for their Labour in Three Days time; for the whole Soil is full of solid and shining Oar, so that both the nature of the Ground, and the industry of the Workmen is admirable. At the first every common Person might dig for this Metal; and in regard the Silver Ore was easily got, ordinary Men grew very rich: But after that Iberia came into the Hands of the Romans, the Mines were manag'd by a throng of Italians, whose Covetousness loaded them with abundance of Riches; for they bought a great number of Slaves, and deliver'd them to the Task-masters and Overseers of the Mines. These Slaves open the Mouths of the Mines in many Places, where digging deep into the Ground, are found Massy Clods of Earth, full of Gold and Silver; and in sinking both in length and depth, they carry on their Works in undermining the Earth many Furlongs distance, the Workmen every way here and there making Galleries under Ground, and bringing up all the Massy Pieces of Ore (whence the Profit and Gain is to be had) even out of the lowest Bowels of the Earth.
Page 192 There's a great difference between these Mines and those in At•ica; for besides the Labour, they that search there are at great Cost and Charge; and besides are often frustrated of their hopes, and sometimes lose what they had found, so that they seem to be unfortunate to a Proverb: But those in Iberia that deal in Mines, according to their Expectations, are greatly inricht by their Labours; for they succeed at their very first sinking, and afterwards by reason of the extraordinary richness of the Soyl, they find more and more resplendent Veins of Ore, full of Gold and Silver; for the whole Soil round about is interlac'd on every hand with these Metals. Sometimes at a great depth they meet with Rivers under-ground, but by Art give a check to the violence of their Current; for by cutting of Trenches under ground, they divert the Stream; and being sure to gain what they aim at, when they have begun, they never leave till they have sinished it; and to admiration they pump out those Floods of Water with those Instruments call'd Aegyptian Pumps, invented by Archimedes the Syracusian, when he was in Egypt. By these with constant pumping by turns, they throw up the Water to the Mouth of the Pit, and by this means drain the Mine dry, and make the Place fit for their Work. For this Engin is so ingeniously contriv'd, that a vast Quantity of Water is strangely with little Labour cast out, and the whole Flux is thrown up from the very bottom, to the Surface of the Earth.
The Ingenuity of this Artist is justly to be admir'd, not only in these Pumps, but in many other far greater things, for which he is famous all the World over, of which we shall distinctly give an exact narration, when we come to the time wherein he liv'd.
Now though these Slaves that continue as so many Prisoners in these Mines, incredibly inrich their Masters by their Labours, yet toyling Night and Day in these Golden Prisons, many of them by being over-wrought, dye under Ground. For they have no rest nor intermission from their Labours; but the Task-masters by Stripes force them to intollerable hardships, so that at length they dye most miserably. Some that through the Strength of their Bodies, and vigour of their Spirits are able to endure it, continue a long time in those Miseries, whose Calamities are such, that Death to them is far more eligible than Life.
Since these Mines afforded such wonderful Riches, it may be greatly admir'd that none appear to have been sunk of later Times: But in answer hereunto, the Covetousness of the Carthaginians, when they were Masters of Spain, open'd all: And hence it was they grew so Rich and Potent, and hir'd so many Valiant Soldiers, by whose assistance they carry'd on so many great Wars, that they neither trusted to the Soldiers rais'd from among their own Citizens, nor to those of their Confederates, but involv'd the Romans, Sicilians and Africans in extream Hazards, almost to their utter Ruins, by conquering all with their Monies dug out of the Mines. For the Carthaginians were ever of old excessively thirsting after Gain, and the Italians came not one jot behind any of them, but were as eager to ingross all.
In many Places of Spain there's found also Tin; but not upon the Surface of the Ground, as some Historians report, but they dig it up, and melt it down as they do Gold and Silver. Above Lusitania there's much of this Tin Metal that is in the Islands, lying in the Ocean over against Iberia, which are therefore call'd Cassiterides; and much of it likewise is transported out of Britain into Gaul, the opposite Continent, which the Merchants carry on Horse-backs through the heart of Celtica to Marselles, and the City call'd Narbo, which City is a Roman Colony, and the greatest Mart Town for Wealth and Trade in those Parts.
But now having done with the Gauls and Celtiberians, we shall pass to the Ligurians. They inhabit a rough and barren Country, and live a toylsom and troublesom Life in their daily Labour for their common Sustinence; for the Country being Mountainous and full of Woods, some are imploy'd all Day long in cutting down Trees, being furnish'd with strong and great Hatchets for that purpose. The Husbandman's business for the most part lies in hewing and breaking Rocks, the Soyl is so very rough and craggy; for there's not a Clod of Earth they can dig up without a Stone; and though they continually thus conflict so many Hardships, yet Custom has turn'd it to a Second Nature; and after all their Labour Page 193 and Toyl, they reap but very little Fruit, scarce sufficient to supply their Necessities. Daily Toil therefore, and scarcity of Food, is the reason they are so Lean, and nothing but Sinews. The Women share in these Laborious Tasks as much as the Men: These People hunt often, and take many wild Beasts, by which they supply the want of Bread. Being therefore accustom'd to range the Snowy Mountains, and climb the rough and craggy Hills, their Bodies are very strong and brawny. Some of them for want of Corn and other Fruits, drink Water; and feed upon Locusts and wild Beasts, and cram their Bellies with such Herbs as the Land there produces; their Country being altogether a Stranger to those desirable Deities, Ceres and Bacchus.
In the Night they lie in the Fields, and very seldom so much as in the meanest Huts or Cottages; but most commonly in hollow Rocks, and natural Caves, wheresoever they judge there may be a convenient shelter for them; and much after this manner they do in all other things, living after the old fordid and barbarous manner.
In short, the Women here are as strong as Men, and the Men as Beasts; and therefore it's reported, that in their Wars, sometimes the biggest Men among the Gauls, have been foyl'd and slain in a single Combat upon a Challenge, by a little slender Ligurian.
They are lighter arm'd than the Romans, for they defend themselves with a long Shield, made after the fashion of the Gauls, and their Cassocks are girt about them with a Belt: They wear wild Beasts Skins, and carry a Sword of an ordinary length: But some of them conversing much with the Romans, have chang'd their ancient manner of arming themselves, and have imitated their Lords and Masters. They are bold and daring, not only in times of War, but upon all other occasions. For in their Traffick they sail through the Sardonian and African Seas, exposing themselves to great Hazards in little Skiffs, less than the ordinary Ships, without the help of any other Vessels; in which notwithstanding they'l boldly (to admiration) venture to weather out the greatest Storms and Tempests.
Now it remains we should speak of the Tyrrhenians: They were anciently very valiant, and injoy'd a large Country, and built many Famous Cities; and having a great Navy, were long Masters at Sea, and call'd the Sea lying under Italy the Tyrrhenian Sea, after their own Name. Amongst other things wherewith they furnish'd their Land Army, they found out the most useful Instrument for War, the Trumpet, which from them is call'd Tyrrhena. To the Generals of their Army they gave these Badges of Honour; they allow'd them an Ivory Throne, and a Purple Robe. They were the first that invented Portico's or Galleries to their Houses, to avoid the trouble and noise of a croud of Servants, and other Hangers-on; most of which being imitated by the Romans, and brought into their Commonwealth, were afterwards improv'd to a great degree of Curiosity. They gave themselves much to Learning, especially to the study of natural Philosophy; and amongst natural Events, mightily intent (above all others) to find out the nature of Thunder and Lightning: And therefore to this Day, they are admir'd by all Princes all the World over, who make use of them to interpret all the Prodigious effects of Thunder.
They injoy a very rich Country, and well Till'd and Improv'd; and so reap abundance of all sorts of Fruits, not only for their necessary Food, but for Pleasure and Delight.
They had their Tables spread twice a Day, furnish'd with all sorts of Varieties, even to Luxury and Excess.
Their Foot-Carpets are interwoven with Flower-works, and abundance of Silver Cups, and great variety of them they make use of. Of Houshold Servants they have great numbers, some of whom are very beautiful, and others exceeding rich in Apparel, above the Condition of Servants.
Both Servants and Freemen have several Apartments allow'd them, compleatly furnish'd with all manner of Adornments. At last they threw off their former Sobriety, and now live an idle and debaucht Life, in Riot and Drunkenness; so Page 194 that it's no wonder that they have lost the Honour and Reputation their Fore-fathers gain'd by Warlike Atchievments. The goodness of the Soyl does not a little add Fuel to their Luxury, for they injoy a most Fertile Country, rich Land, whence they reap abundance of all sorts of Fruits: For Hetruria is second to none for Fertility of Soil, being a large Champain Country, yet distinguish'd with rising Hills here and there, fit and commodious likewise for Tillage: It's water'd also with moderate Showers, not only in the Winter, but in the Summer Season.
Of Gredosia. Of the Isles of the Arabian Sea. Of the Holy Island. Of Panchaea. Of Samothracia. Of Naxus, Syme, Nausus, Calydna, Nisyrus, Carpathus. Of Rhodes, and of Chersonesus.
HAving gone through the Western and Northern Countries, and the Islands of the Ocean, we shall now describe the Southern Islands lying in the Arabian Ocean, on the East part of Arabia next to Gredosia. This part of Arabia is a Country full of Villages, and considerable Towns, some of which are situated upon high Hills, others upon rising Grounds, or something higher than Champain Fields. Their greatest Cities have stately Royal Palaces, and are very wealthy and Populous: The Country abounds with all sorts of Cattel, and is of a very fruitful Soyl, affording plenty of rich Pasture for the Flocks and Herds: Many Rivers run through it, watering the Fields, to the great increase of the Fruits of the Earth. And therefore this part of Arabia which excels the rest in richness of Soil is justly call'd Arabia the Happy.
Over against the utmost point of this Country near the Ocean, lye many Islands but there are but Three that are worth remark: The First is call'd the Holy Island, wherein it's unlawful to bury the Dead: But not far from this, about Seven Furlongs distant, there's another wherein they bury: The Sacred Isle chiefly produces Frankincense, and in that abundance, as suffices for the Service and Worship of the Gods all the World over; it has likewise Plenty of Myrrhe, with other odoriferous Spices of several sorts, which breath out a most fragrant Smell. The nature of Frankincense, and the manner of getting it is thus: The Tree is very small, like to the white Egyptian Thorn, and bears a Leaf like to the Willow: It puts forth a Flower of a Golden Colour; from the Bark of this Tree by incision made, distils the Frankincense in Drops like Tears.
The Myrrhe-Tree is like to the Mastick-Tree, but bears a more slender Leaf, and grows thicker upon the Branches. The Myrrhe flows forth, by digging up the Earth round about the Roots. Those that grow in a rich Soyl, bear twice a Year, that is, in the Spring and Summer: That in the Spring-time, is of a red colour, caus'd by the Dew; the other nearer Winter, is white.
There they got likewise the Fruit of the Paliurus Tree, very wholsom both in Meat and Drink, and good against a Dissentery. The Land is divided amongst the Inhabitants, of which the best part is allotted to the King, who has likewise the Tenths of the Fruits.
They say the breadth of the Island is about Two Hundred Furlongs, inhabited by them they call Panchaeans, who transport the Myrrhe and Frankincense into Foreign Parts, and sell it to the Arabian Merchants, from whom others buy these and other such like-Merchandise, and convey them to Phaenicia, Coelo-Syria and Egypt; and from those Places they are carried by the Merchants over all parts of the World.
Page 195 Besides these, there's another large Island about Thirty Furlongs distance from this last mention'd, lying to the East many Furlongs in length. For they say, from a Promontory thereof running out towards the East, may be seen India like a Cloud in the Air, the distance is so great.
There are many things observable in Panchaea, that deserve to be taken notice of. The natural Inhabitants are those they call Panchaei; the Strangers that dwell among them are * People of the Western Parts, together with Indians, Cretians, and Scythians. In this Island there's a Famous City, call'd Panara, not inferior to any for Wealth and Grandure. The Citizens are call'd the Suppliants of Jupiter Triphylius, and are the only People of Panchaea, that are govern'd by a Democracy, without a Monarch. They choose every Year the Presidents or Governors, that have all Matters under their Cognizance, but what concerns Life and Death; and the most weighty Matters they refer to the College of their Priests. The Temple of Jupiter Triphylius is about Sixty Furlongs distant from the City, in a Champain Plain. It's in great veneration because of it's Antiquity and the Stateliness of the Structure, and the Fertility of the Soyl.
The Fields round about the Temple are Planted with all sorts of Trees, not only for Fruit, but for Pleasure and Delight; for they abound with tall Cypresses Plane-Trees, Laurels and Myrtles, the Place abounding with Fountains of running Water: For near the Temple there's such a mighty Spring of sweet Water rushes out of the Earth, as that it becomes a Navigable River: Thence it divides it self into several Currents and Streams, and Waters all the Fields thereabouts, and produces thick Groves of tall and shady Trees; amongst which in Summer abundance of People spend their time, and a multitude of Birds of all sorts build their Nests, which create great delight both by affecting the Eye with the variety of their Colours, and taking the Ear with the sweetness of their Notes. Here are many Gardens, sweet and pleasant Meadows deckt with all sorts of Herbs and Flowers, and so glorious is the Prospect, that it seems to be a Paradise worthy the Habitation of the Gods themselves.
There are here likewise large and Fruitful Palms, and abundance of Walnut-Trees, which plentifully Furnish the Inhabitants with pleasant Nuts.
Besides all these, there are a multitude of Vines of all sorts, spiring up on high, and so curiously interwoven one amongst another, that they are exceeding pleasant to the view, and greatly advance the delights of the Place.
The Temple was built of White Marble, most artificially joynted and cemented, two Hundred Yards in length, and as many in breadth, supported with great and thick Pillars, curiously adorn'd with with Carved Work. In this Temple are plac'd huge Statues of the Gods, of admirable Workmanship, and amazing largeness. Round the Temple are built Apartments for the Priests that attend the Service of the Gods, by whom every thing in that Sacred Place is perform'd. All along from the Temple, is an even course of Ground, Four Furlongs in length, and a Hundred Yards in breadth; on either side of which, are erected vast Brazen Statues, with Four-square Pedestals; at the end of the Course, breaks forth the River from the Fountains before-mention'd, from whence flows most clear and sweet Water, the drinking of which, conduces much to the Health of the Body. This River is call'd the Water of the Sun.
The whole Fountain is lin'd on both sides, and flag'd at the bottom with Stone at vast Expence, and runs out on both sides for the space of Four Furlongs. It's not lawful for any but the Priests to approach to the brink of the Fountain. All the Land about for Two Hundred Furlongs round, is consecrated to the Gods, and the Revenues bestow'd in maintaining the publick Sacrifices, and Service of the Gods: Beyond these consecrated Lands, is an high Mountain, dedicated likewise to the Gods, which they call the Throne of Celus and Triphylius Olympus; for they report that Ʋranus, when he govern'd the whole World, pleasantly diverted himself in this Place; and from the top of the Mount observ'd the motion of the Heavens and Stars, and that he was call'd Triphylius Olympus, because the Inhabitants were compos'd of Three several Nations, Panchaeans, Oceanites and Doians, who were afterwards expell'd by Ammon; for it's said that he not only rooted out this Nation, but utterly destroy'd all their Cities, and laid Doia and Asterusia even with the Ground. The Priests every Year solemnize a Sacred Festival in this Mountain, with great Devotion.
Page 196 Behind this Mount, in other Parts of Panchaea, they say there are abundance of wild Beasts of all kinds, as Elephants, Lions, Leopards, Deer, and many other wonderful Creatures both for Strength and Proportion. In this Island there are Three chief Cities, Hyracia, Dalis and Oceanis. The whole Country is very Fertile, and especially in the production of all sorts of Wine in great Plenty.
The Men are Warlike, and use Chariots in Battles, after the ancient manner. The whole Nation is divided into Three Parts: The First Class is of the Priests, with whom are joyn'd the Artificers. The other Tribe consists of the Husband-men; and the Third are the Militia and the Shepherds.
The Priests govern all, and are the sole Arbitrators in every matter; for they give Judgment in all Controversies, and have the Power and Authority in all publick Transactions of State. The Husbandmen Till the Land, but the Fruit is brought into the Common Treasury, and who is judg'd the most skilful in Husbandry, receives the largest share of the Fruits for a Reward in the First Place; and so the Second, and the rest in order to the Tenth, as every one merits less or more, receives his Reward by the Judgment of the Priests. In the same manner the Shepherds and Herdsmen carefully bring into the publick Stock, the Victims and other things both by number and weight, as the nature of the things are; for it's not lawful for any to appropriate any thing to themselves particularly, except a House and a Garden. For all the young Breed of Cattel, and other things, and all the Revenues, are receiv'd by the Priests, and they justly distribute to every one as their necessity does require; only the Priests have a double Proportion.
They wear soft and fine Garments; for their Sheeps Wooll is much finer here than any where else; both Men and Women likewise deck themselves with Golden Ornaments; for they wear Necklaces of Gold, and Bracelets about their Arms, and like the Persians have Rings hanging in their Ears. Their Shooes are such as others wear, but richly beautify'd with divers sorts of Colours.
Their Soldiers for ordinary Pay, defend the Country, fortifying themselves within Camps and Bulwarks; for there's a part of the Island infested with most daring Thieves and Robbers, who often lurch and surprize the Husband-men.
To conclude, these Priests for Delicacy, State and Purity of Life, far exceed all the rest of the Inhabitants: Their Robes are of white Linen, and sometimes of pure soft Wooll. They wear likewise Miters, imbroider'd with Gold. Their Shoes are Sandals curiously wrought with exquisite Workmanship, and in their Ears hang Golden Ear-rings like to the Womens.
They attend chiefly upon the Service of the Gods, singing melodious Songs in their Praises, setting forth their glorious Acts and Benefits bestow'd upon Men. The Priests say they came originally from Crete, and were brought over into Panchaea by Jupiter, when he was upon Earth, and govern'd all the World; and alledge their Language for a Confirmation of this Assertion, in as much as they retain many Words of the Cretian Speech among them. And further say, that they deriv'd from their Ancestors that Civility and kindness wherewith they entertain the Cretians, the Fame and report of their ancient Consanguinity descending continually in a perpetual Succession to their Posterity: They shew likewise a Record written, as they say, by Jupiter's own Hand, at the time when he was on Earth, and laid the Foundation of the Temple.
There are in this Island likewise Mines of Gold, Silver, Brass and Iron, but not lawful for any to export them. Nay, it's not lawful for any of the Priests to go out of the Verge of the Consecrated Ground; and if any do, it's lawful for any Man that finds 'em to kill 'em. They have under their Charge, innumerable vast Vessels, and other Consecrated things, both of Gold and Silver, which have been laid up there in honour of the Gods for many Ages. The Gates of the Temple are of admirable Workmanship, beautify'd with Gold, Silver, Ivory and Thyne Wood.
The Bed of the God is Six Cubits long, and Four broad, of massy Gold, most curiously wrought in every part; and near adjoyning, stands the Table, as large, and of the like Materials and Workmanship with the other in every respect.
Page 197 In the middle of the Bed, is plac'd a great Golden Pillar, whereon are Letters inscrib'd, call'd by the Egyptians, Sacred Writing, expressing the famous Actions of Ʋranus, Jupiter, Diana and Apollo, written they say, by Mercury himself. But this may suffice concerning the Islands lying in the Ocean over against Arabia.
We shall now speak of those in the Aegaean Sea, near to Greece, beginning with Samothracia. It's said this Island was anciently call'd Samos, and afterwards Samothracia, to distinguish from one near to it, call'd Samos, built by Samus.
The Inhabitants are those that have ever been originally there, so that there's nothing certain handed down to Posterity, concerning the first Inhabitants and Governors of this Place. Some there are notwithstanding, that report, that it was anciently call'd Samos, and afterwards Samothracia, from Colonies that settl'd there out of Samos and Thrace.
The natural Inhabitants had anciently a peculiar kind of Speech, some Marks whereof remain in the Worship of their Gods at this Day. The Samothracians themselves report, that before there was any Flood in any other Nations, there was a great one amongst them.
The first Irruption was at the Mouth of the Cyneae, and the other made through the Hellespont: For they say, that the Pontick Sea being once a standing Pool, was so swell'd by the falling in of Rivers, that being overcharged with Water, it empty'd it self into the Hellespont, and overflow'd a great part of the Coasts of Asia, and laid a considerable part of the Champain Country of Samo-thracia under Water. And as a manifestation of this, some Fishermen of later time have brought up with their Nets, the Heads of Stony Pillars, certain Signs of the Cities being overflow'd and ruin'd by the Waters. The Inhabitants that escap'd (they say) fled to the higher parts of the Island, but the Sea rising still higher, they made their Addresses to their Gods, and thereupon being deliver'd from the imminent Danger they were in, they compass'd in the Bounds of those Places wherein they were preserv'd throughout the whole Island, and there erected Altars, where they sacrifice to their Gods at this Day: Whence it's apparent, that they inhabited Samothracia before the last Deluge.
Afterwards one Saon an Islander, the Son (as some say) of Jupiter and Nympha, but (as others, of Mercury and Rhena,) gather'd the Inhabitants (before living scatter'd and dispers'd) into a Body; and made Laws for their better Government, and divided them into Five Tribes, calling them after the Names of his Sons, but nam'd himself Saon, after the Name of the Island. The Government being thus setled, it's said, that Dardanus, Jasion and Harmonia, the Children of Jupiter and Electra, one of the Daughters of Atlas, were born among them. Of these, Dardanus (being a bold and brave Spirited Man) pass'd over in a Pinnace into Asia, and first built the City Dardanus, and erected the Kingdom of Troy (so call'd, from Troy built afterwards,) and call'd the People Dardanians. He Reign'd (they say) over many other Nations besides in Asia, and that the Dardanians above Thrace, were a Colony setled there by him.
It's further said, that Jupiter desiring likewise to advance his other Son to a high degree of Honour and Reputation, discover'd to him the Rites of the Sacred Mysteries anciently observ'd in that Island, but then newly reviv'd, which it was not lawful for any to hear, but those that are initiated.
But he seems to be the first that initiated Strangers; whence these Rites and Ceremonies became more noted and famous.
About this time, Cadmus the Son of Agenor came thither to seek after Europa, and being initiated into these Sacred Mysteries, married Harmonia the Sister of Jasion, not the Daughter of Mars, as the Greeks report: They say, that this was the first Marriage that was celebrated in the presence of the Gods, where Ceres in love with Jasion, presented him with Corn, Mercury with a Harp; Minerva bestow'd that famous Necklace, Vail and Pipe. Electra taught him to celebrate the Sacred Mysteries of the great Mother of the Gods with Cymbals, Timbrels and Dancing. Apollo play'd upon his Harp, and the Muses upon wind Instruments, and the rest of the Gods celebrated the Nuptials with joyful Acclamations.
Page 198Cadmus afterwards (as he was commanded by the Oracle) built Thebes in Beotia; and Jasion marry'd Cybele, of whom they say he begat Coxybas; after Jasion was receiv'd into the Number of the Gods, Dardanus, Cybele and Coripas travelling into Phrygia brought over the sacred Mysteries of the Mother of the Gods into Asia; then Cybele Marry'd Olympus, the first, and bore Alces, and call'd this Godess Cybele after her own Name. Corybas call'd those that celebrated the sacred Mysteries of his Mother (in a furious Rage like Madmen) after his own Name, Corybantes, and marry'd Thebe the Daughter of Cilix; and thus Pipes were brought over into Phrygia, and Mercury's Harp into Lyrnesus; which when the City was taken, was carry'd, away by Achilles. It's reported likewise that Pluto was the Son of Jasion and Ceres, which rose from this real Truth, that Ceres at the Marriage of Haermonia bestowed upon Jasion upon the account of her Familiarity with him, rich Presents of Corn: But what are particularly acted in the Celebration of these sacred Mysteries, it's granted are only known by those that are initiated.
It's commonly said, that these Gods are always present, and afford their help and assistance to those that are Initiated, and call upon them, when they fall into any suddain and unexpected Distress; and that these Worshipers grow more and more Pious and Righteous, and still exceed themselves in Goodness; and therefore the most famous of the Ancient Heroes and Demygods greatly coveted to be initiated into these sacred Rites and Ceremonies: For it's believ'd, that Jasion, Dioscurus, Hercules and Orpheus (who were Members of this Society) through the favour of these Gods prosper'd in all their Wars.
Having now finish'd what concerns Samothracia, the Course of the History leads us to Naxus.
This Island was formerly call'd Strongyle. The Thracians were the first that setl'd here, upon the occasion following. It's said, that Boreas had two Sons, Butes and Lycurgus, of several Mothers. Butes the younger Plotted to Murther his Brother, which being plainly discover'd, the Father appointed no greater a Punishment to be Executed upon his Son, but only commanded him, with his Accomplices to take Shipping and be gone, and seek out for themselves some other Habitations: Upon which, Butes with a Number of Thrasians (his fellow Criminals) went aboard, and in a direct Course made their way through the Cyclade Islands, and arriv'd at Strongyle, and thus possess'd of the Island, robb'd all by their Piracies that pass'd that way. But being in want of Women, they rov'd about here and there, and forcibly carry'd them away where ever they could find them. Some of the Ciclade Islands at that time were wholly desolate, and others of them but very thinly inhabited. Running out therefore a long way off, and being repuls'd at Eubaea, they arriv'd at Thessaly; and there landing, they met with the Nurses of Bacchus at the Mountain call'd Diros, Celebrating the Mysteries of the Gods in Achaia Phthiotis; being then ready to seize upon the Women, some of them cast away their Offerings and fled to the Sea, and others to the Mountain before mention'd: But Butes seiz'd upon Coronides, and Ravish'd her, which dishonour she bore so hainously, that she call'd upon Bacchus to revenge her Disgrace, and thereupon he struck Butes with Madness, who in his Mad mood cast himself into a Pit and so perish'd. The rest of the Thracians seiz'd upon other Women, amongst whom were two Noble Ladies, Iphimedia the Wife of Aloeas, and his Daughter Pancratis; with these they return'd to Strongyle. In the room of Butes they Created Agassamenus King of the Island, and Marry'd him to Pancratis the Daughter of Aloeas, a Lady of an admirable Beauty: For (before whom he took her to be his Wife) Siculus and Hecaterus, two of the most eminent Commanders, fought a Duel, and Wounded one another. Agassamenus bestow'd Iphimedia upon one of his intimate Friends, whom he had made General of his Army. In the mean time Aloeas sent his two Sons, Otus and Ephialtes, to seek after his Wife and Daughter, who invading Strongyle, fought with the Thracians, routed 'em, and took the City by Storm. Not long after Pancratis dy'd, Otus and Ephialtes possess'd themselves of the Island, and ousted the Thracians, and call'd it Dia. Shortly after they fell out and fought a set Battel, wherein many were kill'd on both sides, and the two Brothers kill'd one another, whom the Inhabitants afterwards ador'd as Demygods. After the Thracians had held the Island for above two hundred Years, at length a Drought and Famin forc'd 'em to leave the Place. After them the Carians (being expuls'd Lamia) possess'd themselves of it, whose King Naxus, the Son of Polemon, afterwards order'd the Island should be call'd Naxus, after his own Name. This Page 199Naxus was a very famous and good Man, and left behind him a Son, call'd Leucippus, whose Son Smardius afterwards reign'd in the Island; in whose Reign Theseus coming out of Crete with Ariadne, landed here; and in his Sleep saw Bacchus threatning him with Ruin, if he did not forsake Ariadne; with which Vision being terrify'd, he left her, and withdrew himself out of the Island. Then Bacchus in the Night led away Ariadne to the Mountain Arius, and then immediately disappear'd, and not long after Ariadne was no more seen.
The Naxians have many Stories amongst them concerning this God; for they say he was bred up with 'em, and therefore that this Island was lov'd by Bacchus more than any other, and by some call'd Dionysiades. For Jupiter (as the Story goes) (Semele before the Birth of Bacchus, being struck with a Thunderbolt) took the Infant Bacchus out of his Mother's Womb, and clapt him within his Thigh: But when the full time of his Birth was at Hand, to conceal him from Juno, he was brought forth in Naxus, and there committed to the care of the Nymphs, Philias, Coronidis and Cleidis, to be educated by them; and that Semele was therefore before his Birth kill'd by Lightning, to the end that Bacchus not being born of a Mortal, but of Two immortal Deities, might from his Birth be of an Immortal Nature. Upon the account therefore of the kindness shew'd him in his Education, he express'd his gratitude to the Inhabitants so far, as that he advanc'd them to a high degree of Wealth and Power, and furnish'd them with a brave Fleet of Ships; and that they being the first that made a defection from Xerxes, (they say) he assisted 'em to vanquish the Barbarians in a Sea-Fight, and that he gave a clear Evidence and Token of his Concern with them in the Battel at Platea; and that the excellency of their Wine, was an apparent demonstration of the Kindness of this God to their Island.
The First that inhabited Syme (which before lay waste and desolate) were those that came thither with Triops, under the Conduct of Chthonius, the Son of Neptune and Symes, from whom the Island was so call'd.
Nireus, the Son of Charopus and Aglaies, was in after-times King of this Island; he was a very comely and beautiful Man, and went along with Agamemnon to the War against Troy; and together with this Island, was Lord of Cnidus.
After the end of the Trojan War, the Carians possessed themselves of this Place at such time as they were Masters at Sea; afterwards forc'd thence by an excessive Drought, they settl'd themselves in Ʋranium. From that time it lay desolate, till the Fleet of the Lacedemonians and Argives arriv'd there, and then it was Planted with new Colonies in this manner.
Nausus, one of the Companions of Hippotas, taking along with him those that came too late, at the time when the Country was divided by lot, possessed himself of Syme, which then lay desolate, and afterward receiv'd others (that came there under the Conduct of Xuthus) to share with him both in the Priviledges of the City, and Commodities of the Country, and possess'd the Island equally among them. They say, that both Cnidians and Rhodians made up part of this Colony.
The Cares anciently possess'd Calydna and Nisyrus; and afterwards Thessalus, the Son of Hercules, was Lord of both the Islands; and therefore Antiphus and Philippus Kings of Coos (when they were ingag'd in the War of Troy) were Generals of those Forces that were sent out of these Islands. In their return from the Trojan War, Four of Agamemnon's Ships were by a Storm cast upon Calydna, and the Men that were on Board, continu'd there intermixt with the other Inhabitants. But the ancient Inhabitants of Nisyrus, were swallow'd up by an Earthquake. After which, the Coons added it to their Dominion, as they had done Calydna before. After them, the Rhodians sent a Colony thither; all the former Inhabitants being wholly swept away with a Plague.
As for Carpathus, that was first seiz'd upon by some of Minos his Soldiers, at such time as he was Master at Sea, and lorded it over the Grecians. Many Ages after, Ioclus, the Son of Thymoleon of Argos, by the Command of the Oracle, brought over a Colony thither.
Page 200 The Island of Rhodes was anciently inhabited by those call'd Telchines; who (as an old Story goes) were the Offspring of † Thalassa, and with Caphira the Daughter of Oceanus brought up Neptune, who was committed to their care by Rhea. It's said, they invented several Arts, and found out many other things useful and conducing to the well-being of Man's Life. It's reported, they were the first that made Statues of the Gods, and that some of the ancient Images were denominated from them; for amongst the Lindians, Apollo is call'd Apollo Telchinius: Amongst the Ialysians, Juno and the Nymphs were call'd Telchiniae; and amongst the Camiraeans, Juno was call'd Juno Telchinia. But these Telchines were likewise reported to be Conjurers, for they could raise Storms and Tempests, with Rain, Hail and Snow, when ever they pleas'd; which the Magicians (as is related in History, were used to do. They could likewise transform themselves into other Shapes, and were envious at all that learnt their Art.
Neptune they say, fell in love with Halia, the Sister of the Telchines, and of her begat several Children, Six Sons, and one Daughter call'd Rhoda, from whom the Island was call'd Rhodes.
In those Days there were Giants in the Western Parts of the Island. Then likewise Jupiter having conquer'd the Titans, fell in love with a Nymph nam'd Hamalia, and of her begat Three Sons, Spartaeus, Cronius and Cytus. About the time they were grown up to Mens Estate, Venus in her Passage from Cythera to Cyprus, arriv'd at this Island; but being hinder'd from landing by the Sons of Neptune, together with proud and impious Language, the Goddess was so provok'd, as that she struck 'em mad, and caus'd 'em in their raging mood to ravish their own Mother, and commit many other outrages upon the Inhabitants. Neptune coming to the Knowledge of this vile Fact, sunk his Sons under Ground for their Wickedness. Whence they were call'd the Eastern Daemons. Halia threw her self into the Sea, and after was ador'd by the Inhabitants as a Goddess by the Name of Leucothea. Afterwards the Telchines foreseeing an Inundation coming upon Rhodes, forsook the Island, and were dispers'd and scatter'd Abroad. Of whom Lycus went into Lycia, and built the Temple of Apollo Lycius, near to the Banks of the River Xanthus.
When the Flood came, it rose so high, that besides destroying those that remain'd in the Island, all the flat and Champain part of the Country (with Showers that pour'd down continually) was like a standing Pool of Water: Some few that fled to the higher Grounds were preserv'd, amongst whom were the Sons of Jupiter. But Sol (as the Story is) falling in love with Rhoda, call'd the Island after her Name Rhodes, and cleared the Island of the Inundation. But the truth coucht in the Fable is this: In the first Generation of all things, when the Island lay in Mud and Dirt, the Sun dry'd up the Moisture, and made the Land productive of Living Creatures; whence sprang the Seven Heliades, so call'd from the Sun, and other Men, the Original Inhabitants. And hence it is, that they account the Island to be consecrated to the Sun, and the Rhodians in after-times constantly worship'd the Sun above all other Gods, as the Parent from whence they first sprang. The Names of his Seven Sons are Ochimus, Ceraphus, Macir, Astis, Tenages, Triopas and Candalus; he had only one Daughter call'd Electryo, who dying a Virgin, became ever after ador'd by the Rhodians as a Demy-Goddess. When the Heliades attain'd to Mens Estate, Sol told 'em, that which soever of them first sacrific'd to Minerva, should ever enjoy the presence of the Goddess. The same thing it's said, was promis'd and foretold at the same time to the Athenians. Hereupon it fell out that the Heliades, through too much hast, forgot to put Fire under the Altars, before they laid the Sacrifices upon them: Cecrops they say, then reign'd in Athens, and was later than the other in slaying the Burnt-Offering, but was before them in burning the Victim; for which Reason there's a peculiar Ceremony us'd in Rhodes in their Sacred Mysteries to this Day, and the Image of the Goddess is set up there.
These things some have related concerning the Antiquities of the Rhodians, among whom is Zenon, who wrote their History.
The Heliades, as they were in station above other Men, so they excell'd others in Learning, and especially in Astrology. They were the Persons that first found out the Art of Navigation, and the dividing of the Day into Hours. Tenages was the most ingenious of any of them, and therefore through Envy was Page 201 Murdered by his Brothers; Upon discovery of the Fact, both the principal. Authors and their Accomplices fled for it.
Macer got to Lesbos, and Candalus to Coos. Actis fled into Egypt, and there built Heliopolis, calling it after the Name of his Father; and from him the Egyptians learnt the Science of Astrology.
Afterwards, when most of the Inhabitants of Greece were destroy'd by the Flood, and all Records and ancient Monuments perish'd with them; the Egyptians took this occasion to appropriate the study of Astrology solely to themselves; and whereas the Grecians (through Ignorance) as yet valu'd not Learning, it became a general Opinion, that the Egyptians were the first that found out the Knowledge of the Stars.
And so even the Athenians themselves, though they built the City Sais in Egypt, yet by reason of the Flood, were led into the same Error of forgetting what was before. And therefore it's believ'd, that many Ages after, Cadmus the Son of Agenor, brought the Knowledge of Letters out of Phaenicia first into Greece; and after him, it's suppos'd the Grecians themselves added some Letters to those they learn'd before; but a general Ignorance however still prevailed amongst them.
Triopas, another Son, past over into Caria, and possessed himself of the Promontory there, call'd from him Triopium. The rest of Sol's Sons, having had no hand in the Murder, staid behind in Rhodes; and afterwards built the City Achaia, and dwelt in Ialysia. But the Regal Power was in Ochymus the Eldest Son, who marry'd Hegetoria, one of the Nymphs, and of her begat a Daughter call'd Gydippe, who afterwards went by the Name of Cyrbias, by marrying of whom Cercaphis his Brother came to the Kingdom; after whose Death, Three of the Sons, Lindus, Ialysus and Camirus reign'd together; in whose time a great Inundation laid Cyrbe waste and desolate. These Three Brothers divided the Country amongst themselves, and each built a City, and call'd them after their own Names.
At this time Danaus fled out of Egypt with his great number of Daughters, and landed at Lindus in Rhodes; where being receiv'd by the Inhabitants, he built a Temple to Minerva, and consecrated to her an Altar. During this Travel of Danaus, Three of his Daughters dy'd in Lindus, and the rest pass'd over with their Father to Argos.
Not long after, Cadmus, the Son of Agenor, being commanded by the King to seek after Europa, made for Rhodes; and in the Voyage being overtaken with a violent Storm, made a Vow to build a Temple to Neptune. Having therefore escap'd the danger (according to his Vow) he dedicated a Temple to this God in the Island, and left some of the Phaenicians to be Overseers of the Sacred Mysteries, who were made Members of the City with the Ialysians, and out of their Families (they say) from time to time were chosen the Priests. Cadmus at that time devoted many rich Gifts to Minerva Lindia, amongst which, was a Brass Cauldron, a most excellent piece of curious ancient Workmanship; it had an Inscription upon it in Phaenician Letters; which were therefore called Phaenician, because (they say) they were first brought out of Phaenicia into Greece.
In after-times, vast Serpents bred in Rhodes, which destroy'd many of the Inhabitants; those therefore that remain'd, sent to Delos, to consult the Oracle what was to be done for the removal of the present Calamity they suffer'd under, who return'd answer, That they should admit Phorbas and his Followers to share with them in the Island. He was the Son of Lapithas, and was then with many of his Friends in Thessaly, seeking for a convenient Place wherein to settle themselves. The Rhodians hereupon (according to the direction of the Oracle) sent for Phorbas, and receiv'd him as a Proprietor with them in the Island, who destroy'd all the Serpents, and freed the Country from their former fears; and from thenceforth continu'd in Rhodes, and was after his Death ador'd as a Demy-God, having approv'd himself a Good Man in several other respects.
Afterwards Althaemenes the Son of Catreus King of Crete, consulting the Oracle concerning some Affairs, was answer'd, that it would be his Fate to kill his own Father; to avoid which Misfortune, he voluntarily forsook Crete, with many others who of their own accord went along with him, and pass'd over to Camirus, the Metropolis of Rhodes, and there built a Temple upon Mount Atamirus,Page 202 to Jupiter Atamirus, which is in great Veneration and Esteem at this Day. It's situated upon the very Top of the Mountain, whence may be had a clear Prospect of Crete. Althamenes with his Followers, thus setl'd in Camirus, liv'd in great Honour and Esteem among the Citizens. But his Father Catreus having no issue Male, and exceedingly loving his Son, undertook a Voyage to Rhodes, longing to find out his Son, and bring him back to Crete.
And now his unalterable Destiny was near at Hand, for landing at Rhodes in the Night, with some others of his Attendants, forthwith there was a Conflict between them and the Islanders; whereupon Althamenes run in hastily to their Assistance, and (unknown to him) kill'd his Father with a Dart; which when he came to understand, he was so overwhelm'd with Sorrow, he ever after avoided all manner of Society, and wander'd up and down in the Deserts, and at last dy'd of Grief: But by the Command of the Oracle he was afterwards honour'd by the Rhodians as a Demy-God.
After this, a little before the Trojan War, Tlepolimus the Son of Hercules, fled voluntarily from Argos, by reason of his Killing of Licymnius, whom he slew unawares; and upon inquiry having receiv'd an Answer from the Oracle concerning the planting of a Colony, he pass'd over with a few People into Rhodes, where being receiv'd, he settled: And being afterwards created King of the Island, he divided the Country into equal Shares by Lot; and during his Reign, order'd all other Matters according to the Rules of Justice and Equity. At length preparing to go along with Agamemnon, in the Expedition against Troy, he committed the Government into the Hands of Butas, who fled with him from Argos. And after he had gain'd much Glory and Renown in that War, he dy'd in the Country of Troas.
Now because some things of Chersonesus, are intermix'd with the Affairs of Rhodes, over against which it lyes, we conceive it not amiss here to give an account of it. Some are of Opinion it's call'd Chersonesus, from the nature of the Place, being like to an Istmus, or as others write, from one Chersonesus, once a Petty Prince there. Not long after whose time (it's said) Five of the Curetes came there; which Curetes were the Posterity of those that brought up Jupiter (born of the Mother Goddess Rhea) in the Mountains of Ida in Crete. After their arrival in Crete (with a considerable Navy) they expell'd the Cares, the ancient Inhabitants, and divided the Country into Five Parts, and each of them built a City, and call'd them after their own Names.
Not long after, Inachus King of Argos, sent Cyrnus, one of his Noblemen and Commanders, with a considerable Fleet, to find out his Daughter Io, and not to return till he found her. After he had rov'd about into several Parts of the World, and could not find her, he at length arriv'd at Caria in Chersonesus, and there settled himself, despairing ever to return to his own Country; and afterwards partly by Force, and partly by Perswasions, he reign'd as King over part of the Country, and built a City, and call'd it Cyrnus, after his own Name; and govern'd so well, to the advancement of the publick Good, that he was greatly belov'd and honour'd by the Citizens.
Afterwards Triopas, one of the Sons of Sol and Rhoda, fled into Chersonesus, for the Killing of his Brother: But being cleared and acquitted by King Melisseus, he sayl'd into Thessaly, to the assistance of Deucalion's Sons, and helpt to expel the Pelasgians thence, and they divided the Country call'd Dotion among them. He there cut down the Grove of Ceres, and made use of it for the Building of himself a Palace; for which he was hated of the People, and forc'd to fly out of Thessaly, and sayl'd away with some of his Followers to Cnidia; where he built a City call'd after his own Name Triopium. Leaving this Place, he gain'd Chersonesus, and a great part of Caria adjoining to it.
Many Writers, and especially the Poets, much differ about the Descent of Priopas. Some derive his Descent from Canace (the Daughter of Aeolus) and Neptune, others say, his Parents were Lapitha, the Son of Apollo, and Stibes the Daughter of Pineus. In Castabus in Chersonesus, there's a Temple dedicated to Hemithea; what is remarkable concerning her, is not fit to be omitted. Although there are many various Stories related of her, yet we shall only give an Account of what is generally granted and agreed upon by the Inhabitants to be true.
Page 203Staphylus and Chrysothemides had Three Daughters, Molpadia, Rhoeo and Parthenos. Rhoeo was got with Child by Apollo, at which her Father was so incens'd, thinking she had play'd the Whore with some Mortal Man, that he lockt her up in a Chest, and threw her into the Sea, and the Chest was afterwards cast up upon the Island Delos, where she was deliver'd of a Son, whom she nam'd Arrius. Being thus wonderfully preserv'd, she laid the Child upon the Altar of Apollo, and pray'd to him, that if he was the Child's Father, he would save and defend the Infant: Upon which the Story goes, that Apollo hid the Child; but afterwards took care to have him carefully brought up, and endued him with a Prophetick Spirit, and advanc'd him to great Honour and Reputation.
Molpadia and Parthenos, the other Sisters, having the Charge of their Father's Wine (the use of which was then but newly found out) with Drinking too much, fell fast asleep; in the mean time, a Sow which they fed, coming into the Place, threw down the Hogshead and spilt all the Wine. When the poor Ladies perceiv'd what was done, they so dreaded the Severity of their Father, that they fled to the Sea Shoar, and threw themselves headlong from the Top of a high Rock into the Sea: But Apollo for the sake of their Sister, took them up safe, and brought them to some Cities in Chersonesus. Where Parthenos at Bubastus was ador'd as a Goddess, and had a Temple erected in honour to her.
Molpadia was brought to Castabus, and for the special Revelations she had from the God, she was call'd Hemithea, and was in great honour and esteem among all the Chersonesians. In the Celebration of her Mysteries, (in remembrance of the Misfortune concerning the Wine) they offer Drink-Offerings of Water and Honey mixt together; and he that has toucht a Swine, or eaten of Swines-Flesh, is not permitted to enter into her Temple.
This Temple of Hemithea, in following times grew so Famous, that not only the Inhabitants ador'd it, but Strangers far and near resorted to it with great Devotion, and with many rich Presents and magnificent Sacrifices; and that which is most observable is, that the very Persians themselves when they destroy'd all other Temples throughout all Greece, only spar'd the Temple of Hemithea. Thieves and Robbers likewise that spoyl and waste all before them, have still from time to time spar'd this Temple, though it stand open and naked, without the defence of a Wall to secure it. They say, that the Cause of the flourishing Condition of this Place is, the great Kindness of this Goddess to all Men whatsoever; for she appears to those that are sick, in their Sleep, and directs them to proper Remedies for the recovery of their Health; sach as are in desperate Distempers, and resort thither, she perfectly cures and restores. Women likewise that are in hard Labour, she safely delivers, and frees from the pains and hazards of Child-bearing, and therefore that Temple is full of ancient Relicts and Donations safely kept and preserv'd to this Day, not by Guards or Walls, but only by the Religious Devotion observed in this Place.
But let this suffice concerning Rhodes and Chersonesus; it remains we should now treat of Crete.
Of Crete: The First Inhabitants. Of the Idaei Dactyli: Of Jupiter, Saturn, Hyperion, Prometheus, Mnemosyne, Themis, Ceres, Neptune, Pallas. Jupiter's Race; as the Muses, Vulcan, Mars, &c. Of the ancient Hercules, Britomartis, Pluto. Rhadamanthus's Justice. Of Lesbos. Deucalion's Flood. Of the Blessed Islands. Of Tenedos, and the Cyclades.
THE Inhabitants of Crete affirm, that the most ancient People of Crete are the Eteocretes, whose King, whom they call Creta, found out many very useful things, conducing much to the support and comfort of Man's Life. They say, likewise, that many of the Gods were born amongst them, who for their Benefits conferr'd upon Mankind, were eternally honour'd as Deities. Of which things we shall here distinctly treat, as they are deliver'd to us by the most approv'd Authors that have writ the History of Crete.
The first Inhabitants of Crete (of whom there's any remembrance) were the Idaei Dactyli, in Mount Ida: Some say there were a Hundred others, but Ten in number, call'd Dactyli, from the Ten Fingers on Mens Hands.
Some affirm, and amongst those Ephorus, that the Idaei Dactyli had their Original from Mount Ida in Phrygia, and pass'd over with Minos into Europe; and that they were Conjurers, and gave themselves to Inchantments, and Sacred Rites and Mysteries; and abiding in Samothracia, greatly amus'd and astonish'd the People of the Island. At which time it's said, Orpheus (who was naturally of a prompt Wit to Musick and Poetry) was their Scholar, and the first that brought over the Rites and Ceremonies of their Mysteries into Greece. The Dactyli moreover (as is said) found out the use of Fire; and discover'd the nature of Iron and Brass, to the Inhabitants of the Antisapterians, near to the Mountain Berecynthus, and taught the manner of working of it: And because they were the first discoverers of many things of great use and advantage to Mankind, they were ador'd and worship'd as Gods: One of them, they say, was call'd Hercules; a Person he was of great Renown, and he that instituted the Olympick Games, which were thought by Posterity to have been appointed by Hercules the Son of Alcmena, led into that Error by the Identity of Names.
An Evidence of these things, they say, remains to this Day, in that the Women chant the Songs formerly sung by this God, and wear about them certain Amulets, in imitation of him who was a Magician, and taught sacred Rites and Ceremonies: All which were different from the Manners of Hercules the Son of Alemena.
After the Idaei Dactyli (they say) there were Nine Curetes, some of which are feign'd to be the Offspring of the Earth, and the rest to descend from the Idaei Dactyli. They dwelt in the Mountains, under the shade of thick Trees, and in Caves, and other Places that naturally afforded them a shelter and covering, the building of Houses not being then found out. They were very Ingenious, and therefore invented many things very useful and profitable: For they were the first that taught how to manage Flocks of Sheep, and to tame and bring up other Cattel, and how to gather Honey; and that they were the first that shew'd how to cast Darts, and to Hunt; and that order'd Men into Societies and Communities, and sociably eating one with another, and brought Men into a peaceable and orderly Course of Life: They invented likewise Swords and Helmets, and dancing in Arms, and by the great noise they made, deceiv'd Saturn. For it's said, that by them Jupiter (whom his Mother Rhea, to hide him from her Father Saturn committed to their Care) was secur'd and brought up: But being willing to treat of this more particularly, we must go a little higher with ou• Relation.
The Cretians say, that the Titans were contemporary with the Curetes: They dwelt in the Country of the Gnosians, where now may be seen the ancient Foundations and Courts of the House where Rhaea inhabited, and an old Sacred Grove Page 205 of Cyprus Trees. They were in number, Six Men and Five Women, the Issue of Ʋranus and Terra, as some affirm; but as others say, the Offspring of one of the Curetes and Titaea, and call'd Titans after the Name of their Mother. The Sons were call'd Cronus, Hyperion, Coeus, Japetus, Crius and Oceanus; the Sisters were Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phaebe and Thetis; every one of whom were the Inventers of something useful and profitable to Man's well-being, and as a Reward of their Deserts, are by all Men honour'd with an everlasting Remembrance.
Saturn the Eldest, obtained the Kingdom, and reduc'd his Subjects from a wild and barbarous, to a more civil Course of Life, both as to Food and Manners. Having therefore upon that account gain'd much Honour and Reputation, he went into many Parts of the World, and perswaded all wherever he came, to Justice and Integrity of Heart; and therefore it's brought down as a certain Truth to Posterity, that in the times of Saturn, Men were plain and honest, free from all sorts of wicked Designs or Practices; yea, that they were then happy and blessed. He chiefly reign'd over the Western Parts of the World, and was advanc'd to the highest Pinacle of Honour and Renown; and therefore of later Times, both the Romans and Carthaginians (while their City stood) and other Neighbouring Nations, ador'd this God with magnificent and splendid Festivals and Sacrifices; and many Places up and down are call'd after his Name: And because at that time the Laws were strictly observ'd, no act of Injustice was committed, but all submitting to his Authority, liv'd happily, and injoy'd Pleasure and Content without any Molestation; which is attested by the Poet Hesiod, in these Verses.
And these are the things they reported of Saturn.
As to Hyperion, they say, that he was the first that by his own Industry found out the Motions of the Sun and Moon, and other Stars, and the Seasons and Distinctions of Time measur'd out by them, and afterwards imparted his Knowledge to others. And therefore he was call'd the Father of those Planets, as he that first taught the Knowledge and nature of them.
Latona, they say, was the Daughter of Coeus and Phebe; and that Prometheus was the Son of Japetus, who (as some feign) stole Fire from the Gods, and bestow'd it upon Men.
Page 206 But the truth of the Story is, he found out the way how to strike Fire out of Flint or Stone. Mnemosyne they say, found out the Art of Logick, and gave proper Names to every thing, by which, whatever is discours'd of, might be distinctly known and understood: But some attribute this to Mercury. They ascribe likewise to this Goddess every thing conducing to the help of Man's Memory, from whence she has her Name.
Themis taught the Art of Divination, and instructed Men in Holy Rites, and prescrib'd Laws for the Service and Worship of the Gods, and for preservation of Peace and good Government amongst Men; and therefore we call those that keep and take care of the Sacred Laws both of Gods and Men, Thesmophylacae, and Thesmothetae. And when Apollo himself is to give his Answer at the Oracle, we say, Themisteum, because he was the first that practiz'd Divination. These Gods therefore having thus greatly benefited Mankind, were not only ador'd with Divine Honours, but were accounted to be the first that after their Deaths were translated to Heaven. Vesta, Ceres, Juno, Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto, are said to be the Children of Saturn and Rhea.
Vesta invented the Building of Houses, and upon this account almost every Body sets up her Statue in their Houses, and adore her with Divine Honours.
Ceres was the first that discover'd the use of Bread-Corn, finding it by chance growing of it self amongst other Plants and Herbs; and taught the way of Housing and Baking it, and how to sow it. For she found out Corn before Proserpina was born; after whose Birth and Rape by Pluto, she was so incens'd at Jupiter, and in such grief for the loss of her Daughter, that she set all the Corn on Fire. But when she had found out Proserpina, she was reconciled to Jupiter, and gave Seed-Corn to Triptolemus, with order to impart it to all People, and teach them how to order it, and make use of it.
Some say, she made Laws, to direct Men to deal justly and truly one with another; and from hence she was call'd Thesmophoron: For these great Advantages to Mankind, she was likewise highly honour'd; and not only Grecians, but the Barbarians almost every where, that partook of these Fruits, ador'd and worship'd her with Solemn and Magnificent Festivals and Sacrifices.
There are many Controversies and Differences concerning the first finding out of this Fruit, for some say, this Goddess first saw it, and taught the nature and use of it before any other. For the Egyptians say, that Isis and Ceres were one and the same Person, who first brought Seed-Corn into Egypt, the River Nile watering the Fields, and washing the Country at proper Seasons, much advancing thereby the growth and increase thereof.
But the Athenians say, that although Corn was first found out amongst them, yet it was transported from other Places into Attica. The Place where it was first seen, they call Eleusina, because that Seed-Corn was first brought thither.
The Sicilians likewise who inhabit the Island, specially dedicated to Ceres and Proserpina, say, it's most reasonable to conclude, that this great Gift was first bestow'd upon them who till'd and improv'd that Country which was most belov'd of this Goddess. For it's a most unreasonable thing this Place should be reported the richest Island of the World, and yet to judge it the last in sharing of this great Blessing, as if it had been no part of their Fertility, especially when Ceres resided there her self; and all agree that Proserpina was ravish'd in this Place; and that this Island is a Country most proper for Corn of any other in the World, as the Poet testifies.
Page 207 As to the other Deities, they say, that Neptune was the first that us'd Navigation, and rigg'd out a Navy, and was appointed Admiral by Saturn; and therefore it was a common Tradition afterwards, that all Sea-Affairs were under his Rule and Government, and upon that account Mariners worship him with Solemn Sacrifices. They say moreover, that Neptune was the first that manag'd Horses, and taught the Art of Horsemanship, whence he was call'd Hippius.
Pluto (they say) first shew'd the way of Sepulchres and Pompous Funerals, whereas before no regard was had to any of these; which was the reason he was accounted Lord of the Dead, and Prince of the Infernal Shades.
There are many differing Opinions concerning the Genealogy and Kingdom of Jupiter. There are some of Opinion, that after the Death of Saturn, he succeeded in the Kingdom, not advanc'd to that dignity by a forceable Expulsion of his Father, but by a just and lawful Succession. Others report, that Saturn being forewarned by the Oracle concerning Jupiter, that a Son of his to be afterwards born, would oust him of his Kingdom by force, kill'd his Children one after another, as soon as they were born; at which Rhea was so griev'd (not being able to work upon her Husband's obstinate Humour) that she forthwith upon his Birth hid Jupiter in Ida, recommending his Education to the Care of the Curetes, who inhabited that Mountain: And that they again lodg'd him in a Cave, and intrusted him with the Nymphs, intreating them to be very careful of him; who fed him with Milk and Hony mixt together, and for his better nourishment suckled him at the Paps of a Goat, call'd Amalthaea: For there are many Tokens of his Birth and Education in this Island to this Day.
For when he was a young Infant, and carried away by the Curetes, they say, that the Navel String fell from him at the River Triton, whence that part of the Country, sacred to this God, is call'd Omphalium, and the Region adjoyning, Omphaleus. In Ida likewise, where this Goddess was educated, the Cave wherein he was hid, is not only consecrated to him, but the Ports near to that Promontory are under his Guard and Protection.
But here is not to be omitted a wonderful Story that's related concerning the Bees: For they say, the God to preserve an eternal Memory of his familiarity with the Bees, chang'd their colour into that of Brass or Copper, washt over with Gold: And whereas the Place is exceeding high, and subject to stormy Winds, and us'd to be cover'd over with depths of Snow, he fortify'd the Bees with an Impassibility, so that they were able to feed and gather Honey in the most stormy and coldest Places.
Amongst other Honours attributed to the Goat that gave him suck, he bestow'd this, that he himself from her, assum'd the Name of Aegiochus. When he was grown up to Man's Estate, he first built a City at Dicta, where he was born, the Ruins whereof are to be seen at this Day.
This God excell'd all the other in Valour, Prudence, Justice, and all other Virtues: And therefore after the death of his Father, when he came to reign, he conferr'd many and great Benefits upon Mankind. For he was the first that instructed Men how to punish Injuries, and to deal justly and honestly one with another, to forbear Force and Violence, and bring their Differences and Controversies orderly before Tribunals and Courts of Justice, there to be ended and decided. In sum, he did whatsoever was necessary for the making of good Laws, and Preservation of Peace among Men; stirring up the Good by wholsom Advice to their Duty, and restraining the Bad through fear of severe and due Punishment for their Offences.
It's reported, he travell'd through the whole World, putting to Death Thieves, Robbers, and other Impious Persons, establishing Commonwealths and Democracies in every Place wherever he came.
About that time he slew several Giants with their Adherents, as Mytinus in Crete, and Typhon in Phrygia.
Before the Battel with the Giants in Crete, upon Jupiter's sacrificing of Oxen to Sol, Coelus and Terra, in all the Intrals appear'd evident Signs of what was decreed by the Gods: Their Victory especially was portended; and a defection of some from the Enemy, as it prov'd in the issue of the War; for Musaeus fled and revolted from them, for which he was highly honour'd.
Page 208 At length, all that fought with the Gods were every one cut off, and destroy'd: But he was afterwards ingag'd in a new War against the Giants at Pallene in Macedonia, and anciently in the Plains of Italy, call'd Phlegraei, from the Conflagration the Country once suffer'd, but now call'd Cumaei.
The reason why Jupiter destroy'd the Giants, was their Violence and Oppression, making use of their strength and massy Bodies to inflave their Neighbours; and for that they were lawless, and not to be kept within any bounds of Justice, made War upon them; who for their doing good, and being beneficial to Mankind, were reputed for Gods by all People whatsoever. And he not only rooted up the Wicked and Impious, but rewarded the best of the Gods, Heroes and Men, with due Honours according to their several Deserts. The great Authority therefore and good Deeds of Jupiter were such, that to him was attributed an eternal Habitation and Kingdom in Olympus. And more splendid Sacrifices by his Command are offered to him than to any of the other Gods; and since his passing from Earth to Heaven, a strong Perswasion is sixt in the Hearts of all those he was kind unto, that he has the Command and Government of all that's done in Heaven; and is supream Lord of Storms, Thunder and Lightning; and therefore they call him Zena, because he seem'd to be the Preserver of Mens lives, by affording fruitful Seasons to ripen the Fruits of the Earth. They call him likewise Father, not only upon the account of his 〈…〉e and Kindness to all Mankind, but likewise for that it's generally believ'd all Men were originally his Offspring.
He's call'd likewise the Supream King, by reason of the Majesty and Excellency of his Kingdom; and moreover Eubuleus and † Metietes, by reason of his Wisdom and Prudence in Counsel.
It's said also, that Minerva was the Daughter of Jupiter, born in Crete, at the Spring-heads of the River Triton, and therefore she was call'd Tritogenea; and now at this Day there stands a little Chappel dedicated to this Goddess at the Place where she's said to have been born. They say likewise, that the Marriage of Juno and Jupiter was solemniz'd in the Country of the Gnosians, near the River Therone, where there's now a Temple, in which the Priests offer an anniversary Sacrifice and Festival with great Devotion, imitating the Nuptial Rites according as by Tradition they have receiv'd them.
The Daughters of Jupiter, it's said, were the Goddesses, Venus, the Graces, Lucina and her Servant Diana, together with those call'd Horae, that is to say, Eunomia, Dica, and Irene.
The Gods he begot; were Vulcan, Mars, Apollo and Mercury: To every one of these (they say) Jupiter imparted the knowledge of things invented and perfected by himself, and attributed the honour of the Invention to them, desirous to perpetuate their Memories, and advance their Reputation and eternal Praise amongst all Men.
To Venus he committed the care of the mature Age of Virgins; at which time they ought to Marry, and the oversight of other things us'd at Nuptials, together with Sacrifices and Drink-offerings, which are solemnly offer'd to this Goddess; but all first Sacrifice to Jupiter the Perfector, and to Juno the Perfectris, because they are the Authors and Inventors of all, as a little before we have declar'd.
To the Graces was given power to beautify the Face, and to give a Comely Shape and Proportion to all the Members of the Body, and to do good where-ever they pleas'd, and to cause the Persons to be grateful and thankful for what they receiv'd.
To Lucina he committed the care of them that were in Travel and Child-bearing, and easing of them in their Pains; and therefore Women in these hazards chiefly at that time, call'd upon her for help and assistance.
Diana shew'd the way how to nurse up little Infants, and to provide Food for them suitable to their tender Age; upon which account she was call'd the Childrens Nurse.
To every one of the Horae, is allotted an Office agreeable to their several Names, to the great advantage of Mankind, for the Government of themselves in the Course of their Lives. For there's no greater blessedness in this Life, than Good Laws, Peace and Justice.
Page 209 To Minerva he committed the Care of Olive-Yards, and planting of Olive-Trees, and extracting of Oyl. For before the Birth of this Goddess, this Tree grew wild, disregarded among other Trees of the Wood. But the use and culture of them (as is now practis'd) was not then known.
The making of Garments likewise and Architecture, and many other Arts was discover'd to Men by this Goddess: She invented Pipes, and the manner of Wind Musick, and many ingenious Tools and Instruments for Handicrafts; whence she was call'd Ergana.
To the Muses, their Father allotted the Invention of Letters, and the Composing of Verses, call'd Poetry.
But there are some who attribute the Invention of Letters to the Syrians, from whom the Phaenicians learnt them, and communicated them to the Grecians when they came along with Cadmus into Europe; whence the Grecians call'd them Phaenician Letters. To these that hold this Opinion, it's answer'd, that the Phaenicians were not the first that found out Letters, but only chang'd the Form and Shape of them into other Characters, which many afterwards using, the Name of Phaenician grew to be common.
Vulcan they say, found out the working of Iron, Brass, Silver and Gold, and all other Metals that require forging by Fire; and that the general use of Fire in all other cases, was found out by him, and discover'd not only to Artificers, but to all other Men; and therefore all the Masters of these Arts, pay their Devotions, and offer their Sacrifices chiefly to this God; and both they and all others, call Fire Vulcan, to the end that this great Good bestow'd upon all Mankind, might be for ever remembred, to his eternal Honour and Praise.
Mars they say, first taught the making of all sorts of Weapons, and how to furnish Soldiers both with offensive and defensive Arms, and to fight with Courage and Resolution, destroying all them that were Enemies to the Gods.
To Apollo is attributed the invention of the Harp, and that sort of Musick; and 'tis said, he discover'd the Art of Physick, which is practis'd by Revelation from him, by which the Sick heretofore were commonly restor'd to Health: He found out likewise the use of the Bow, and taught the Inhabitants to shoot; and therefore the Cretians delight much in Shooting, and call the Bow Scythicus.
Aesculapius was the Son of Apollo and Coronides; he was instructed by his Father in the Art of Physick, and found out Chirurgery, and the making up of Medicines, the Vertues of Roots and Plants, and improv'd to that degree in his Art, that he was reputed the first Founder and Author of it, and likewise the Prince of Physitians.
To Mercury they attribute the Invention of Messages in Times of War, by Trumpets and Heralds, of Truces and Leagues; and as a Sign, they were sent to treat with the Enemy, they carry'd a Rod before them; and therefore were suffered safely to come and go. Hence they were call'd the Common Mercury, because both sides injoy'd the equal benefit of a Peace after a War.
They say, he was the first that invented Weights and Measures, and getting of Wealth by Merchandize, and the way of Cheating and Cozening of others. He was accounted the Herald of the Gods, and the best Messenger, because he was quick and ingenious in declaring particularly every thing he had in Command. Whence he was call'd Hermes.
He was not the Inventer of Names and Words, as some say, but excell'd in clear and eloquent Expression, and delivery of his Message. He was likewise the Author of the Games of Wrestling, and invented the Harp made of a Tortois Shell, after the Contest between Apollo and Marsyas; in which (they say) Apollo was Victor, and reveng'd himself of his Adversary, to a greater degree than was fit; for which he was afterwards so griev'd, that they say, he broke the Strings of his Harp, and for some time forbore to play upon that Instrument.
The Cretians say, that Bacchus found out the use of the Vine, and the manner of planting and pruning of it, and the making of Wine, and the way of laying up the Summer Fruits; by which means they were preserv'd for Mens use and sustenance for a long time.
Page 210 It's further reported, that this God was the Son of Jupiter and Proserpina, and born in Crete; and Orpheus in his Sacred Rites and Mysteries, says, he was torn in pieces by the Titans: But there were many of this Name Bacchus, of which we have more largely and particularly given an account already; but of this Dionysius or Bacchus his being born in Crete, they endeavour to shew evident Signs, as Arguments to prove it; for they say, there are Two Islands form'd by him, near Crete, in a part of the Sea call'd the Double Gulfs; to which Islands he gave the denomination of Dionysiadae, which he never did in any other part of the World.
As to Hercules, it's said, that there was one of that Name, the Son of Jupiter, born many Years before him, that was begotten of Alcmena in Argos; but who was the Mother of this Hercules is uncertain: Only this is certain, that there was no Man comparable to him for Strength; that he travell'd through the whole World, inflicting just and deserv'd Punishment upon the Wicked, and destroy'd wild Beasts that infested the Countries, and made them desolate: That he delivered Men every where out of Bondage and Slavery, and that yet he himself (notwithstanding so many hazards and difficulties) was never worsted, remaining still unconquerable and invulnerable; for which renown'd Actions, he is by all Men ador'd with eternal Honours. But that Hercules, who was the Son of Alcmena was much later; but because he was like unto this ancient Hercules in his noble Acts, he likewise attain'd immortal Glory, and in after Ages (being of the same Name) was accounted to be the same Person, and (through the ignorance of the Vulgar) the Deeds of the former were ascrib'd to the later. They say, that the Praise and Renown of this elder God, for his famous Actions, continues in Egypt to this Day, where he built a City.
Britomartis, otherwise call'd Dictynna (they say) was born in Caenon in Crete, and was the Daughter of Jupiter, begotten on Carmes, the Daughter of Eubulus, the Son of Ceres. It's said; she invented the Hunters Toyls and Nets, and thence was call'd Dictynna: She was very familiar with Diana, and therefore it was thought by some, that Dictynna and Diana were one and the same Person, which Goddess is ador'd and honour'd in Crete both with Temples and Sacrifices. Those are very much mistaken, who say that Dictynna was so call'd, from her flying and hiding her self in the Fishers Nets to avoid Minos, who would have forc'd and ravish'd her. For it's not reasonable to imagine, that a Goddess (the Daughter of the most Supream God) should be reduc'd to so low a Condition, as to stand in need of Humane help; nor is it just to imagine, that Minos, who (by the general Consent of all) was reputed a righteous and upright Man, and liv'd a good Life, should be guilty of such an horrid Impiety, and grand piece of Wickedness.
Pluto (they say) was the Son of Jasion and Ceres, and born in Tripolus in Crete; and of his Descent there's a double Relation in History.
For some say, that Jasion so improv'd and cultivated the Land, that it brought forth Fruit in that abundance, that they that saw it, impos'd upon it a Name proper to the abundance of the Fruits, and call'd it Pluto; and therefore Posterity afterwards us'd to say, That he who had more than enough had Pluto.
Others say, that Jasion and Ceres had a Son nam'd Pluto, who first taught Men a more orderly and careful way of Living, and how to gain and treasure up Wealth. Whereas a provident Care of getting and keeping of Estates, was altogether neglected. And these are the things which the Cretians say of those Gods which they pretend were born among them. Moreover they say, the manner of Worshipping and Sacrificing to the Gods, and other Rites and sacred Mysteries came from them to other Nations, and they bring in this as a most certain and undeniable Argument, as they suppose. For they say, the Rites and Initiations practis'd by the Athenians in Elusina, which are almost the most famous of any other, and those in Samothracia, and in Thracia among the Cidonians (of all which Orpheus was the Institutor) are celebrated darkly and Mystically; but in Crete at Gnosus (by an ancient Law) the very same sacred Mysteries are celebrated plainly and openly, and whatever is done in secret by others, none amongst them conceals from any that have a desire to know them; for many of the Gods (they say) went out from Crete, and travell'd through many parts of the World, and were Benefactors to all sorts of Men, and communicated to them the Benefit Page 211 and Advantage of such things as they themselves had found out and invented. For Ceres sail'd into Attica, and from thence into Sicily, and at length into Egypt; in which Places, after she had deliver'd them Corn, and taught them how to sow it, she was highly honour'd amongst them: So Venus dwelt near Eryx in Sicily, in the Island Cythera, at Paphus in Cyprus, and in Syria in Asia; and because she was often seen, and continu'd long among the Inhabitants of these Places, she was call'd Venus Erycina, Cytherea, Paphya and Syria. Apollo likewise continu'd long in Delos, Lycia and Delphos; and Diana in Ephesus, Pontus, Persia and Crete; and therefore from the Places and things done there by them, Apollo was call'd Apollo Delius, Lycius and Pythius; and she was stiled Diana Ephesia of Cresia, Tauropolia and Persia; although both of them were born in Crete.
This Goddess Diana is highly honour'd by the Persians, and the same Mysteries and Sacrifices that are celebrated and offered to her by others, the Barbarians themselves at this very day, celebrate in honour of Diana Persia. To this purpose they give an Account of the rest of the Gods, which as they are easie for the Reader to understand, so they are too tedious for us to recite.
Moreover they say, that many Ages after the Birth of the Gods, there were many Heroes among them, of whom the most Eminent were Minos and Rhadamanthus, who were the Progeny of Jupiter and Europa (the Daughter of Agenor) whom they report by the Providence of the Gods, to be carried over into Crete upon the Back of a Bull. Minos they say, who was the Elder, obtain'd the Kingdom, and built in the Island many Cities; amongst which, Three were most Famous; Gnosius, situated in that part of the Island that look'd towards Asia; Phaetus, lying Southward upon the Shoar; and Cidonia situated in the Western Part over against Peloponesus. Many Laws they say, were made by him for the Government of the Cretians, receiving them from Jupiter his Father, who us'd to converse with him privately in a Cave. He had a great Fleet, and conquer'd many of the Islands, and was the first of the Greeks that gain'd the Dominion of the Seas; and after he had arriv'd to a high pitch of Glory and Honour by reason of his Justice and Valour, he dy'd in Sicily, in undertaking a War against Cocalus, of which we have before given a particular Narrative, when we treated of the Affairs of Daedalus, who was the occasion of this War.
Rhadamanthus they say, was the most Just Man in the World, for in executing of Justice upon Thieves, Robbers and other Impious and Wicked Persons, he was inexorable.
They report likewise, that he gain'd several Islands, and many of the Maritime Coasts of Asia, all voluntarily submitting to him upon the account of his eminent Justice. He gave the Kingdom to Erythro, one of his Sons, who call'd themselves Erythri, from him. To Oenopion the Son of Minos and Ariadna, they say he allotted Chius: Others say, he was the Son of Bacchus, and was taught how to make Wine by his Father.
He rewarded likewise each of his Captains, either with some Island or City: Upon Thoantes he bestow'd Lemnos; on Engyeus, Cyrnus; to Pamphilus he gave Peparathus; to Euambeus, Maronea; to Alcaeus, Parus; to Arrion, Delus; to Andreus the Island Andros, so call'd after his Name.
And because he was so remarkably Just, he's feign'd to be the Judge of Hell; and to distinguish between the Pious and Impious, the Good and the Bad: They say likewise that Minos is Copartner with him in that dignity, upon the account of his Uprightness, and his just and righteous Reign.
Sarpadon, the Third Brother, they say, past over with an Army into Asia, and possest himself of Lycia and the Neighbouring Territories. His Son Evander succeeded him in the Kingdom of Lycia, who marrying Deidamia, the Daughter of Bellerophon, of her begat Sarpedon, who went to the Trojan War with Agamemnon, and is call'd by some the Son of Jupiter. Deucalion and Molus (they say) were the Sons of Minos: Deucalion had a Son call'd Idomeneus, and Molus another nam'd Merion, who (as is said) assisted Agamemnon against Troy with a Fleet of Fourscore Sail, and afterwards return'd and dy'd in their own Country, and were honourably bury'd and ador'd as Gods: They show their Sepulcher in Gnosus, whereon is this Inscription.
These Two are ador'd as Demy-Gods by the Cretians, for they offer Sacrifice to them, and in their Wars call upon them for aid and assistance.
Having given an Account of these things, it remains we should now speak of the Nations that are intermixt with the Cretians. That the Aeteocretians were the first Inhabitants of this Island, and reputed to have been there from the beginning, we have before declar'd. Many Ages after, the Pelasgi planted among them a Nation inur'd continually to Arms, and wandring up and down from their ancient Habitations, seiz'd upon that part of the Island where they landed.
The Third Nation that came thither (they say) were the Dorienses, under the Conduct of Teutamus, one of the Posterity of Dorus. It's said the greatest part of his Colony he brought from the Neighbouring Parts of Olympus, and some part from the Achaians in Laconia; for that Dorus gather'd his Colony out of the Parts and Territories near to Malea.
A Fourth sort of People that pour'd into Crete, were a promiscuous Company of Barbarians from several Parts round about, who notwithstanding in process of time, spoke the same Language with the ancient Cretians, the natural Inhabitants. But after the power of Minos and Rhadamanthus became prevalent and considerable, all these Nations were reduc'd into one Body, as one People throughout the whole Island. And at length after the return of the Heraclidae, the Argives and Spartans sent Colonies, and possess'd themselves likewise of other Islands, and both in this and those other built several Cities, of which we shall treat more fully in due and proper time.
But since that almost all the Historians of the Cretian Affairs, differ among themselves, it's not to be wonder'd at if we do not agree with them all in every thing we relate; for we follow them who give the most probable Account, and are esteem'd to be of most credit. For sometimes we follow Epimenides the Theologist, and sometimes Dosiadas, Sosicrates and Leosthenidas.
Having therefore treated thus largely of Crete, we shall now apply our selves to speak of Lesbos.
This Island was anciently inhabited by many several Nations one after another, by reason it was so often left and forsaken: The first that seis'd upon it, were the Pelasgi when it lay desert and uninhabited. For Xanthus the Son of Triopas Prince of the Pelasgians that came from Argos, seated himself in a part of Lycia, which he had possessed himself of, and there reign'd over the Pelasgians that came thither with him; whence he sail'd over to Lesbos, which at that time lay desolate, and divided the Country amongst the People, and call'd the Island Pelasgia, which before was call'd Isa.
In process of time, after the Seventh Generation, many People were destroy'd by Deucalion's Flood, and Lesbos likewise at that time was by Chataracts of Showers laid waste and desolate. But afterwards Macarius happening to touch there, and considering the pleasantness of the Island, there seated himself.
This Macarius was the Son of Crinacus, the Son of Jupiter (as Hesiod and some other of the Poets say) and dwelt in the City Olanus, then call'd Jados, and now Achaia.
He got together a great Company of Ionians, and multitudes from several other Nations flockt in to him; in the first place he possessed himself of Lesbos; afterwards growing more powerful, through the richness of the Island, and his own Justice and Humanity, he gain'd many Neighbouring Islands, and divided the Lands amongst his Countrymen and Followers.
About that time Lesbos, the Son of Lapithas, the Son of Eolus, the Son of Hippotas (by the Direction of the Oracle at Delphos) arriv'd in this Island with new Colonies, and marrying Methymna the Daughter of Macareus, seated himself Page 213 and his Followers there, and injoy'd an equal Interest with them that were there before him; and afterwards becoming a Man of great Renown, he call'd the Island Lesbos, after his own Name, and the People Lesbians: For Macareus had Two Daughters, Mytylene and Methymna, from whom two of the chiefest Cities of the Island were so call'd.
Macareus having a design to possess himself of some of the neighbouring Islands, ordered one of his Sons to carry over a Colony first into Chius; afterwards he sent another into Samos, nam'd Cycholaus, who seated himself there, and divided the Lands by Lot amongst those of his Colony, and rul'd over them as King. The Third Island Peopl'd by Macareus, was Coos, over which he appointed Neander King.
After this, he sent a large Colony with Leucippus into Rhodes, whom the Rhodians (by reason of the small number of Inhabitants that were left among them) willingly receiv'd, and suffered them to have and injoy the Lands equally with them.
But about that time, the Continent over against these Islands, lay under most pressing and grievous Calamities by reason of the late Flood; for in regard all the Fruits of the Earth by the Inundation and Excess of Rain were rotted and spoil'd for a long time together, Famine exceedingly prevail'd, and through Corruption of the Air, Plague and Pestilence depopulated and laid the Towns and Cities waste. But in the mean time, the Islands lying more open to the Winds, and so partaking of their healthful Gales, were loaded with the Fruits of the Earth, and the Inhabitants had fulness of all things, and in a short time were in a happy and prosperous State and Condition; and by reason of the great Plenty that was amongst them, they were call'd the Islands of the Blessed, or The Blessed Islands. But some say, that they were call'd the Macarean Islands, from Macareas and Ion, two Sons of one of the Princes that formerly rul'd there. And indeed these Islands for richness of Soyl and plenty of all things, did not only excel all the neighbouring Countries in ancient Time, but do so even to this Day. For the fertility of the Soyl, the pleasantness of the Situation, and the healthfulness of the Climate is such, that they are not without cause call'd, but are really and in truth, Blessed and Happy Islands.
Lastly, Macareus King of Lesbos, made the first Law among them, which was so beneficial and advantagious to the Publick, that he gave it the Name of the Lion, because of the strength and force of that Beast.
A considerable time after this Colony planted in Lesbos, another was brought into the Island Tenedos in this manner.
Tennes was the Son of Cyrnus, King of Colone in Troas, and was a Man renown'd for his Valour; he brought over a Colony out of the opposite Continent, and possess'd himself of the Island Leucophrys, at that time desolate.
After he had divided the Country by Lot amongst his Subjects, and had built a City, he call'd it Tennus, after his own Name. By his good and upright Government he gain'd upon the Hearts of his People, and was highly honour'd while he liv'd, and after his Death was ador'd as a Demy-God: For they built a Temple in honour of him, and offered Sacrifices to him as a God: Which Religious Veneration was continu'd to Times not long since. But we are not here to omit what the Islanders report concerning Tennes, the Founder of the City Tenedos. They say that Cygnus, the Father of Tennes, giving Ear to the false Suggestions and Calumniations of his Wife, lockt his Son in a Chest, and caus'd him to be thrown into the Sea, and that the Chest was cast up by the Waves upon Tencdos; and being thus strangely preserv'd by the special Providence of God, became King of the Island, and afterwards growing renown'd for his Justice and other eminent Virtues, he was at length honour'd and ador'd as a God. And because his Stepmother hir'd a Piper by a false Oath to support her own Calumny, it's a Law amongst them of Tenedos, That no Piper shall come into the Temple.
Afterwards when Tennes, was kill'd by Achilles in the time of the Trojan War, and Tenedos then laid wast by the Grecians, the Tenedeans, made another Law, that it should not be lawful so much as once to name Achilles in Tennes his Temple. These are the things related of Tenedos and it's ancient Inhabitanas.
Having now given an Account of the most considerable Islands, we shall proceed in the next place to the lesser.
Page 214 The Cyclade Islands were Formerly desolate and uninhabited: But Minos the Son of Jupiter and Europa, King of Crete, having a strong Army at Land, and with a powerful Navy, Master at Sea, sent many Colonies out of Crete, and Peopled many of the Islands of the Cyclades, and divided the Lands to the People by Lot, and subdu'd a great part of the Sea-Coasts of Asia; and therefore the Sea-Ports and Havens of Asia, and of the Islands, have the same Names with those in Crete, and are call'd Minoi. Minos being now grown great and powerful, began to envy his Brother Rhadamanthus his Copartner in the Kingdom, for the honour and reputation he had gain'd by his Justice. Willing therefore to remove him as far from him as possibly he could, he sent him into the furthest parts of his Dominions. Whereupon Rhadamanthus abiding in the Islands over against Ionia and Caria, caus'd Erythrus to build a City in Asia after his own Name, and made Oenopion, the Son of Ariadna the Daughter of Minos, Lord of Chius.
These things were all done before the Trojan War: But after the destruction of Troy, the Cares grown rich and wealthy, gain'd the Dominion at Sea, and subdu'd the Cyclades, some of which they took into their own hands, and rooted out the Cretians; others they injoy'd in Common with the ancient Cretian Inhabitants. But in process of time the Grecians growing strong and powerful, the barbarous Carians were ejected out of most of the Cyclades, and the Islands fell into the hands of the Greeks. Of which we shall give a more particular Account hereafter in proper Time and Place.
D. G.The following Books, that is to say, the VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, are lost.
The Histories of Herodotus written in 440 BC is considered to be the founding work of history in Western literature. His history included stories and fables but he claimed to have traveled extensively and learned about many countries through direct observation.
The thesis of Stolen Legacy is that the Egyptians created what is wrongly called Greek philosophy. Dr. James argues that the African origin of Greek Philosophy is well known but rarely discussed. Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus the Sicilian wrote in significant detail about the contributions of Egypt. Egyptian technology and libraries were unmatched and Greek philosophers such as Pythagoras and Plato studied there. The contribution of Africa to the intellectual foundation of modern knowledge is tremendous but unacknowledged.
The Library of History by Diodorus the Sicilian is one of the most highly regarded universal histories in antiquities. His work includes the history of Egypt, Asia, Africa, Greece and Europe. His book is a must read for research of ancient history.
Bible Study The King James Bible (kjv), World English Bible (web) and Bible in Basic English (bbe) are all examples of public domain books. The King James Bible (kjv) online uses the content from these books and open source software to enhance Bible study capabilities. The site includes the verse of the day, search tools, christian literature and links to related content. It demonstrates the use of open source to create a valuable service.