THose who stuff their Histories with long and tedious Harangues, or are everand anon setting forth their Matter with Rhetorical Orations; are, not without just Cause to be blam'd. For besides, that it interrupts and cuts off the natural Course of the History, by an unseasonable Introduction of set and contriv'd Speeches, it likewise gives an unpleasant Check to the earnest Expectation of such as are eager to know the Issue of the Matters of Fact. Yet it's no ways to be disapprov'd for such as desire to be cry'd up for Eloquent Orators, to compose publick Orations and Speeches made by Ambassadors, and Panegyricks of Praise and Dispraise, and such like. For they that manage both Parts well and distinctly in a modest Stile, are justly to be prais'd and commended in both kinds of the Discourse. But there are some who so over-abound in Rhetorical Flourishes, that they make their whole History but as an Appendix (as it were to the other). For such tedious manner of Writing, is not only troublesome, but in this respect likewise is to be condemn'd, That although the Writer seem in other things to have hit the Mark, yet by this kind of Writing he seems to straggle and wander from the due Course both of Time and Place: And therefore they who read such sort of Writings, partly pass over such artificial and fram'd Discourses, though they are never so pat and fit to the Purpose; and partly tir'd out with the tedious and unseasonable artificial Digression of the Author, leave off reading altogether. For the Nature of History is simple, and in every part agreeable to it self, like to the Body of a living Creature, where the Cutting off of one Member is the Deformity of the whole. On the other side, that which is duly and orderly Compos'd, keeps within its proper Bounds, and the Coherence of the Whole, affords a clear and pleasant View and Understanding of the Matter in the Reading.
However, we do not altogether abandon Rhetorick and Oratorical Flourishes out of History: For because it ought to be adorn'd with Variety, its absolutely necessary in some Places to insert these Speeches and Orations. And I my self would not be depriv'd of making use of them upon such Occasions; and therefore when the Circumstances of the Matter related are such as that the Speech of an Ambassador, or the Harangue of a popular Senator, or the like, fall in naturally and easily, he that does not then put himself forth to the utmost in this kind, deserves justly to be Censur'd and Condemn'd.
A Man may be able to give many Reasons why Rhetorical Adornments are often to be made use of. For amongst quaint and eloquent Discourses, such asare worthy remark, and bring Profit and Advantage along with them together with the History, are by no means negligently to be pass'd over: Or when the Subject treated of is high and lofty, of things Famous and Remarkable, then it's very unbecoming, and not in the least to be endur'd, that the manner of Expression should sink meanly below the greatness of the Acts related. It may be likewise necessary when some extraordinary Event happens, so as that we are forc'd to make use of words adapted to the Occasion, in order to clear up and make plain the dark and intricate Grounds and Reasons of such an Accident. But what we have said of these things shall suffice, and we shall now proceed to the Relation of those Affairs we before design'd, first observing the Time, where we are now fallen in the Course of our History. In the former Books we have treated of the Affairs both of the Greeks and Barbarians from the most ancient Times, till the Tear next preceding the Expedition of Agathocles into Africa: From the Sacking of Troy to which time, arerun up Eight hundred fourscore and three Years, and something more. In this Book we shall go on with things next in Course, and coherent with the former Relation, and begin with the Descent of Agathocles into Africa, and end with that year wherein the Kings agreed to join together in a Common War against Antigonus, the Son of Philip, comprehending the Transactions of Nine years.
Agathocles designs to invade Africa. His Cruelty; Pursu'd in his Voyage. An Eclipse of the Sun very great. Lands in Africa. Burns his Ships. His successes in Africa. Hanno and Bomilcar made Generals in Africa. Battel between them and Agathocles, who routs them, Kills Hanno. His stratagem by Owls. The Cruel Superstition of the Carthaginians in sacrificing their Children. The Actions at Syracuse. Actions of Agathocles in Africa. The Acts of Cassander in Macedonia. Polysperchon seeks to restore Hercules Alexander's Son. The miserable Destruction of Nichocles and his Family in Cyprus. The Wars of Parysidas his Sons, King of the Cimerean Bosphorus. The Valour of Satyrus, one of the Sons; His Death. The sad Death of Eumelus, another Son.
IN the Chancellorship of Hieromnemones at Athens, and the Consulship of Caius Julius and Quintus Aemilius at Rome; Agathocles being routed at Himera in Sicily by the Carthaginians, and having lost the greatest and best Part of his Army, fled to Syracuse; where perceiving that he was for saken of all his Consederates, and that the Barbarians had got into their hands almost all Sicily (except Syracuse) and that they far over-power'd him by their Forces both by Sea and Land, undertook a very Rash and desperate Adventure. For when all were of Opinion that it was not adviseable for him in the least to endeavour to contend with the Carthaginians, he even then resolv'd to leave a strong Garison in the City, and with the Choicest of the rest of his Forces to make a Descent into Africa; and by that means he hop'd by his Old and and experienc'd Soldiers, easily to vanquish the Carthaginians, who (through a long Peace) were grown Soft and Delicate, and unexpert in their Arms; and besides, hereby he thought that their Confederates, who had been for a long time very uneasie under the Yoke of their Government, would take an occasion to Revolt. And which most induc'd him was, That by this sudden and unexpected Invasion, he should load himself with the Spoils of a Country that was never before harrass'd, and that abounded in the Confluence of all forts of Worldly Blessings. And to sum up all, That he should by this Course draw the Barbarians, not only out of his own Country, but out of all Sicily, and transfer the War entirely over into Africa, which happen'd accordingly.
For without advising with any of his Friends he made Antandrus, his Brother, Governor of the City, leaving with him a considerable Garrison; he himself Listed what Soldiers he thought fit for his purpose, ordering the Foot to be ready with Arms at the first Call, and commanded the Horsemen, that besides Arms they should every one carry along with them a Saddle and Bridle, that when ever he could get Horses he might have have those ready to mount them who were furnish'd with all things encessary for that purpose.
For in the late Battle most of his Foot were cut off: but most of his Horse escap'd; but their Horses he could not transport into Africa.
And to prevent all stirrs and commotions (in order to a defection) in Syracuse in his absence, he divided Kindred and Relations one from another, especially Brothers from Brothers, and Parents from Children, taking some along with him and leaving others behind: And he acted in this very wisely; for certain it was, that those who remain'd in Syracuse, although they hated the Tyrant, yet would attempt nothing to his prejudice, by reason of their natural Love and Affection to their Children, and near Relations and Kindred. And because he was in great want of Money, he took the Estates of Infants out of the hands of their Guardians; declaring, That he would have a far greater Care of them than they had, and be more faithful in giving them an Account, and making restitution when they came to full Age. He borrow'd likewise much from the Merchants, and converted to his own use some of the Sacred Treasures of the Temples; and took the Jewels and Ornaments from the Womens Backs.
Whereupon, discerning that the Richer sort were highly displeas'd and incens'd at this Usage, and for that reason hated him, he call'd a General Assembly, in which he greatly lamented the late Overthrow, and the dreadful Calamities that from thence seem'd to hang over their Heads. He told them, that he indeed that was inur'd to Hardships, could easily endure the Miseries of a Siege; but that he should greatly pity the Citizens, if they should be block•d up, and forc'd to undergo the like. Therefore he order'd those Page 659 that were not willing to suffer what might be their Fortune and Lot, to provide for the safety of themselves and their Estates. Upon which, the most wealthy Citizens (who bore a most implacable hatred against him) forthwith left the City: But he presently sent out some of his Mercenaries after them, and cut all their Throats, and consiscated their Estates. And thus, when by one and the same Act he had both enrich'd himself, and likewise purg'd the City of those that were his Enemies, he manumitted all the Slaves and Servants that were fit to bear Arms: And now having all things in readiness, and furnish'd with a Fleet of Sixty Sail, he only waited for a fair Wind. His Design being not commonly known, some reported that he intended an Expedition into Italy; others that he purposed to waste and destroy that part of Sicily that belong'd to the Carthaginians; to conclude, every body gave them (who were ready to Sail) all up for lost Men, and condemn'd the folly and madness of the Prince. The Enemy at that time had a Fleet far exceeding him in number in the Harbour, therefore he was forc'd for some days at the first, to lye still with his Men on Board, because he had not an opportunity to set Sail. Afterwards some Transport Ships loaden with Corn, making with full Sail toward the City, the Carthaginians pursu'd them with their whole Fleet: Whereupon Agathocles (almost before in despair to accomplish his Design,) as soon as he saw the Mouth of the Harbor open, causing the Rowers to ply their Oars with all the quickness imaginable, he broke out of the Harbour.
The Carthaginians being now come up near to the Transport Ships, and seeing a Fleet of their Enemies Ships sailing out of the Harbor, thought at first that they came to secure and defend the Corn Ships; Whereupon they tack'd about, and prepar'd to Fight: But when they saw that they made their Course straight forward, and were far before them, they pursu'd them with all the Sail they could; and while these were striving to Out-sail each other, the Transport Ships unexpectedly escap'd the danger, and plentifully supply'd the City that was before in great streights for want of Corn and Provision. Agathocles also, tho' closely pursu'd by the Enemy, by the advantage of the Night coming on (beyond all hope) got safe off from them. The next day there was such an Eclipse of the Sun, that the Stars appear'd every where in the Firmament, and the Day was turn'd into Night: Upon which Agathocles his Soldiers (conceiving that God thereby did foretel their Destruction,) fell into great Perplexities and Discontents concerning what was like to befal them. Having therefore sail'd Six Days and Six Nights, early in the Morning they suddenly spy'd the Carthaginian Fleet making up close upon them: Upon which, all set themselves to it with might and main to ply their Oars: The Carthaginians concluding, that together with the Ships they should not only take all the Syracusians prisoners, but should deliver their Country from present imminent danger: The Grecians on the other hand saw apparent destruction to themselves before their Eyes, and intolerable Bondage and Slavery to all their Kindred and Relations they had left at home, if they did not recover the Shore before the Enemy. And now Africa was in view when all the Sailers and Rowers call'd out earnestly one to another to bestir themselves, so that the strife and pains to get to Land was incredible. The Barbarians indeed were more swift Sailors, because they were more accustom'd to the Sea than the others; but the Grecian Ships kept still a considerable distance before them: Making therefore away with all the Expedition imaginable, when they came near the Shoar, they leap'd out of their Ships in throngs upon the Strand, as if they had been contending for the Mastery at the Gymnastick Games: For the first Squadron of the Carthaginians Ships were come up within a Darts cast of those in the Rear of the Grecian Fleet. After therefore some Contest for a while with their Bows and Slings (a few of the Barbarians Ships only being come up) Agathocles (overpow'ring the other by number) gain'd the advantage; whereupon the Carthaginians tackt about and stood off a little above the Cast of a Dart. Hereupon Agathocles presently landed his Men at a place call'd the Quarries, and drew a Breast work for the security of his Shipping all along from Sea to Sea: And after he had effected this bold and daring attempt, he set upon another far more dangerous: For taking to him such of his Captains and Commanders as were wholly at his Devotion, he first Sacrificed to Ceres and Proserpina, and then call'd a Council of War; where coming into the Assembly to make his Harangue, splendidly clothed in Royal Robes, and with his Crown upon his Head (after a few things premis'd, to make an introduction to what he had further to say) he told them, That at the time they were pursu'd by the Carthaginians he had made a Vow to the Goddesses Ceres and Proserpina, the Protectoresses of Sicily, that he would Consecrate all the Ships in the Fleet to them, by burning them all into so many burning Lamps; and therefore, since they were now safe and were deliver'd, it was just and fit that they should pay their Vows; and he promis'd Page 660 that if they fought couragiously, he would return them far more than those Ships they then had: For the Gods by the Sacrifices, did foretel that they should be Conquerors throughout the whole War: While he was speaking, one of his Servants brought him a lighted Firebrand, which catching hold of, and commanding the like to be deliver'd to the rest of the Captains, he invocated the Goddesses, and was the first that made to the Admiral's Vessel, and standing upon the Stern, commanded the rest to follow his Example: Whereupon, all the Captains of the Vessels set fire to their Ships, and forthwith the Flame mounted alost, the Trumpets sounded a Charge, and the whole Army set up a shout, and all as one Man offer'd up their joynt Prayers to the Gods, for their safe return to their own Country. And all this was done by Agathocles, that he might necessitate his Soldiers to fight, without ever thinking of turning their Backs. For it was plain, that having no Shipping left for their last Refuge, they could not have the least hope of safety in any thing but by being absolute Conquerors. Then he consider'd, that having but a small Army, if he would guard his Fleet he must be forc'd to divide it, and so should not be strong enough to venture a Battle; and if he left the Ships without any Guard, they would 〈◊〉 fall into the hands of the Carthaginians. However, while the whole Navy was on fire, and the Flame spread it self round at a great distance, the Hearts of the Sicilians quak'd: For at first, being deluded by the jugling Tricks of Agathocles, and the the quickness of Execution, giving them no time to consider, they all consented to what was done: But when they had leisure distinctly to weigh every particular, they repented themselves of what they had done; and pondering in their Minds, the vastness of the Sea by which they were separated from their own Country, they utterly despair'd of their Safety and Preservation. Agathocles therefore minding as soon as possibly he could, to cure this Pusilanimity in his Soldiers, led his Army to the great City (as it's call'd) within the Dominion of the Carthaginians. The whole Country through which they march'd, was beautify'd with Gardens, Planted with all sorts of Fruit-Trees, and Sluces, and Canals were cut all along for the convenience of Water, by which that whole Tract was every where abundantly water'd. This part of the Country was likewise full of Towns and Villages, adorn'd with stately Houses, whose Roofs were curiously wrought all setting forth the Wealth and Riches of their Owners. The Houses were full of all manner of Provision of every thing that was needful, for the Inhabitants (through a long Peace) had stor'd up their Treasures in great plenty and abundance. The Country is planted partly with Vines, and partly with Olive-Trees, and furnish'd likewise with many other Fruit-Trees: In another part, the Fields are pastur'd with Flocks of Sheep, and Herds of Cows and Oxen; and in the neighbouring Fens run great numbers of breeding Mares. And what shall I say more? Those places abounded with plenty of all things for the use of Man, and the rather for that they were the Possessions of the Nobility of Carthage, who laid out much of their Estates and Wealth with more then ordinary Curiosity to improve them for their Delight and Pleasure; so that the fertility and sweetness of the Country, was the admiration of the Sicilians, and rouz'd up their drooping Spirits in the view they had of those Rewards, and rich Returns, which they judg'd were well worthy the hazards to be run by the Conquerors to obtain them. Agathocles therefore perceiving that his Soldiers were now recover'd out of their dumps, and former melancholy apprehensions, makes a suddain Assault upon the Walls of the City; which being so surprizing and unexpected, and the Citizens unskilful in their Arms, after a short resistance he took the City by Storm; and gave the plunder of the Town to the Soldiers, which both encourag'd 'em and enrich'd 'em at once. Thence he forthwith mov'd with his Army to Tunis, and gain'd that City, which is Two thousand Furlongs from Carthage. The Soldiers would willingly have Garison'd these Two Cities, having Stor'd and laid up in them the Plunder they had got. But Agathocles weighing what was most expedient in his present circumstances; therefore after he had convinc'd the Soldiers, that it was by no means convenient to leave any place to fly to for shelter, till they had conquer'd the Enemy by down-right blows, he raz'd the Citys to the ground, and incamp'd in the open Field. In the mean time the Carthaginians that lay near to the Sicilians Fleet, at first greatly rejoyc'd when they saw their Ships all in a Flame, supposing they were constrain'd to burn their Navy out of fear of their Enemies: But after they perceiv'd them to march forward up into the Country with their whole Army, and imagining what they intended to do, they then concluded, that the burning of the Ships was a design'd mischief to them: Whereupon they spread Leathern Hides upon the Fore-Castles of all their Ships, which is their constant manner when ever any misfortune seems to threaten the Carthaginian Common-wealth; Moreover, they took into their own Gallies the Iron Beaks out of Agathocles's Ships, and sent Expresses to CarthagePage 661 to give them a particular Account of every thing that had hapned. But before these Messengers reach'd the City, some out of the Country who had discern'd Agathocles his Fleet to be near at hand, presently ran to Carthage to give them an Account, who were thereupon so amaz'd with the surprizing news of such an unexpected accident, that they forthwith concluded that their Armies in Sicily were utterly cut off and destroy'd; for that it could not be that Agathocles, unless he were Victorious, would dare to leave Syracuse naked without any Garison, or pass over his Army when at the same time his Enemy was Master at Sea. The City therefore was in a great hurly burly, terror and confusion, and the People throng'd into the Market-place, and the Senate met together to consult what was fit to be done in the present Exigency: for they had no Army at hand wherewith to fight the Enemy; besides, the common Citizens being raw and ignorant in matters of War, were altogether heartless, and every body thought the Enemy was then just at their Walls. Some therefore were for sending Ambassadors to Agathocles to propose terms of Peace, who might likewise at the same time discover the posture of the Enemy. Others were for staying and expecting till they should have perfect intelligence of every thing that was done.
While the City was in this hurry and perplexity, arriv'd those that were sent from the Admiral of the Fleet, and declar'd to them all that was done: Whereupon, their Courage reviv'd; and the Senate blam'd all the Officers of the Fleet, that being Masters at Sea, they should be so careless as to suffer the Enemies Forces to make a Descent upon Africa; and they created Hanno and Bomilcar Generals of their Army, notwithstanding they were at private feuds between themselves, and that ancient grudges had been in their Families one towards another. For they thought that these private Quarrels would much tend to the common advantage of the City: But they were very much mistaken, For Bomilcar had for a long time been ambitious of the Monarchy, but never yet had an opportunity fitted for his purpose to put his Designs in execution, and therefore he greedily imbrac'd the offer of such a Command as was exactly agreeable to what he was aiming at: And the chief cause of these Plots and Contrivances of his, was the severity and cruelty of the Carthaginians: For they advance the most eminent Persons to be Generals in their Wars, because they conclude they'l fight with more Resolution then others, when all lies at stake: But after the Wars are ended and Peace concluded, then they bring false Accusations against them, and most unjustly, through Envy, put them to death: And therefore some Generals out of fear of those unjust Sentences, either give up their Commissions, or seek to be absolute Monarchs; as Bomilcar one of the Carthaginian Generals then did; of whom we shall speak by and by.
The Carthaginian Generals therefore seeing now that delays were dangerous, waited not for Soldiers to be rais'd out of the Country, and from the Cities of their Confederates, but led out the Citizens themselves into the Field, having under their Command no less than Forty thousand Foot, a thousand Horse, and Two thousand Chariots; and possessing themselves of a Hill not far from the Enemy, drew up in Batalia: Hanno commanded the Right Wing supported by them of the Sacred Brigade: Bomilcar the Lest, making his Phalanx very deep, because the nature of the place would not allow him to extend his wing further in front: The Chariots and Horsemen he plac'd in the Van, to the end, that with these at the first Charge they might try the Courage of the Greeks. Agathocles on the other side, viewing how the Barbarians had drawn up their Army, committed the Right Wing to Archagathus his Son, delivering to him Two thousand and five hundred Foot. Then he drew up about Three thousand and five hundred Syracusians: Next to them Three thousand Mercenaries out of Greece; and Lastly, Three thousand Samnites Tyrrhenians and Celts. He himself with the Troops of the Houshold, and a Thousand heavy Arm'd Men commanded in the Left Wing, opposite to the Carthaginians Sacred Brigade. The Archers and Slingers, to the number of Five hundred he mix'd here and there in the two Wings. The Truth was, his Soldiers were scarce all Arm'd; And therefore when he saw some of those that were naked and without Arms; he took the Covers and Cases of the Shields and stretcht them out upon Sticks in the round shape of a Shield, and so deliver'd 'em to them; however in truth useless, yet so contriv'd by him, to the end that those that were at a distance (and knew nothing of the Stratagem) should look upon them to be Arm'd Men.
Perceiving likewise, that the Spirits of his Soldiers were very low, and much discourag'd, by reason of the great numbers of their Enemies, especially of their Horse, he let out several Owls (which he had before prepar'd for the purpose) into divers parts of the Camp here and there, to rid them of their fears; which Birds flying up and down through the Army, and lighting ever and anon upon their Shields and Bucklers, chear'd Page 662 up the spirits of the Soldiers, all taking it for a very happy Omen because that creature is sacred to Minerva: These sorts of tricks and devices altho' they may seem to some to be foolish and vain, yet they have many times been the causes of extraordinary success. As it fell out likewise at this time; for the soldiers by this means growing more bold and couragious, and it being generally nois'd abroad that the Goddess plainly soretold that they should be victorious, they more resolutely underwent all dangers and difficulties: For when the Chariots charg'd fiercely upon them, some they pierc'd through with their Darts and Arrows, others they avoided and suffer'd to pass by, and most of them they drave back into the midst of their own Foot. In the same manner they receiv'd the Charge of their Horse, wounding many and putting them all at last to flight.
When they had thus gallantly behav'd themselves in the first Charge, the Barbarians began to fall upon them with their whole Body of Foot at once; upon which there was a very sharp Engagment, wherein Hanno with that Body of Men call'd the Sacred Brigade (striving to win the day by his own Valour) makes a fierce Charge upon the Grecians, and hews down many of them: And tho' he was even overwhelm'd with showers of Darts and Arrows, yet he fell not; but receiving one Wound after another, on he still goes, till being overprest and altogether tir'd out, down he fell and gave up his last Breath. On the other hand Agathocles his Soldiers were so lifed up with expectations of Victory that they were still more and more couragious; which when the other General Bomilcar came to understand, conceiving that the Gods had put an opportunity into his hand to gain the Tyranny, he reason'd with himself, That if the Army of Agathocles were destroy'd, he could not mount the Throne because the City would be too strong for him; but if Agathocles were Conqueror, and by that means broke the Spirits of the Carthaginians, then (when they were brought low) he should be able to lead them which way he would; and as for Agathocles he concluded he should be able to subdue him when ever he pleas'd. Revolving these things in his mind, he began to face about and Retreat, willing the Enemy should take notice of what they were about to do; then telling his Soldiers that Hanno was slain, order'd them to keep their ranks and get to a rising ground there near at hand; for that was now the last course for them to take. But the Retreat looking like a down-right flight, the Enemy prest so close upon them, that the Africans who were in the Rear, supposing that those in the Front of the Battle were Routed, took to their Heels likewise.
In the mean time those in the Sacred Brigade fought bravely for a while after the death of Hanno, and resolutely prest forward upon the Enemy over the Carkases of their fellow-soldiers; but when they perceiv'd that most of their Army was fled, and that the Enemy was surrounding them at their backs, they were forc'd likewise to give way and be gone.
The whole Carthaginian Army being thus put to flight, the Barbarians made toward, Carthage; whom Agathocles pursu'd but a little way, and then return'd, and took the Pillage of the field; In this Battle were slain Two hundred Grecians, and not above a Thousand Carthaginians, though some have written above Six Thousand: Amongst other rich spoiles there were found many Chariots in the Carthaginians Camp, in which were carri'd above Twenty thousand pair of Fetters and Manacles. For concluding that they would easily overcome the Greeks, they agreed together to take as many Prisoners as they could, and threw them into the Dungeons setter'd hand and foot; but God (I conceive) purposely sets himself by meer contrary Events to cross the expectations of such, who proudly before hand resolve what shall absolutely be done.
Agathocles having now Routed the Carthaginians both beyond their, and even his own expectation, blockt them up within their Walls; and thus we see Fortune whose common Course it is to make Chequer-work of good and bad success, of Routs and Victories in their several turns, now humbled the Conquerors as well as those that were before conquered. For the Carthaginians after they had beaten Agathocles in Sicily in a great Battle, besieg'd Syracuse; and now Agathocles having Routed them in Africa, Besieges Carthage: And that which was most to be admir'd was that this Prince was beaten by the Barbarians in the Island when all his Forces were with him whole and intire: but now is Victorious in the Continent over the Conquerors with a piece of a broken and shatter'd Army. The Carthaginians therefore concluding that this miserable misfortune was brought upon them by the Gods, they all betook themselves to Prayers and Supplications to the Deity; especially thinking that Hercules, the Tutelar god of their Country, was angry at them, they sent a vast sum of Mony, and many other rich Gifts to Tyre. For in as much as they were a Colony which came out from them, they us'd in former Ages to send the Tenth part of all their Revenues as an Offering to that God: Page 663 But after that they grew wealthy, and their Revenues very great, they began to flack in in their Devotion, and sent thither but a small pittance to their God. Being therefore brought to repentance by this remarkable Slaughter, they remembred all the Gods in Tyre; they sent likewise out of their Temples to the Images of Golden Shrines in order to Supplications, supposing they should prevail the more in averting the Anger of the God by sending sacred gifts to pacifie him. They gave just cause likewise to their God Saturn to be their Enemy, for that in former times they us'd to sacrifice to this god the sons of the most eminent persons, but of later times they secretly bought and bred up Children for that purpose. And upon strict search made, there were found amongst them that were to be sacrific'd some Children that were chang'd and put in the place and room of others. Weighing these things in their Minds, and now seeing that the Enemy lay before their Walls, they were seiz'd with such a pang of Superstition, as if they had utterly forsaken the Religion of their Fathers. That they might therefore without delay reform what what was amiss, they offer'd as a publick sacrifice Two hundred of the Sons of the Nobility; and no fewer than Three hundred more (that were liable to censure) voluntarily offered up themselves; for among the Carthaginians there was a Brazen Statue of Saturn putting forth the Palms of his Hands so bending towards the Earth, as that the Boy that was laid upon them in order to be sacrific'd, should slip off and so fall down headlong into a deep fiery Furnace. Hence it's probable that Euripides took what he fabulously relates concerning the sacrifice in Taurus, where he introduces Iphigenia asking Orestes this Question—
The ancient Fable likewise that is common among the Grecians, that Saturn devour'd his own Children, seems to be confirm'd by this Law among the Carthaginians.
But after this change of affairs in Africa the Carthaginians sent to Amilcar into Sicily to hasten over to their assistance with all speed, and order'd that all the Beaks of Agathocles his Ships should be carri'd to him. When the Messengers arriv'd, he commanded them not to say any thing of the Routing of their Forces, but to noise it abroad among the Soldiers, that Agathocles his Fleet and Land Army were both utterly destroy'd. And he himself sent away some (that were newly come from Carthage) to Syracuse, together with the Iron Beaks, to demand the delivery up of the City, and to tell them that all their Forces were cut off by the Carthaginians, and their whole Navy burnt; and that if they would not believe them, the Beaks of their Vessels (there shew'd) were a sufficient evidence of the truth of what they related. when they that were in the City heard of this overthrow of Agathocles, many believ'd it: But the leading men of the City, minding to keep private a matter that was yet uncertain, and to prevent Tumults, forthwith dismist the Messengers, and sent them away. They cast out of the City likewise the Kindred and friends of the Exiles, and Eight thousand at least of others that seem'd to be uneasie under the Government; whereupon when so great a Number on a suddain were forc'd to leave the place of their Birth, the City was full of Confusion, Lamentation and crying of Women running up and down in the Streets; neither was there any House at this time that had not its share of weeping and mourning. For they who favour'd the Tyrant bewail'd the Ruin of Agathocles, and the loss of their Sons; others wept for those of their friends who they suppos'd were all cut off in Africa; others griev'd and mourn'd for them that were compell'd to forsake their Houses, and the Gods of their Fore-fathers; and who were neither suffer'd to stay, nor could get well out of the City by reason of the Siege. And besides these most grievous and bitter sufferings (which they labour'd under) they were forc't to fly with their Wives, and drag along with them their little young Children; But Amilcar courteously receiv'd and secur'd the Exiles, and march'd to Syracuse with his Army, as if he should forthwith possess himself of the City, upon the account of the place being destitute of Inhabitants, and the misery those were in (as he heard) who were left behind: However he sent Messengers before, and promis'd pardon to Antandrus, and all those that sided with him if he would deliver up the City into his hands. Upon which there was a Council of War call'd of those Captains that were in the greatest Authority; where after many bandings and debates pro and con, Antander (who was naturally a poor spirited Man, and of a weak head, and much below the courage and resolution of his Brother) was for delivering up of the Town: But Eurymnon the Etolian (whom Agathocles had left to assist his Brother in Page 664 Advice and Counsel) was of another Opinion, and prevail'd with them all to hold out till they had certain Intelligence of the Truth. Whereupon, Amilcar coming to understand the resolution of the Townsmen, prepar'd all his Engines with a full Resolution to batter down the Walls
Agathocles, after the late Battel, built two Ships of Thirty Oares a piece; and in one of them put on board the best of his Rowers, with Nearchus, one of the most faithful Friends he then had with him, and sent them away to Syracuse, to give an account of his Victory. Having therefore the Wind fair, the Fifth day (in the Night) they arriv'd in the Harbour of Syracuse, and at break of Day, Crown'd with Garlands and singing the Pean all along as they sail'd, they made for the City; which being perceived by the Carthaginian Guard-Ships, they pursu'd them with all their might, and the other being not far before them, there was great striving among the Rowers on both sides. While the Sea-men were thus contending, both Besiegers and Besieg'd understanding the Matter, ran down to the Port, and each fearful of the event, call'd out and encourag'd every one their own Men. And now the Ship was upon the point of falling into the hands of the Pursuers, upon which the Barbarians gave a shout: but the Citizens not being able otherwise to assist, pray'd to their Gods for the Preservation of their Men on board. The Pursuers being now ready to board her not far from Land, she got within a Darts cast of the Shore, and by the help of the Syracusians, who came in to her relief, narrowly escap'd the Danger. Amilcar perceiving that the Citizens, (upon the account of the late Contest, and the sudden arrival of the Intelligence expected) were all flock'd down to the Port; and thereupon conceiving part of the Walls were left Naked, order'd the stoutest of his Soldiers to rear up Scaling-Ladders; who finding there no Guards, mounted the Walls without being discern'd; and had almost possess'd themselves of an entire Part lying between two Towers, when they that us'd to go the Round, came just then to the Place, and so discover'd them. Upon which, they fell to it, and the Citizens came flocking in, before any Relief could be brought to the Assailants, so that some were kill'd outright, and others were thrown down Headlong over the Walls. At which Amilcar was so mortify'd, that he drew off his Forces from the City, and sent away Five thousand Men to the Relief of Carthage.
While these things were in action in Sicily, Agathocles being now Master of the Field, took some Forts and Castles near to Carthage by Storm; and other Cities, some out Fear, and some through hatred of the Carthaginians, voluntarily surrender'd themselves. Having fortify'd his Camp near Tunis, he left there a sufficient Guard, and mov'd towards the Towns lying upon the Sea-Coasts: And first he took by Storm the New City, but dealt very favourably with the Inhabitants: Thence he march'd to Adrymetes, and besieg'd it, and Confederated with Elymas King of Lybia. News whereof being brought to the Carthaginians, they bent all their Arms against Tunis; and possessed themselves of Agathocles his Camp; and with their Battering Rams press'd upon the City with continual Assaults. Agathocles receiving Intelligence of the slaughter of his Men, leaving the greatest part of his Army to carry on the Siege, and taking with him his Life-guard, and a small Body of Men, secretly march'd up to the Top of a Mountain, whence he might view both the Country of the Adrymetines, and likewise the Carthaginians that besieg'd Tunis. In the Night he commanded his Soldiers to kindle Fires, and with them to take up a large Tract of Ground, to the end the Carthaginians might think he was making towards them with a strong Army, and that the Besieg'd might conclude, that fresh Forces in vast numbers were come up to him for his Assistance; both being deceiv'd by this Stratagem were suddenly caught in the Snare; for they who besieg'd Tunis, fled, and left their Engines behind them; and the Adrymetines surpriz'd with Fear surrender'd the City, which was gain'd, upon certain Terms agreed upon, but Thapsus he afterwards took by Storm: And several other Cities he took in this Tract, some by Force, and others upon Conditions. Having at length gain'd in the whole above Two hundred Towns and Cities, he resolv'd upon an Expedition into the Higher Libya: To that end he rais'd his Camp, and march'd on many days Journey.
Then the Carthaginians march'd out with those Forces (besides others) which were sent out of Sicily, and besieg'd Tunis a second time, and recover'd a great part of the Country that was then in the Hands of the Enemy. When Couriers came from Tunis, and gave an account what the Carthaginians had done, Agathocles forthwith return'd: Being come within Two hundred Furlongs of the Enemy, he Encamp'd, and commanded his Soldiers not to kindle any Fires: Then making a sudden March in the Night, about spring of Day he fell upon those as were Wasting and Harrassing the Country, and disorderly roving up and down, and kill'd above Two thousand of them, and took many Prisoners, which was a great Step to his many Successes afterwards: For the Carthaginians being reinforc'd by their Page 665 Aids from Sicily, and strengthned by their Confederates in Africa, thought they had been too strong for Agathocles: But after this Misfortune, the Hearts of the Barbarians were quite down; for he had overcome Elymas the King of Libya, (who had deserted him) and kill'd likewise the General, with a great number of the Barbarians. And thus stood Affairs in Sicily and Africa at this time.
In Macedonia, Cassander came in to the Assistance of Autoleontes King of the Peonians, who was then in War with the Autariats, and rescu'd him out of the Streights and Dangers he was in at that time, and transplanted the Autariats together with their Wives and Children, that were then with them, to the Number of Twenty thousand, and plac'd them near the Mountain Orbitaus.
While he was thus employ'd, Ptolemy, Antigonus his General in Peloponnesus, who was intrusted by him with an Army in these Parts, (took a Pique against Antigonus, thinking he was not rewarded according to what he might justly expect) revolted and join'd with Cassander. He had left one Phaenix, (one of his Confederates) President of the Province adjoining to the Hellespont, and sent over some Soldiers to him, wishing him to take care of the Castles and Cities there, and for the future not regard any Orders that came from Antigonus.
It was generally agreed by Alexander's Captains, (as part of their Articles among themselves) that the Greek Cities should be all restor'd to their ancient Liberties. Therefore Ptolemy, King of Egypt, (charging Antigonus that he had put Garisons into several Greek Towns and Cities) prepar'd to make War upon him: And sent Leonides, a Captain of his own, into Cilicia Aspera, and there possess'd himself of certain Cities and Places belonging to Antigonus; and moreover, sent his Agent to some Cities appertaining to Cassander and Lysimachus, that they would follow his Advice, and not suffer Antigonus to grow too fast in Power.
And as for Antigonus, he sent his younger Son Philip to make War upon Phaenix, and others, who had revolted from him in Hellespont; but his Son Demetrius he sent into Cilicia, who putting in Execution what he had in Command, routed the Captains of Ptolemy that were there, and recover'd the Cities.
While these things were doing, Polysperchon, (then residing in Peloponnesus) still affecting the Government of Macedon, cry'd out against Cassander, and sent for Hercules, a Son of Alexander, (begotten upon Barfine) out of Pergamus, (now of the Age of Seventeen years) and sent up and down to those who were his own Friends, and Enemies to Cassander, to help to set this young Man unto his Father's Kingdom. He sollicited likewise by his Letters the Aetolians, to assist him in his present Design; promising, that they should find more Grace and Favour at his hands than at any time before, if they would help him to restore the young Lad to his Father's Throne.
All things going on according to his Heart's desire, (and the Aetolians complying with his request) many others came flocking in to restore the New King, so that there were got together above Twenty thousand Foot, and no less than a Thousand Horse. And thus setting himself with all his might to the Work, he rais'd what Money he could, and sent some to sollicit his Friends in Macedonia to assist him.
In the mean time, Ptolemy of Aegypt having all Cyprus under his Command, and finding that Nicocles, the King of Paphos, held Correspondence under-hand with Antigonus, sent two Confidents of his own, Argaus and Callicrates, with Instructions to make away Nicocles; for he was much afraid lest some others also should fall off, as he had perceiv'd many others had done before. Wherefore, passing into Cyprus, and taking with them a certain Number of Soldiers from Menelaus, who commanded the Army there, they beset the House of Nicocles; and then telling him what the King's Pleasure was, advis'd him to dispose of himself for another World. He at first went to clear himself of what was laid to his Charge, but when he saw that no Man hearkned to what he said, drew his Sword and slew himself. Axiothea his Wife, hearing of her Husband's Death, took her Daughters, who were all Young and Virgins, and cut their Throats, that they might not fall into any of the Enemy's hands, and was earnest with the Wives of Nicocles his Brothers to accompany her in her own Death; whereas Ptolemy had given no order concerning any of them, save only to preserve them. The King's Palace therefore thus fill'd with the sudden and unexpected Slaughters and dreadful Spectacles, so affected the Brothers of Nicocles, that they shut every Man his own Door upon him, and set fire on their Houses, and slew themselves, so the whole Race of the Kings of Paphos came to a Tragick and Lamentable End. Having given an Account of those Affairs we before promis'd, we shall now proceed to those that follow next in order.
Page 666 About this time in Pontus, after the Death of Parysadas, King of the Cimmerian Bosphorus, his Sons Eumelus, Satyrus, and Prytanis, contended one with another for the Kingdom: Satyrus, the Eldest was appointed Successor by his Father, who reign'd Eight and Thirty Years.
Eumelus compacting with some of the Natives adjoining, rais'd an Army, and laid claim to the Kingdom against his Elder Brother; of which Satyrus being inform'd, went against him with a great Army, and passing the River Thapsus, when he came near his Camp with his Carts and Wagons, wherein he had brought an infinite quantity of Provision; and ranging afterwards his Army in the Field, (after the manner of the Scythian Kings) he led the main Battel himself. He had not in his Army above Two thousand Greeks, and as many Thracians; all the rest were Scythians, which came to assist him, to the number of Twenty thousand, and no less than Ten thousand Horse. Eumelus was assisted by Ariophames, King of Thrace, with Twenty thousand Horse, and Two and twenty thousand Foot. Between these Forces a bloody Battel was fought, wherein Satyrus (who had with him a choice Party of brave Horse) encountred first with Ariopharnes in a Skirmish of Horse; who likewise commanded the middle Battel opposite to Satyrus; many fell on both sides; at length he forc'd his way through, and put the Barbarian King to flight, and being the first in the pursuit put every Man to the Sword that was in his way. But when he heard, that his Brother Eumelus in the right Wing, had routed the Mercenaries, he left off the Pursuit, and made up to the Succor of those that fled, and regain'd the day, and utterly broke and routed the whole Army, putting them all to flight; so that he gave a clear Testimony that he justly deserv'd to Wear the Crown, as well upon the Account of his Valour, as upon the Privilege of his Birth.
Ariopharnes and Eumelus thus beaten, fled into the King's Palace, which was inviron'd with the River Thasis, of an exceeding depth, so that the Place was of difficult approach; it was surrounded likewise with steep Rocks and thick Woods, into which there were only two Entrances made by Art: One leading straight to the Palace, defended with high Towers and Bulwarks; the other on the other side, was made in the Fens, guarded with Forts and Towers of Timber, rais'd upon Pillars over the Water. The Place being very strong, Satyrus first wasted the Enemy's Country, and burnt their Towns, whence he carry'd a vast Number of Prisoners, and abundance of Spoil. Afterwards he attempted to force his way through the Passes, but losing many of his Men at the Bulwarks and Towers, he was forc'd to Retreat. But making an Attack upon that side towards the Fenns, he took the Timber-Forts which he demolish'd, and then pass'd the River. Upon which he began to fell a Wood, through which he must needs pass to the Palace; and while these attempts were carrying on in great Earnestness, King Ariopharnes fearing lest the Castle should be taken by Storm, valiantly fell upon them, perceiving there were no hopes of safety remaining but in an absolute Victory. He plac'd likewise Archers on both sides the Passage, by whom he sore gall'd the Fellers of the Wood, because they could neither see the Arrows before they pierc'd them, nor come at the Archers, nor return the like upon them, by reason of the thick and close standing of the Trees. However, Satyrus his Soldiers continu'd falling the Wood, and opening a Way to the Palace, for three Days together, though with great Toil and Hazard; the Fourth day they came under the Wall. But being worsted through showers of Arrows and straightness of the Places, they sustain'd very great loss: For Meniscus (who led the Mercenary Companies) having got in at a Passage (though he Fought very manfully) was nevertheless (being over-laid with the Multitude within) forc'd to retreat: Whom Satyrus seeing in such imminent Danger, came up to him with seasonable Relief, and bearing up against the Enemy's Charge, was run through the Arm with a Spear, which was so sore, that it forc'd him to retire to his Camp, and the next Night died of the Wound, having reign'd scarce nine Months after the Death of Parasydas his Father. Hereupon, Meniscus, Captain of the Mercenaries, breaking up the Siege drew off the Army to a City call'd Gargaza, and from thence carry'd the King's Body down the River, to a City call'd Pantacapeum, to his Brother Prytanis, who having magnificently bury'd it, and laid up the Reliques in the King's Sepulchre, went presently to Gargaza, and there took into his hands the Army, together with the Kingdom
Hereupon, came the Agents of Eumelus to him to treat concerning the parting of the Kingdom between them two, which he would not hearken to: Leaving therefore a strong Garison at Gargara, he return'd to Pantacapeum, there to settle the Affairs of his Kingdom. But a while after, Eumelus, by the help of some Babarians, possess'd himself of Gargara, and sundry other Towns and Castles. Whereupon, Prytanis march'd with an Army against him, but was overthrown in a Battel by his Brother; and being shut up Page 667 within a Neck of Land, near the Lough of Meotis, was forc'd to render himself upon Conditions, which were to give up all his Army and depart the Kingdom.
Nevertheless, when Prytanis return'd to Pantacapeum, which is the Place where the Kings of Bosphorus keep the standing Court, he there endeavour'd again to recover his Kingdom; but being foil'd there again, he fled to a Place call'd the Gardens, and was there slain.
Eumelus, after the Death of his Brother, to confirm himself in the Kingdom, put to Death all the Friends, Wives and Children of both his Brothers, Satyrus and Prytanis; only Parisades, Satyrus his Son, being but a very Youth, escap'd his Hands; for by the benefit of a swift Horse he got away out of the City to Agarus King of the Scythians. But when Eumelus saw that the People repin'd at the loss of their Friends whom he had murder'd, he call'd them all together, and there excus'd himself, and restor'd to them their ancient form of Government, and to the Citizens of Pantacapeum their former Immunities, and promis'd to discharge them of all kind of Tributes, sparing for no fair words which might reconcile the Hearts of the People to him; by which means, having regain'd their good Opinions, he held a just and moderate Hand over them, and grew afterwards into no small admiration for all kind of Virtue among them. For he omitted not to oblige the Byzantians and Sinopians, and the rest of the Grecian Inhabitants of Pontus by all the demonstrations of Kindness imaginable. For when the Collantians were besieg'd by Lysimachus, and were brought to great distress through want of Provision, he entertain'd a Thousand of them who left the Place for want of Bread, and not only granted them a safe Protection, but allotted them Habitations within the City. And divided likewise a Place call'd Psoa, with the Territory thereunto belonging, among them by Lot. And for the Benefit of the Merchants that Traded to Pontus, he made War upon the Barbarous piratical Heniochians, and them of Taurus, with the Acheans, and scowr'd and cleans'd the Seas of them. So that his Name was advanc'd to the Skies, (as the Fruit of his Generosity) not only in his own Kingdom, but almost all the World over, while the Merchants every where publish'd the Greatness and Braveness of his Spirit. Moreover, he much enlarg'd his Dominion, by the addition of a considerable Part of the Barbarians Country bordering upon him, and advanc'd the Fame and Reputation of his Kingdom, above whatever it was before.
In conclusion, he had a Design to have brought under all the neighbouring Nations, and had certainly effected in short time what he had so design'd, if he had not been prevented by Death: For after he had reign'd five Years and as many Months, he ended his days by a sudden and unusual Accident: For returning home out of Scythia, with a great desire to be present at a certain Sacrifice, and making towards his Palace in a Chariot with four Horses, cover'd over with a Canopy; the Horses took a Fright at the Canopy, and violently ran away with him, the Coachman not being able to stop them in their Carreer: Upon which, Eumelus fearing lest he should be born away headlong down some steep Rock, threw himself out, but his Sword entangling in one of the Wheels, he was hurry'd away with the violent Motion of the Chariot, and kill'd forthwith.
It's reported there were some Predictions concerning the Death of Eumelus and his Brother Satyrus, though something Foolish and Vain, yet credited by the Inhabitants. For they say, that the Oracle warn'd Satyrus to be aware of one Musculus, lest he should kill him, and that for that reason he would not suffer any of that name, whether Bond or Free, to abide within his Dominions; and that upon that account he was afraid both of House and Field- Mice, and continually charg'd the Children to kill 'em, and stop up their Holes. At length, when he had done all that possibly he could to avoid his Fate, he was at last kill'd by a Wound in the Muscle of his Arm. And as for Eumelus, that he was charg'd by the Oracle to take heed of a Moving House; and therefore that he durst not go into his House before his Servants had made a diligent Search to see that both the Roof and Foundation were sound. But after that they came to understand that the Canopy plac'd upon the Chariot was the Occasion of his Death, every one concluded that the Prophecy was fulfill'd. But this shall suffice, concerning the Affairs of the Bosphorus.
In Italy the Roman Consuls enter'd the Country of the Samnites with an Army, and routed them in a Battel at Talius. But the routed Party afterwards possessing themselves of an Hill, and the Night drawing on, the Romans retreated to their Camp; but the next day the Fight was renew'd, and great numbers of the Samnites were slain, and above Two thousand and Two hundred were taken Prisoners. The Romans being thus successful, now quietly enjoy'd whatever they had in the open Field, and brought under all the revolting Cities, and plac'd Garisons in Cataracta and Ceraunia, Places they had taken by Assault, and others they reduc'd upon Terms and Conditions.
The Acts of Ptolemy in Cilicia, and elsewhere. Polysperchon murders Hercules, Alexander's Son, by Instigation of Cassander. Amilcar taken, and put to Death by the Syracusians. His Head sent to Agathocles in Africa. The Transactions in Sicily. Archagathus Agathocles's Son, kills Lysiscus; he and his Son in in great Danger by the Army. Affairs in Italy. The Works of Appius Claudius; the Appian Way. Ptolemy comes to Corinth; his Acts there. Cleopatra, Alexander's Sister, kill'd by the Governor of Sardis. The further Acts of Agathocles in Africa. Ophellas decoy'd, and cut off by Agathocles. Ophellas his troublesome March to Agathocles. Lamias's Cruelty, and the Story of her. Bomilcar seeks to be Prince of Carthage, but is put to Death by the Citizens. Agathocles sends the Spoils of the Cyrenians to Syracuse; most lost in a Storm, Affairs in Italy.
WHen Demetrius Phalerius was Lord Chancellor of Athens, Quintus Fabius (the second time) and Caius Martius were invested with the Consular Dignity at Rome. At that time Ptolemy King of Egypt hearing that his Captains had lost all the Cities again in Cilicia, put over with his Fleet to Phaselis, and took that City by Force, and from thence passing into Lycia, took Xanthus by Assault, and the Garison of Antigonus that was therein. Then sailing to Caunus, took the City by Surrender, and then set upon the Citadels and Forts that were in it, and took them by Assaults.
As for Heracleum, he utterly destroy'd it; and the City Persicum came into his Hands by the Surrender of the Soldiers that were put to keep it. Then sailing to Coos, he sent for Ptolemy the Captain, who was Antigonus his Brother's Son, and had an Army committed to him by Antigonus: But now forsaking his Uncle, he clave to Ptolemy, and join'd with him in all his Affairs. Putting therefore from Cholcis, and arriving at Coos, Ptolemy the King at first receiv'd him very courteously; yet after a while, when he saw the Insolency of his Carriage, and how he went to allure the Officers by Gifts, and held secret Cabals with them, for fear of the worst he clap'd him up in Prison, and there poison'd him with a Draught of Hemlock: As for the Soldiers that came with him, he made them his own by large Promises, and distributed them by small Parcels among his Army. Whilst these Things were acting, Polysperchon having rais'd a great Army, restor'd Hercules the Son of Alexander, begotten upon Barsinoe, to his Father's Kingdom. And while he lay encamp'd at Stymphalia, Cassander came up with his Army, and both encamp'd near one to another: Neither did the Macedonians grudge to see the Restoration of their King.
Cassander therefore fearing, lest the Macedonians (who are naturally Inconstant) should Revolt to Hercules, sent an Agent to Polysperchon, chiefly to advise him concerning the Business of the King. If the King was restor'd, he told him, he must be sure to be under the Commands of others; but if he would assist him, and kill the young Man, he should enjoy the same Privileges and Honours in Macedonia that ever he had before. And besides, that he should have the Command of an Army; that he should be declar'd Generalissimo of Peloponnesus; and that he should share in the Principality, and be in equal Honour with Cassander. At length he so caught and ensnar'd Polysperchon with many large Promises, that they enter'd into a secret Combination, and Polysperchon undertook to murder the young King, which he accordingly effected; upon which Polysperchon openly join'd with Cassander in all his Concerns, and was advanced in Macedonia, and receiv'd (according to the Compact) Four thousand Macedonian Foot, and Five hundred Thessalian Horse; and having listed several other Voluntiers, he attempted to pass through Boeotia into Peloponnesus: But being oppos'd by the Boeotians and the Peloponnesians, he was forc'd to retire, and march into Locris, where he took up his Winter-Quarters.
During these Transactions, Lysimachus built a City in Chersonesus, and call'd it after his own Name, Lysimachia. Cleomenes King of Lacedaemon now dy'd, when he had reign'd Threescore Years and Ten Months; and was succeeded by Aretas his Son, who Rul'd Forty Four Years.
Page 669 About this time Amilcar, General of the Forces in Sicily, having reduc'd the rest of that Island, marches with his Army to Syracuse, as if he would presently gain that City by force of Arms; and to that end hindred all Provision from the Town, having been a long time Master at Sea; and having wasted and destroy'd all the Corn, and other Fruits of the Field, attempted to possess himself of all the Places about Olympias lying before the Town. Then he resolv'd forthwith to assault the Walls, being incourag'd thereunto by the Augur, who by viewing of the Intrals of the Sacrifice, foretold that he should certainly sup the next day in Syracuse. But the Townsmen smelling out the Enemies Design, sent out in the night Three thousand Foot, and about Four hundred Horse, with Orders to possess themselves of Euryclus, who presently effected what they were commanded to do. The Carthaginians thinking to surprize the Enemy, fell on about midnight. Amilcar commanded the whole Body, and led them up, having always a strong Party near to support him. Dinocrates, Master of the Horse, follow'd him. The Army was divided into two Battalions, one of Barbarians, and the other of Grecian Confederates. A Rabble likewise of divers other Nations follow'd, to get what Plunder they could; which sort of People, as they are of no use in an Army, so they are many times the cause of sudden Alarms, and vain and needless Fears, which often occasions great Mischief and Prejudice. And at that time the Passes being strait and rough, the Drivers of the Carriages, and other Servants and Attendants of the Army that were not of any form'd Companies, quarrell'd one with another for the Way, and not being able to move forward by reason of the Throng, some fell to down-right Blows; so that many on each side coming in to help their several Parties, a great Tumult, Noise and Clamour, ran through the whole Army. Upon which, the Syracusians, who were posted at Euryclus, understanding the approach of the Barbarians by their tumultuous March, and having the higher Ground, fell in upon the Enemy. Some from the high Places where they were posted, gall'd them as they came on with their Darts and Arrows, and some prevented them by gaining the necessary Passes, and so block'd up their Way. Others drave those that fled Headlong down the Rocks; for by reason of the Darkness of the Night, and want of Intelligence, they thought the Enemy was coming upon them with a mighty Army; so that the Carthaginians. by reason of the Disturbance and Tumult amongst their own Men, their Ignorance of the Ways, and straitness of the Passages, were at a stand, and confounded, and at last fled outright: And because there was no room to give way, great numbers of them were trodden under Foot by their own Horse; and part of the Army fought one with another, as if they had been Enemies, led into the Error by the Darkness of the Night. Amilcar indeed at the first receiv'd the Enemy's Charge with great Resolution, and call'd out to the Colonels and Commanders to stand to it, and valiantly bear the Brunt with the rest. But afterwards being deserted by his Soldiers, through the Consternation that was amongst them, (having much ado to save his Life) he fell into the hands of the Syracusians.
Here a Man may justly observe the Inconstancy of Fortune, and the surprizing Events Men are overtaken with, contrary to what they expected. For Agathocles not inferiour to any for Valour, and who had the Command of a great Army in the Battel at Himera, was not only beaten by the Barbarians, but lost the best and greatest part of his Army. But those that were left, and penn'd up within the Walls of Syracuse, with a small handful of Men, that had been before beaten, not only routed the Army of the Carthaginians, by whom they were besieg'd, but took Amilcar the General, one of the noblest of the Citizens of Carthage, Prisoner: And that most to be admir'd is, that a small Body of Men by an Ambuscado, and the Advantage of the Place, should utterly rout an Army of an Hundred and twenty thousand Foot, and Five thousand Horse. So that it's very true what's in every Body's Mouth, Many things are vain and to no purpose inWar.
After this Flight, the Carthaginians scatter'd and dispers'd far one from another, scarce got together the next day. But the Syracusians returning to the City with much Spoil, deliver'd Amilcar to them that were resolv'd to revenge themselves of him: They remembred what was foretold by the Augur, That he should Sup in Syracuse the next day; the Truth of which, the Deity now confirm'd by the Event. The Kindred therefore of them that were slain, led Amilcar bound through all Parts of the City, and after they had most horridly tormented him, kill'd him with the greatest Scorn and Contempt imaginable. Then the principal Men of the City sent his Head to Agathocles, with an Express to give him an Account of the late Victory.
But the Army of the Carthaginians after their Defeat, though they came to understand what was the Cause of such great Calamities and Misfortunes, yet were scarce after all Page 670 freed from their Fears: And because they wanted a General, Quarrels arose between the Barbarians and the Grecians. The Exiles therefore, and the rest of the Greeks, made Dinocrates General over themselves: And the Carthaginians intrusted the supream Command with those that were next in Dignity to the late General At this time, when the Agrigentines perceiv'd that Sicily was now in that Condition, as that it might be easily gain'd, they began to seek after the Sovereign Command of the Island themselves. For they suppos'd, that the Carthaginians were not able to deal with Agathocles in the War; and that Dinocrates, who had none but a company of Fugitives about him, might be easily vanquish'd; and that the Syracusians, who were grievously press'd for want of Provisions, would not so much as attempt to gain the Sovereign Command. And lastly, that which was of greatest weight was, That inasmuch as they took up Arms to free all the Greek Cities, they concluded, that all would readily concur, both upon the account of the Hatred they bore against the Barbarians, and the Natural Love and Regard they all had to the Laws of their own Country. They created therefore Xenodicus General, and sent him forth to the War with a considerable Army, who forthwith makes to Gela, and by some of his own Friends, was in the Night let into the City; and so gain'd both the Town more Forces, and a great deal of Money, at one and the same time. The Geloans having thus recover'd their Liberty, join'd in the War with the whole Strength and Power of the City, and most readily put to their helping Hands for the restoring all the Cities to their ancient Laws.
This Attempt of the Agrigentines being nois'd abroad throughout the whole Island, a sudden itch of Liberty spread over all the Cities: And first, the Enneans sent Agents, and deliver'd up their City to the Agrigentines, who freeing this City, march'd on to Erbessus, a Garison of the Carthaginians: Here was a sharp Engagement; but the Citizens coming in to the Assistance of the Agrigentines, the Garison was expuls'd, and many of the Barbarians kill'd, and Five hundred laid down their Arms and gave up themselves.
While the Agrigentines were busi'd in these Affairs, some of Agathocles his Soldiers in Syracuse having taken Echetla, wasted and harrass'd the Country of the Leontines and Camareans. This Calamity grievously afflicted the Cities, because the Country was laid wast, and all the Corn and Fruits destroy'd: Whereupon Xenodicus the General march'd into those Parts, and drave the Enemy out of the Country of the Leontines and Camarenians, and then retaking Echetla, which was a very strong Fort, he restor'd the Democratical Government to the City, and struck a Terror into the Syracusians. To conclude, he march'd up and down to the several Garisons and Cities, and freed them from the Carthaginian Government.
In the mean time, the Syracusians being in great Straits and Perplexity for want of Provision, when they understood that some Ships were coming with Corn, fitted out Twenty Gallies; and understanding that the Barbarians kept but a slight Guard where they lay, they slipt by undiscern'd, and got as far as to the Megareans, and there waited for the Merchants. But Thirty Carthaginian Gallies making up to them, they prepar'd themselves at first to fight: But being presently driven ashore, they left their Ships and swam out, and so escap'd to a certain Temple of Juno, upon which there was a sharp Dispute about the Ships; the Carthaginians threw in Grappling-Irons, and hal'd them with Force off from the Land, and so took Ten of them; the rest were sav'd by some Help that came in out of the City. And this was the Condition of Sicily at that time.
In Africa, after that they who brought the Head of Amilcar were arriv'd there; Agathocles, as soon as he had receiv'd it, rid up so near to the Enemy's Camp as that his Voice might be heard, and shewing them the Head, told them how all their Forces in Sicily were destroy'd, which presently caus'd most bitter Mourning and Lamentation among the Carthaginians, who bowed down themselves in Adoration of the Head of their King, (according to the Custom of their Country,) and looking upon his Death to be their own Calamity, had no Hearts further to prosecute the War. Agathocles on the other side, (lifted up with his Successes in Africa, and with such Confluence of Prosperity,) bore himself high in mighty Hopes and Expectations for the future, as if he had been now out of the reach of all Dangers. But Fortune did not think it fit to suffer Things to run on in the same course of Prosperity, but brought him under most imminent Hazards and Difficulties from his own Soldiers. For one Lysiscus, one of his Colonels, being invited by Agathocles to Supper, when he was heated with Wine, and in his Cups fell a railing against him with most bitter Imprecations. But 〈◊〉, because he had a great Esteem for the Man upon the account of his Valour, pass'd by all with a left: But Archagathus his Son on the contrary being enrag'd at him, ••torted upon him with bitter Reproaches and Threats. When Supper was ended, and every one was return'd to his Tent, LysiscusPage 671 contemptuously charg'd Archagathus as an incestuous Adulterer with his own Step-mother: For he was judg'd to be too familiar with Alcia, his Father's Wife. Whereupon Archagathus, stirr'd up to a higher degree of Madness and Rage, snatch'd a Lance out of the Hands of one of the Guard and ran him through the Side, who falling down dead, immediately was carry'd into his Tent by those that attended him. As soon as it was day, the Friends of him that was slain, and many others of the Soldiers, ran up and down, and (inrag'd at the Fact that was committed) fill'd the Camp with Tumult and Confusion. Many likewise of the Captains, who were subject to be call'd in Question for their Crimes, fearing what might ensue, made use of the present Occasion, and stirr'd up the Soldiers to a terrible Mutiny: So that the whole Army inflam'd with the Hatred of his Cruelty, ran to their Arms to execute condign Punishment upon the Murderer. At length they resolv'd to put Archagathus to Death; and that if Agathocles did not deliver up his Son, he should Die in his Room: Besides, they demanded of him their Arrears, and chose new Officers and Captains to Command the Army. At length they possess'd themselves of the Walls of Tunis, and hemm'd in the Princes round with their Guards. This Mutiny coming to the Ears of the Enemy, the Carthaginians sent some of their own Men, to persuade the Soldiers to a Revolt, promising them larger Pay, and ample Rewards: Whereupon many of the Captains promis'd to bring over the Army to them. But Agathocles, when he saw he was in the utmost extremity of Danger, and fearing lest if he were given up to the Enemy, he should end his Days with Disgrace and Dishonour, concluded that it was much better if he must Suffer, to be kill'd by the Soldiers: Whereupon he laid aside his Purple Robe, and put on a poor Country-fellow's Habit, and came into the midst of them; at which strange Sight there was a deep Silence, and many came in from every Quarter flocking about him; where he made a Speech to them fitted for the present Occasion, wherein he set forth the Acts he had done to that time, and told them, He was now ready to Die, if they (his Fellow-Soldiers) thought fit it should be so. For he was resolv'd never (like a Coward) to make exchange of his Honour for his Life, of which (he said) they should be then Eye-witnesses, and thereupon drew out his Sword as if he would run himself through: And just as he was ready to thrust it into his Body, the whole Army call'd out aloud to him to Forbear, and all gave their Voices generally, That he should be Acquitted and Discharg'd from all further Accusation. The Soldiers then wishing him to put on his Royal Robes, he return'd them many Thanks, shedding many Tears, and then Cloath's himself again as became his State and Dignity, and the People with chearful Countenances congratulated the Reassumption of his former Power. In the mean time, the Carthaginians expected every hour that the Greeks would come over to them.
But Agathocles, that he might not lose the Advantage of the present Occasion, led the Army out against them; for the Carthaginians expecting continually a Revolt and a Desertion from the Enemies Camp, never in the least dream'd of what was really in Agitation. But Agathocles, as soon as he approach'd the Enemies Camp, presently commanded his Men to sound a Charge, and so forthwith fell in upon them, and hew'd them down before him. The Carthaginians being surpriz'd by this sudden Attack, after the Loss of many of their Men, fled to their Camp. And thus Agathocles, who was near losing of his Life through the Rashness of his Son, by his own Valour not only extricated himself out of the Snare, but utterly routed his Enemies: But they who were the Heads and Ringleaders of the Mutiny, and as many others as bore a Grudge to the Prince, to the Number of Two hundred and upwards, vilely deserted, and went over to the Carthaginians.
Having now gone through the Affairs of Africa and Sicily, we shall next take notice of what was done in Italy. For there the Hetruscans came with a great Army against Sutrium, a Roman Colony: To whose Defence the Consuls march'd out with great Forces and fought and routed the Hetruscans, and pursu'd them to their very Camp. About' the same time the Samnites (when the Roman Army was abroad at a great distance without the least fear of an Enemy) besieg'd the Japyges, Allies to the Romans: Therefore the Consuls were forc'd to divide their Forces. Fabius continu'd in Hetruria; but Marcius march'd against the Samnites, and took the City of Allita by Storm, and freed their Allies from the Siege of Japyges. But Fabius, while the Hetrurians flock'd in great multitudes to besiege Sutrium, slipt secretly by the Enemy through the bordering Country, and made an Incursion into the Higher Hetruria, which had for a long time been free from all manner of Inroads and Invasions; where breaking in upon the sudden, he wasted and harass'd the Country up and down, and routed those of the Inhabitants that made head against him, and kill'd many of them, and took a great number of Prisoners. Afterwards he Page 672 overcame and kill'd many of them in another Battel at a Place call'd Perusia, and put that People into a great Consternation. He was the first of the Romans that ever enter'd with an Army into those Parts. But he made Peace with the Arretines and Crotoneans, and them of Perusina; and taking the City call'd Castula, he forc'd the Hetrurians to raise their Siege before Sutrium.
This Year there were two Censors created at Rome; the one of whom was Appius Claudius, who with the concurrence of his Collegue, Caius Plautius, abrogated many of the ancient Laws: For to gratifie the People, he made no account of the Senate. He brought Water (which was from him call'd Appia) into Rome from Places fourscore Furlongs distant, and expended a vast Sum of Money in this Work, receiv'd out of the Treasury by Consent of the Senate. Then he laid a Causey of hard Stone the greatest part of that way, which is from him call'd Appia, extending from Rome to Capua, a Thousand Furlongs and upwards; and with great Costs and Expence levell'd all the rising Grounds, and fill'd up all the Holes and hollow Places, making all even and plain; but hereby drain'd the Treasury almost of all the Money that was in it. And by this his laying out of himself in promoting the Publick Good, he left behind him an immortal Memorial. He also made up the Senate not only of the Nobility (as the ancient Custom was) but likewise of the Libertines, by chusing many of them, and mixing them with the other, which the Patritians took very heinously. Moreover, he gave liberty to the Citizens to incorporate themselves into what Tribe they thought fit, and to be tax'd in what Rank soever they pleas'd.
At length, perceiving how greatly he was envy'd by the Nobility, he avoided the Storm by insinuating himself into the favour of the Common People, and making use of them as a Bulwark against the Envy of the Patricians. In must' ring of the Horse, he never took any Mans Horse from him; neither ever remov'd any Person never so mean out of the Senate (that was once chosen) when he took an account of the Senators, which the Censors us'd to do. But the Consuls, both out of Envy, and to gratifie the Nobility, conven'd a Senate of such as were inroll'd by the former Censors, and not those that were allow'd by him: But the People oppos'd them, and sided with Appius; and that he might confirm the Advancement of such as were but of mean and obscure Birth, he preferr'd one Cains Flavius, the Son of a Libertine, to the Office of Aedilis, and to the highest Place in that Office. And this was the first Roman born of a Libertine, that ever before was advanc'd to that Honourable Station. Appius at length being remov'd out of his Office, out of fear of the Senate's Malice, kept his House, under pretence of being blind.
Now Charinus was Chief Governor at Athens, and the Romans created Publius Decius and Quintus Fabius Consuls. And at Elis was celebrated the Hundred and eighteenth Olympiad, in which Apollonides of Tegeata bore away the Prize: At which time Ptolemy sailing from Myndus along the Islands which lay in his way, came to Andros, and putting out the Garison that was there, restor'd it to her former Liberty: Thence he sail'd to the Isthmus, and receiv'd Sicyon and Corinth from Cratesipolis. But for what reasons, and upon what account he took these eminent Cities into his hands, we have related in the former Books, and therefore we shall forbear repetition. He design'd also to restore the rest of the Greek Cities to their Liberties, judging that by gaining the Hearts of the Grecians, he should very much promote his own Interest. But when the Peloponnesians were order'd to provide Money and Victuals, but perform'd nothing of what they had agreed to, he was so incens'd, that he made Peace with Cassander, upon this Condition, That each of them should retain those Cities they had then in their hands. Then having put Garisons into Sicyon and Corinth, he return'd into Aegypt.
In the mean time, Cleopatra being incens'd against Antigonus, of her own accord inclin'd to Ptolemy, and left Sardis to go to him: She was Sister of Alexander, the Conqueror of the Persians, the Daughter of Philip Son of Amyntas, and the Wise of Alexander, who undertook an Expedition into Italy. And therefore upon the account of the Nobleness of her Birth, Cassander, Lysunachus, Antigonus, and Ptolemy, and even the Chiefest of Alexander's Captains after his death, were every one ambitious to marry her: For every one hop'd by this Marriage to draw all the the Macedonians after them; and therefore each coveted to be related to the Royal Family, looking upon that as the way to gain the Sovereign Power and Command over all the rest. But the Governour of Sardis (whom Antigonus had commanded to retain Cleopatra) stopt her Journey; and afterwards by Order from Antigonus, with the help of some Women, privily murther'd her. But Antigonus, who would no ways be thought guilty of her death, struck off the Heads of some of those Women, for having a hand in her Murder, and bury'd her with all the Magnificence Page 673 that might be. And such was the end of Cleopatra, before any Solemnization of Marriage; who was earnestly coveted as a Wife by all the most Noble Captains and Generals of the Army.
Having now gone through the Affairs of Asia and Greece, we shall pass over to other Parts of the World.
In Africa the Carthaginians sent an Army against the Numidians (who had revolted from them) in order to reduce them. Upon which, Agathocles left his Son Archagathus with part of the Army at Tunis; and he himself, with Eight thousand Foot, and Eight hundred Horse of the most Valiant Men of his Army, and Fifty African Carriages, made after the Enemy with all speed possible. In the mean time the Carthaginians being come among the Numidians, call'd Suphons, caus'd many of the Inhabitants to join with them; and reduc'd likewise some of the Revolters to their former Alliance and Confederacy with them; but when they heard of the Enemies approach they Incamp'd upon an high piece of ground lying on the other side of a deep and unpassable River, to secure themselves against all suddain Attacks and incursions of the Enemy; and commanded the most active Numidians to hinder the march of the Grecians by vexing them ever and anon with continual Attacks in the Rear; who accordingly executing their Commands, Agathocles sent out the Archers and Slingers against them; and he himself with the rest of the Army made towards the Enemies Camp. But the Carthaginians understanding his design drew the Army out of the Camp, and stood rang'd in Battle array, ready and prepar'd for fight: As soon as they saw Agathocles his Soldiers pass the River, they fell upon them in a full Body, and made a great slaughter at that part of the River where it was so difficult to pass; and in this indeavour to force their way through the River, the Greeks as far excell'd the Barbarians in valour as they did them in number and multitude; while both sides stood stoutly to it for a long time, the Numidians in each Army left off fighting expecting the issue of the Ingagement, with a design to rifle the Carriages of that party that was Routed. At length Agathocles with those brave and valiant men he had about him, broke through that part of the Enemies Battalion, that was oppos'd to him, and put them to flight, and the rest presently follow'd them; only the Grecian Horse that sided with the Carthaginians under the Command of Clino bore the shock of the Agathocleans, who prest very sore upon them; upon which there was a very sharp Ingagement, and many fighting couragiously di'd upon the spot, the rest by good fortune escaping: Then Agathocles leaving off the pusuit, bent all his strength against them who had fled back into the Camp; but endeavouring to break in at places strongly fortifi'd and of difficult approach, he sustain'd as much loss as the Carthaginians; however he remitted nothing of his resolution, but being lifted up with his Victory still prest upon the Enemy, confidently concluding he could force the Camp. In the mean time the Numidians were very intent in observing how things were like to go, but could not fall upon the Bag and Baggage of the Carthaginians because both Armies were so near the Camp. When therefore they saw that Agathocles was at a great distance, and the Guards but small in the Grecians Camp, they broke in there, and easily kill'd those that withstood them, and took many Prisoners, and possess'd themselves of other prey and plunder. Which as soon as Agathocles came to understand, he hasted thither with his Forces, and recover'd some of the spoil: but the Numidians carri'd most away with them, and in the night got a long way off from the place. Then the Prince erected a Trophy, and divided all the Booty amongst the Soldiers that none might repine at the losses they had sustain'd. The Greeks likewise that sided with the Carthaginians, he committed Prisoners to a Castle, who fearing the Prince would revenge himself of them in the Night fell upon the Guard in the Castle; but being worsted, they got into a Fort and shelter'd themselves there to the Number of a Thousand at least, amongst whom were above Five hundred Syracusians. As soon as Agathocles came to know what was done he march'd with his Army thither, where after Terms and Articles agreed upon, those Complotters came forth of the Hould, but he put them all to the sword. Being crown'd with this Victory, and having done all that he could possibly contrive for the subduing of the Carthaginians, he sent Ortho the Syracusian to Cyrene as his Ambassador to Ophellas, who was one of Alexander's Captains all along in the late Wars, and was then possess'd of Cyrene with the neighbouring Cities, and had the Command of a great Army, and was contriving how to inlarge his Dominion, and while he was beating his brains with these ambitious projects, Agathocles his Agent just then arriv'd, to solicite him to join with him in affording his assistance to subdue the Carthaginians. In return of which piece of service Agathocles promis'd him he would yield up to him the Soveragin Command of all Africa, and Page 674 that he himself would be content with Sicily, where being freed from all fear of future dangers and troubles from the Carthaginians he should be able with ease and safety to reduce the whole Island to his Obedience. And if he should have a desire to inlarge his Dominion, he said that Italy was near at hand, where he might gratifie his Ambition in that respect. That Africa was far from him, separated by a large Sea, and that he came not into it of choice, but was driven thither of necessity. This therefore coming in the way so heightned him in his former hopes that he readily hearkn'd to him, and sent his Agent to Athens to pray their Aid and Association in this War. For he had marri'd from thence Eurydice the Daughter of Miltiades, who was General of the Conquerors at the Battle of Marathon; and therefore upon the account of this Marriage, and other acts of kindness he was receiv'd into the Franchises of the City; many of the Athenians readily hearkned to this motion, and not a few likewise of the other Grecians willingly join'd in this Expedition, hoping thereby to have the sharing of the richest parts of all Africa with all the wealth of Carthage amongst themselves: For the State of Affairs of Greece by season of the continual Wars, and Quarrels of the Princes among themselves was but in a very weak and low condition, therefore they concluded they should not only reap much advantage, but be freed likewise from those pressing evils which at that time lay heavy upon them.
Ophellas at length (when he had made plentiful provision of all things necessary for the Expedition in hand) led forth his Army, having with him above Ten thousand Foot, and Six hundred Horse, and a Hundred Chariots, and above Three hundred Men-drivers and Soldiers to manage them, besides Extraordinaries and followers of the Camp to the number o• Ten thousand more; many of which drew their Wives and Children with their stuff and Baggage along with them, so that they looked like to a Colony going to be planted. Having therefore march'd Eighteen days journey, and in them gone Three thousand Furlongs, they came to a City call'd Automolus, and there Encamp'd; thence marching forward, they came to a mountain shelving down on both sides with steep and sharp Rocks, having a deep Valley in the midst, out of which rose a soft stone spiring up like unto a sharp Rock, at the Foot of which was a wide Cave overshadow'd with Ivy and Leaves of the Yew tree, in which is reported, Queen Lamia, a Lady of admirable Beauty formerly dwelt; but for her Cruelty, they say her face was afterwards transform'd into the shape of a Beast; for it's reported that being bereav'd of all her Children, she took it so grievously, that she envy'd all other women that had Children, and commanded the poor Infants to be pluck't out of their mothers Arms, and forthwith murther'd. And therefore even to this day the Tale of this woman is fresh among Children, and with the Name of Lamia they are presently put into a very great fright. Moreover, being given much to Drunkeness, she let every one do what they pleas'd, without any inquiry after men's manners; and because she never seriously minded what was done in her Province, it was believ'd that she was blind. And therefore there's a Fable told by some that she put her Eyes into a little purse, excusing her drunken Sottishness by such an invented Tale, as if that was the reason she saw nothing. That she was in Africa one brings in Euripides for a witness, for so he says
But Ophellas removing again. Travel'd with great toil and labour through a dry and thirsty Country full of wild Beasts; for they did not only want Water, but Bread and other Provision, so that the whole Army was in danger to perish. These Sandy Deserts near the Syrtes were pester'd with noisom Serpents and all sorts of hurtful beasts, and it being for the most part deadly to be bitten by these venomous creatures, many were brought into a sad condition; out of the reach both of friends help, and remedy from Medicines. For some of the Serpents were of the same colour with the Earth, so that none could see them before they were hurt, so that many treading upon them were stung to death. At last after two months miserable travel with much ado they carne to Agathocles his Camp, where they pitcht their Camps at a small distance one from another; on the other hand the Carthaginians hearing that they were come up to him, were in a great Consternation, seeing the great forces that were making against them.
Page 675Agathocles hearing of his approach, went to meet him, and advis'd him by all means to have a care of his Army after so tedious and hard a Journey, and to see them well refresh'd. He himself lay quiet a few days, observing every thing that was done in the neighbouring Camp, at length taking his opportunity when the greater part of Ophellas his Army were gone a forraging into the Country, and taking notice that Ophellas never suspected any thing of what he was in contriving, he suddainly call'd his Army together, and before them accus'd Ophellas, for that being call'd for as an Assistant, in this War, he went about to betray him; and having incens'd the multitude, drew out his whole Army in Battalion against him and his Cyrenians. Ophellas growing amaz'd at this unexpected alteration, put nevertheless himself and the men he had with him, in a posture of defence: but the Enemy being too quick for him, and he too weak for them, he was there slain upon the place. Agathocles persuaded the rest that were left, to lay down their Arms; then telling them what great things he would do for them, he got the whole Army to himself. And thus Ophellas by indulging his Ambition, and being over credulous came to this fatal Catastrophe: In the mean time Bomilcar at Carthage was waiting for an opportunity to put in execution what he had a long time been hammering in his brain in order to gain the Soveraign power and authority. And although he had several times fit occasions offer'd him for that purpose, yet always some light and inconsiderable cause or other intervening, put a stop to his design. For some superstitious persons many times are preparing to act great and remarkable pieces of Wickedness, and yet always chuse rather to delay, than act, to put off, than execute the thing; which even then came to pass. For concluding he had a fair opportunity offer'd him, the better to effect his purpose, he sent away the most eminent Persons of the Citizens that were about him, in an Expedition against the Numidians, that he might have none of the Nobility at hand to oppose him; but then checkt by his own Fears, he durst not reveal to any his design of gaining the Principality, and so he let the matter fall again. At length it fell out that he attempted to set up himself at the very same time that Ophellas was cut off by Agathocles; and neither of them knew what was done in one another's Camp. For Agathocles knew nothing of the Ambition of the other, or of the Tumult and Disorder that was in the City, which he might at that time have easily subdu'd: For if Bomilcar had been surpriz'd and taken in the very Fact, he would have chosen rather to have join'd with Agathocles, than to have given up himself to be punish'd by the Citizens: Neither did the Carthaginians know any thing of Agathocles his falling upon Ophellas; for they might easily have overcome him by joining with Ophellas. But I suppose both sides were well enough content to be ignorant, although they were things of great weight and concern, and contrived by them that were near one to another.
For Agathocles being plotting to cut off a Person that was his Friend and Associate, minded not to enquire after any thing that was in doing with the Enemy: And Bomilcar on the other side, contriving how to overturn the Liberties of his Country, cared not what was in agitation in Agathocles his Camp, whose purpose was now not so much to conquer an Enemy, as to subdue his own Fellow-Citizens. Matters being thus, here some may find fault with History, seeing many things of divers Natures falling out at one and the same time, and that Writers are forc'd to break in with new Matter of another nature, and to divide between things done at the same instant, that the Truths related may delight the more. But to Answer this, the History that is deny'd this liberty; although it afterwards represents the things done, yet it Postpones the true pleasure of the thing at too great a distance from the first Relation.
Bomilcar therefore picking out a select number of Men in the New City (as it's call'd) not far distant from the Old Carthage, dismist all the rest; then having call'd togther Five hundred of the Citizens, who were privy to his Design, and about a Thousand Mercenary Soldiers, he declar'd himself sole Monarch of the Carthaginians. Then he divided his Troops into Five Bodies, and set upon the City, killing all that he met in the High-ways; upon which, an incredible Terror and Amazement possest the whole City; At first, the Carthaginians suspected that the Town was betray'd, and that the Enemy had broke in by that means. But when the Truth was known, the young Men Marshall'd themselves, and made against the Tyrant; who hasten'd into the Forum, killing all he met in the Streets, and slaughtering great numbers of naked and unarm'd Citizens. But the Carthaginians mounting the tops of the Houses that were round about 〈◊〉Market-place, cast down showers of Darts from thence, so that the Conspirators (the place being altogether expos'd to the Shot) were gall'd most grievously. Whereupon in a 〈◊〉 Body they forc'd their way through the narrow Passes, and got into the New City, being ply'd and wounded with Darts and Arrows all along as they came under the Houses. Page 676 Then possessing themselves of a Hill, (the whole City being now in Arms) the Carthaginians drew up their Camp in the face of the Rebels. At length they sent some of the Ancientest and Gravest of their Citizens to them, and remitted what was past, and so all things were peaceably compos'd. Towards all the rest indeed they perform'd their Articles, and (because of the Cloud that hung over the City,) pass'd by the Crimes committed; but without any regard had to their Oaths, they most ignominiously tormented Bomilcar, and put him to death. And thus the Carthaginians, when their Common-wealth was near upon the point of expiring, recover'd their Ancient Form of Government.
In the mean time Agathocles loaded all his Transport-Ships with Spoils, and such of the Cyreneans as he found not fit and serviceable for the War, he put on board, and sent them to Syracuse: But a fierce Tempest overtook them, in which some of the Ships were lost, and others were cast upon the Pithecusian Islands bordering upon Italy, so that very few arriv'd at Syracuse.
In Italy the Roman Consuls assisted the Marsilians (who were sorely prest by the Samnites,) and were Conquerors, killing great numbers of the Enemy upon the place. Then they march'd through the Country of the Umbri, and invaded Hetruria, then in War with them, and took a Castle call'd Caprium by Storm. But the Inhabitants sending their Ambassadors to Treat upon Terms of Peace, they made Peace with the Tarquinians for Forty Years: But with the rest of the Hetrurians only for one Year.
Demetrius frees all the Grecian Cities; takes the Pireum at Athens. Demetrius Phalerius flies to Ptolemy. Honours given to Demetrius in Athens. He sails to Cyprus; his Acts there; Besieges Salamis. His great Engines. Ptolemy sails to Cyprus. Sea Fight between Ptolemy and Demetrius, wherein Ptolemy is routed. Antigonus takes the Title of King, and the like do several other Captains. Agathocles his Acts at Utica in Africk: Ty'd pris'ners to a great Engine. The sorts of People in Africa. Xenodocus routed in Sicily by Agathocles his Captains. Agathocles his Acts in Sicily. What was done by Archagathus in Africa. Maschala inhabited by some Greeks that came from Troy. Apes, their Custom among the Pithecusce. The Carthaginians draw out Thirty thousand Men out of Carthage Misfortunes to Agathocles his Captains in Africa. The Army block'd up and almost starv'd: Agathocles beats the Carthaginians at Sea near Syracuse. His Captain Leptines harasses the Agrigentines. Agathocles Feasts the Syracusians. His jocund Temper. His Cruelty. Routed in Africa. Carthaginian Camp burnt. The misfortune afterward to both Armies by one Cause. Agathocles in Chains by his own Men. Steals out of Africa. The Soldiers kill his Two Sons. They make Peace with the Carthaginians. Agathocles his exceeding Cruelty at Aegista; and afterwards at Syracuse.
AT the end of the Year, Anaxicrates was Created Chief Governor of Athens, and Appius Claudius, and Lucius Volutius Consuls at Rome. At this time Demetrius the Son of Antigonus being furnish'd with Two strong Armies, one by Land, and the other by Sea, and provided of Weapons and all other necessaries for the War, set forth from Ephesus with full Orders and Instructions to set all the Grecian Cities at liberty, and in the first place to free Athens, that was then held by a Garison of Cassander's. To this purpose he arriv'd at the Pireum with his Fleet; and upon his first arrival caus'd the Edict to be proclaim'd, and then assaulted the Pyreum on every side. But Dionysius the Governor of the Fort, Mynichia, and Demetrius Phalerius, whom Cassander had made President of the City, with a strong Body of Men beat off the Enemy from the Walls; But some of Antigonus's Men forc'd their way near the Shoar, and scal'd and got over the Walls; whereupon many within came in to them as their Assistants, and in this manner was the Pyrcum taken. Dionysius the Governor fled into Mynichia, and Demetrius Phalerius into the City. The next day he with some others was sent by the City to Demetrius, and Page 677 after he had treated with him concerning the Liberty of the City, and his own preservation, he prevail'd so far as to be dismiss'd with a safe Conduct, and so without any further Care or Concern for Athens, he fled to Thebes, and thence to Ptolemy into Egypt, And thus he who had Govern'd the City for the space of Ten Years, was in this manner thrust out of his Country. The People of Athens being hereupon restor'd to their Liberty, decreed publick Honours to them that were the Authors of their Deliverance. Demetrius forthwith brings up his Engines and Battering Rams, and Besieges Munychia both by Sea and Land. But the Dionysians made a stout resistance, and by the advantage and difficulty of the heighth of the places to be Assaulted, beat off the Demetrians (for Munychia is not only strong by Nature, but by Art also, defended by high Walls) though Demetrius indeed far exceeded the other in number of Men, and Warlike preparations, At length, after the Assault had continu'd for the space of Two Days together, many of those within being wounded and kill'd by the Shot from the Engines, so as that there were not Men enough left to defend the Place, the Garison Soldiers began to Flag. In the mean time the Demetrians who Assaulted by turns, and mutually reliev'd one another with fresh Supplies, having clear'd the Wall by their Shot, broke into Munychia, and so forcing the Soldiers within to lay down their Arms, they took the Governor prisoner. Having dispatcht this Business in a few Days time, Demetrius demolish'd Munychia, and entirely restor'd the People to their Liberty, and entred with them into a League of Peace and Amity. The Athenians therefore made a Decree (which was written by Stratocles) that Golden Statues of Antigonus and Demetrius should be set up and mounted upon a Chariot, next to Harmodius and Aristogiton; and that they should be both Adorn'd with Crowns of Gold of Two hundred Talents weight apiece; and that an Altar should be erected in Honour of them, call'd the Saviour's Altar; And in further Honour to them, to the Ten Tribes of Athens they added Two more, call'd the Antigonian and Demetrian. And thus the People of Athens, after they had been stripp'd out of all their Liberties by the Lamian War, after Fifteen Years were restor'd to their Ancient Laws and Government. Magera was still under the curb of a Garison; but Demetrius likewise took this City, and restor'd the People to their former Privileges; therefore he was highly Honour'd and richly presented by the Inhabitants upon this Account. Moreover, when the Athenian Ambassador, who was sent to Antigonus, presented to him the Decree, he understanding that they both wanted Corn for necessary Provision, and Timber for building of Ships, sent them a hundred and fifty Medimna's of Wheat, and as much Timber as would build a hundred Ships. Then he withdrew the Garison out of Imbrus, and restor'd the City to the Inhabitants. Afterwards he writ to his Son Demetrius, and order'd him to call a Senate of Members chosen out of all the Confederate Citys, in order to Consult concerning what might be most conducing to the publick Good of all Greece: And that he himself with all speed should transport Forces into Cyprus, and there fight Ptolemy's Captains. In Obedience to his Father's Commands, without any further delay, he put over first into Caria, and mov'd the Rhodians to make War against Ptolemy, who were slack and slow in the matter, willing rather to be Neuters, and keep in with all sides; hence first grew the Heart-burnings between them and Antigonus. Thence he sail'd into Cilicia, and furnishing himself there with Shipping and Men, he pass'd over into Cyprus with Fifteen thousand Foot and Five hundred Horse, and a Fleet consisting of an Hundred and ten Ships of Three tire of Oars apiece, of singular swiftness, and Fifty three not so swift as the other, but men of War as they were; besides Transport Ships of all sorts, answer able to so great a multitude of Men and Horses; Being landed, he first encamp'd near the Shoar not far from Carpasia, and drawing up his Ships to land, fenc'd them with a deep Trench and Ramparts; and then he set upon the Cities next at hand, and took Urania and Carpasia by Storm; and leaving a sufficient Guard to defend his Trenches about the Fleet, he march'd to Salamis.
Menelaus, appointed by Ptolemy chief Commander of the Isle, being then at Salamis, and seeing the Enemy within forty Furlongs of the City, drew out of the Garisons adjoining, to the Number of Twelve thousand Foot, and Eight hundred Horse, and went out to meet him; and fought a while; but not being able to endure the Enemy's Charge, fled, and Demetrius pursuing him even to the Gates of the City, took to the Number of Three thousand of his Men, and kill'd a Thousand upon the Place. The Prisoners he Pardon'd, and distributed them among his own Men: But finding they were ever ready to fly over again to Menelaus, because their Wealth was in Ptolemy's hands in Aegypt, he Shipp'd them all away to Antigonus his Father.
Page 678Antigonus at that time was building a City in the Upper Syria near the River Orontes, call'd by his own name Antigonia, laying out great Sums of Money upon it, and taking in within the Walls seventy Furlongs of Ground. For the Place it self was very opportune to lie as a Yoke both upon Babylon and the Upper Provinces, and likewise upon the Lower, with the other Provinces, as far down as to Aegypt. But this City continu'd not long; for Seleucus raz'd it, and transplanted the Inhabitants to another, built by himself, call'd Seleucia, after his own Name. But we shall give an Account of these things when we come to the Time proper for them.
But Menelaus, after he was thus routed in Cyprus, drew in all his Engines within the Walls, and lin'd all the Bulwarks and Battlements with Soldiers, and prepar'd for Fighting, observing at the same time that Demetrius was doing the like. He dispatch'd likewise a Messenger to Ptolemy, to tell him what had happen'd, and to desire more help, in regard the Affairs of Cyprus were in a very low and dangerous Condition.
Demetrius seeing the City was in no contemptible Condition, and that it was furnish'd with a great Number of Soldiers for its Defence, was resolv'd to prepare Engines of an Extraordinary Bigness, and all sorts of Battering Rams, and other Instruments of War, that might in any sort terrify the Besieg'd. He sent likewise for Workmen out of Asia, and for Iron, Timber, and every thing else that was necessary to be made use of in the Works he design'd. And now every thing being ready at hand, he built an Engine, which he call'd Helepotis, from taking of Cities, Forty five Cubits broad on every side, and Ninety in height, drawn with four strong Wheels, Eight Cubits high; he made likewise two exceeding great Battering Rams, and Galleries to support them. He put several great shot of Massy-Stones in the lowest Story of the Helepolis, the greatest of which weighed three Talents; In the middle were plac'd very great Machines to shoot Darts and Arrows; In the highest Part were those that were less, and a great store of Stone-shot, and above Two hundred Men, who knew the manner of managing all these Devices to the best advantage.
Bringing up therefore his Engines to the Walls of the City, by showers of shot, he there swept off the Turrets and Battlements; and batter'd down the Walls by his Rams: But the Besieg'd made such obstinate Resistance, and opposing Engines to Engines, that the Issue for some days was very doubtful, and Toil, Labour, and Wounds were the mutual Lot and Portion of each Party. At length the Wall tumbled down, and the City was even upon the Point of being taken by Storm: But Night coming on, both sides drew off. Then Menelaus having a diligent Eye for the Security of the City, lest it should be taken by some fresh Stratagem, got a great deal of dry Stuff and Matter together, and cast it in the Night from off the Walls upon the Engines, together with many light Firebrands, and burnt the Principal of them. Upon the mounting up of the Flame the Demetrians came in to quench the Fire; but it was so quick and furious, that the Engines were totally Consum'd, and most of the Men that were in them.
However, Demetrius, though he was for the present disappointed in his Design, yet desisted not in the least, but urg'd on the Siege still both by Sea and Land, supposing that Time at last would Crown him with Victory.
But Ptolemy having receiv'd Intelligence how his Forces were routed, sets Sail from Aegypt, with an Army well furnish'd both for Sea Land; and arriving at Paphos in Cyprus, took Boats and went to Citium, Two hundred Furlongs from Salamis. His whole Fleet consisted of an Hundred and forty Long Ships, the biggest whereof was of Five Tire of Oars, and the least of Four; and these were attended with Two hundred Ships of Burden, carrying no less than Ten thousand Soldiers. From thence Ptolemy dispatch'd away by Land, some Messengers to Menelaus, to bid him with all speed to send him (if possibly he could) those Ships that were then in the Port of Salamis, which were Sixty Sail. For he was in hopes, that with this Addition, having made his Navy Two hundred Sail, (if he should come to a Sea Fight) he should be Victorious. But Demetrius foreseeing what might be in contriving, left part of his Army to carry on the Siege, and Mans all his Vessels with the best of his Soldiers; and places his Engines to shoot Stones, Arrows, and Darts of three Spans in length, upon the Forecastles of his Ships. Then with his Fleet, Top and Top-Gallant, ready prepar'd for Battel, he sail'd about to the City, and cast Anchor about a Dart's Cast from the Mouth of the Harbour, and there lay all Night, both to prevent that Fleet in the Port from joining with the other, and likewise waiting the coming up of the Enemy, being himself then prepar'd to fight him.
On the other hand, Potlemy sets sail for Salamis; and in regard he had with him in his Fleet a great Number of Tenders, his Navy seem'd to be exceeding great: Demetrius hearing of the Enemy's approach, left Antisthenes, the Admiral, with Ten Ships of Five Page 679 Tire of Oars, to keep in the Fleet that was in the Harbour. And commanded the Horse to keep near the Sea-side, to be ready to relieve those that should swim to Land, in case any Misfortune should happen. He himself drew up his Fleet in a Line of Battel, and made towards the Enemy, having not above a Hundred and Eight Sail, with those taken in the Forts that were Deserted. The greatest of which Ships were of Seven Tire of Oars, but the most of them were of Five. In the Left Wing were Seven Phaenician Gallies of Seven Tire of Oars, and Thirty Athenian Vessels of Four Tire of Oars, commanded by Medius as Admiral. To support these, he drew up Ten Gallies of Six Tire of Oars, and as many of Five, conceiving it Prudence chiefly to guard that Wing where he himself intended to Engage. In the middle Battel he plac'd the Least Ships, under the Command of Themisus, the Samian, and Marsyas, the Writer of the Affairs of Macedon. The Right Wing was commanded by Hegesippus of Halicarnassus, and Pleisthias of Coos, who was Lord High Admiral of the whole Fleet.
Ptolemy at the first, made with all the Sail he could in the Night time towards Salamis, in hopes to enter the Port before the Enemy: But at break of Day spying the Enemy's Fleet not far off ready Drawn-up, he likewise forthwith prepar'd for Battel: And for this purpose ordered his Transport-Ships to lie off at Sea, at a great distance, and drew up the rest in a Line: He himself commanded in the Left Wing, where were the greatest of his Ships ready to defend him. The Fleets being thus drawn up, both sides (according to ancient Custom) call'd (by their Priests) upon their Gods, and the whole Army follow'd the Noise and Cry of them that first began. But the Princes seeing now all (both Lives and Fortunes) ready to be laid at Stake, were both in no small concern. Demetrius now not a Quarter of a League distant from the Enemy, gave the Sign of Battel which was before agreed upon, and that was the lifting up of a Golden Target visible to the whole Fleet, one part after another. Ptolemy doing the same, presently the Fleets join'd, and the Trumpets sounded a Charge, and both Armies setting up a great shout, to it they went in a dreadful and terrible Manner. At first they made use of Bows, and Engines to shoot Arrows, Stones, and Darts, by which many on both sides were grievously gall'd and wounded.
When the Ships came side to side, and fell foul with great Violence one upon another; those upon the Decks fell to it with their Launces and Spears, and the Rowers (encourag'd by them that call'd out to them) ply'd their Oars with extraordinary eagerness. And now the Vessels, with the Fierceness and Violence of the Charge, were so press'd upon each side, that some brush'd off the Oars one of another, so that they could neither Fly nor Pursue; and by this means disabled the Soldiers on board from making a vigorous Defence, by putting a Check to the Force wherewith they might otherwise have born down upon their Enemy; others so forc'd with the Beaks of their Ships upon one another's Poops, that they Row'd a-Stern from time to time to repeat their strokes. In the mean time, they upon the Hatches mutually wounded one another, every one having his Mark near and plain before him. Some of the Captains of the Vessels struck the Broad-sides of their Adversaries Ships with that Violence, that the Beaks stuck fast in them, whereupon they boarded the Enemy's Ships, giving and receiving Wounds and Blows on either side: Some catching hold upon the sides of Ships, when they miss'd Footing, in their attempts to board the other, tumbled Headlong into the Sea, and were forthwith run thrô with the Lances of them that were next at hand Some who prevail'd in the boarding of their Enemy, kill'd some upon their first Entrance, and drave all the rest in rucks one upon another, and flung them over-board. In fine, various and sudden were the Turns and Changes of Fortune in this Battel; while they that were worsted now, were presently after Conquerors by the height of their Ships over-topping their Adversaries; and then the Conquerors again brought into Streights, by being driven into ill Stations, and by other unaccountable Accidents, which frequently happen in these Cases. For in Land-Fights Valour apparently carries the Day, when no unusual Misfortune intervenes: But in Sea-Fights there are many and various Accidents often fall out, which sometimes on a sudden ruine them, whose Valour otherwise would certainly and most justly have brought them off Victorious. Of all the rest, Demetrius placing himself upon the Stern of his Gally of Seven Tire of Oars, behav'd himself with most Gallantry: For when he was surrounded with Throngs of Enemies on every side, he so bestirr'd himself, that he strew'd the Decks with them; some by Darts at a Distance, and others by his Lance Hand to Hand: Showers of Darts and other Weapons it's true were cast at him, but some he nimbly declin'd, and others he receiv'd on his Target and other defensive Arms that he then wore. In this Conflict there were Three that stuck close to him as his Assistants, whereof one was run through and Slain with a Lance, and the other two were both wounded. Page 680 But at length, Demetrius repuls'd his Enemies, and put the Right Wing to a total Rout, and forthwith those that were next to them.
On the other hand, Ptolemy who had with him the greatest Ships, and the best Soldiers, easily broke that Party that oppos'd him, and put them to flight, sinking some of their Ships, and taking others with the Men in them, and then returning from the Pursuit, thought to have done the like with the rest: But when he came, he found his Left Wing totally routed by Demetrius, and him in hot pursuit of them; upon which he made back to Citium. But Demetrius now being Conqueror, committed his Men of War to Neon and Burichus, with Orders to pursue the Enemy, and to take up such as they found Swimming for their Lives. He himself with his own Ships richly adorn'd, and those that were taken of the Enemies, tow'd along after small Skiffs, return'd to his own Camp and Port whence he set out.
Mean while, about the very time of the Fight at Sea, Menelaus, Governor of Salamis, sent out to the Aid of Ptolemy the Sixty Ships compleatly Man'd and Arm'd, under the Command of Menetius, who Engaging with those Ships in the Mouth of the Harbour, that were set to keep him in, Charg'd through them; whereupon they fled for Safety to the Army that was at Land. But when the Menetians were in open Sea, and perceiv'd that they came too late, they return'd back to Salamis. This being the Issue of this Fight there were taken above a Hundred Transport Ships, wherein there were almost Eight Thousand Soldiers: Of Ships of War he took Forty, with the Men in them, and of those that were bilg'd in the Fight, about Fourscore; which being almost full of Water in the Hold, they hawl'd to Land under the Camp near the City. Demetrius had Twenty of his own Ships much damnify'd in this Fight, which yet being Refitted and Rigg'd up again, prov'd Serviceable as before.
Afterwards, Ptolemy seeing no good to be done in Cyprus, return'd in Aegypt. But Demetrius having taken in all the Towns and Cities of the Island, distributed the Garison Soldiers among his own Companies, to the Number of Sixteen thousand Foot, and Six hundred Horse: And put Messengers on board the Greatest Ship in the Fleet, and sent them to his Father, with an Account of the Victory he had gain'd.
As soon as Antigonus receiv'd the News, he was so transported with the greatness of the Victory, as that he put a Diadem upon his Head, and from that time assum'd the Stile and Title of a King, and allow'd Demetrius to do the same. And Ptolemy also, not at all willing to hang the Head at his late ill Success, took the Crown and Title of a King to himself likewise, and in all his Letters from that time forward wrote himself King: And by their Example, other Governors of Provinces, as Seleucus, who had lately subdu'd the Upper Provinces; and Lysimachus and Cassander, who held the Provinces first allotted them, all proclaim'd themselves Kings.
Having now spoken sufficient concerning these Affairs, we shall proceed to give a distinct Account of things further done in Africa and Sicily.
Agathocles, when he heard that the Governors of the Provinces before-mentioned had taken upon them the Dignity of Crown'd Heads, judging himself no way inferior to them, either as to the Strength and Power of their Arms, Largeness of his Dominions, or Memorable Actions, took upon him likewise the Name and Title of a King: But yet did not think fit to wear a Diadem: For from the very time of his first aspiring to the Principality he wore a Crown after the manner of a Priest, which he never laid aside all the time he was in Contest for the Tyranny.
Some say, that he always wore this, because he wanted Hair. And now he made it his business to do something worthy of the honourable Title he had assum'd, and therefore he led his Army against the Rebellious Uticans, and surprising them on the sudden took Three hundred of them as they were abroad in the Fields. At the first he pardon'd them; and requir'd the Surrender of the City: But those within refusing so to do; he built an Engine, and hang'd up all the Prisoners upon it, living as they were, and so brought it up to the Walls. The Uticans, though they pity'd the miserable Creatures, yet they valu'd more their Common Liberty, and therefore lin'd the Walls, and resolv'd to abide a Siege. Whereupon, Agathocles furnish'd his Engine with shot, Slingers and Darters; and plying them with shot from his Machine, began the Siege, and so terrify'd them, that he even cauteriz'd the Spirits of the Besieg'd. Those that were upon the Walls at first, scrupled to use their Darts and Arrows, having their own Citizens plac'd before them as their Marks, amongst whom were some of the Chief Nobility: But the Enemy still pressing on with more violence, they were forc'd to endeavour to beat off them, that were plac'd in the Engine: And here it happen'd that the Uticans fell Page 681 into a suddain and unexpected misfortune through an inevitable necessity. For the Greeks exposing the Prisoners they took abroad in the Fields, to be Marks to their own fellow Citizens, they were constrain'd either to fall into the Enemies hands, by sparing their Townsmen, or unmercifully to kill a great number of miserable Creatures in defending of the City; as in truth it happen'd. For while they repuls'd the Enemy with all sorts of Darts and Arrows, and other Weapons, the same time as they wounded and gall'd them that manag'd the Engine, at the same time they wounded the Citizens that hung at it, shooting some through, and fastning others with their Darts and Arrows as with Nails, to that part of the Machine towards which the Body happen'd to move, so that their Ignominy and Misfortune resembled that of the Cross. And thus some suffer'd (as Fortune order'd it) by the hands of their near Relations and Friends; Extremity and Necessity not allowing any Consideration of natural Relation.
Agathocles perceiving the Townsmen to defie all danger, and throw off all Regard and Affection to their Countrymen, begirt the City round, and made a violent Assault upon a part of the Wall where it was weakest, and there broke through into the City; upon which, some fled into their Houses, and others into the Temples: Agathocles being enrag'd, fill'd all places with Blood and Slaughter: Some were kill'd in heat of Fight, others that were taken pris'ners were hang'd up afterwards; and those that fled to the Temples and Altars were altogether frustrated of their hopes. After he had rifl'd and plunder'd the Town, he left a Garrison in it, and march'd to the Cittadel call'd the Horse-Castle, naturally defended by a Lough adjoyning to it: But he took it by Storm after a close Siege, and a sharp Fight with the Inhabitants upon the Water with his Gallies. Thus having subu'd the Cities, he brought most of the Sea Coasts, and those that inhabited in the heart of the Country, under his own Power; except the Numidians, part of whom made Peace with him, and the rest were in continual expectation to fight it out to the last.
Africa was at that time divided into four sorts of Inhabitants, That is to say, The Poeni, who inhabited Carthage. The Libyan Poeni who had many Cities upon the Tracts lying to the Sea Shoar; who being conjoyn'd in Affinity by Marriages with the Carthaginians, were call'd by this Name that imported the Denomination of both People. The most Ancient Inhabitants, and most numerous of all the rest were call'd Africans, who hated the Carthaginians to the death, by reason of the severity of their Government. The last are the Numidians, who hold a vast Tract of Lybia as far as to the very Desarts.
But Agathocles, tho' he was now, by the help of his Confederates, and the Valour of his own Army, Conqueror over the Carthaginians, yet being much concern'd for the Affairs of Sicily, he built some open Vessels, and Skiffs, row'd with Fifty Oars apiece, and put on board Two thousand Soldiers, and loos'd from Africa with his whole Fleet towards Sicily, leaving his Son Archagathus Chief Commander and Governor of Lybia.
While these things were acting Xenodocus General of the Agrigentines having freed many of the Cities, and rais'd the hopes of the Sicilians that they should all be restor'd to their Ancient Liberties throughout the whole Island, led out his Forces against Agathocles his Captains, having with him above Ten thousand Foot, and almost a Thousand Horse. Leptines and Demophilus on the other hand, having got together as great an Army as possibly they could out of Syracuse, and the neighbouring Garrisons, encamp'd against him with Eight thousand and Two hundred Foot, and Twelve hundred Horse. At length there was a sharp Engagement between the two Armies, in which Xenodocus was routed, and lost Fifteen hundred of his Men, and was forc'd to fly to Agrigentum. The Agrigentines weaken'd by this loss, left off their Honourable Design, and frustrated the hopes wherewith they had fill'd the Hearts of the Confederates. Presently after the Battle, Agathocles landed at Selinunt in Sicily, and shortly forc'd the Heracleots, who had regain'd their Liberty, to stoop again to his Government: Thence marching into another part of the Island he brought under the Thermites, (whose City was held by a Carthaginian Garrison) and receiv'd Hostages of them. Then he took Cephaloedium, and made Leptines Governor. Then marching up into the heart of the Country, he attempted to have enter'd Centorippa in the night by the help of a Faction he had in the City: But the Treachery being discover'd the Garrison Soldiers fell in upon him and drave him out of the Town, with the loss of above Five hundred of his Men. After this, some of the Apolloniats sent to him, and promis'd to deliver up their City; whereupon he forthwith made thither. But the Traitors being apprehended and punished, he made nothing of it the first Day; but the next, after many hardships, and the loss of many of his Men, he at length with much ado gain'd the place; and putting multitudes of the Apelloniats to the Page 682 Sword, he gave the Town up to the plunder of his Soldiers. While Agathocles was thus imploy'd, Dinocrates the Captain of the Exiles reviv'd the prosecution of the former design of the Agrigentines, and declar'd himself Protector of the Common Liberty, and got together great numbers who came flocking in to him from all parts. Some out of a natural love of Liberty, and others out of fear of Agathocles, were at his Devotion. Having therefore now an Army of Twenty thousand Foot, and Fifteen hundred Horse (who were all accustom'd to the hadships and toils of Exiles) he took the Field, and dar'd Agathocles to a Battel. But Agathocles being much inferior in number, made a running Fight of it; but Dinocrates still pressing close at his heels, often gain'd several advantages without any difficulty. From this time forward things began to go backwards with Agathocles, not only in Sicily, but also in Africa. For Archagathus left General there, after his Father was gone, sent a part of the Army into the Upper Countries under the Command of Eumachus, and at first was successful; for Eumachus took the great City Tocas, and subdu'd many of the neighbouring Numidians. Then he took another Town call'd Phellina, and subdu'd the bordering Inhabitants call'd Asphodelodians, who are as black as the Aethiopians. He gain'd likewise Maschala, an exceeding large City, anciently inhabited by the Greeks, that planted there in their return from Troy, as we have before related in the Third Book. Afterwards he brought under the Citadel call'd the Horse-Castle, formerly taken by Agathocles: The last Town he gain'd was Acris, a Free City, the Plunder of which he gave to his Soldiers, and sold the Inhabitants for Slaves; and so loaden with spoil return'd to Archagathus to the Camp.
His Name being now up for a brave and valiant Man, he undertook another Expedition into the Higher Africa; and passing by the places he had before lately taken, he inconsiderately broke into the City call'd Mittines: But the Barbarians coming upon him in a full Body in the Streets, they so far prevail'd, that unexpectedly they drave him out of the Town again, with the loss of a great number of his Men. Thence he march'd away over an high Mountain, Two hundred Furlongs in length, full of Wild Cats; there no kind of Birds bred, either in Trees, Holes, or elsewhere, because of the greedy nature of these Beasts. Having pass'd over these Mountains, he enter'd into a Country abounding with Apes, and came to Three Cities in the Greek Language call'd Pithecusae: But their Customs are far different from ours; for these Apes are as familiar in the Houses as the Inhabitants themselves, and are worshipt as Gods, as the Aegyptians do Dogs. These Creatures come and take Meat out of the Cellars and Butteries, when ever they are hungry, without any disturbance; and Parents use to name their Children after these Apes, as we do after the Gods; whoever kills any of them he's sure to die as a notorious Atheist: And therefore it's a common Proverb amongst some of them, If a Man carry himself haughtily and proudly, to say, Thou hast drunk the Blood of an Ape. Eumachus took one of these Cities by Storm, and raz'd it to the ground; the other two submitted: But receiving Intelligence that the bordering Barbarians were coming against him with a great Army, he hasted away as fast as he could towards the Sea Coasts.
To this very time all things succeeded in Lybia according to Archagathus his hearts desire. But afterwards the Senate of Carthage upon more mature deliberation order'd their Forces to be divided into Three Bodies, and to march out of the City, one to the Towns upon the Sea Coasts, another into the heart of the Country, and the third into the upper Africa. For by this means they suppos'd they should free the City both from the Siege and the inconveniencies through scarcity of Provision at one and the same time. For being that all had flockt to Carthage from every place round, the City was in very great want, having now spent and eaten up all their Provision, so that they had nothing left to subsist upon; they knew likewise that there was no danger that the City should be taken by force, because it lay so close to the Sea, and was so well guarded by the strength of the Walls, so that it was then even unaccessible: besides, they concluded that if they had considerable Armies in the Field ready to assist their Confederats upon occasion they would remain firm and constant in their Alliance. And that which was of more weight than all the rest, they hop't that by this means the Enemy would be forc'd to divide their Forces, and be gone to other places far distant from Carthage. All which good Councel was afterwards crown'd with success in all these particulars. For sending Thirty thousand Soldiers out of the City, there was not only Provision sufficient for the Merchants that were left, but a glut and overplus more than they had occasion to use; and those Consederats who before out of fear were forc'd to join with the Enemy, now recollecting themselves, return'd to them as their old friends and Allies. Hereupon Archagathus perceiving that the Carthaginians Armies were now in every corner of Africa,Page 683 divided likewise his Army; part of which he sent to the Sea Coasts, half of the rest he deliver'd to Eschrion, and the other half he led himself, leaving a sufficient Garrison at Tunis. While great Armies were thus marching to and fro all over the Country, and every one expecting a suddain Revolution at hand, all were in a fear and amazment in expectation of what would be the Event.
Hanno who commanded that part of the Forces that march'd up into the heart of the Country, laid an Ambuscado for Eschrion, and surprizing him on the suddain, cut off above Four thousand of his Foot and Two hundred of his Horse, amongst whom was the General himself. Of the rest part of them were taken Prisoners, and the remainder escap'd to Archagathus who was Five hundred Furlongs from the place. Imilcon General in the Higher Africa first posses'd himself of a City near to Eumachus, whose Army was over-loaden with spoils taken out of several Cities. But the Grecians notwithstanding drew up in Battalia, and offer'd the Carthaginian General Battle; whereupon he left a part of the Army ready drawn up in the Town, with this Order, that as soon as they saw him fly, they should sally out upon the pursuers. Marching therefore out with half of the Army, he ingag'd the Enemy almost close under their Camp, and presently fled as if he had been in a great fright; whereupon Eumachus his men, proud of their Victory, pursu'd them in disorder, and in that confusion follow'd them close at the heels; and presently on a suddain issu'd out from another part of the City, the Body before drawn up in the Town, and at one word of Command set up a great shout, which struck the pursuers in amaze and astonishment; and being the Barbarians fell upon the other that were in disorder, and surpris'd beside, the Grecians presently fled: but the Enemy having blockt up the passage to their Camp, the Eumachians were forc'd to turn aside to the next Hill, where they wanted Water; which being set round by the Carthaginians, they almost all there perish'd, some by Thirst and others by the Sword; for of Eight thousand Foot, Thirty only escap'd, and of Eight hundred Horse only Forty.
Archagathus therefore being thus distress'd, left Tunis, and recall'd the rest of the Soldiers (he had sent abroad) from all parts; and sent Messengers into Sicily to give an account to his Father of what had happen'd, and to intreat him to hasten over with assistance with all speed. Besides these misfortunes other inconveniences and mischiefs overtook the Grecians; for all their Confederates (except a very few) forsook them: And all their Enemies join'd together, and Incampt just in their teeth and were ready to swallow them up. For Imilco had blockt up all the Passes and secur'd the Country from all inroads of the Enemy for a Hundred Furlongs distant; and on the other side Atarbas had plac'd his Camp Forty Furlongs from Tunis; so that the Greeks hem'd in both by Sea and Land were near starv'd for want of Provision; and nothing but Terror and Amazment fill'd every place. While they were in this sad and dreadful condition, Agathocles receiving intelligence of the destruction of his Men in Africa, had prepar'd Seventeen Men of War for the assistance of Archagathus. But his Affairs in Sicily growing every day worse and worse, and the Number of the Exiles with Dinocrates increasing more and more, he left the managment of the War in the Island to Leptines and his Captains; and he himself having Mann'd his Ships, waited only for an opportunity how to get out, for that Thirty Carthaginian Ships lay in the mouth of the Harbour-But at a time after when Eighteen Ships came in to his assistance from Hetruria, who had pass'd by the Carthaginians in the night into the Harbour, he took that occasion, and by a stratagem deluded the Enemy; for he charg'd part of his Fleet to lie still for some time, while he by making out of the Port should draw off the Carthaginians to pursue him. But therefore he goes with seventeen Sail with all the wind he could make, whom the Enemies Fleet forthwith pursu'd: But Agathocles as soon as he saw that the Hetrurians were got out of the Harbour, presently Tackt about and fell upon the Barbarians; upon which the Carthaginians surpriz'd with the unexpectedness of the thing, and now surrounded with their Enemies Gallies, in a great terror made away and sled; the Grecians then took Five of their Ships together with the Men in them; and the Carthaginian Admiral (seeing the Ship he was in was upon the point of being taken) kill'd himself, preferring death before Captivity, which then (as he thought) was just at hand. But he took no right measures at that time; for the Ship Thy the help of a happy Gale of Wind got off with the loss of the little Trinket Sail. hus Agathocles who never in the least hop'd to overcome the Carthaginians at Sea, unexpectedly beat them in a Sea fight, and being thenceforth Master of the Port, he secur'd the Passage for the benefit of the Merchants; so that the Syracusians having Provision brought in from all parts, instead of their former scarcity of every thing necessary, presently abounded in the plenty of all things.
Page 684Agathocles lifted up with this success, sent Leptimes away to spoll and harrass the Enemies Countries, and especially the Agrigentines: For Xenodocus was in disgrace amongst his fellow Citizens, and blacken'd by his Adversaries upon the account of his late overthrow, so that he was troubl'd with Mutinies and Seditions: Therefore he commanded Leptines to make it his business to draw him out to fight, if he could possibly; for that it was a very easie thing to vanquish an Army that was in Divisions and Mutinies among themselves, and that had been beaten but a little before; which afterwards hapned accordingly. For Leptines making an inroad into the Territories of the Agrigentines harrass'd and spoil'd all before them: Xenodocus looking upon himself too weak, lay quiet and still at first; but being call'd a Coward by the Citizens, he march'd out with an Army near as many as the Enemy, but far inferior to them for Courage and Resolution; because the Citizens had liv'd altogether in ease and idleness, and the other had been us'd to lie in the open field, and continually inur'd to all manner of hardships. A Battle therefore being fought between them, those with Leptines presently put the Agrigentines to flight, and pursu'd them even to the Walls of Agrigentum: There were kill'd of those thus Routed about Five hundred Foot and Fifty Horse. The Agrigentines being grievously incens'd with these losses one after another, summon'd Xenodocus to his Trial, as the occasion of Two Overthrows and slaughters of the Citizens; who fearing the severity of the Sentence he was like to fall under, fled to Gela.
Agathocles having conquer'd his Enemies both at Sea and Land in a few days time, sacrific'd to the Gods and entertain'd his friends with sumptuous Feasts, and Royal Banquettings. In the time of his feasting and quaffing he laid aside all his Ensigns of Royalty, and Majesty, and appear'd as one of the meanest among them; and this he did in the first place to gain upon the good will of the People, which he sought thus to purchase: And in the second, that by giving every Man free liberty in their Cups to say what they pleas'd of him, he might the better learn how every one stood affected towards him. For by the force of Wine Truth often appears from behind the Hanging. He was naturally of a jocund and jesting Temper, and would not sometimes lose his Jest even in publick Assemblies, but would jeer the very Senators, and mock some of them by his Apish imitations, in so much as he would often set the People a laughing, as if they had seen some Jugler or Stageplaier. For he would go alone to the publick Assemblies, attended only by the common People, much differing from the practice of Dionysius the Tyrant; for he was so fearful of every body, that he would let the Hair of his Head and Beard grow to excess, that the principal parts of his Body might not be at the mercy of a Razor: And when ever he wanted shaving, or polling, he burnt off the Hair; every one may hereby see, that the only guard for Tyranny is Diffidence. Moreover, at this time of Revelling Agathocles took up a great Golden Bowl, and vaunted that he never left off the Potters Trade, before he had made Cups and Bowls exactly of that shape. For he did not deny, but rather glory in his Trade, as a Foil that set off with more lustre that high state and dignity to which his own Valour had advanc'd him from a mean and contemptible Calling.
Once when he besieg'd one of the Considerable Cities, the Soldiers from the Walls call'd out to him, O Potter!Sweep-Chimney! When wilt thou pay thy Soldiers? To whom he answer'd, When I have taken and raz'd this Place.
When he had found out by the Craft of his carousing and festival Jollity who were his Enemies, he invited them another time by themselves, together with Five hundred other Syracusians, who were Men of brave and undaunted Spirits; and when they were together, he surrounded them with his mercenary Soldiers, and murther'd them every Man: For he was terribly afraid, lest when he was gone into Africa, they should recall Dinocrates and the Refugees, and abrogate his Government.
Having thus settled Affairs, in order to the establishing himself in the Principality, he looses from Syracuse: When he landed in Africa, he found there in the Camp nothing but Want and Desperation; therefore judging it most for his Advantage to fight, he made it his Business to encourage the Soldiers to engage the Enemy, and thereupon draws them ail out in Battalia, and offers the Barbarians Battel. The remainder of the Foot then with him were at the most not above Six thousand Grecians, and as many Celts, Samnites, and Hetrurians, and almost Ten thousand Africans of those that stay'd with him: These Africans are a treacherous sort of Men, ever upon any Occasion running over from one Party to another. Besides these, there were with him Fifteen hundred Horse, and above Six thousand African Carriages: But the Carthaginians though they had the Advantage of a high Ground, and of difficult access, yet they were not willing to venture all at once with Men that were desperate, but by lying still in their Camp (where Page 685 they had plenty of Provision) and by protracting of Time, they hop'd to starve the Enemy, and so be Masters of their Camp without fighting.
Agathocles therefore not being able to draw the Enemy forth to a Battel in the open Field, and being necessitated by his present Circumstances to attempt something, and enter upon some desperate Action, marches up with his whole Army close to the Enemy's Camp: Thereupon the Carthaginians make out against him; and though they had the advantage of Ground, and far exceeded him in number of Men, yet Agathocles (prest hard on every side) for some time resolutely bore up against them: But his Mercenaries and some others at length giving Ground, he was forc'd to retreat to his Camp. The Barbarians pursu'd them close; but to gain the Good-will and Favour of the Africans, they past by them without doing any execution: But the Greeks (whom they knew by their Arms) they kill'd all along till they had driven the rest into their Camp. There were slain of Agathocles his Men at that time Three thousand.
The next night a sudden and unexpected Disaster fell upon both the Armies: For the Carthaginians, when they were sacrificing the most eminent and considerable Persons among their Prisoners, in Gratitude to their Gods for the Victory they had gain'd, the Flame rising high that enwrapt the Bodies of the sacrific'd Captives, a fierce Wind on a sudden carry'd the Flame to the Sacred Tabernacle near the Altar, where it catch'd and burnt it down to the Ground; thence it proceeded to the General's Pavilion, and the Officers Tents next adjoining: Upon which arose a mighty Consternation, and Astonishment fill'd the whole Camp, while some endeavouring to quench the Fire, others striving to carry away Arms and rich Furniture, were consumed by the Flames. The Tents were made of Reeds and Straw; and therefore the Fire (through the height of the Wind) rag'd the more; so that that by its quickness, it prevented all help and assistance that the Soldiers could any ways contribute. The whole Camp being presently in a Flame, many in strait and narrow Passes were intercepted by the Fire, and burnt to death. And thus they presently paid for their Cruelty to the Captives, suffering the like Punishment as a Retaliation of their Impiety. And others who tumultuously with woful Cries got out of the Camp, were pursu'd with another and greater Misfortune: For those Africans that were in Agathocles his Army, to the number of Five thousand, deserted the Grecians, and were flying to the Barbarians. When those that went out to scout, saw those Deserters make towards the Carthaginians Camp, thinking the whole Grecian Army were at hand ready to fall upon them, they forthwith gave Intelligence to their own Party, that the Enemy's whole Army approach'd: Which being nois'd abroad, Confusion and Dread of the Enemy's being just in the midst of them, ran through the whole Camp: Whereupon every one plac'd his own Safety in the Swiftness of his Heels; and in regard no Word of Command was given by any of the Officers, nor any Order kept among the Soldiers, the Run-aways fell down one upon another; and some of them through the Darkness of the Night, and others out of excess of Fear, fell a fighting with their own Men, not knowing who they were. The Mistake still continuing and encreasing, a great Slaughter was made; and some were kill'd hand to hand, and others running away with the loss of their Arms, in the height of a surprizing Fear, in their hast, fell down steep and craggy Rocks, and were broken in pieces; about Five thousand of them being destroy'd, the rest at length got to Carthage. The Citizens within the Town (deceiv'd by the Report of their own Men,) believ'd they were routed, and that the greatest part of the Army was cut off; in this fright they open'd the Gates, and receiv'd them with great Terror and Amazement into the Town, fearing lest the Enemy should likewise break in at the Heels of them. And though when it was full Day, they came to understand the Truth of the matter, yet they could scarce allay the Fears they had been in, as if the Evils were still even at their Doors.
About the same time, (through a vain Fear and foolish Imagination) Agathocles fell into a Misfortune something of the same kind For the African Deserters, after the burning of the Carthaginian Camp, and the Hurly-burly and Uproar that follow'd thereupon, durst not march forward, but made their way back to the place from whence they came; whom some of the Greeks espying to make towards them, they took them to be the Carthaginian Army, and thereupon gave Intelligence to Agathocles, that the Enemy was near at hand. Upon which, by the King's Order, they cry'd out, Arms! Arms! and forthwith the Soldiers came pouring out in great Tumult and Confusion out of the Camp: And besides all this, when they saw the Flame in the Enemy's Camp to mount up into the Air, and heard the Shouts and Cries of the Carthaginians, they were the more confirm'd in their Opinion, that the Barbarians were making towards them with their whole Army.
Page 686 But Excess of Fear leaving no room for due and serious Consideration, Horror and Amazement fill'd the whole Camp, and all of them took to their Heels: And the Africans being presently mix'd among them, (the Night causing the Mistake) every one oppos'd him that he met, as an Enemy, and being all the Night long dispers'd here and there, and wandering up and down in a Panick Fear, there perish'd of them above Four thousand: The rest (with much ado at length coming to understand the Mistake) return'd safe to their Camp. And in this manner both Armies deceiv'd by the Vanity of War, (as the common Proverb is) fell into miserable Disasters. After which Missortune, being now deserted by the Africans, and having not sufficient Forces lest to contend with the Carthaginians, he resolv'd to leave Africa: But he thought it impossible to transport the Soldiers with him, because he both wanted Shipping, and heard that the Carthaginians were Masters at Sea, and lay to intercept his Passage: And he concluded, the Barbarians (whose Forces far exceeded his) would never make Peace with him; but rather cut off every Man of them that first set footing upon Africa, to deterr all others for the future from the like Attempt. He determin'd therefore to slip away privately with a few, and take along with him his younger Son Heraclides; for he fear'd lest his Son Archagathus, being a daring Man, and one that had been too familiar with his Stepmother, would plot something against his Life: But Archagathus smelling out his Design, resolv'd to discover the Matter to those Captains and Officers as should be able to defeat him in his Contivance, and to that purpose strictly observ'd his Motions: For he look'd upon it as a base and unworthy Thing, that he who had undergone a good part of the Toils and Hazards of the War for the sake of his Father and Brother, should be now left alone as a Prey to the Enemy, without all Hopes of Deliverance. He inform'd therefore some of the Captains and most considerable Officers of the intended Departure of Agathocles and his Companions the next night: Whereupon all the Body forthwith made up to him, and not on•y put a stop to his Voyage, but acquainted the common Soldiers how the Plot was laid; who being both griev'd and enrag'd together, laid hold on him and bound him, and so committed him to custody. An Anarchy following hereupon, there was nothing but Tumult and Confusion throughout all the Camp: And when Night came on, a Rumour was spread over the Camp, that the Enemy was just falling in amongst them: Upon which, all were so possess'd with a Panick Fear, that having none to Command them, every one was preparing to get away; at which very time, they that had the Custody of the Prince, (in as great a Consternation as the rest,) thought that some or other call'd them forth; who thereupon came out with Agathocles in his Chains along with them; at which fight, the whole Army were so affected with Pity and Compassion, that they cry'd out, Unloose him, let him go.
Being freed from his Chains, he presently after with a small Attendance stole away, and took Shipping about the beginning of October, in the Night in Winter-time, and away he got. And thus to preserve himself, forsook his Children; whom the Soldiers presently, upon the News of their Father's Flight, knock'd on the Head; and then chose Captains from among themselves, and made Peace with the Carthaginians upon these Conditions, viz.
The greatest part of the Soldiers, who were faithful to what they had agreed, had all as faithfully perform'd to them: But those Cities and Towns that held out in Hopes and Expectations of Relief from Agathocles, were all taken by force of Arms; whose several Governors the Carthaginians crucifi'd, and the rest they bound in Chains, and employ'd them to Till, and Repair by their own Labours, those Parts of the Country that they had before wasted and destroy'd. And thus the Carthaginians, after they had been harrass'd and vext with a Four Years War, recover'd their former Peace and Liberty.
In this Expedition of Agathocles into Africa, any one may observe most remarkable Accidents, and the Divine Providence in the Punishment inflicted upon his Sons. For being routed in Sicily, he lost the greatest part of his Army: A little time after he overcame the Conquerors with a very inconsiderable Body of Men in Africa. In Sicily, being thrown out of all the Cities, he was coop'd up by a close Siege within the Walls of Syracuse: In Africa, he gain'd all the Towns, except Carthage, and closely besieg'd the Carthaginians in that City; by which, Fortune seem'd to make it her Business, to let every one see what Power she had to retrieve those Things that seem'd to be in a desperate Condition. But after that Agathocles, in the height of his Prosperity, had murder'd Opellas, against all the Laws of Friendship and Hospitality; God made it manifestly apparent Page 687 that for that piece of Wickedness acted upon that Man, whatever happen'd to him afterwards was order'd and dispens'd by his own hand. For the very Month and Day of the Month that he kill'd Ophellas, and brought over to him all his Army, the very same Day and Month he again lost both his Sons and his Army. And that which is more especially to be observ'd, was, That God, as a just Law-giver, inflicted on him a double Punishment; for he who had most wickedly destroy'd his Friend, was depriv'd of two Sons together, even by the Hands of those that came along with Ophellas. This Remark ought not to offend those, who slight and despise such Providences.
As for Agathocles, as soon as he landed in Sicily, by a hasty flight out of Africa, he sent for part of his Forces, and march'd to the Consederate City of the Aegestines: And being in want of Money, exacted the greatest part of the Estates of those that were rich, in which Place were Ten thousand Inhabitants. This many of them took very heinously, and met together in private Cabals: But he finding out, that the 〈◊〉 were plotting against him, he brought most dreadful Calamity upon the City: For drawing out all the Poor out of the Town, he cut all their Throats upon the Bank of the River Scamander: And all those who seem'd to be richer than the rest, he put to several Tortures, to force them to confess how much Money they had: For some he broke upon the Wheel; others he bound to his Engines of Battery, and shot them away like Stones. And of others, he cut out the Ankle-bones of their Feet, and by his cruel and unmerciful Dealing, put them to most horrible Torments. He invented likewise another sort of Punishment not much unlike the Phalerian Bull; for he made a Bed of Br••s exactly after the shape of a Man, wherein were several Openings and hollow Places on every side: Those that he intended to torment, he put into this Bed, and then put fire under it, and burnt them to Death. In this only this Engine differ'd from the Bull. That those that perish'd, and were consum'd in those strait and narrow Holes, were expos'd to the view of every one. He would likewise break in pieces the Ankle-Bones of some of the rich Women with Iron Pincers, and cut off the Breasts of others; and would sometimes lay a weight of Tiles upon the Loins of Women with Child, till he forc'd the Child to leap, as it were, forcibly out of the Womb. While the Tyrant was in this manner endeavouring to find out all the Wealth every Body had, and the whole City was in Terror and Astonishment, some burnt themselves and their Houses together, and others hang'd themselves. And thus Aegesta, in one black and doleful Day, had the Prime and Flower of her Youth cut off. But the young Women and Children the Tyrant transported into Italy, and sold them to the Brutii: And that the very Name of the Place should be extinguish'd and forgotten, he call'd it Dic〈…〉lis, and granted it for an Habitation to such Runagates as came over to him.
When he heard of the Murder of his Sons, he was so enrag'd at them he had left behind him in Africa, that he sent some of his Friends to his Brother Antandrus at Syracuse, with Oders, that he should cut the Throats of all the Kindred and Relations of those that went over in the Carthaginian Expedition: Who thereupon executing what he was commanded, committed such Slaughters and Murders, as were never at any time before: For he not only hurried away to Destruction young Men in the prime of their Age, as Brothers, Fathers, and Children; but even Grandfathers and Great-Grandfathers, if they happen'd then to be living, tho' they had one Foot even in the Grave, and could neither see nor hear through extremity of old Age: Nay, even Infants carri'd in Arms, that were not sensible of any Harm design'd them before they felt it: They dragg'd away likewise to Execution, Women, whether they were Servants or Kindred to them in Africa, and whoever else that (by their Death) might be occasion of Grief and Sorrow to them: So that while a vast number of Persons of all Ages and Sexes were hal'd away to Execution at the Sea-shore, where the Butchers stood ready for them, Tears, earnest Intreaties upon their Knees, and wo〈…〉 Lamentations appear'd every where, both from them that were butcher'd, and from others; who so far compassionated the sad Condition of their Neighbours, that their Hearts were as full of Grief, as theirs who were just ready to die. And that which was the most grievous of all was, That after so great a Slaughrer, and that the 〈…〉lses lay cast forth upon the Shoar, neither Kinsman nor Friend durst bury them, lest any of them should be thought Related to them that were dead. The Multitude of them that were murder'd upon the Shoar was such, that the Sea was did with 〈…〉od a long way off, which presented to the Eye at a great distance the Horridness of that barbarous Cruelty.
Antigonus his March into Egypt. A Tempest near Raphia, where he lost some of his Ships. He returns into Syria. Dinocrates prevails in Sicily. Agathocles is willing to resign his Government; but Dinocrates stands off. What was done in Italy. Antigonus his War with the Rhodians. Rhodes besieg'd by Demetrius. Agathocles routs Dinocrates his great Army with a few Men. His Cruelty to those that submitted upon Terms, where he butchers Seven thousand. Dinocrates in Favour with Agathocles, and betrays all the Confederates. What was done in Italy.
THE Year following Corybus was chief Magistrate at Athens, and Quintus Martius and Publius Cornelius were created Consuls at Rome. About that time King Antigonus buri'd his youngest Son with Royal Pomp and Splendour; and calling home Demetrius out of Cyprus, commanded his whole Army to meet at his new City Antigonia, for he purpos'd to march from thence into Aegypt: Wherefore leading the Foot himself, he pass'd through Coelo-Syria, having an Army of Fourscore thousand Foot, and above Eight thousand Horse, and Fourscore and three Elephants: He made Demetrius Admiral of his Fleet, giving him order to keep close to the Shoar in sight of the Land-Army, having in all a Hundred and fifty fighting Ships, and a Hundred more of Burden, wherein was an infinite store of Arms of all sorts: And when the Pilots told him, That they were to stay till the setting of the Seven Stars, which would be the Eighth Day from thence, he condemn'd them for being too Timorous. Coming to Gaza, and purposing to fall upon Ptolemy before he was provided for him, he commanded his Soldiers to take with them Ten Days Victual; and getting together Camels out of Arabia, he loaded on them a Hundred and thirty thousand Bushels of Wheat, and infinite store of Hay upon other Beasts of Carriage; and carrying his Munition on Carts, went through the Desart, not without some Trouble to the Army; for that they met with sundry Fens and dirty Places by the way, especially about the Place call'd Barathra. Demetrius loosing from Gaza in the dead of Night, was for many Days together becalm'd; so that the lighter Ships were fain to tow the Ships of Burden after them with Ropes. But after this, and as soon as the Seven Stars were set, a Northerly Wind arose, and fell upon them, with which many of the Ships with four Tire of Oars apiece were driven on shoar near to the City Rhaphia, where was no commodious Landing for them: But of those which carry'd the Artillery, some of them were sunk, and the rest recover'd Gaza again. Yet some of the best of them bare up, and came under the Promontory of Cassius: That Foreland is not far distant from the River Nile, but is no place fit for Shipping; especially if any Tempest be, there is no coming near it: Wherefore every Ship dropping two Anchors apiece, two Furlongs off from Land, were fain to ride it out in a huge Sea in the midst of a Thousand Dangers; for the Fury of the Waves was such, that the great Danger was, lest both Men and Ships should sink down together; and because there was no fit Landing place, and likewise for that the Shoar was guarded by the Enemy, the Vessels could neither make to Land, nor any swim out without extream Hazard: But that which was most grievous, was, That they had spent all their fresh Water, and were Reduc'd to that extremity of Want, that had the Tempest lasted but one day longer, they must all necessarily have perish'd for very Thirst. But in this great Extremity of theirs, and when they expected nothing but Death, the Storm ceas'd; Antigonus with his Army coming to the place, there encamp'd, and the weather-beaten Men came ashoar and refresh'd themselves in the Camp, and waited for the Ships that were separated from them by the Storm. Nevertheless there were lost in this Tempest Three Ships of Five Tires of Oars apiece, out of which some Men escap'd alive to Land. For hence Antigonus remov'd, and sate down with his Army Two Furlongs off from the River Nile. But Ptolemy having Mann'd all the Bank of the River with strong Garisons, sent some in River-Boats, with Commands, that going as near the further Bank as safely they could, they should there proclaim, That if any of Antigonus his Army would come to him, he would give him, if a common Soldier Two Minas, if a Captain a Talent. No sooner was this Proclamation made, but a Multitude of Antigonus his Men, which serv'd him for Pay, grew very desirous to be gone; yea, and some of his Captains too, for that and some other Reasons, had a mind to go also. But when Antigonus perceiv'd, that a multitude of his Men were flying away from him, Page 689 he dispos'd Archers and Slingers, and other Engines of War upon the Shore, to keep them from flying over the Water in Boats; and some he lighted on that ran away, and those he put to horrible Torments, to deter others from the like.
Antigonus gathering together his Ships that came in after the Tempest, though late to him, went to a Place call'd Pseudostomon, thinking there to have Landed some of his Men: But he found a strong Garison, and was beaten off with Bows and Slings, and other Engines of War: The Night therefore drawing on, he went his way, giving Order to the Masters of every Ship, to follow the Admiral's Lanthorn, and to make to the Mouth of the River Nile, which is called Phagneticum: But the next Morning, finding that many of his Ships had lost their way, he was forc'd to come to Anchor there, and to send away the swiftest Ships he had to seek them out.
The time thus spent and protracted, Ptolemy being advertis'd of the approach of the Enemy, came in speedily to the Relief of his Men, and rang'd his Army all along the Shore. Whereupon, Demetrius finding no possibility of Landing here neither, and being inform'd that the Country adjoining was naturally fenc'd with Fens and Moorish Grounds, set sail and return'd. But as he was going, the Wind struck up to the North, and with a mighty Tempest drove three of his Ships of Four Tire of Oars, and some others of his Transport Ships upon the Shore, all which came into Ptolemy's hand; the rest with much ado recover'd Antigonus his Camp. Now Ptolemy had plac'd strong Garisons at every one of the Mouths of the River Nile, and had an infinite Number of River-Boats every where ready, stor'd with Darts and Slings, and Men which knew well how to use them, which greatly vex'd and troubled Antigonus: For the Mouth of the River at Pelusium being strongly guarded by Ptolemy, he could make no use of his Ships at all; and for the Land Forces, they were not able to do any thing, because of the height of the River; and that which was worse, with his long Lying, both Food for Men, and Fodder for Cattle began to grow low. Wherefore Antigonus seeing his Army to hang the Head, call'd them all together, and propounded it to the Captains, Whether of the two were best, to stay and Fight it out now, or to return into Syria for the present, and to return again better provided, and when the Waters should be lower? And when every Man's Voice was to be gone, he had his Soldiers truss up their Trinkets, and so with his Navy keeping still along the Shore by them, he return'd into Syria.
Ptolemy growing glad at heart that the Enemy was thus gone, offer'd Sacrifice to his Gods for this great Deliverance; and made withal a most magnificent Feast for his Nobles, and wrote away Letters to Seleucus, Lysimachus, and Cassander, of his prosperous Success, informing them likewise, how a Multitude of Antigonus his Men had fled over to him. And now having rescu'd as it were Aegypt a second time, and gotten it by his Sword, judging therefore he might lawfully reckon it as his own, he return'd to Alexandria.
While these things thus pass'd in Aegypt,Dionysius, the Tyrant of Heraclca in Pontus, dy'd, having reign'd Thirty two Years: And his Sons Zathras and Clearchus succeeding him reign'd Seventeen years.
In the mean time, Agathocles visited all the Cities in Sicily that were under his Command, filling them with Garisons, and poling them for Money: For the Man was in a terrible Fright, lest when he should fall under a Cloud, they should recover their Liberty by Force of Arms.
About that time, Pasiphilus, the General, hearing of the Death of Agathocles his Sons, and the rout of his Forces in Lybia, had the Tyrant in Contempt: And falling off to Dinocrates, join'd in Confederacy with him; and being possess'd of the Cities which were before committed to his Care and Trust, he entic'd and drew off the Army (then under his Command) from the Tyrant, by fair Promises, and hopes of mighty things.
Agathocles therefore being now every where disappointed and frustrated of his Hopes, was so far dejected, that he sent an Agent to Dinocrates, and offer'd to make Peace with him upon these Conditions, viz. That he would lay down his Sovereignty, and restore Syracuse to the Citizens; and that Dinocrates should be no longer in Exile, so that he would deliver up two Castles, Tharma and Cepaloedium, together with their adjoining Territories, to Agathocles. Here some may justly admire how it came to pass, that Agathocles, who was at all other times, and in all other things Resolute and Obstinate, and never in the least discourag'd when his Condition was most Desperate, should be now so dastardly, as to be willing to give up all into the Enemy's hands, without striking a stroke for the obtaining and compassing of which he had fought so many and great Battels: And that which is the strangest of all, was, that he who was yet Lord of Syracuse, and of many other Cities, and had a considerable Navy at Sea, and an Army at Land, should become so Weakheaded, as not to remember any thing of that which hapned to Dionysius; for when he Page 690 was reduc'd to most miserable Streights, and to that degree of fear of those Mischiefs that hung over his Head, as that he was altogether hopeless of retaining his Principality, and was upon the very Point of mounting his Horse, and •lying away from Syracuse; Heloris, one of the ancientest of his Noblemen (to put a stop to his Carreer) said to him, The Sepulchre of a King is honourable. And the like to this is what his Father-in-Law, Megacles, said to him, that He who is depriv'd of a Kingdom, should part with it so, as if forc'd from between his very Thighs, and not as one making a voluntary Abdication. By which serious admonitions, Dionysius was so encourag'd, that he went through all courageously, though they seem'd never so terrible; and afterwards mightily enlarg'd his Dominion; and continu'd in this height of Prosperity till he was old, leaving the greatest Principality in Europe to his Children.
But Agathocles not in the least incourag'd by any of these Considerations, nor considering the vanity of Humane Confidence and Expectations by what he had learnt by his own Experience, set to Sale so great a Principality for a trifle: But yet the Proposals took no effect; for though Agathocles would willingly have had them confirm'd, yet the Ambition of Dinocrates rejected them; for he affected an absolute Monarchy, and therefore hated the Syracusian Democracy, and was better pleas'd with the Command (as General of the Army) which he then enjoy'd: For he had at that time under his Command above Twenty thousand Foot, and Three thousand Horse, and many of the largest and chiefest Cities; so, that though he was call'd only General of the Exiles, yet in truth he had the Majesty and Authority of a King; the chief and absolute Power of every thing being in his hands; for if he return'd to Syracuse, he concluded he must of necessity be no more than a private Man, and be reputed but one of the many (for Liberty loves Equality) and subject to be undermin'd and degraded by the suffrage of every Demagogue in the publick Assemblies; for the common People are ever Enemies to those that are rising Men, and speak their Minds most freely. And therefore a Man may justly say, that Agathocles voluntarily Lower'd his Sails; and that Dinocrates was the only cause of what ever Good was done by this Prince at any time afterwards. For Agathecles often sent Agents to him to Sollicite and Treat about the Conditions of Peace, still insisting upon having the Two Castles for his Subsistence, and he as often contriv'd some specious pretence or another, to dash and break all in pieces; sometimes requiring that he should depart wholly out of Sicily, and at others, that he should give up his Children as Hostages.
Agathocles therefore smelling out his Design, sent Agents to the Exiles to accuse Dinocrates of the Project he was carrying on, to obstruct the Restitution of their ancient Liberties. He sent likewise an Ambassador to the Carthaginians, and made Peace with them upon the following Conditions, viz. That all the Cities the Carthaginians formerly enjoy'd, should be forthwith surrender'd to them: For which he receiv'd of the Carthaginians Three hundred Talents of Gold, according to the Account and Value of Silver: But as Timaeus says, a Hundred and Fifty Talents, and Two hundred Thousand Medimnas of Wheat. Thus stood the Affairs of Sicily at that time.
In Italy the Samnites took Sora and Atia, (two Confederate Cities of the Romans) by Storm, and sold all the Captives for Slaves: Upon which, the Consuls broke in with mighty Forces into Japygia, and sate down before the City Sylvia, a Garison of the Samnites, which the Romans took by Assault after a few days Siege, and carry'd away above Five thousand Prisoners, and abundance of rich Spoil and Booty. Then they harrass'd the Country of the Samnites, cutting down all the Trees, and making havock and spoil where-ever they came. For Rome having for many years been in contest with this Nation for the supream Command, hop'd at length, that the Enemy being strip'd out of all they had all over the Country, would be forc•d to sloop to the Stronger; and to that end they continu'd Spoiling and Wasting the Country Five Months together, within which time they burnt down to the Ground almost all the Towns, and rooted up every Plant and Tree, and whatever other thing that might yield any Fruit for Daily Food. After this the Aeginetes proclaim'd War for the Injuries done them, and took Fr〈…〉 by Assault, and Sold the Territories belonging to it.
After the End of this Year, Xenippus Govern'd at Athens, and Lucius Posthumius, and Tiberius Minucius, bore the Office of Consuls at Rome. About this time the Rhedians were at War with Antigonus upon the accounts following. The City of Rhodes was very strong in Shipping, and the best Govern'd of any City among the Greeks, and therefore all the Kings and Petty Princes strove which should gain the greatest Interest in the Citizens, every one endeavouring to have her for their Confederate. But foreseeing afar off, what would be most for her Advantage, she secretly made Peace with all, but would not meddle Page 691 with any of the Wars wherein the Princes were ingag'd one against another; so that she was courted and richly presented by every one of them, and grew exceeding rich by the injoyment of a long Peace. For she became so potent, that in the Pyrattick War. undertaken for the Common good of all Greece, she scowr'd the Seas and freed them from Pyrats at her own charge.
Alexander the most potent Prince of any that is recorded, honour'd this City above all others; for there he laid up his last Will concerning the disposal of his whole Kingdom, and honouring her in other respects, advanc'd her to the state of a Royal City. The Rhodians thus in amity with all the Princes, kept themselves (with all the Art they could) from giving any just offence by outward appearance; though in their hearts they most favour'd Ptolemy: for they were most inricht by the Merchants which traded thence into Aegypt; and the whole City was maintain'd and supported by the Wealth of that Kingdom: which being understood by Antigonus, he did all he could to draw them off from siding with Ptolemy: And therefore at first when he was ingag'd in a War against Ptolemy for the Island of Cyprus, he sent Ambassadors thither to sollicit them them to send Aid and shipping to Demetrius; which they denying, he commanded one his Admirals to sail away with his Fleet against them, and intercept and rifle all the Ships that made out of the Port at Rhodes for Aegypt. But the Rhodians beating the Admiral, he charg'd them to be the Aggressors and beginners of an unjust War, and threatn'd to besiege their City with the strength of his whole Army: upon which the Rhodians decreed him great Honours; and sent Ambassadors to him to intreat him that he would not force them to ingage in a War against Ptolemy, contrary to the League they had made with him: But the King hereat growing more inrag'd, sent Demetrius with the Army and all manner of Engines, for a Siege against them, who were thereupon so terrifi'd with the mighty power of the King, that at first they signifi'd to Demetrius by their Ambassadors that they would assist Antigonus against Ptolemy: But afterwards when he requir'd a Hundred of the Nobility for Hostages, and that his Fleet might be admitted into the Harbour; they concluded that he design'd to surprize the City, and therefore they prepar'd for War.
Demetrius on the other hand Rendesvouz'd all his Fleet in the Port at Elorymna, and put all in readiness for an Expedition to Rhodes. He had with him Two hundred Men of War of several dimensions; a Hundred and seventy Ships of burthen, in which were carri'd about Forty thousand Soldiers, together with Horse and Auxiliaries from the Pirats, Besides there were on Board abundance of all sorts of Darts, Arrows, and other Engines, fit for the carrying on of an Assault. And along with all these there follow'd almost a Thousand Vessels, belonging to private Men, full of Wares and Merchandize. And whereas the Country of the Rhodians had been free from all devastations for many years together, a vast multitude of men that had inricht themselves by the losses of others in the War, flockt thither from all places. Demetrius therefore drawing up his Fleet in a line of Battle, as ready prepar'd for a Sea sight, commanded his Men of War (which carri'd Engines upon their Fore Castles to cast Darts and Arrows of three spans long) to sail before: and the Transport Ships and such as had Horses on board, they that row'd in lesser Vessels tow'd after them by Cable Ropes. In the Rear came the Pirats Vessels, and a numerous Company (as is before said) of Merchants Ships loaden with Corn and other Provisions; so that all the Sea between them and the Island and opposite shoar seem'd to be cover'd over with Ships, which struck a great Terror and Amazement into those that had the prospect from the City. For the Rhodian Soldiers who were plac'd upon the Walls there, waited for the Enemies approach: the old Men and Women likewise had a prospect of them from the tops of their Houses; (for the City was in its situation like a Theater) and all being amaz'd and terrifi'd with the greatness of the Fleet, and glittering of the Arms, were in no small perplexity; for all they had in this World was now lying at stake.
Demetrius now at last arriv'd at the Island, and Landed his Men, and then encampt near the City, but not within the Cast of a Dart: which done he forthwith sent out some of the Pirats, and others fit for the purpose to spoil and pillage all before them, both by Sea and Land. He cut down also all the Trees of the Country next adjoining, and raz'd the Towns; and with the Timber and materials from thence he fortifi'd his Camp, drawing round it a treble Trench, and many great and strong Ramparts; so that by the misery and losses of the Enemy he effectually provided for his Armies security. Then by the labour of his whole Army and the Seamen that came along with him, in a few daies he took in with a Rampart of Earth all that part of Ground lying between Page 692 his Landing place and the City, and inlarg'd the Haven for the more commodious riding of his Ships.
In the mean time the Rhodians sent Ambassadors to him, intreating him he would not do any thing that might be irreparable: But when they perceiv'd he would not hearken to any Terms (laying aside all hopes of composing matters) they sent Messengers to Ptolemy Lysimachus, and Cassander praying their assistance, because that War was made upon them upon their account. Both Inhabitants (that were not Free of the City) and Foreigners (lately come in) were admitted to take up Arms, if they thought fit, for defence of the place; the rest of the Rabble tha were useless they put forth out of the City, both to prevent scarcity of Provision, and lest any uneasie under the present Circumstances they were in, should betray the Town. Then taking an account of the number of them in Arms, they found there were of the Citizens Six thousand; of Inhabitants and strangers One thousand. They made likewise a Decree, that all Servants that had approv'd themselves honest and faithful in all hazards and dangers, should be bought off from their Masters and set free, and inroll'd into the number of the Citizens: Then a Proclamation was made, that whosoever di'd in the War should be buri'd at the publick charge, and that his Parents and Children should be maintain'd out of the City Treasury; that Portions should be given to the Daughters out of the publick stock, and that the Sons when they were grown up should be crown'd, and adorn'd in the Theater at the time of the Festivals of Bacchus with all sorts of Arms and Armour. With these promises all were presently excited to stand to it to the last and indure the utmost extremity; and then they made it their business (as far as it was possible) to provide all other things that were necessary; for all being unanimous, the Rich brought in their Money, and the Smiths and other workmen earnestly set themselves to the making of Arms, and all were so intent upon their business, that every one strove to exceed each other. Some therefore imploi'd themselves in making Engines, to cast Darts, and shoot stones, and others in making and preparing other things; same repair'd the Walls where they were defective; and many loaded men with stones to carry to the Walls. They sent out likewise Three swift sailing Vessels against the Enemy, and the Merchants that brought them in Provision: These setting on them upon a sudden sunk many of the Merchant Ships, who were gone ashore to rob and spoil the Country, and burnt no few that were driven up to land; and what they receiv'd for the Redemption of Captives they brought with them back into the City: For the Rhodians had agreed with Demetrius what the value of Redemption on both sides should be; that is, for every Freeman a Thousand Drachma's, and for every Servant and Bondman, Five hundred. Demetrius being furnish'd with plenty of all things necessary for the making of Engines, began to make two, call'd Testudo's; the one against the Engines that cast stones, and the other against those that shot Darts and Arrows; these they plac'd upon the Foredecks of two Transport Ships, which mov'd from place to place and were chain'd close together: He likewise made two Towers four stories high apiece, higher than those Turrets belonging to the Town in the Harbour; both which likewise were plac'd upon two Ships of equal height and joyn'd one to another, that both might be equally ballast when they were forc'd forward. He built likewise a Rampart upon a Fore footed piece of Timber nail'd together, to float upon the Water, in order to beat off the Enemy in any Attack they might make upon the Ships where the Engins were plac'd. At the same time while he was making these, he got together a Number of the strongest Water Boats and fenc'd them with Boards and Planks round; and made Loop-holes in the sides (to shut at pleasure) and in these he plac'd Engines (to shoot Darts and Arrows of three spans long at a great distance) together with such Soldiers as knew very well how to make use of them, and with them some Cretian Archers. Coming up therefore with his Ships within the Cast of a Dart, he sorely gall'd the Townsmen with his Darts and Arrows, being the Engines in the Ships were higher, than the Walls next to the Harbour. The Rhodians on the other hand understanding that Demetrius made it his main business to gain the Port, were as earnest in providing all things necessary for its defence: To this end they mounted two Engines upon a Rampart, and put on Board Three others upon two Transport Ships, and lay with them at the mouth of the little Harbour; and in these they put great Numbers of Engins for the shooting of Stones, Darts and Arrows of all sizes, that by the help of these they might repulse the Enemy, if he either attempted to land Men, or make up with his Engines. Besides all this they had contriv'd convenient places and apartments in the Transport Ships which then lay in the Harbour, wherein to place their Engines and Darts as they had occasion. Both sides being now thus ready prepar'd, and Demetrius just upon the point of moving into Page 693 the Harbours with his Machines was prevented by a fierce and violent Storm that then arose. But being calm all the night afterwards, he Sails up secretly, and seises upon the highest Rampart of the great Harbour, and forthwith draws a Mud-wall about it, and fences it with stones and planks of Timber: Then he landed Four hundred of his Men, and plac'd them there with all sorts of Darts and Weapons; the Fort was * Five Plethras distant from the Walls. As soon as it was light they came up with the Engines into the Port, with shouting and sound of Trumpet, then with their small shot which did execution at a great distance, they beat off those that were building the Wall in the Port, and with their battering Engines broke in pieces the Enemies Machines, and shak'd the the Wall near the Rampart in one part, and batter'd it down in another. For it was but low and weak at that time; the Citizens stoutly defended themselves, and spent all that day in wounding and receiving wounds from their Enemies: but night drawing on, Demetrius tow'd his Ships Cables ti'd to smaller Vessels and got oft his Engines out of the reach of the Enemies Artillery. But the Rhodians took fire along with them, and in Boats fill'd with combustible matter pursu'd their Enemies, and coming up with the Engines put fire to the matter in the Boats; but being presently beaten off by Darts and Arrows from the floating Rampart, they were forc'd to Tack about and so retire; but the Flame rag'd to that degree, that some few only having extinguish'd the fire return'd in the Boats; and the greatest part of them having had their Vessels burnt down to the Water, by swimming only sav'd their lives.
The next day Demetrius in the same manner made his Attack from the Sea, and ordered an Assault with shouting and sound of Trumpet should be made on every side from the Land, that he might strike the greater Terror into the Rhodians, while innumerable dangers, surrounded and distracted them on every hand; he continu'd thus assaulting the Town for the space of Eight daies together, shooting from his Engines upon the Rampart, stones of the weight of a Talent, and batter'd down the middle walls between the Towers, together with the Towers themselves: the Souldiers likewise possess'd themselves of part of the wall that fac'd the Harbours. Upon which the Rhodians all flockt to that place, and there they sharply fell to it, and ingag'd the Enemy; and over-powering them in number, with the slaughter of some of them, forc'd the rest to draw off. The uneasie rough and uneven passage to the place (by reason of many heaps of great and massy stones which were laid before the walls on the outside) was of great advantage to the besieg'd: many of the Enemies Vessels (in the midst of this hurly burly) mann'd with Soldiers comming up, the Rhodians presently tore off the Beaks of the Ships, and by combustible matter and Firebrands thrown in among them, burnt the Ships themselves. While the besieg'd were thus hurri'd and distracted in defending themselves; the Demetrians coming in with their Vessels on every side, set Scaling Ladders to the Walls, and prest on with the greater resolution, being assisted in all parts by the Soldiers at Land; who together with them in the Ships mutually repeated their shouts and acclamations. And now many boldly and resolutely in contempt of danger press'd forward, and in great Bodies mounted the Walls; upon which follow'd a sharp Ingagement, the assailant's forcing on with great resolution from without, and the besieg'd with as much courage flocking together to defend themselves within. At length the Rhodians after a brave Resistance beat off the Assailants, killing some, and taking others Prisoners that were wounded, amongst whom were some of the chiefest Commanders. The Besiegers being thus baffl'd, Demetrius draws off his Engines into his own Port, and then sets upon repairing both them and his Ships.
In the mean time the Rhodians bury their dead, and dedicated to their Gods their Enemies Arms and the Beaks of their Ships, and repair'd those parts of their walls, as were beaten down by the Engines.
Demetrius however, after seven days time spent in refitting his battering Engines, and repairing his Shipping, having now all things in readiness, enters the Harbor again. For he made it his main business to be absolute Lord of this, and to intercept all Provision that might be brought in to the relief of the City; when he came within the cast of a Dart, he threw Firebrands (of which he had a great number) into the Rhodians Ships which lay scatter'd here and there, and shook and batter'd the Walls with his Engines, and wounded and gall'd with his Darts and Arrows whoever appear'd in view. The Assault thus continuing to the great terror and amazement of the Inhabitants, the Rhodian Pilots (in great fear and concern for the Shipping) extinguish'd the Firebrands; and the Magistrates of the City (whom they call Prytanes) seeing that the Port was now even upon the point of being taken, earnestly intreated all the Citizens, both high and Page 694 low without distinction, resolutely to put to their helping hands for the common preservation and security of the whole City. Whereupon, many readily came in, and mann'd three of their strongest Vessels with the best of their Men, giving them Orders to do the utmost they could with the Beaks of their Ships to sink the Enemies Vessels that carry'd their Engines: Those thus sent out (though they were ply'd with showers of Darts and Arrows) yet by the violence of their Charge broke in pieces the Rampart that was fenc'd with 〈◊〉, and so shatter'd their Ships with one stroke after another, that they fill'd them with Water, and dismounted two of their Engines; Whereupon the Demetrians towing back the Third with Cables, the Rhodians encourag'd by their Success, prest on still with more Boldness than Prudence; and therefore being pierc'd and shatter'd by the Beaks of many great Ships that surrounded them, Execestus the Admiral, and the Captain of the Gallies, and some others (being ill wounded) were taken prisoners; the rest by 〈…〉ing got to their own Men; only one Ship was taken by the Demetrians, and the rest escap'd the danger. After this conflict, Demetrius made another Engine, which was thrice as big as the former, both in height and breadth. And now being just upon 〈…〉ing into Port, arose a violent South Wind, which burst out of a Cloud on the suddain, and sun• the Ships which were advancing, and overturn'd the Engine. Upon which, the R〈…〉 taking the advantage of the present opportunity, at the very nick of time flung op•n their Gates, and made a Sally upon them that enter'd the Port: upon which there was a sharp Dispute for a long time together, and being that Demetrians could not come up to the assistance of his Men, by reason of the Storm, the Rhodians still fell upon 'em with fresh Parties one after another, so that the Demetrians, to the number of Four hundred, were forc'd to throw down their Arms and submit. After this Victory gain'd by the Rhodians, there arriv'd to their aid and assistance a Hundred and fifty G〈…〉, and Five hundred Men sent by Ptolemy, amongst whom were some Rhodians that were Soldiers under the King's Pay. And thus stood matters in the Siege at Rhodes at that time.
In S〈…〉〈◊〉 not being able to compose Matters with Dinocrates and the Exiles, march'd one with what Forces he had against them, looking upon it absolutely necessary to hazard his Person, and resolutely to fight it out, and gain all or lose all: He had not with him above Five thousand Foot and Eight hundred Horse.
Dinocrates with the Exiles seeing the Enemy to come boldly on, went out with as much earnestness and resolution to fight them, for that he was far superior to the Agathocleans in number; being above Five and twenty thousand Foot, and Three thousand Horse. Both Armies fate down one against another at a place call'd Gorgius: At length they drew up in Battalia, and fell to it; and the Fight was very sharp for a while, by reason of the heat and resolution of both parties: But after a little time some deserted Dinocrates (to the number of Two thousand,) and went over to the Tyrant, which was the ruine of the Exiles. For the Agathocleans were thereupon much more encourag'd and hearten'd; but those with Dinocrates were as much amaz'd and dejected, and thinking there were many more went off than did, they all took to their heels. Agathocles pursu'd them a little way, but then call'd off his Men from the Slaughter; and sent to the broken Troops proposals, that all differences being at length laid aside, every one should have free liberty to return into their own Country: For they found by experience, that they were never able to overcome him by force of Arms, being even now routed when they had an Army far Superior to his in number: The Horse indeed all escap'd to the Castle of Ambicas; and some of the Foot the Night following got away: The greatest part possess'd themselves of a Hill, but despairing to prevail by force of Arms, (and desirous to return to their Kindred, Friends, Estates and Country,) made Peace with Agathocles. Having therefore plighted his Faith to them, and thereupon all of them being come down from the Hill (which was a natural Fortification) he first disarm'd them, then hemm'd them in with his Forces, and put them every Man to the Sword, to the number of Seven thousand (as Timaeus says,) but as others have writ, Four thousand. For this Tyrant never in the least valu'd either his Word or Oath, and increas'd his Power not so much by the greatness of his Forces, as by the weakness of his Subjects, fearing more his Confederates than his Enemies. Having thus cut off his Enemy's Army, he receiv'd the rest of the Exiles into his Protection, and receiving Dinocrates into Grace and Favour, made him General of part of the Army, and intrusted him ever after in his most weighty Affairs. At which every Man may justly wonder, that he who was so jealous and suspicious of every one, as that he would never confide in any, should to the last maintain a firm friendship only with Dinocrates, who having thus betray'd his Confederates, seiz'd upon Pasiphilus at Gela, and there murther'd him, and deliver'd up all the Page 695 Castles and Cities to Agathocles, bringing all his Enemies under his Feet in Two years time.
In Italy the Romans subdu'd the Palinians, and took their Country from 'em, and some that were Students at Rome they made free of the City. Afterwards the Consuls march'd out against the Samnites, who had wasted and harrass'd Phaleria, and in a Battel routed them; wherein they took Twenty Standards, and Two thousand Prisoners: And after they had taken the City Bola by Assault, presently appears Caius Gellius General of the Samnites with Six thousand Men; upon which there was then another sharp engagement, in which Gellius himself was taken, and many of the other Samnites slain and taken prisoners. The Consuls being thus successful, recover'd Sora Harpina and Serenia, Cities of their Allies, which had been before taken from them.
The Siege of Rhodes continu'd: The Acts of the Sea Captains of the Rhodians. Peace made with the Rhodians. The Acts of Agathocles in the Lipari Islands. The Acts of Demetrius in Greece. The War between the Tarentines and Lucanians. The Acts of Cleonymus the Spartan. Cassander sends to Antigonus to make Peace, who refuses. Lysimachus joins with Cassander, and so does Ptolemy and Seleucus against Antigonus: He marches against Lysimachus. Demetrius's further Acts in Greece. The Armies of Cassander and Demetrius. Demetrius leaves Greece and goes with his Army to his Father in Asia, after Peace made with Cassander. The misfortunes of Pleistarchus at Sea. Ptolemy besieges Sidon, but returns to Aegypt upon a false Report. Seleucus marches from Babylon with a great Army.
AFter the former Year had run its course, Pherecles was made chief Governor of Athens, and Publius Sempronius and Publius Sulpicius were invested with the Consular Dignity at Rome: At the same time was solemniz'd the Hundred and nineteenth Olympiad, in which Andromenes the Corinthian bore away the Prize. About this time Demetrius, who lay still before Rhodes, seeing things did not succeed as to his attempts made at Sea, resolv'd to Assault the City by Land. To that end he made preparation of Plenty of all sort of Timber, and fram'd the Engine call'd Helepolis, far bigger than any of the former. Its Basis was four square; every side was almost in length Fifty Cubits, made up of four square pieces of Timber, bound together by Plates of Iron. In the middle part he plac'd strong Planks of Timber a Cubit distance one from another, for those that forc'd the Engine forward, to stand upon. The whole was mov'd upon Eight strong and large Wheels; whose Felloes were Two Cubit thick, cover'd with strong Iron Plates: Thwart over the Spokes were contriv'd Antist••pta's to turn about the Engine in a trice when ever they pleas'd. At every corner of the Machine were Pillars rais'd, little less than a hundred Cubits high, every one of an equal length, so compacted together, as that the whole Machine was Nine Stories high. In the first were Three and forty Beds, and in the highest Nine: The three sides of the Engine were lin'd on the outside with Iron Plates fastn'd with Nails, to prevent all damage from Fire that might be shot or cast from the City. In every Story at the Front were made Loop-holes, proportionable, and in shape, to the nature of the Artillery that was thence to be discharged. To these were Shutters (fastn'd to the Engine) to draw up, for the better defence of them within that threw the Darts; for they were lin'd with Skins stuff'd with Wooll to deaden the force of the Stone-shot. Every Story was furnish'd with two large Ladders, that whatever was necessary might be brought in to them, at one and the same time by one, while others were going down upon other occasions by the other, that so every thing might be dispatcht without tumult and confusion. There were chosen out of the whole Army the strongest Men (to the number of Three thousand and four hundred) to move the Engine forward; of whom some from within, and others plac'd behind, so forc'd it forward, that Art and Strength together much facilitated the motion. He mad also Testudo's, by some to fill up Trenches and Ditches, and with others to bring up Battering Rams: He made likewise Galleries, through which they that were imploy'd might pass and repass with safety at their pleasure. By the help and assistance likewise Page 696 of the Seamen, he plain'd and laid even all the way along which the Engines were to be brought up, to the space of Four Furlongs, so that the breadth of the Work fac'd as much of the City-Wall as consisted of Six Divisions between the Turrets, and of Seven of the Turrets themselves The multitude of Artificers and Workmen that were got together, were no less than Thirty thousand Men. Every thing therefore (through multitude of hands) being perfected and compleated sooner than could be imagin'd, Demetrius became a Terror to the Rhodians; for not only the greatness of the Engines, and the multitude of Men, but the Valour and Diligence of the King in carrying on of Sieges amaz'd them: for he was extraordinary ingenious in invention, and contriv'd many things beyond all the Art and Industry of the Artificers; whence he got the Name of Poliorches: for he was so fierce and violent in his Assaults, that no Wall seem'd to be so strong as to be a sufficient Defence to the Besieg'd against him. And besides, he was so Tall and Beautiful, that he look'd like a Demy God; insomuch as those who came to him but as Guests and Strangers, and saw his Gracely Meen cloath'd with Royal Majesty, they were struck with Admiration, and would often attend upon him in his Expeditions, meerly to have the satisfaction in looking at him. Moreover, he was of an high and noble Spirit, that scorn'd not only to stoop to the common sort, but even to Princes themselves. And that which was most strange and peculiar only to himself was, in times of Peace he was given to Drukenness and Banqueting, to Dancing and Rioting; and would imitate even the Manners of Bacchus himself, such (as is fabulously reported) he us'd to practise when he was upon Earth: But in times of War he was very active and serious, insomuch as he went beyond all the rest, both as to his Head and Hand, when any thing was to be done. For in his time, and by his contrivance, were made the greatest Darts, and such sort of Engines as far exceeded all other Nations in the World: And after this Siege and his Father's Death, he launch'd forth the greatest Ships that ever were before seen. In the mean time the Rhodians perceiving how the Enemy's Works went on, built another Wall within, answerable to that which was now presently to be Assaulted; and to this purpose they us'd the Stones that Wall'd in the Theater, and pull'd down some neighbouring Houses, and some Temples for the same purpose, vowing to the Gods to build larger and fairer, if the City were preserv'd. They sent out likewise Nine Ships, and commanded the Captains that infesting every part, and surprizing what Ships they could, they should sink some of those they took, and bring in others into the City Harbour. These Captains divided their Squadron into three parts; Damophilus with the Ships which the Rhodians call'd Phalacidae sail'd to Carpathus, were surprizing many of Demetrius's Fleet, he sunk some, and burnt others that were drawn up upon the Shoar, making choice of such Prisoners as might be most useful and serviceable; and many Ships that were carrying Corn and other Fruits out of the Island, he brought away with him into his own Country.
Menedemus who commanded three small Gallies betwixt two and three Tire of Oars, made for Patara and Lycia, and there found a Ship at Anchor, and burnt her; all her Men being before gone off to Land: He took likewise many of the Enemies Transport Ships which carry'd Provisions to their Camp, and sent them to Rhodes: He took also a Ship of Four Tire of Oars coming out of Cilicia, which carry'd a Royal Robe, and other rich Furniture which Phila Demetrius his Wife had curiously wrought, and had sent as a Present to her Husband. He order'd the Garments to be convey'd into Egypt, for they were Purple Robes fit for none to wear but Kings; but the Ship he took away with him, and sold all the Seamen he had taken both out of the Galley of four Tire of Oars, and other Vessels. Amyntas who commanded the other Ships sailed to the Islands, and falling in with some of the Enemy, that were conveying away something of use for the Engines, he sunk some of the Ships, and brought in others to the City; in which were taken Eleven famous Artificers, most expert Artists in making of Darts and Engines.
After this was call'd a General Assembly, wherein it was propos'd that the Statues of Antigonus and Demetrius should be pull'd down; affirming, that it was a thing intolerable that Enemies and Besiegers of the City should have the same Honours as those that were Friends and Benefactors: But the People were much incens'd at this motion, and and check'd them that propos'd it as those that did ill: and would not suffer any thing in diminution to the Honour of Antigonus, thereby, wisely consulting both their own Reputation and Advantage: For this greatness of Mind, and soundness of Judgment in a Democratical Government redounded amongst all to the praise of the Besieged, and softned and melted the Spirits of the Besiegers: For they that had set at liberty the Greek Cities, who had testify'd nothing of their good Will towards them as their Benefactors, now seem'd to go about to enslave that City, who had given a clear and evident Demonstration of the firmness and constancy of their Gratitude. This Resolution likewise might reasonably Page 697 be concluded to be of singular Advantage to them in the worst of Fortune; for if the City were taken, the remembrance of their Kindness might plead and prevail for their Pardon: It's clear therefore that the Rhodians manifested singular Prudence in the Management of this Affair.
Demetrius had even now undermin'd the City, when a Deserter very opportunely came in and inform'd the City, that the Miners were approach'd almost within the Walls: Upon which, the Rhodians drew a deep Trench all along the Wall that was now ready to be tumbled down, and forthwith fell to Countermining; and at length met the Enemy under Ground, and so prevented the Mine from proceeding any further: And while both Parties guarded the Mines, some of Demetrius his Soldiers with Money brib'd Athenagoras, the Captain of the Guard for the Rhodians: He was a Milesian, sent thither by Ptolemy, and Captain of the Mercenaries, who having promis'd to betray the City, appointed a Day on which Demetrius should send some one of the chiefest of his Commanders, who should enter in the Night through the Mines into the City, and find out a Place fit and convenient to receive the Soldiers. Athenagoras having now rais'd up the Hopes and Expectations of the Demetrians, discovers the whole Intrigue to the Senate. The King, according to the Compact, sends one of his Noblemen, Alexander a Macedonian: But the Rhodians seiz'd him as soon as he peep'd up out of the Mine; but crown'd Athenagoras with a Crown of Gold, and for a Reward, gave him Five Talents of Silver; and then made it their Business to engage the rest of the Mercenaties and Strangers to be faithful to the People all the ways they could. However,
Demetrius having now finish'd all his Engines, and plain'd and laid even every place under the Walls, brought up his Helepolis in the middle, and so order'd his Testudoes for filling up of Trenches and Ditches, (which were Eight in Number,) that he plac'd Four on each side of the Helepolis. To each of these was adjoin'd a Gallery, that they who went in and out might execute what was commanded without any Danger. He had likewise two other Testudoes that bore Battering Rams, far larger than the rest; for both of them were a Hundred and twenty Cubits long, strongly arm'd with Iron, and their Heads resembled the Beak of a Ship, and were easily mov'd forward by the help of Wheels; but to do effectual Execution, they were forc'd on by a Thousand Men at least.
Being ready to bring up his Engines to the Walls, he fill'd every Story in the Helepolis with as many Engines for shooting of Stones, Arrows, and Darts, as each would hold. Then he sent his Sea-Forces to the Haven and the Places adjoining, and order'd his Land-Army to the rest of the Wall where any approach could possibly be made. At length, at one Signal and Word of Command all set up a shout together, and with great Violence storm'd the City on every side: And at the very time that the Walls were shaking and trembling with the Strokes of the Battering Rams, and Stones shot from the Engines, in came Ambassadors from Cnidus, and intreated him to forbear all further Proceedings by force of Arms, and promis'd, that they would persuade the Rhodians to submit (as far as it was possible) to his Commands. The King hereupon remitted his Heat, and Ambassadors were sent from both sides, who banded Matters to and fro, but could not come to any Agreement. Whereupon he resolutely renew'd the Assault, and batter'd down one of the strongest Towers built of Four-square Stone, and so shook the whole space between the Towers, that the Besieg'd could not pass that way to the Bulwarks.
But at this time, King Ptolemy sent a great Fleet with Provision to the Rhodians; in which were Three hundred thousand Artabans of Corn, Beans, and Pease: These making a straight course for Rhodes, Demetrius sent Shipping after them, in order to seize the Provision for the use of his own Camp: But the Ptolemeans, (hoising up all their Sails,) by the favour of a fair Gale of Wind arriv'd safe at their Port, and so those that were sent after them by Demetrius, return'd as they went. Cassander likewise sent Ten thousand Medimnas of Barly to the Rhodians, and Lysimachus Forty thousand of Wheat, and as much of Barly.
The Town thus supply'd with Plenty of Provision, their languishing Spirits now reviv'd; and thereupon judging it much to their Advantage if they could ruine the Enemies Engines, they got together abundance of Fire-balls, and other Engines for shooting of Fire, and plac'd them and all their other Artillery upon the Walls; and the next Night, about the second Watch, on a sudden they play'd continually upon the Enemies Guard with their Shot of Arrows, Darts, Stones, and other Weapons; and making use also of all sorts of Fire-Engines, they grievously wounded and galled all that came flocking into that Part: Hereupon the Demetrians (who were altogether surpriz'd by so sudden and unexpected an Attack) being mightily concern'd for their Engines and their other Works, Page 698 ran all in a Body together to defend them. The Night being very dark, no Moon appearing, Firebrands flying about with great violence, gave Light to the Night; and Darts and Stones from the Catapults and Ballistas (not discern'd when they were shot) wounded and gall'd many of the Combatants, who could not see how to avoid them. And now at this very time some of the Iron Plates fell off from the great Engine, and the Firebrands had the good Fortune to fall upon that part that was bare: Upon which Demetrius was in a great Fright lest the Engine should be totally consum'd as the Fire encreas'd; and therefore endeavour'd to prevent it with all the speed possible, and to quench the raging Flame by the Water before prepar'd, and ready in the Apartments of the Engine for such Accidents. At length he call'd together by sound of Trumpet those that were to move the Engines, and by their Help, brought them off out of the reach of the Darts. When it was day, he order'd the Boys and Pages in the Army to gather all the Darts and Arrows shot by the Rhodians; because he had a desire by numbering of these, to make a Conjecture how the Citizens were furnish'd and provided. These Boys performing what they were commanded, there were in number of Fire-brands and other Vehicles for Fire of several sizes, above Eight Hundred, of Darts no fewer than Fifteen hundred This vast number of Darts, Arrows, Firebrands, and Balls, shot in in so little a portion of the Night, caus'd him to admire the Store and Provision of the City in their Ammunition; and likewise their great Charge and Expence in providing them. Then he set about repairing of his Engines, burying the Dead, and curing those that were Wounded: During which time, the Citizens (having a Respite from the Assaults and Batteries of the Engines) built a third Wall in the shape of an Half-Moon, which compass'd in all that part of the Wall that lay most open and obnoxious to the Enemies Batteries: And besides this, they drew a deep Trench round that part of the Wall which was ready to fall, that the King might not enter on a sudden at the first Push. They sent out likewise some Ships (that were swift Sailers) under the Command of Amyntas; who made over to the Continent in Asia, and there set upon some Privateers that were Commission'd by Demetrius: They had three open Vessels, and were reputed the stoutest Men the King had in his Fleet. After a short Fight, the Rhodians took both the Ships and Men together, among whom were Timocles, the chief of the Pirates: They fell likewise upon some Merchant Ships, and took some light Vessels loaden with Corn, and with these and the Pirates open Vessels they secretly pass'd by the Enemy, and got into Rhodes.
Demetrius having repair'd his Machines, brings them up again to the Walls, and with showers of Darts and Arrows forc'd the Besieg'd off from the Bulwarks, and battering the Place adjoining with his Rams, beat down two Spaces between the Towers. In the heat of this Action the Besieg'd with all their Might defended the middle Tower, and were continually press'd upon with strong Parties of fresh Men one after another, so that Aminias their chief Commander (couragiously behaving himself) was there slain, with many other of the common Soldiers.
While these Things were doing, King Ptolemy sent to the Rhodians as much Corn and other Provision as he had done before; and Fifteen Hundred Soldiers besides, under the Command of Antigonus a Macedonian. About the same time there came to Demetrius above Fifty Ambassadors from Athens, and other Cities of Greece, all solliciting the King to compose Matters, and strike up a Peace with the Rhodians: Whereupon there was a Cessation of Arms, and many Harangues were now made to the People, and then again to Demetrius, but they could not agree upon any Terms; and therefore the Ambassadors went away without effecting any thing.
Demetrius afterwards was contriving to make an Attack upon the City in the Night, at that part of the Wall that was fallen down; to this end he pick'd out the best of his Soldiers, and some others fit for the Purpose, in all to the number of Fifteen Hundred, whom he commanded to approach the Walls secretly about the second Watch. He himself stood ready with the rest of the Army, and gave Orders to the Officers of every Regiment, upon a Signal given to set up a Shout, and forthwith to make an Assault upon the City both by Sea and Land; who all executed his Commands accordingly; and presently one Party made to the Ruines, and killing the Watch at the Trench, broke into the City, and possess'd themselves of all the Places round the Theatre. The Rhodians seeing all the City in an Uproar upon the knowledge of what had happen'd, commanded them that guarded the Port and the Walls, every one to keep their several Posts, and endeavour to beat off the Enemy that attempted to enter. They in the Town with the stoutest of the Citizens, and those Soldiers then lately come from Alexandria, set upon them that were broke in within the Walls: But as soon as it was Day, Demetrius lifted up Page 699 the Signal, at which both they that had made an Attack upon the Port, and those round the Walls, set up a Shout all together, to encourage their Men that had enter'd, and were about the Theatre. The poor Women and Children throughout the whole City were in terrible Frights and Lamentations, as if the Town had been then certainly taken by Storm.
However, a sharp Encounter there was between them that had enter'd within the Walls and the Rhodians; and though many fell on both sides, yet neither of them at first gave the least Ground: But after a while, when many more of the Rhodians came flocking in, resolv'd to endure the greatest Extremity, as now to fight for their Country, and for all that was dear to them in the World, the King's Party were overborn; and Alcimus and Mantias, the Commanders of the Party, (after many Wounds receiv'd,) were there slain; most of the rest were either kill'd upon the Spot, or taken Prisoners; but some few made their escape, and got to the King. Many likewise of the Rhodians were slain at the same time, amongst whom was Damotetis, President of the Council, a Man most Renown'd for his Valour. Demetrius (although he judg'd, that Fortune had, as it were, wrung the City out of his Hands, yet) prepar'd for another Assault; But his Father writing to him to make Peace with the Rhodians upon such Terms and Conditions as he could get, he watch'd for the most convenient opportunity, which might afford him a colourable Pretence for an Agreement and Composure of Matters between them. Ptolemy likewise, though he had before writ to the Rhodians to acquaint them that he intended to send them a great quantity of Corn, and Three thousand Men, yet afterwards advising them to Treat and Agree with Antigonus upon any reasonable Conditions, they all inclin'd to Peace. At the same time likewise the Aetolian Commonwealth sent Ambassadors to Negociate a Pacification. The Rhodians therefore at length struck up a Peace with Demetrius upon the Conditions following; viz.
And thus the Rhodians (after a whole Year's Siege) put an end to the War, honouring those with just Rewards, who had approv'd themselves honest and faithful to their Country; and such Slaves as had behav'd themselves stoutly and valiantly, they set free, and enroll'd them as Members of the City: They set up likewise the Statues of the Kings, Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus, and of some others inferiour to them, yet who had contributed much to the Preservation of the Place. But that they might express their Gratitude and Thankfulness to Ptolemy above all the rest, they sent some of their Priests to consult the Oracles of Ammon, whether they should worship Ptolemy as a God, or no: And being answer'd, That they should; they consecrated to him a Four-square Grove in their City; building on every side thereof a Gallery of a Furlong in length, and call'd it Ptolemeum, or Ptolemy's Gallery. They repair'd also the Theatre, and the Parts of the Walls that were thrown down, and made them, and all the other Places that had been ruin'd, far more Beautiful and Glorious than they were before.
Demetrius having ratifi'd the Peace with the Rhodians, (according to his Father's Commands,) loos'd from thence with his whole Army, and passing by the Islands, he arriv'd at Aulis in Boeotia, minding with all speed to set the Grecians at Liberty; for Cassander and Polysperchon grown bold through the absence of the Enemy, had not long before wasted and harrass'd many Parts of Greece. And first of all he freed the City of the Calcideans from a Garison of the Boeotians, and forc'd the Boeotians (out of fear of him) to fall off from their League with Cassander. Afterwards confederating with the Aetolians, he prepar'd to make War upon Polysperchon and Cassander.
During these Transactions, Eumelus, the King of Bospherus Cimmerius, having now reign'd Six Years, ended his Days; after whom succeeded Sparticus his Son, who reign'd Twenty Years.
Having now given an Account of the Affairs of Greece and Asia, we shall pass over to other Parts of the World.
In Sicily, Agathocles on a sudden, and without any Provocation, invaded the Inhabitants of the Lipari Islands, being then in full and perfect Peace and Security, and exacted from them Fifty Talents of Silver. At which time, many thought that 'twas then spoken from a Divine Spirit, when 'twas said, That God would remarkably pursue him for his Wickedness: The Liparians then desir'd him, that he would give some time to make up the Money that was short, declaring that to that time they never made use of the Dedicated Treasure: Page 700 But Agathocles forc'd him to give him the Money that was in the Sacred Treasury. Upon some of which was stamp'd the Image of Aeolus, and upon others Vulcan; and when he had got it, he set sail and away he went: But there arose a Storm that broke in pieces Eleven of the Ships that carry'd the Money: Which gave occasion to many to conclude, that Aeolus (who is said to have Command of the Winds in those Parts) executed Vengeance upon him at his first setting forth. And that Vulcan at his latter end punish'd the Tyrant in his own Country, according to the just Desert of his Wickedness, burning him alive with hot Coals: For it was one and the same Justice and Divine Will that forbore and pass'd over those that sav'd and preserv'd their Parents at the Foot of Mount Aetna; and that exerted his Power in punishing those that had impiously prophan'd the Deity. But what is now said concerning the Return and Misfortunes of Agathocles, shall be further confirm'd when we come to the Time proper for that Relation; but now we must apply our selves to what was done in those Parts of Italy that lay bordering one upon another.
The Romans and Samnites, after a War of Two and twenty Years and Six Months continuance, by their mutual Ambassadors at length made Peace one with another. But Sempronius, one of the Consuls, broke into the Country of the Aequi, and took Forty Towns in Forty Days time at the most; and bringing the whole Country into absolute Subjection to the Roman Yoke, return'd home, and most worthily and gloriously triumph'd. But the Romans enter into a League with the Marsi, Peligni, and Marrycini.
When the former Year was ended, Leostratus was chosen Chief Magistrate of Athens for this succeeding, and Servius Cornelius and Lucius Genucius were created consuls at Rome. In the time of whose Governments, Demetrius resolv'd to make War upon Cassander, and to restore Liberty to the Grecians; and above all other Concerns, to put the Affairs of Greece into a good and happy Condition; because he hop'd by the Liberty granted, thereby both to advance his own Reputation, as also to break those Captains of Cassander's as were join'd with Prepalaus, and that by falling upon Cassander, he should gain the Sovereign Power to himself. The City of Sicyon was then held by a Garison of Ptolemy the King, of which, Philip, a brave and gallant Man, was Governor; upon this Place Demetrius made a sudden Attack in the Night, and broke in within the Walls; whereupon the Garison Soldiers presently hurri'd into the Castle. Demetrius being now possess'd of the Town, posted himself between the Houses and the Cittadel; and being just upon the point of bringing up his Engines, they within were so terrify'd, that they surrender'd upon Terms, and then sail'd away into Aegypt. Afterwards having prevail'd with the Sicyons to remove and settle themselves within the Castle, he laid that part of the City that adjoin'd to the Haven even to the Ground, which was a Place before every way strongly fortify'd: Then joining with the Inhabitants, and helping them to build Houses, and restoring them to their former Liberty, he was honour'd by these he had thus oblig'd as a Demi-God; for they call'd the City Demetriades, and appointed Sacrifices, Festivals and Sports, with other Honours, to be Yearly celebrated and offer'd in Memory of him as the Builder of their City. But Time and Turns of Fortune put an end to these Solemnities.
The Sicyons therefore being fix'd in a far better Place than they were before, have continu'd there from that very time to this day: For the Site of the Citadel is large and Plain, compass'd in on every side with inaccessible Rocks, so as no Engine can possibly approach or come near it: It's furnish'd likewise with plenty of Water, by which the Inhabitants greatly inrich their Gardens and Orchards: And therefore all approv'd the Wisdom and ingenious Contrivance of the King, that had provided for them every thing conducing to their Pleasure in time of Peace, and to their Protection and Security in time of War. Having settled all Things at Sicyon, he march'd thence with his whole Army to Corinth, which Prepalaus, Cassander's General, then held with a strong Garison; where being presently let in by the Citizens in the Night, (through a little Sally-Port.) he gain'd the City, together with the Havens-The Soldiers in Garison hereupon fled, some of them into the Sisyphium, (as it's call'd,) others into the Cittadel: Whereupon the Engines being brought up to the Fortifications, after much much Toil and Labour he took Sisyphium by Storm: The Besieg'd had (before he enter'd) all fled to them that were in the Cittadel; but he so terrify'd them also, that he forc'd them to surrender; for this King in Assaults was not to be resisted; and in inventing of Engines for the assaulting of Places, was extraordinary Ingenious.
Page 701 And now altho' he restor'd the Corinthians to their Liberty, yet he put a Garison into the Citadel; because the Citizens desir'd to continue under the King's Protection, until he had subdu'd Cassander: And so Prepelaus having thus poorly lost Corinth, went to Cassander.
Then Demetrius march'd into Achaia, and took Buta by Assault; and within a few days after, he had Scyrus deliver'd up to him, and expell'd the Garison thence: Moving forward, he freed all the rest of the Cities of Achaia. Then encamping at Aegeum, he lay with his Army round the Walls; and upon a Parly with Strombichus the Governour, demanded the Surrender of the Town: But he not only refus'd, but rail'd against Demetrius from the Walls, and gave him base Language; whereupon the King brought up the Engines, batter'd down the Wall, and took the City by Storm; and there crucify'd Strombicus (who was plac'd there as Governour by Polysperchon) and about Fourscore more that were his inveterate Enemies) before the Walls of the Town. And from among the Prisoners he pickt out 2000 Mercenaries, and intermixt them amongst his own Regiments.
After the taking of this City, they who held the neighbouring Forts and Castles, thought it to no purpose to oppose the King; and therefore all surrendred their Garisons. And all the Governours of Cities (seeing that Cassander and Polysperchon sent them no Assistance, and that Demetrius with a potent Army, and with Engines (the greatest that ever came into the Field) was ready to fall upon them, surrender'd all up to him. And thus stood the Affairs of Demetrius.
In Italy the Tarentines (being at War with the Lucanians and the Romans) sent Ambassadors to Sparta desiring Aid, and that Cleonymus might be sent them for their General. The Lacedaemonians readily granted the General that was desir'd; and the Tarentines sent Ships and Money, wherewith Cleonymus rais'd Five thousand Men, and muster'd them at Tenarus in Laconia; and thence by a short Cut sail'd to Tarentum, where he hir'd as many Mercenaries as the former, and listed some of the Citizens: In the whole he rais'd above Twenty thousand Foot and two thousand Horse. He join'd to his Army likewise many Greeks of Italy, together with the Messapians; whereupon the Lucanians being terrify'd with the greatness of his Army, made Peace with the Tarentines: Only the Metapontians stood off; and therefore he requir'd the Lucanians to join with him in spoiling and harassing their Country; and accordingly making use of a fit Opportunity, he broke in upon them, and put them into a terrible fright: And tho' he enter'dinto the City as a Friend, yet he trapann'd the Citizens out of Six thousand Talents of Silver, and upwards, and took away Two hundred young Ladies of the best Quality for Hostages; not so much to secure the Performance of the League, as to gratifie his own brutish Lusts; for he threw off his Laconick Habit, and gave up himself to all manner of Voluptuousness; and brought them into Bondage and Slavery, who had committed themselves to his Care and Protection. For tho' he had so great an Army, and so well provided, yet he did noting worthy the Name of a Spartan. He determin'd indeed to make an Expedition into Sicily, under colour to overturn the Tyranny of Agathocles, and to restore the Sicilians to their ancient Laws and Liberties; but omitting that for the present, he sail'd to Corcyra, and having taken the City, got there a vast Treasure, and Garison'd the Place, designing to make use of that as a Town and Citadel of War, and thence to manage all the Affairs of Greece. Forthwith Ambassadors came to him from Demetrius, Poliorches, and Cassander severally, to sollicit him to join with them as Confederates; but he join'd with neither.
Afterwards, hearing that the Tarentines and some others had deserted him, and revolted, he left a sufficient Garison at Corcyra, and with the rest of his Forces sail'd in a great Heat into Italy, with a Resolution to execute exemplary Punishment upon those that had rebell'd. Arriving at the very Place where the Barbarians kept Guard, he took the City, and after he had sold the Men for Slaves, he spoil'd and harass'd all the Country. He took also a Town call'd Triopius by Assault, and carry'd thence Three thousand Captives: But about this time the Barbarians got into a Body, and set upon his Camp in the night, and kill'd above two hundred of his Soldiers, and took about a Thousand Prisoners; and together with this Misfortune, at the very same time arose a violent Storm, and broke in pieces 20 of his Ships, as they lay at Anchor near to his Camp.
Being plagu'd with these Losses and Misfortunes falling one upon the neck of another, Cleonymus sail'd back with his Forces to Corcyra.
The former Year being now past, this Year Nicocles executed the Office of Lord Chancellor of Athens, and Marcus Livius and Marcus Aemilius succeeded Consuls at Rome: At which time Cassander King of Macedon seeing the Armies of his Enemies to increase, and that the Storm was impending and ready to fall with all its weight upon him, was in a great Consternation concerning the Issue and Event: He sent therefore Ambassadors into Asia to Antigonus, to intreat him to be reconcil'd and strike up a Peace with him; Page 702 who fiercely and roughly answer'd, That he would own no Peace that should be made with him, unless Cassander would deliver up all into his hands. At which Answer he was greatly terrify'd; and sent for Lysimachus out of Thrace, to venture all in a Common Lot both together: For ever in his greatest Straits his manner was to have recourse to him for Relief, both upon the account of his Valour, and for that his Kingdom border'd upon Macedonia. These two Kings therefore (consulting together how to manage their Affairs to the best Advantage of them both) sent Ambassadors to Ptolemy King of Aegypt, and to Seleucus Prince of the Higher Provinces, giving them an account of the proud Answer of Antigonus; telling them, That they were all in equal Danger by this War; for if Antigonus gain'd Macedonia, he would presently swallow up the rest; and that he had upon several occasions given a clear Discovery of his Covetousness and Ambition; and that he would have none to be Sharers with him in any Part of the Empire; and therefore that it was very fit and expedient, that they should all join together against him.
Ptolemy and Seleucus (judging what was said to be certainly true) readily came into the League, and rais'd numerous Forces to be assistant in the War. However, Cassander judged it not prudent to suffer the Enemy first to break in upon him, but that it was rather for his Advantage to be before-hand with them, and fall first upon them: To that end he deliver'd part of the Army to Lysimachus, and sent a General along with them; and he himself march'd with the rest into Thessaly, to fight with Demetrius and the other Grecians.
Lysimachus with his Army pass'd over out of Europe into Asia, and set free the Inhabitants of Lampsacus and Paros, who had sided with him upon their own accord: But taking Sigaeum by Assault, he put a Garison into it; and then committed Six thousand Foot and a Thousand Horse to the Charge of Prepelaus, and sent him to take in the Cities in Aeolia and Ionia: But he himself in the first place design'd to besiege Abydos, and carry'd along with him Darts, Battering Rams, and other Engines for that purpose. But a great number of Soldiers being sent by Sea from Demetrius for the defence of the City, he left off his Design; and having taken in Hellespont and Phrygia, he went on and besieg'd the City Synada, where the King's Magazine lay, and at the same time drew over Docimus, a Commander of Antigonus his Party, to stand for the Common Cause; and by his help took both Synada and other Forts where the King's Treasures were laid up.
In the mean time, Prepelaus, who was sent to make War upon Aeolia and Ionia, by the way took Adramittium, and besieg'd Ephesus; and so terrify'd the Inhabitants, that they submitted; and finding there the Hostages which the Rhodians had given, he sent them all home again to their Friends, and did no hurt to any of the Ephesians in their Persons; but set on fire all the Ships which he found in their Harbour, because the Enemy Commanded as yet all at Sea, and for that the Issue of the War was hitherto uncertain. Afterthis, he join'd to him the Teians and Coplohonians. But as for Erythrae and Clazomene, they had Succour sent unto them by Sea, and therefore he could not take them; but having wasted their Territories, he departed and went for Sardis; and there he drew over by fair Words Phoenix and Docimus, two of Antigonus his Captains, and took the City it self, all but the Castle into his Protection. As for the Castle, Philippus (a Friend of Antigonus's) kept, and would not betray the Trust which he had repos'd in him. Antigonus was at that time wholly taken up in making Sports and Feasts at Antigonia, and had proclaim'd great Prizes for such as would put in for them, and huge Wages to all cunning Artificers that could be gotten.
But when he heard how Lysimachus was come into Asia, and by what Multitudes his Soldiers revolted to him, he brake off his Sports, and yet disburs'd among the Wrestlers and Artificers no less than Two hundred Talents; and then taking his Army with him, march'd away out of Syria, and by long Journies hastned to meet the Enemy. As soon as he came to Tarsus in Cilicia, he there, out of the Monies which he took with him out of the City of Quindi, gave his Army Three Months Pay before-hand; and besides this, brought Three thousand Talents along with him, to the end he might not be to seek for Money, if need should be. Then passing the Taurus, he hasted into Cappadoci, and reduc'd such as in the Upper Phrygia and Lacaonia had revolted from him; and so these serv'd him in the Wars as they did before.
Then Lysimachus hearing of the Enemy's approach, fell to consult with his Council in this imminent Danger, what was fittest to be done; and their Advice was, by no means to hazard a Battel till Seleucus came down from the Upper Provinces; but to possess himself of the surest Places, and to Intrench himself in the strongest manner that possibly he could, with Ramparts, Palissadoes, and Stakes, and there expect the coming of the Enemy. Lysimachus having heard this Advice, put it seriously in Execution: And Antigonus, on the other side, as soon as he came near his Camp, drew out in Battalia, and provok'd 〈…〉 to fight; Page 703 but seeing he would not, he went and kept all the Passages by which any Victual might come unto the Camp: Whereupon, Lysimachus fearing lest he should fall into the hands of the Enemy forwant of Provision, remov'd by Night, and having march'd Four hundred Furlongs came to Doryleum, and there Encamp'd; for that in those Parts there was sto•e of Corn, and other Provisions in abundance, having a River at the back of him as a Defence to his Camp. Wherefore having rais'd a Work, and inclos'd it with an exceeding deep Trench, and Pallisado'd it with three Rows of Stakes, he made all, as he thought, sure: But Antigonus finding the Enemy gone, pursu'd after him with all speed; and coming near to the Place where he lay, entrench'd, and seeing no disposition in him to fight, he presently fell to work, and drew another Trench round about his Camp to besiege him there; and to that purpose caus'd Darts, Arrows, and Catapults, to be brought thither to him: And though many Skirmishes were made about the Trenches, because Lysimachus his Men endeavour'd by their Darts and Arrows to drive the Enemy from their Works, yet Antigonus his Party had still the better of it in every Encounter. For in time, Antigonus his Works came to be almost finish'd; but Lysimachus his Provision began to fail; who therefore taking the Advantage of a tempestuous Night, made away with his Army, and through Mountainous Countries came to his Winter-Quarters. But when Antigonus the next Morning saw that the Enemy was gone, he also march'd after him through the Champain Country; but by reason there fell great store of Rain and the Ways were Foul and Deep, he lost many of his Carriages, and some of his Men also in that Journey; and the whole Army was in great distress: Wherefore both to spare his Army, and because the Winter Quarter came on, he gave off his pursuit; and casting about for the fittest Places, he distributed his Army into Winter-Quarters: But receiving intelligence that Seleucus was marching down from the Higher Provinces with a numerous Army, he sent one of his Friends into Greece to Demetrius, Commanding him with all speed to come to him with his Forces. For he was in an extraordinary Fright, lest all the Kings joining together should force him to fight (and so lay all at stake) before the Forces out of Europe could join him.
Lysimachus in the like manner sent his Army to be quartered in the Country of Salmonia, having made large Provision for them out of Heraclea, for that he had alliance with them of that City: For he had marry'd Amestris, the Daughter of Oxyartes, Niece to the late King Darius (whom Alexander gave to Craterus to be his Wife) and now at this time Governess of the City. And thus stood the Affairs of Asia at that time.
But as to the Affairs of Greece, Demetrius being at Athens, greatly desir'd to be initiated into the Sacred Mysteries of Ceres at Eleusina: But in regard the time appointed by the Law, and commonly spent by the Athenians in performing the Ceremonies of this Solemnity, was very long and tedious, he intreated the People that (in return of his former kindness to them) they would alter their ancient Custom, which they agreed unto: Whereupon, he committed his Person unarm'd into the Hands of the Priests; and so being initiated before the Legal Day, he departed from Athens; and then rendezvous'd both his Fleet and Land-Army at Chalcis in Baeotia; but hearing that Cassander had block'd up all the Passes, he look'd upon it not feasible to go by Land into Thessaly, and therefore sail'd with the Army into the Haven of Larissa, and there landed his Men, upon which the City was forthwith surrender'd to him; but the Citadel he took by Force of Arms, and bound all the Soldiers of the Garison in Chains, and so committed them close Prisoners, and restor'd the Larisseans to their ancient Laws and Liberties: Then he took in Prona and Pteleum. Cassander had commanded the Inhabitants of Dion and Orchomenon to remove and settle at Thebes; but Demetrius put a stop to this Transplanting of the Cities. Cassander, when he saw that every thing went as Demetrius would have it, strengthned the Garisons in Phera and Thebes; and rendezvous'd his Forces in the Face of the Demetrians: His whole Army consisted of Nine and twenty thousand Foot, and Two thousand Horse. Those who follow'd Demetrius amounted to Fifteen hundred Horse, at least Eight thousand Macedonian Foot, and Fifteen thousand Mercenaries; and out of the Cities of Greece Five and twenty thousand; besides several Regiments of Light-arm'd Men, and a disorderly Rabble of fordid Fellows out of all Nations, to the Number of Eight thousand at the least, such as are us'd to follow Camps, only to Rob and Plunder where-ever they come: So that the whole Land-Army consisted of Six and Fifty thousand Men.
The Armies had now lay'n one over against the other many days, and though they were drawn up in Battalia on both sides, yet neither attempted to sight, solicitously expecting to hear how things went in Asia. At that time, Demetrius enter'd with part of his Army into the City of Pherea, being invited thither by the Inhabitants; and took the Citadel, and dismiss'd all Cassander's Soldiers, upon the Terms agreed upon, and restor'd the Phereans to their former Liberties. While these Things were acting in T〈…〉,Page 704 the Messengers from Antigonus came to Demetrius, who deliver'd his Father's Commands, and order'd him to transport his Forces over into Asia, with all the speed imaginable.
Whereupon, he looking upon it as a thing of absolute Necessity to obey his Father, forthwith struck up a Peace with Cassander, upon Condition, that his Father would approve of it; not in the least doubting, but that he would make all void, who he knew had resolv'd to put an end to the War, by no other ways than by force of Arms. However he was willing to manage his Business so, as that his leaving of Greece should look with a fair Face, and not resemble a Flight: For among other things, he took care to have it inserted into the Articles of Peace, That all the Greek Cities, both in Greece and Asia, should enjoy their ancient Laws and Liberties. At length, having got Ships together to transport his Army and the Carriages, he set sail with his whole Fleet, and steering a right Course through the Islands, (of the Aegean Sea) came to Ephesus, and there landing his Army, Encamp'd before it, and reduc'd it to its former Obedience, and suffer'd the Garison which Prepalaus had put there, safely to depart: Then putting a strong Garison of his own into the Castle there, march'd away with the rest of his Army as far as the Hellespont, where he reduc'd the Lampsacenians and Parians, and other revolted Cities to his Subjection: And from thence going to the Mouth of Pentus, Encamp'd near the Temple of the Chalcedentans, and there fortisy'd; which done, he left there Three thousand Foot, and Thirty Sail of good Ships to keep the Port, and sent the rest of his Army to Quarter for that Winter in several Places thereabouts.
About this time, Mithridates, who was subject to Antigonus, being suspected of favouring Cassander's Party, was slain at Cius, in the Country of Mysia; of which, and of Arthinas he had been Prince Thirty five years. His Son, call'd also Mithridates, succeeded him in his Principality, and added to his Dominions Cappadocia and Paphlagonia, and held them Thirty six years.
In these days Cassander, after the departure of Demetrius, recover'd all the Cities lying upon the Sea Coasts, and sent Pleistarchus into Asia, with an Army of Twelve thousand Foot and Five hundred Horse to assist Lysimachus. But Pleistarchus coming to the Mouth of Pontus, found that Streight kept by the Enemy: And thereupon, despairing of any Passage that way, went to Odessus, which lies between Apollonia and Galatia, over against Heraclea, where a Part of Lysimachus his Army lay: But having not Shipping enough for the Transportation of all his Forces at that Place, he divided his Army into three Parts: The first part that set out, landed safely at Heraclea: The second was defeated by the Enemy's Ships which lay to keep the Streight at Pontus: The third, wherein Pleistarchus himself was, was so overset by a violent Tempest, that the greatest part of the Ships, and Men in them perish'd: And among the rest the Ship wherein he was, being a Vessel of Six Tire of Oars; and of all the Men in her, which could not be less than Five hundred, only Three and thirty escap'd, of whom Pleistarchus himself was one, who getting upon a Plank of the Ship when it split, was cast on Shore half dead; yet being a little recover'd, was carry'd to Heraclea, and there growing strong again, went to Lysunachus in his Winter Quarters, having lost the greatest part of his Army by the way.
About the same time, Ptolemy coming with an excellently well-appointed Army out of Aegypt, reduc'd all the Cities of Caelosyria to his Obedience; but when he lay in Siege before Sidon, there came a false Rumour to his Ear, that a Battel had been sought, wherein Lysimachus and Seleucus were routed and fled to Heraclea, and that Antigonus thereupon was hasting into Syria with his Victorious Army.
Ptolemy giving overlight credit to this Report, made a Truce with the Sidonians for five Months, and putting Garisons into other Cities which he had taken in those Parts, return'd into Aegypt.
While these things thus pass'd, Two thousand Autariats, and about Eight hundred Lycians and Pamphilians of Lysunachus his Soldiers, fled over to Antigonus out of their Winter-Quarters, and Antigonus entertain'd them very courteously, furnishing them with such Pay, as they said Lysimachus ow'd them, and gave them also for a Reward large Sums of Money over and above.
About the same time also, Seleucus, with a great Army came down out of the Upper Provinces into Cappadocia, and Winter'd his Army in Tents which he brought ready made for them. His Army consisted of Twenty thousand Foot, and about Twelve thousand Horse, (reck'ning in with them his Archers on Horseback) and Four hundred and fourscore Elephants, and an Hundred Iron Chariots: Thus these Kings join'd their Forces, resolving the next Summer to decide the Controversie by the Sword. But we shall give an Account of the Wars among these Princes in the Beginning of the next Book, according as we first design'd.
The Histories of Herodotus written in 440 BC is considered to be the founding work of history in Western literature. His history included stories and fables but he claimed to have traveled extensively and learned about many countries through direct observation.
The thesis of Stolen Legacy is that the Egyptians created what is wrongly called Greek philosophy. Dr. James argues that the African origin of Greek Philosophy is well known but rarely discussed. Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus the Sicilian wrote in significant detail about the contributions of Egypt. Egyptian technology and libraries were unmatched and Greek philosophers such as Pythagoras and Plato studied there. The contribution of Africa to the intellectual foundation of modern knowledge is tremendous but unacknowledged.
The Library of History by Diodorus the Sicilian is one of the most highly regarded universal histories in antiquities. His work includes the history of Egypt, Asia, Africa, Greece and Europe. His book is a must read for research of ancient history.
Bible Study The King James Bible (kjv), World English Bible (web) and Bible in Basic English (bbe) are all examples of public domain books. The King James Bible (kjv) online uses the content from these books and open source software to enhance Bible study capabilities. The site includes the verse of the day, search tools, christian literature and links to related content. It demonstrates the use of open source to create a valuable service.