IT's Common and Natural to every Man to be touch'd to the Quick, to hear himselfEvil spoken of. For even they that are so notoriously Wicked that they cannot escape Reproaches, yet if they be told of their Faults, are presently in a Rage, and do all they can to palliate and cover their Crimes with finespun Excuses. Every one therefore ought to be very careful to avoid the doing of that which is of bad report, especially those that are in high Place and Power, and advanc'd above others in Dignity. For their actions, by reason of their eminency in the World, being more conspicuous than others, their Faults and Miscarriages likewise are more obvious. Therefore, let none in such places of Power and Authority, think to avoid Censures and Reproaches, if they are Corrupt and Unjust in their Administration. For should they escape Infamy and Disgrace during their Lives, yet let them be assur'd, that after-times will publish that Truth (to the stain of their Memory) which was stifled and smother'd some time before. Let this therefore startle wicked Men to consider, that they leave behind them an ugly Representation of themselves, to the view of Posterity for ever.
For though those things that follow after Death do nothing at all concern us, (as some Philosophers have spread abroad among the Common People) yet a wicked Course of Life is far the worse, inasmuch as the remembrance of it is hateful to all Posterity. Of which truth, he who seriously considers things related in this Book, may find ready at hand most clear and evident Examples. For the Thirty Tyrants of Athens, who by their Covetousness and Ambition involv'd their Country in dreadful Calamities, thereby in a short time not only lost their Authority, but left behind them an immortal stain and dishonour to their Names. And the Lacedaemonians, who had undoubtedly gain'd the Sovereignty of all Greece, lost what they gain'd, when they began to oppress their Associates and Confederates:
As we may see in the Example of Dionysius the Tyrant of Syracuse, who though he had the smiles of Fortune above all the other Princes before him, yet Plots were to intrap him all his Life long; so that for fear of being Assassinated he was necessitated to wear an Iron Breast-plate upon his Coat, and after his Death, became an Instance and Example of the Peoples hatred to all succeeding Generations. But we shall speak of these thingsin their proper Places.
And now we come to those Affairs that have a Coherence with them before related, only distinguish'd by difference of Times. For in the foregoing Books we have treated of Things that were done from the sacking of Troy, to the End of the Peloponnesian War, and the Athenian Dynasty; which comprehends the space of Seven hundred Seventy nine Years. In this we shall add what next follows in order, and begin with the Thirty Tyrants of Athens, and from thence come down to the Taking of Rome by the Gauls, wherein is contain'd the History of Eighteen Years.
A Peace between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians. The Athenians disagree about the Manner of their Government. The Government by Thirty. The Cruelty of the Thirty Tyrants, and especially towards Theramenes.
BY the Dissolution of the Government at Athens (which happen'd the Seven hundred and Eightieth year current from the Destruction of Troy) the City was involv'd in an Anarchy; at that time werefour Military Tribunes appointed at Rome to execute the Consular Dignity, Caius Furius, Caius Servilius, Caius Valerius, and Numerius Fabius. And this Year was celebrated the Ninety Fourth Olympiad, in which Cocynas of Larissa was Victor. About this time the Athenians (their Power being broken) obtain'd a Peace with the Lacedaemonians, and liberty to govern according to their own Laws, upon Condition they demolish'd their Walls, which they pull'd down accordingly, but could not agree among themselves about the Form of their Government. For they that were for an Oligarchy gave their Votes for the restoring that ancient Government. But the greatest part who stood up for the Democracy, preferr'd the Government by the Senators, declaring that to be the truest Democracy.
When this banding one against another had continu'd some days; they for the Oligarchy sent to Lysander the Spartan, hoping thereby to gain the Point, in regard he was order'd (now the War was at an End) to settle the Government of the Cities, and in every Place he set up an Oligarchy. To this end they sail'd to him to Samos, where he then was, having lately taken the City. When they arriv'd and had crav'd his assistance he promis'd them his Aid; and thereupon (after he had made Thorax Governor of Samos) pass'd over to the Pireum with an hundred Sail. Then calling a General Assembly, he advis'd them to chuse Thirty Men, who should Govern the Common-wealth, and Manage all the Affairs of the City. Theramenes oppos'd this Proposal, repeating the Articles of the Peace, whereby it was agreed, That they should be govern'd according to the Laws of their own Country; and declar'd it would be a most intolerable piece of Injustice, if (against the Sacred Ties of an Oath) their Liberties must be thus ravish'd from them. Lysander answer'd, That the Athenians had first broken the League themselves, because they did not pull down their Walls within the time agreed, and grievously threaten'd Theramenes, and told him, That unless he desisted from his Oppositions against the Lacedaemonians, he would put him to Death.
Upon this, both Theramenes and the People, being in a great Fright, were forc'd by a general suffrage to abolish the Democracy: and Thirty Men were forthwith chosen to be Governors of the Common-Wealth, in Name call'd Fit Magistrates, but in Deed and in Truth nothing but Tyrants. But because the Justice and Moderation of Theramene was evidently discern'd by the People, they judg'd he would be a Bridle to the Covetousness of the rest of those plac'd over them, and thefore chose him to be one of the Thirty.
The Duty and Office of these Men was to chuse the Members of the Senate; to create Magistrates, and to make Laws for the Government of the City. But they forbore to make any Laws upon many specious pretences. Yet they fill'd the Senate and all the Places in the Magistracy with their own Creatures; who were call'd Pretors, but in truth, were meerly the Tyrants Tools.
At first they executed Justice upon Malefactors with great Severity, to the putting of them to Death: So that as yet they were well spoken of, and commended by every honest Citizen. But not long after, when they resolv'd to be Lawless, and set up an Arbitrary Power: they sent for a Garison from the Lacedaemonians, upon pretence that they would mould all things in the Government to the advantage of their Interest. For they knew very well that without a Foreign Force, they could not execute those Slaughters and Butcheries they design'd, for that all would as one Man rise up against them in their own defence.
When the Garison from Lacedaemon was come, they presently gain'd the Governor Callibius, with Bribes and other fawning and flattering Addresses. Then they singled out some of the richest Citizens, such as they thought fit, and charging them as Innovators, and Plotters against the Government, put them to Death, and consiscated their Estates. But when Theramenes oppos'd his Collegues, and others (who were Zealous for the Common-Wealth) stood up for the Defence of their Liberties; the Thirty call'd a Senate, in Page 359 which Critias, the President, loads Theramenes with many grievous Crimes, and chiefly, that he betray'd that Government, in the Administration of which he himself voluntarily accepted a share with the rest. Theramenes, in Answer to what he said, so clear'd himself of every particular laid to his Charge, that he gain'd the good Opinion of the whole Senate. Upon which, Critias, with the rest of his Faction, (being afraid lest this Man should overturn the Oligarchy) surrounded him by the Soldiers, with their Swords drawn, with an intent forthwith to seize him.
But Theramenes foreseeing their purpose, rushes through, and flies to the Altar in the Senate-house, crying out, That he fled to the Gods, not that he hop'd thereby to save his Life, but that the Impiety of his Murtherers might be the more aggravated, by the violation of the Sacreds of their Religion: But though he was thence violently hal'd by the Lictors, yet bore all with an undaunted Spirit, being well principled in the Precepts of Philosophy, by his late Master Socrates. The People generally lamented his sad Misfortune, and unworthy Usage; but none durst rescue him by reason of the Soldiers that clos'd him round. But Socrates the Philosopher, and two of his Servants ran in, and endeavour'd to hinder the Lictors. But Theramenes intreated them they would forbear, declaring he could not but honour their Love and Courage shew'd on his behalf, but that it would be his greatest Misery if he should be the Cause of the Death of those who so greatly lov'd him. Socrates therefore, and the rest, (when they saw none to come in to their assistance, and that the stronger Faction more and more increas'd) let fall their design. Theramenes thus forc'd from the Altars, was led through the Market-place to Execution by the Officers, who had him in charge. But the common People (affrighted with the arm'd Men) while they bewail'd the Condition of this miserable Man (as one most unjustly condemn'd) at the same time likewise deplor'd their own Bondage and Slavery. For every poor Man seeing the Virtue of Theramenes so despis'd and trampled under foot, foresaw that they by reason of their mean and low Condition, would be valu'd no more than things set behind the Door.
After they had executed him, the Thirty, upon false Accusations, put to death several others of the rich Men whom they had written down in a List, and when they were dead, seiz'd upon all they had: Among whom was Niceratus, the Son of Nicias the General, who was formerly sent against the Syracusians. He was a Man civil and courteous to all, and almost the Richest and of greatest Interest of any Man in Athens; there was not therefore a Family but it lamented his Death, the Memory of his kind and sweet Disposition forcing Tears from every one. yet the Tyrants did not in the least remit any thing of their acts of Injustice and Violence, but growing still rather worse and worse in all manner of Villanies, they cut the Throats of Threescore of the richest Men in the City, that they might rowl in their Estates. The miserable Citizens being thus Slaughtered and Butchered, every day, almost all that had any thing to lose fled out of the City.
Then they put to death Autolicus, a most excellent and fluent Orator. And at length, every Man that was in any respect Eminent or Remarkable, they sacrific'd to their raging Lusts. By these Cruelties they so wasted and destroy'd the City, that above one half of its Inhabitants ran away and left it.
And although the Lacedaemonians saw the City thus spoil'd and ruin'd, yet they laugh'd in their Sleeves, having no desire it should ever recover its strength any more, as was very evident by many convincing arguments. For they made a Decree, that all the Fugitives from Athens in every part of Greece, should be carry'd back bound to the Tyrants; and whosoever did oppose the Execution of this Decree, should be fin'd Five Talents.
This was in truth look'd upon as a very cruel and inhumane Edict, but the other Cities stood so much in awe of the Power of the Spartans, that it was every where obey'd. But the Argives were the first that shew'd their Abhorrence of the Lacedaemonian cruelty, and pitying the miserable Condition of the Exiles, receiv'd them with all tenderness of Compassion. The Thebans likewise decreed a Mulct to be impos'd upon him that did not to his power assist any Fugitive whom he saw to be carry'd away by Force. To this pass were brought the Affairs of Athens.
Dionysius his Projects to strengthen himself in the Sovereignty of Sicily. The Syracusians Revolt. They are dispersed.
IN the mean time Dionysius the Tyrant of Sicily having made Peace with the Carthaginians, bent all his Care to strengthen himself in the Sovereignty. For he judg'd that the Syracusians, now brought under by the War, had nothing to do but to seek after the recovery of their Liberty. Perceiving therefore the Island belonging to the City (which was naturally fortify'd) would be easily defended by a small Garrison, he divided it from the rest of the City by a strong Wall, in which he built many high Towers, near one to another, and under it Guard-houses and Lodgings, which would contain great numbers of Men: He built likewise there at great expence a Castle which commanded the City, that it might be a shelter ready to fly to upon any suddain commotion; with the same Wall he took in the Arsenal near to the little Port call'd Laccius capable to receive Threescore Sail, and had a Gate through which only one Ship at a time could enter. Then he mark'd out the best pieces of Land, and gave them to his Friends and Officers: the rest he equally distributed amongst the Citizens, and in the number of Citizens he accounted Manumitted Slaves, and call'd them Neopolites, New Citizens. He bestowed likewise Houses every where upon the common People (except those Houses that were in the Island) and those he gave as a Reward to his Friends and Mercenaries.
Having now firmly fix'd himself in the Throne (as he conceiv'd) he march'd out with an Army against the Sicilians, with a design to being them into Slavery, who as yet were free, especially those who had lately assisted the Carthaginians. To this end he lay before the City of Herbessus, and furnish'd himself with every thing necessary for the Siege. They of Syracuse that were listed upon this Expedition, having got Arms into their hands, met together in private Cabals, and blam'd one another for that they did not assist the Horsmen in deposing of the Tyrant. It happen'd at that time, that one of Dionysius's Captains threatning a Soldier for his saucy Language, and presently offering to beat him upon his sharp Retorts, the Soldiers were so enrag'd, that they kill'd the Officer, whose Name was Doricus; and calling out with a loud voice to the Citizens to stand up for their Liberty, they sent for the Horse from Aetna; for they at the beginning of the Tyranny left the Tyrant and possess'd themselves of that Castle. Dionysius being now terrify'd with the defection of the Syracusians, broke up the Siege, and hasts away with all speed to Syracuse, and to possess himself of the City before any of his Enemies. Upon his flight thither the Fomenters of the Rebellion created them their Captains and Leaders, who had kill'd the Officer, and being join'd with the Horse from Aetna, they encampt in the Epipoli (as they are call'd) lying over against the Tyrant, blocking up his passage into the open Field. These Revolters likewise continually sent Messengers to Messina and Rhegium to sollicit their aid at Sea for the recovery of their Liberty. For these Cities at that time commonly set forth no less than Fourscore Gallies well Mann'd which they then sent to the Syracusians to assist them. Besides all this, they in the Epipoli promis'd by the Common Cryer a great reward to him that should kill the Tyrant; and, that they would Enfranchize all Foreigners that would come over to them. And now having provided Engines for the battering down of the Wall, they Assaulted the Island every day, and kindly receiv'd all Strangers that came to them. Upon this, Dionysius seeing himself forsaken of the Mercenaries, and that he was so straitly penn'd up, call'd his Friends together to consult what was best to be done in the present Exigency. For he so far despair'd of keeping the Sovereignty, that he did not so much as seek how he might subdue the Syracusians, but by what kind of Death he might put an end to his Life; lest he should be forc'd to a shameful Abdication of the Government. Heloris one of his Friends, (but others say the Poet his Father) told him, that the memory of his being a King, would be the Glorious Ornament of his Sepulcher; and Polyxenus his Father-inlaw advis'd him to break through upon the swiftest Horse he had, and get away to those parts under the power of the Carthaginians, and crave help of the Campanians, whom Imilcar had left to defend his Conquests in Sicily. But Philistus (who afterwards writ the History) gainsaid Polyxenus, and said, Dionysius, it doth not become thee by the swiftness of thy Horse to fly away from thy Principality, but rather with thy whole strength to hold it fast within thy very Thighs. Dionysius clos'd with this Advice, and resolv'd Page 361 to suffer any thing rather than voluntarily lay down the Power he had gain'd. Whereupupon he sent Commissioners to them in Rebellion to desire liberty for himself and those with him to depart out of the City; and in the mean time a Messenger was secretly sent to the Campanians to promise them as much Money as they should demand, if they would come and raise the Siege. Matters being agreed upon, the Syracusians consented that the Tyrant should have liberty to be gone with Five Ships only. After this, things began to cool; and a part of them that lay at the Siege, were discharg'd and drawn off as useless; and many of the Foot rov'd about in the Fields, as if the Tyranny had now been altogether at an end. In the mean time the Campanians encourag'd by such generous Promises, first march'd to Aegyrus, and there leaving their Baggage with Aegyris the Prince of the Place, with Twelve hundred Light Horse speeded to Syracuse; where suddainly arriving, they surpriz'd the Syracusians, and killing many of them, they broke through into the Fort to Dionysius. About the same time Three hundred Mercenaries arriv'd, and came in to the assistance of the Tyrant; so that now he began to pluck up his Spirits. But the Syracusians when they perceiv'd that the Tyrant began to gather strength again, were divided into Parties, some were for continuing the Siege, others were for disbanding the Army, and leaving the City. As soon as Dionysius came to understand this, he Sallies out with what he had, and coming upon them when they were in a distraction, easily put them to flight, and pursu'd them to the place call'd the New City: Yet he kill'd not many there; for riding amongst his Men, he commanded them not to kill those that fled. The Syracusians were now suddenly scatter'd all over the Fields; and a while after above Seven thousand in a body came up to the Horsemen, and surrendred themselves. After the Burial of the Syracusians that were kill'd, Dionysius sent Messengers to Aetna to invite the Exiles there to lay aside their animosities, and to return to their Country, faithfully promising them that he would pardon and forget all that was past. Upon this, some who had left Wives and Children behind them (through the irresistible force of natural Affection) comply'd with the invitation. The rest (when the Messengers cry'd up his Humanity in burying of the Dead) answer'd, That Dionysius himself deserv'd no other Courtesie, and pray'd to the Gods that he might presently meet with it. So that these at Aetna could not by any means be wrought upon to trust the Tyrant's Word, but continu'd at Aetna, waiting for a fit opportunity to pull him down.
Dionysius carry'd himself with all the Respect and Tenderness imaginable towards those that return'd, to encourage the rest to come back to their Country. Then he discharg'd the Campanians with great Rewards, for he durst not trust their fickle and unconstant Humour. When they came to Entella they prevail'd with the Citizens to receive them into the Town, and to infranchise them as natural Inhabitants: but in the Night they treacherously fell upon the Townsmen and cut all their Throats, and Marrying their Wives, possest themselves of the City.
The Lacedemonians establish an Oligarchy in every City; Dionysius disarms the Syracusians. Alcibiades kill'd; the manner of his death. Clearchus his Tyranny in Bizantium. The Battle of Porus by him against his Country-men the Lacedemonians. Lysander projects to out the Heraclides of the Sovereign Power.
IN Greece, after the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Lacedemonians, by the general consent of all, had the Sovereign Command both at Sea and Land. Whereupon they Created Lysander again High Admiral, with Power to establish the Hermoste (as they call'd them) in every City where-ever he came. For because the Democratiste were Enemies to the Lacedemonians, they order'd an Oligarchy to be setled in every City, and impos'd a Tribute upon all they subdu'd. And althô they made no use of Money at any time before, yet now they Treasur'd up from the Tributes paid in by the Cities a Thousand Talents every Year.
When they had setled the Affairs of Greece, as they thought best for the support of their Authority, they sent Aristus, a Noble Person to Syracuse, under colour to abrogate the Tyranny, but in truth and underhand to confirm it. For they concluded, that if they Page 362 were instrumental to fix him in his new got Empire, they should ever oblige him to be a Friend to them. Aristus after he came to Syracuse had private Conference with Dionysius concerning these Matters; and yet in the mean time encourag'd the People with fair promises to restore them to their former Liberties: But instead of that he betraid Nicoteles, the General of the Syracusians, and others who trusted in his Fidelity, and caus'd them all to be put to death, by which he strengthn'd the Tyrant, and by so base an Act stain'd his own Reputation, and dishonour'd his Country.
After this, when the People of Syracuse had left the City in the time of Harvest, to gather the Fruits, Dionysius enters into every one of their Houses, and takes away all the Arms he could find: and presently after draws another Wall about the Castle, builds Shipping, and takes into Pay a great number of Strangers, and prepares whatever was necessary for the supporting of his Dominion; having experienc'd that the Syracusians would endure any thing rather than Slavery.
While these things were acting here and there, Pharnabazus, Darius's Lord-Lieutenant, to gratifie the Lacedemonians, surpriz'd Alcibiades and kill'd him. But in regard Ephorus gives an account of other things to be the causes of his death; I conceive it may not be altogether unprofitable if we relate what this Author hath recorded concerning the manner how Alcibiades lost his Life.
In his Seventeenth Book he says, that Cyrus secretly compacted with the Lacedemonians to make War against Artaxerxes, which coming to the Ears of Alcibiades, he forthwith hasts away to Pharnabazus, and informs him of the Intrigue, and desires from him a Passport to go to Artaxerxes, judging it fittest for him to give the first information of the Conspiracy to the King. But that when Pharnabazus heard this, he was resolv'd to be the first discoverer himself, and therefore forthwith sent a Messenger in whom he could most confide, and by him laid all open before the King. That when Alcibiades saw that Pharnabazus would not furnish him with Letters to make way for him to the King's Palace, he made a Journey to the Lieutenant and Governor of Paphlagonia, and desir'd his assistance to get to the King: And that Pharnabazus fearing lest the King should come to understand the Truth, sent some to lie in wait for Alcibiades in the way, and to murther him: and that these finding him in his Inn in Phrygia, rais'd up a Pile of Wood round his Lodging in the Night, and set it on fire; and that Alcibiades endeavouring to save himself in the midst of the Flames, partly by the Fire, and partly by Darts cast at him by his Enemies, there perish'd.
About the same time Democrates the Philosopher died, being Ninety Years of Age. And Lasthenes the Theban who wan the Prize this Olympiad, is said to run a Race on foot with a Running Horse, from Coronea to the Walls of Thebes, and won the Match. In Italy the Volsci set upon the Roman Garrison at Verugine, took the City it self, and kill'd many of the Garison-Soldiers,
After the Affairs of this Year thus past, Euclides became Chief Magistrate of Athens. And Four Military Tribunes bore the Consular Dignity at Rome, Publius Cornelius, Numerius Fabius, Lucius Valerius, and Terentius Maximus. During the time of their Governments, the Affairs of Byzantium were but in an ill posture, by reason of their intestine Seditions, and their Wars with the Thracians their Neighbours. Not being able to put an end to their Civil Discords, they desir'd a Governor from the Lacedemonians; to which end Clearchus was sent to them, who after the whole Power was put into his hands, got together a great number of Mercenaries, and acted more like a Tyrant than a Governor. For First, having invited the Magistrates of the City to a Feast, after a publick Sacrifice he caus'd them all to be put to Death. Presently after when there was none left to Govern the City, he strangled Thirty of the Chief Men of Byzantium, and seiz'd upon all their Goods to his own use. He likewise put to death some of the richest of the Citizens under colour of pretended Crimes, and others he banish'd. Having thus enrich'd himself, he Listed vast numbers of Foreign Troops, and confirm'd and strengthen'd himself in the Sovereignty. When the Cruelty and Power of the Tyrant was spread abroad; the Lacdemonians at the first sent Messengers to him to advise him to lay down his Government: But when he flatly refus'd, they sent an Army against him under the Command of Panthedas; but when Clearchus heard of his coming, he march'd away with his Forces to Selymbria, of which he had before possess'd himself. For by reason of his Cruelty in Byzantium he foresaw, that not only the Lacedemonians, but the Citizens would be his Enemies; and therefore concluding that he could with more safety march out against his Enemies from Selymbria, he brought all his Money together with his Army thither. When he came there and heard of the approach of the Lacedemonians he withdrew out to meet them, and at a place call'd Porus they engag'd. The Battle was doubtful à long Page 363 time, but at length the valiant Spartans prevail'd, and the Tyrants Army was miserably destroy'd. Clearchus with a few escap'd to Selymbria, and was there a while besieg'd, but afterwards in a great fright he fled out of the Town in the night, and sail'd over to Jonia, where becoming familiar with Cyrus the King of Persia's Brother, he was made General of his Army. For Cyrus being made Chief of all the Princes and Governors of the Sea Coasts, and being of an high and aspiring Spirit, determin'd to make War against his Brother Artaxerxes; Looking therefore upon Clearchus to be a fellow of a bold and daring Spirit ready for any adventure, furnish'd him with Money, and order'd him to raise an Army of as many Foreigners as he could, hoping he had new got fit a Companion to assist him in the execution of those bold Attempts he had taken in hand. As for Lysander the Spartan, after he had setled all the Cities subject to the Lacedaemonians, according to the Orders and Directions of the Ephori, some to be govern'd by a Decemvirate, others by an Oligarchy, became of great Note and Reputation at Sparta: For by his Conduct he had put an end to the Peloponnesian War, and thereby had gain'd for his Country the Sovereign Command both at Sea and Land without controul. Being puft up with this Success, he design'd to put an end to the Reign of the Heraclidae, and to that end endeavour'd so to contrive the matter, as to procure a Decree, That any Spartan whatsoever should be capable of being elected King. Thereby he hop'd that the Regal Power would presently be devolv'd upon himself, for the Great and Noble Services that he had done. But considering that the Lacedaemonians were led much by the Answers given by the Oracle, he resolv'd to bribe the Prophetess of Delphos with a large Sum of Money: For he concluded, that if he were favour'd by the Oracle, his Business was done according to his Heart's desire. But when he saw that by his repeated and continual Promises of Reward, day by day, he could not prevail, he address'd himself upon the same account to the Priest of the Oracle at Dodona, by one Pherecrates of the Family of Apolloniatus, who was familiarly acquainted with the Officers of that Temple.
But being disappointed here likewise, he took a Journey to Cerene, under colour to pay a Vow to Jupiter Hammon, but in truth to no other purpose than to bribe that Oracle: To that end he carry'd with him a great Sum of Money to bring over the Priests of that Temple to his Interest: For Lybis, the King of that Country, had been his Father's Guest, and for the great Love and Friendship that there was between them, the Brother of Lysander, was call'd Lybis. But notwithstanding all his hopes to prevail, by his Interest in the King and the Fulness of his Purse, he was not only frustrated of his Hope there, but the Priests of the Oracle sent Ambassadors to Sparta, and accus'd Lysander for his offering of Bribes to corrupt the Oracle. Upon which, when he was return'd to Lacedaemon, he was call'd to answer to the Charge: But he so subtilly manag'd his Cause, that he came off clear; and nothing was discern'd concerning his Prospect to abolish the Government of the Heraclidae. But, a little after his death, when some Notes of Accounts were sought for in his House, there was found a Speech eloquently penn'd, which he had fram'd to persuade the People, That the King's might be chosen out of any of the Families of Sparta.
Dionysius his Actions in Sicily. The Oropians subdu'd by the Thebans. The Lacedaemonians quarrel with the Eleans. Dionysius fortifies the Epipodae.
AS soon as Dionysius the Tyrant of Syracuse, after his Peace made with the Carthaginians, had quieted all at home, he prepar'd to bring all the Towns and Cities of the Chalcideans into his Power; that is to say, Naxus, Catana, and Leontiúm. And he was the more earnest to gain these, because they lay near unto Syracuse, and would much facilitate the Enlargement of his Dominions. To this end he marches with his Forces to Enna, and takes the Castle, the Exiles there not being able to resist so great an Army.
Thence he goes against the Leontines, and encamps at the River Tyria, not far from the City, where he presently draws out his Army, and sends a Trumpet to the Town, commanding them to surrender the Place, supposing that out of Fear they would submit. But when he perceiv'd the Leontines slighted his Commands, and prepar'd to furnish themselves with all things necessary for a Siege; having not then with him his Engines of Battery, he drew off for the present, and wasted and spoil'd the Country round about.
Thence he march'd against the Siculi, pretending these were the People he chiefly aim'd at in the War, thereby to make the Naxians and Cataneans the more secure. When he lay near to Enna, he persuaded Acimnestus of Enna to take upon him the Sovereignty, promising to assist him. This Acimnestus accomplish'd. But when he would not receive Dionysius into the City, he began to storm, and change his Measures, and stirr'd up the Enneans to throw off his Authority. Upon this, toregain their Liberty, they suddenly ran together arm'd into the Market place; and now the City was full of Tumult and Confusion; at which instant Dionysius hearing of the Sedition, and getting together his trustiest Friends, he advanc'd to a Place where was no Guard, and there on a sudden rushing into the City, takes Acimnestus, and delivers him up to the Wills of the Enneans, and return'd without doing any hurt to the Place. Not that he did this either out of Love to Justice, or to them; but that he might be trusted for the future by the rest of the Cities.
Removing from thence, he besieg'd the City of Erbita; but not succeeding there, he made Peace with them, and led away his Army against Catana; for Arcesilaus the Governor had promis'd to betray it: And in accomplishment of his Treachery, about midnight let him in within the Walls, and so he gain'd the City. Then he disarm'd all the Citizens, and plac'd there a sufficient Garison. Afterwards Procles the General of the Naxians (won over by Promises of great Rewards) betray'd the City to Dionysius. When he had rewarded the Traitor, and set all his Kindred at liberty, he raz'd the City, and gave the Spoil thereof to his Soldiers, and carry'd away all the rest of the Citizens as Slaves. He dealt not better with the Inhabitants of Catana, whom he sold for Slaves to the Syracusians. The Country of the Naxians he gave to the neighbouring Sicilians, but the City of Catana he bestow'd upon the Campanians for an Habitation.
From thence he again mov'd to Leontum and besieg'd it with all his Forces, and by his Messengers requir'd them to submit to his Government, and join themselves as one Body to the City of Syracuse. The Leontines seeing no hope of Relief, and considering the ruine of the Naxians and Cataneans, were seiz'd with great terror, lest they themselves should be swallow'd up in the like destruction, therefore they concluded it most advisable to yield to the present time, and so submitted to the Conditions offered, and left their Country, and went to Syracuse.
Archonide, Prince of the Erbitans (after the People of Erbita had made peace with Dionysius determin'd to build a new City, for he had many Mercenaries, and a mixt multitude of Strangers who fled thither for fear of the War by Dionysius; and many likewise of Erbita freely gave up their Names to follow him to this new intended Colony. With this multitude he possess'd himself of a little Hill, Eight Stages or Furlongs from the Sea, and there laid the foundation of the City Alesa: But because there were other Cities in Sicily that bore that name, he added to it, as it were, a Sirname, and call'd it from himself Alesa Archonidis. In process of time when the City abounded in wealth, partly by reason of its Traffick by Sea, and Priviledges granted to it by the Romans:〈1 page missing〉
Page 366 a great desire to finish this Fortification, with all speed he gets together a great multitude from all parts of the Country, out of which he chose Threescore thousand that were Free-Men and fit for his purpose, and proportion'd the several parts of the Work amongst them. To every Furlong he order'd an Overseer or Master-Workman, and to every Plethrum a Mason, and Two hundred Labourers. Besides these, a great number were imploy'd in cutting out of the Quarries rough and unwrought Stone.
He had likewise Six thousand yoke of Oxen appointed in several places for carrying on of the Work. The multitude of the Workmen wrought great admiration in the Spectators, whilst every one was diligent to perfect that which was allotted to his share. For Dionysius to encourage 'em, promis'd great Rewards here to the Architects, there to the Carpenters, and here again to the Labourers; and he himself with his Friends, would often oversee the Work, whole Days together, going every where from one place to another, taking care to ease and relieve them that were tir'd out. At length laying aside all State and Majesty, he wrought like a private person, and would be the first that should set upon Works of the greatest difficulty, and endure as much hardship as the meanest Labourer; by which means every one striv'd who should do most, insomuch, as besides their daily Labours they wrought some part of the Night; so great was the Ambition of the very common People to finish the Work; so that (beyond what could have been believ'd or imagin'd) the Wall was finish'd in the space of Twenty Days, Thirty Furlongs in length, and so proportionable in height; that for its strength it seem'd to slight the force of any Assailant. For it had many high Towers that stood at convenient distances one from another, and it was built of hewen Stone most artificially jointed and compacted, every Stone Four Foot square.
The War beeween Cyrus and his Brother Artaxerxes King of Persia. Cyrus routed. The Grecian Forces in straits; their brave Behaviour; and long and troublesome March out of Persia into Greece.
AT the end of the Year Exenetus was made Archon or Lord Chancellor of Athens, and Six Military Tribunes, Publius Cornelius, Cesus Fabius, Spurius Nausius, Caius Valerius, Marcus Sergius, and Junius Lucullus executed the Consular Dignity at Rome. At this time Cyrus Chief of all the Lord-Lieutenants of the Maritine Provinces, now determins to prosecute that War against Artaxerxes his Brother, which he had long before been ruminating in his Mind: for this young Man was of a very high Spirit, and much addicted to Martial Affairs. To this end he Musters a great Army of strangers, and furnishes himself with all things necessary for the Expedition; but did not as yet discover to his Army what he intended, but gave out that he rais'd an Army to go against some Tyrants in Cilicia who had rebell'd against the King. He sent moreover an Ambassador to the Lacedemonians to put them in mind of the Services he had done 'em in the War against Athens, and to desire their Aid in the design he had now on foot. Upon this, the Lacedemonians conceiving this War would be their advantage, forthwith decreed Aid to be sent to Cyrus, and presently sent Orders to Samus the Admiral, of their Fleet, to observe whatever was commanded him by Cyrus. Hereupon Samus having then Five and twenty Gallies of three Tire of Oars under his Command, with these passed over to Ephesus to Cyrus's Admiral, offering his Assistance in every thing he should be Commanded. The Lacedemonians sent over likewise under the Command of Chricosophus, Eight hundred Corseteers. One Tamos was Admiral of the Barbarian Fleet, and had under his Command Fifty Gallies well equipp'd. As soon as the Spartan Fleet arriv'd, both Fleets set Sail, as if they intended for Cilicia.
When Cyrus had got together at Sardis the choicest Soldiers of Asia, and Thirteen thousand Mercenaries, he made those Persians that were of his kindred, Governors of Lydia and Phrygia, but the Chief Command of Jonia and Eolia he bestow'd upon his trusty Friend Tamon of Memphis. Having settled these Matters, he then presently march'd with his Army towards Cilicia and Pisidia, a Rumor being spread abroad that some of those Nations had made a Defection. He had out of Asia Seventy thousand Men, of which Three thousand were Horse: Out of Peloponnesus and other parts of Greece Thirteen thousand Mercenaries. Clearchus the Lacedemonian was General of all the Peloponnesians, except the Acheans: Proxenus of the Beotians; Socrates of the Acheans; and Meno commanded Page 367 the Thessalians. The Persians led the Barbarians every one in their proper Companies and Regiments, and Cyrus was Generalissimo; who had now discover'd the design of this Expedition to his Officers, but wisely conceal'd it from the Common Soldiers, lest by the greatness of the Attempt they should be discourag'd, and so desert him. And further, considering the great Journey they were to march, he took special care of the Soldiers, was very familiar with every one, and made plentiful Provision for them in every place.
At length, having pass'd through Lybia and Phrygia, and the Countries bordering upon Cilicia, they came to the Borders and Gates leading into Cilicia. The Passage there is very straight and rugged for the space of Twenty Furlongs, hemm'd in on either side with vast and very high and inaccessible Mountains. From these Mountains on both sides a Wall was drawn cross the Passage to defend it, in which were those Gates before mentiond. When his Forces had pass'd through this way, he entred into a Champain Country, inferior to none in Asia for sweetness and pleasantness: Through these pleasant Fields he march'd to Tarsus, the largest City of Cilicia, which he easily forc'd to submit.
When Syennesis, King of Cilicia, heard of this great Army, he was greatly perplex'd what to do, because he saw he was in no condition to cope with so great a Force. But being sent for by Cyrus with promises of safe Conduct, he came to him, and being acquainted with the Design, promis'd his assistance against Artaxerxes, and straitway join'd Cyrus with a small Party, under the Command of one of his Sons: But being a crafty Man, and preparing for the Worst, he sent the other secretly to the King to inform him of the great Forces that were coming against him; and that though he himself (much against his Will) was forc'd to join with Cyrus, yet he was still Loyal and Faithful to the King, and would fall off and return to the King's Standard when he had opportunity.
In the mean time, Cyrus spent Twenty days in refreshing his Army, and Listing of more Soldiers. Then breaking up his Camp, he acquainted all the Common Soldiers, that this Expedition was intended against Artaxerxes. Upon this every one weighing the thing seriously with himself, and considering the vast length of the Way they were to march, and how many Enemies Nations they were to pass through, took the Matter very grievously. For a Rumour was spread abroad that it was four Months march to Bactria, and that the King had an Army of Four hundred thousand Men. Upon which the Soldiers were so transported with Fear and Rage, that they resolv'd to kill all their Officers as Traytors. But when Cyrus (not without many Intreaties) interpos'd his Authority, and assur'd them that he not did intend to lead them against the King, but against a certain Governor in Syria, the Mutiny ceas'd: And upon the Increase of their Pay, they all return'd to their former Love and Esteem of their General.
Having now march'd almost through all Cilicia, he took Shipping and arriv'd at last by Sea at Issus, the utmost City of that Country near the Sea-side. At the same time, the Lacedaemonian Fleet arriv'd there, and landed their Men, assuring him of the Friendship of the Spartans, where they deliver'd to Cyrus Eight hundred Foot, under the Command of Chirosophus: They pretended that these were sent privately to Cyrus, by his Friends, when in truth, all was done by the Decree and Order of the Ephori. For the Lacedaemonians had not as yet proclaim'd open War against the King, but kept their Counsels secret till they spy'd a fit Opportunity, and how things were like to go.
Decamping from thence, Cyrus moves towards Syria, and order'd the Admirals to sail along near unto the Shore, and attend upon him as he march'd by Land. When he came to the Pile (as they are call'd) and found the Entrance without any Guard, he was much pleas'd; for he was full of Fear lest some had seiz'd the Passes before him. For the Place is naturally very streight, and defended by Craggy Rocks on every side, so that it may be kept by a very few Men. For there are two Mountains that rise up on either side near one to another, the one mounting up with sharp Rocks of a prodigious height, and the other call'd Libanus, beginning at the very Entrance into the only Passage that leads through those Places, and runs out as far as to Phenicia. The space lying between these two Mountains is about Three Furlongs wide, strongly fortify'd, shut up with streight and narrow Gates. When Cyrus had pass'd through here, he discharg'd the Fleet, and sent it back to Ephesus; for he had no occasion to use it, being now to march through the Heart of the Country.
After twenty Days march he came to Thapsacus, near to the River Euphrates. After he had continu'd here Five days, and had gain'd the Hearts of the Soldiers by plenty of Provision, and rich Spoils and Booties, he call'd a Council, and discover'd to 'em his whole design. But perceiving that the Army was very uneasy upon what he said, he earnestly intreated all of them, that they would not now Desert him, and endeavour'd to Page 368 pacify them, by promising (besides other Rewards) a Mina apiece to every Man, as soon as he came to Babylon: Upon which, being thus encourag'd, and having their Expectations rais'd high, they at length consented. Hereupon, Cyrus pass'd his Army over Euphrates, and went forward without making any Halt; and as soon as he came to the Borders of Babylon he gave leave to his Army to refresh themselves.
Artaxerxes the King, had some time before notice given him by Pharnabazus, of the secret Preparations of Cyrus against him, but now having certain Intelligence of his March, he call'd all his Forces together from every place to Ecbatana in Media; and with what Force he then had march'd against Cyrus, not being willing to stay for the Aids from India and other Nations, who he perceiv'd would be too long in coming up to him by reason of the great Distances of the several Places from whence they came. His Army (as Ephorus relates) amounted to no less then Four hundred thousand Horse and Foot.
When he came within the Borders of Babylon, he Encamp'd at Euphrates, purposing there to leave his heavy Baggage: For he knew the Enemy was not far off, and therefore had just Cause to fear their desperate and daring Attempt: He drew therefore a Trench Threescore Foot in breadth and Ten in depth, and Barricaded it with Carts and Carriages as with a Wall; here he left his Baggage and those that were Sick and Weak with but a slender Guard, but he himself with a swift March made towards the Enemy who were then near at hand.
When Cyrus saw the King's Army advancing, he forthwith commanded all his Army to their Arms. The Lacedaemonians and some Mercenaries were in the Right Wing, stretch'd out to the River Euphrates, under the Command of Clearchus the Macedonian, with whom were join'd above a Thousand Paphlagonian Horse. The Lest Wing was commanded by Arideus, consisting of Phrygians and Lydians, and in this were about a Thousand Horse more. In the middle Battel was Cyrus himself, with a Guard for his Person consisting of the best Persian Soldiers and other Barbarians, to the number of Ten thousand Men; before whom march'd as a Vaunt-guard a Thousand Horse gallantly accoutred, with Grecian Swords and Coats of Mail. On the other side, Artaxerxes plac'd a great number of hook'd Chariots in front of his whole Army, and committing the two Wings to the Command of Persian Officers, he himself remain'd with the Main Body, guarded with no less then Fifty thousand choice Men.
When the Armies came within Three Furlongs one of another, the Grecians sang the Pean, and then silently led the Van; and as soon as they came within the Cast of a Dart they ran in upon the Enemy with great Fury; for so Clearchus had ordered them, conceiving, that if they fought at a great Distance, their whole Bodies would be Marks for their Enemies, during all the time of the Fight; whereas if they engag'd close at Hand, they would be less subject to the Darts and Arrows of the Persians. As soon as the Main Body with Cyrus came up to the King's, a Shower of Darts and Arrows like a Tempest, fell upon them, as great as can be imagin'd might be discharg'd by a Body of Fifty thousand Men. But after they had fought a while with their Darts at a distance, at length they fell to it hand to hand. The Lacedaemonians and Mercenaries at the first Charge routed that Part of the Army that oppos'd them, far exceeding the Barbarians both in dexterity of Fight and the resplendant brightness of their Arms. For all the Barbarians were but lightly arm'd, and many of the Regiments were of the meanest Soldiers, and the greatest part but raw and unexpert in War. The Grecians on the contrary, by so long and continual exercise of their Arms in the late Peloponnesian War, were grown very skilful and excellent Soldiers; so that they put their Adversaries presently to flight, and made a great slaughter of the Barbarians. It so happen'd that both the Generals (who were contending for the Kingdom) being in the main Battel on either side, and weighing how fatal the issue would be, made one against the other, purposing to decide the Controversie by their own hands; and Destiny seem'd now to engage these two Brothers in a Duel, as if it had been in imitation of that ancient and stout Combat between Eteocles and Polynices, so memoriz'd by Poets in their Tragedies. Here Cyrus made the Onset, and at a distance threw his Javelin with all his force at the King, and brought him down to the Ground, who was presently taken up as dead, and carry'd out of the Fight by them that were about him. Upon this Tissaphernes, a Noble Persian, steps into the King's place, encourages the Soldiers and sights valiantly himself; endeavouring to revenge the suppos'd Death of the King, flew about into every Place with the choicest of the Troops, and made a dreadful Slaughter where-ever he came, insomuch as his Heat and extraordinary Courage was taken notice of by them that were at a great distance.
Cyrus likewise lifted up with the Success of his Arms, siercely rushes into the midst of the Battel, and signaliz'd his Courage with the slaughter of many of his Enemies. But Page 369 rashly, running himself into eminent Dangers, he at length receiv'd a mortal Wound from a common Soldier of the Persians, and there fell down dead: Upon whose fall the Spirits of the Royalists reviv'd and renew'd the Fight, and at last by the Number of their Forces, and Confidence of success, weary'd out their opposers.
Arideus, Cyrus's General and Commander in the other part of the Army, at the first valiantly receiv'd the Charge of the Barbarians: But afterwards (the Wing of the Enemy stretching in length far beyond him, and the Rumour of the Death of Cyrus coming to him, as a further Discouragement) he retreated with those under his Command to a Post very commodious for that purpose. Clearchus perceiving the main Body of their Army to be routed, and the rest ready to fly, stopp'd his own Men in their pursuit; for he fear'd that if the whole Army of the Barbarians should fall upon the Grecians, they would be all utterly cut off. In the mean time, the Body where the Persian King immediately commanded, having routed the Party that engag'd them, rifled Cyrus's Camp. Afterwards (it now growing towards Night) in one Body they made against the Greeks, who valiantly (like Men of brave and generous Spirits) receiv'd the Charge; the Barbarians did not long stand their ground, but being worsted by the Valour and Dexterity of the Grecians were presently put to flight.
Clearchus, after he had made a great slaughter among them, (it being now dark) erected a Trophy, and then retir'd to his Camp about the time of the second Watch. The Battel thus ended, an account was taken of those that were slain on the King's side, which amounted to above Fifteen thousand, the greatest part of whom were kill'd by the Lacedaemonians and Mercenaries, under the Command of Clearchus. On the other side, of Cyrus his Army were slain Three thousand. No account is given of any of the Grecians that were slain, but only a few wounded.
The next day, Arideus, who retir'd to his former Post (as we have before related) sent to Clearchus to desire him to join their Forces, that so they might better secure themselves by the advantage of Places near to the Sea side. For Cyrus being dead, and the King's Forces now Victors, a Terror seiz'd the whole Army, and every one repented himself of his bold and rash attempt to Depose Artaxerxes.
Hereupon Clearchus call'd a Council of War of all the Captains and Officers of the Army, to advise what was to be done in the present Exigent of Affairs. While they were in Consult, there came to them Messengers from the King, the Chief of whom was one Philenus, a Grecian, of the Island Zacyn〈…〉s. When they were introduc'd, they declar'd their Message in this manner: Thus saith King Artaxerxes; In as much as Cyrus is kill'd, and I am now Conqueror, lay down your Arms, make haste to my Gates, and consider how to appease me, that ye may find some favour. Upon these words all the Officers answered as Leonidas had done in time past when Xerxes sent to the Guard at Thermopyle to give up their Arms, which was to this purpose, That if at any time after they should become Xerxes's Friends, they should be more able to do him service with their Arms than without them; and if they were forc'd to be his Enemies they could better defend themselves in fighting against him. After Clearchus had return'd this Answer to the same effect, Proxenus the Theban, said thus: We have now lost almost all we have, only our Hearts and our Arms are still our own, and as long as we keep these we doubt not but by our Courage we may be able to better our Condition; But when we part with our Arms our Valour is Useless and Unprofitable: And therefore bid them tell the King, That if he design'd any Attack upon them, they were ready with their Arms to oppose him. Sophilus likewise, one of the Commanders, is reported to have said, That he wonder'd at the King's demands; For, says he, if the King thinks himself stronger than the Grecians, let him draw down his Army upon us, and take our Arms by Force: But if he means only to persuade us, and intends to give us thanks for the favour, let him first say so. To this Socrates the Achean added, The King, said he, deals with us without Sense or Reason; for that which he would have to be taken from us, he demands forthwith to be delivered to him, and that which we are to expect in return, we must seek for after as Suppliants, by Petition and Entreaty. To conclude, If he be so ignorant how things stand, as that he thinks fit to Command the Conquerors, as if they were Conquered, that he may learn the better to judge whether side carries away the Victory, let him set upon us with his innumerable Army. But if he very well knows that weare Conquerors, and yet seeks deceitfully with a Lie to circumvent us, how can we rely upon his Promises for things to come? The Messengers were dismiss'd with these Answers, and so departed.
Clearchus afterwards marched with his Squadron, to the Place where the rest of the Army that escap'd out of the Battel were posted; and when all the Forces were got together they enter'd into a Council of War concerning their marching back to the Sea-side, and so from thence how to go on. In this Consult it was judg'd most adviseable, not to return Page 370 the same way they came; for that a great Part of it was Desert and Barren, and the more Hazardous, because the Enemy would be pressing continually upon their Heels: At length it was resolv'd, with a swift March to lead the Army towards Paphlagonia, yet not so fast but that they might furnish themselves with Provision in the way. But the King, as soon as he begun to be heal'd of his Wounds, and heard of the Enemy's being retir'd, supposing that they fled, hasten'd after them with all speed; and because they mov'd but slowly, at last he overtook them, and Night drawing on Encamp'd near at hand. About break of day next Morning the Grecians drew up in Battalia; upon which he sent Messengers to them, and for that time granted to them a Truce for three Days: within which it was agreed that the King should suffer them to pass quietly through his Country, and that he should allow them Guides to the Sea-side, and furnish them with Provision in their march for their Money. And that all the Mercenaries under the Command of Clearchus and Arideus should pass peaceably through all places, provided they committed no outrages. Upon which, they set upon their Journey, and the King march'd back with his Army to Babylon, and there rewarded them that had behaved themselves couragiously in the Battle; amongst whom Tissaphernes was judg'd the bravest Man, and therefore he honour'd him with many Rich and Princely Gifts, and bestow'd his Daughter upon him in Marriage, using him ever after as his fast and faithful Friend. He made him likewise Governor and Lord-Lieutenant of all the Provinces that had been under the Command of Cyrus, upon the Sea-Coasts. But Tissaphernes perceiving that the King was irreconcileably incens'd against the Grecians, promis'd to destroy 'em all if he would furnish him with an Army, and be reconcil'd to Arideus: for through him, he said, he should be able to circumvent all the Grecians in their Journey.
This Advice was very acceptable to the King, and therefore he suffer'd him to chuse the best of the Soldiers, and as many as he thought fit out of the whole Army, With these in all haste he pursu'd the Grecians, and at length encamp'd not far off from them, and sent Messengers to them to desire that Clearchus and the rest of the Commanders would come to him and hear what he had to say to them. Upon which, almost all the Colonels and Captains (as became them) went along with Clearchus to Tissaphernes; and about Two hundred Soldiers follow'd after to buy Provision. Tissaphernes call'd all the Colonels and Chief Officers into his Tent, but the Captains and other inferior Officers stood without. In a short time after upon the putting forth of a Purple Flag from the top of his Pavilion, the Commanders within were 〈◊〉 seiz'd, and others (appointed for that purpose) kill'd all the rest that stood without; and the other Soldiers that came to buy Victuals were kill'd in every place here and there as they were found; only one made his escape to the Camp, and there related the Slaughter. Upon the hearing of this bloody Fact the Soldiers in great Consternation ran in confusion to their Arms, having neither General, Colonel, or almost any other Officer.
When none was willing to undertake the Charge, they chose several Officers from amongst themselves, and fix'd upon one of those to be the General, which was Cheirisophus the Lacedemonian. The Army hereupon being Marshall'd by these Officers into that Order which was judg'd best, set forward towards Paphlagonia. Tissaphernes in the mean time sends the General and the other Commanders bound in Chains to Artaxerxes, who put them all to death, but only Menon whom he releas'd: for he was suppos'd to have been willing to have deliver'd up the Grecians, because he was angry with them for not surrendring themselves. After this horrid Act, Tissaphernes with his Forces pursu'd the Greeks, and pick'd up stragglers here and there, but durst never face their whole Army, because he was afraid of the rage and valour of Men in a desperate condition. And therefore setting upon them now and then only in such places as he judg'd most for his advantage, he made no great slaughter of them, but with small and inconsiderable loss on the Grecians part, pursu'd them as far as the Country of the Carducians. But then perceiving he was not likely to gain any advantage by attacking the Enemy thus in the Rear, he marches away with his Army towards Jonia.
But the Grecians spent seven days in passing over the Mountains of the Carducians, and in that time suffer'd very much from the Inhabitants being a Warlike People, and well acquainted with the Passes in those parts. They were a free People, and Enemies to the King, and very good Soldiers, especially skilful and experienc'd in Hurling great Stones out of Slings, and shooting in Bows of a vast bigness, and more than ordinary strength. These People gall'd the Grecians from the rising Grounds, killing, and miserably wounding many of them; for their Arrows being above Two Cubits long, pierc'd both their Shields and Breast-plates, so that no Armour could repel their force. And it's said that these sort of weapons were so extraordinary big, that the Grecians us'd to cast these as Saunians instead of their Thong-Darts.
Page 371 When they had pass'd this Country with great difficulty, they came to the River Centrites, and pass'd over here into Armenia, which was then under the Government of Teribazus, Lord-Lieutenant to the King of Persia, with whom they made a League, and so passed quietly as friends through his Province. But as they march'd over the Mountains of Armenia, the Snow was so very deep, they were in danger every Man to be lost. For at the first when the Wind begins to rise, the Snow falls but leisurely and by degrees, so that it occasions no great molestation or trouble to the Travellers: But then presently the Wind increasing, the Snow falls so tempestuously, and on a suddain covers the ground so thick and deep that none can possibly see before them, nor know where they are. Hence Fear and Terror seiz'd upon the whole Army, seeing nothing but certain Destruction was behind 'em if they return'd, and no possibility to advance forward by reason of the depth of the Snow; besides, Winter was then very sharp and coming on apace, and such a Tempest of Wind, with a storm of Hail arose, and blew like a Whirlwind into their very Faces, that the whole Army was forc'd to stand still. For none being able to endure so sad and lamentable a March, every Man was necessitated to abide in the place where the Storm found him: And thô all were in extream want, yet they patiently endur'd that whole Night and Day the sharpness of the Winter's Cold, attended with all manner of uncomfortable circumstances. For all their Arms were cover'd with Snow which fell continually in great abundance. Their Bodies were stiff and benum'd with Ice (which became more sharp and biting, after the Air was calm and still) and so grievous were the pressures they lay under, that they took no Rest all the Night long. Some indeed cherish'd themselves with a little Fire they had kindled; others had their Bodies so benum'd with Cold, that little hopes of Life remain'd, having all their Fingers and Toes perish'd. When the Night was over, they found most of their Carriage-Horses and Cattle Lame and Useless, many Men dead, and not a few there were, who tho' they had some Life remaining, yet through the sharpness of the Cold their Bodies were immoveable; and some were as if they were stricken blind by the whiteness of the Snow, and every Man had certainly perish'd if they had not by going a little further found some small Villages, where there was plenty of Supplies for their necessities: Here the People went down under-ground by steps, and the Cattle by other passages made through the Earth; and in these little Cells were stor'd both Hay for the Cattle, and great plenty of all things necessary for the support and sustenance of Man's Life. After they had staid here Eight Days, they came at length to the River Phasis.
There they abode Four Days, and then pass'd through the Country of the Chaoniti and Phasians, where being fall'n upon by the Inhabitants in their march, they made a great slaughter among 'em, and possess'd themselves of their Towns, which were full of Provision and other rich booty, and there they rested Fifteen Days. Thence marching through the Country of the Chalcideans, in the space of Seven Days they arriv'd at the River call'd Harpasus Four Plethra broad. From thence they march'd through the Plains of the Tascutians, where they had plenty of all things, and spent three Days in refreshing themselves. In four Days after they came to the great City call'd Gymnasia. Here the Prince of the Country entred into a League with them, and allow'd 'em Guides as far as to the Sea: After Fifteen days journey they came to the Mountain Chenius, where they that were in the Van, as soon as they discern'd the Sea afar off, were transported with exceeding Joy, and gave up so great a shout, as they that were in the Rear suddainly put themselves in a posture of Defence, supposing some Enemy had broke in upon them; But as soon as they all came to the top of the Hill, from whence they might have a prospect of the Sea, they lift up their hands and gave Thanks to the Gods as if now they were past all danger for the future. There they got together great heaps of Stones, and of them rais'd up high Altars, upon which they fix'd the spoils taken from the Barbarians as Eternal Monuments of their Expedition. They bestow'd a Silver Cup and a Persian Garment upon the Guide; who pointing to them the way to the Macrones, took his leave.
After the Grecians entred the Country of the Macrones, they made a League with them; in confirmation of which the Grecians received a Spear from the Barbarians, and gave another to them: for this was a certain pledge of the faithful observance of their Leagues (receiv'd from their forefathers) as the Barbarians alledg'd: When they had pass'd the Mountains in these parts, they came down into the Country of the Colchians, where a great body of the Inhabitants came forth against them, whom the Grecians routed, and kill'd vast numbers of them: Then possessing themselves of a Hill, naturally desencible, thence they wasted the Country, and bringing all the spoil thither, they plentifully refresh'd themselves. In these places were multitudes of Bees-hives, from whence Page 372 might be had large Honey-combs: But a mischief to admiration happen'd to them that tasted of them; for as many as eat never so little went presently Mad, and lay upon the ground as if they were dead. And because many fed themselves with these Combs, a great multitude lay up and down here and there as if they had been slain in a Field-Battle. This was a very sad day to the whole Army, being amaz'd with the strangeness of the thing, and the number of those that lay groveling upon the ground. But the next day about the same hour all came to themselves again, and rose up of sound and perfect Mind, and found themselves in no other condition than as if Health and Strength had been restored 'em by drinking of a Medicinal potion. Being thus recover'd, three days after they came to Trapezon a Greek City. This is a Colony of Sinopians, and belonging to the Colchians: Here they continu'd Thirty Days, being bountifully entertain'd by the Citizens, and there sacrific'd to Hercules and to Jupiter Soter, and celebrated the Gymnick Games. It's the common Fame that the Ship Argos with Jason and his companions arriv'd here. Hence Cheirisophus the General was sent to Byzantium to procure Shipping to convey them thither; for he and Anaxibius the Bizantian Admiral were accounted intimate and special friends; thither therefore he speedily sails. The Grecians in the mean time being furnish'd with two small Vessels by the Trapezons, made incursions both by Sea and Land upon the neighbouring Barbarians. Thirty days they had waited for the return of Cheirisophus: but he staying longer than they expected, and their Provision now growing scant, they departed from thence, and after three days reacht unto * Gerasunta, which is likewise a Grecian City, built by the Sinopians, After they had staid here a few days they march'd into the Country of the Mesynecans, but here they were assail'd by the Inhabitants in great Bodies, and in an Engagement kill'd a great number; those that escap'd fled to a Town they inhabited, defended with wooden Towers, Seven Stories of Chambers one above another. This Town the Grecians assaulted, and at length took it by Storm. This Place was the Metropolis and chiefest Fort of the Country, and in the highest part stood the King's Palace. It is the Law of the Country here, that the King must continue in this Palace during his Life, and thence issue out all his Edicts to the People. The Grecians related that they pass'd through no Nation more barbarous than this: for the Men stick not to have carnal knowledge of the Women in open view; and the better and richer sort fatten their Children with boil'd Walnuts. and are stigmatiz'd with divers marks burnt into their Flesh, both upon their Backs and Breasts. The Grecians march'd through this Country in Eight days, and through the next call'd Tibaris in Three. Thence they pass'd to Gotyora a Greek City and Colony of the Sinopians, where they abode Fifty days, wasting and spoiling the barbarous Nations bordering upon Paphlagonia. Here the Heraclians and Sinopians furnish'd them with Shipping, in which both they and their Cargo were convey'd into their own Country.
Sinope was built by the Milesians, situated within the Confines of Paphlagonia; of the greatest account and Authority of any in those parts. Here Mithridates (so famous in our Age by his Wars against the Romans) kept his Court. Cheirisophus (who was sent away for Shipping, but all in vain) return'd to the Army. But the other Sinopians having entertain'd them with all the demonstrations of Kindness and Humanity, took care to convey them to Heraclea, a City of the Megarensians. From thence the whole Fleet arriv'd at a Peninsula call'd Acherusia, where Hercules (as the Fable is) drew Cerberus out of Hell. Thence they march'd by Land through Bithynia, where they fell into great hazards and hardships by the Attacks of the Inhabitants, who assaulted them in every place as they pass'd. However, at last (with great difficulty) they came to Chrysopolis, a City of Chalcedonia Three thousand eight hundred being only left of Ten thousand. From hence some of 'em with ease and safety return'd every Man into his own Country; the rest join'd in a Body at Chersonesus, and besieg'd a City bordering upon Thrace. And this was the issue of Cyrus his Expedition against his Brother Artaxerxes.
Thrasybulus opposes the Thirty Tyrants. The Cruelty of Psammiticus King of Aegypt, towards his old Friend Tamos that fled to him for succour from the Persians. Dercyllidas sent General against the Persians into Asia. Conon made Admiral of the Persian Fleet.
IN the mean time, the Usurping Tyrants at Athens every day were banishing or putting to Death some or other. At which Cruelty while the Thebans were much Incens'd, and courteously entertain'd the Exiles, Thrasybulus, Sirnam'd Tyrius, (but a Citizen of Athens, and forc'd to fly to avoid the Rage of the Thirty Usurpers) by the aid of the Thebans, underhand posses'd himself of a Place in Attica call'd Phila. It was a very strong Castle, an Hundred Stages distant from Athens: By which means an easie Passage might be had at all times to invade Attica.
As soon as the Tyrants had Intelligence of what was done, they led forth their Forces in order to Besiege the Place; but as soon as they were set down before it, there fell a great Snow: Whereupon, while some were very busie in removing their Tents, the Common Soldiers concluded that some of their Army was put to flight by an Enemy at hand, that had broke in suddenly upon them; upon which, being struck with a * Panick Fear, they drew off and Encamp'd in another Place. The Thirty, when they saw the Citizens of Athens (those that had no share in the Administration of the Commonwealth with the Three thousand) to be hot and earnest to Dissolve the Government, Encamp'd in the Pireum, and over-aw'd the City with Foreign Soldiers; and in the mean time put to Death some of Elusina and Salamis, for joining in a Conspiracy with the Exiles.
Whilst these things were acting, great numbers of the Fugitives flock'd to the Camp of Thrasybulus,and at the same time there came to him Ambassadors from the Thirty, under colour to treat concerning some Prisoners, but in truth privately to advise him to dismiss the Fugitives, and to share with them in the Covernment of the City in the room of Theramenes, and that he should have liberty to restore any Ten of the Exiles to their Country, such as he thought fit to chuse. To which Thrasybulus answer'd, That he look'd upon his Banishment to be far more honourable than the whole Power and Dominion of the Thirty, and that he would never put up his Sword till all the Citizens from every Place were receiv'd, and the People restor'd to their former Liberties, descended to them from their Ancestors.
When the Tyrants perceiv'd the Defection increas'd (through hatred of their Tyranny) and that the Number of the Exiles increased, they sent their Ambassadors to Sparta to desire aid; and they themselves in the mean time got together what Forces they could, and Encamp'd at a Place call'd Acarnas. Thrasybulus leaving but a small Guard in the Castle, marches out against them with Twelve hundred of the Exiles, and setting upon them in the Night at unawares, kills many of them, and the rest (being terrify'd with the Tumult and Confusion occasion'd by the Surprize) he forces in great precipitation to fly into the City. And presently after the success of this attack, he marches against the Pireum, and possesses himself of Munychia, a barren Hill, but strong and well fortify'd. Upon this the Tyrants brought all their Forces into the Pireum, and assaulted Munychia by Critias their General; whereupon was a sharp Encounter a long time. For the Tyrants had the advantage of Number, and the Exiles of the strength of the Place. At length the Forces of the Thirty (being discouraged and Critias slain) retir'd, but the Exiles judg'd it not advisable to pursue them.
Frequent Assaults were afterwards made upon the Exiles; at length the Army of Thrasybulus broke in on a sudden with great violence upon the Enemy, and not only routed them, but gain'd possession of the Pireum.
A great Multitude who hated the Tyranny, continually flock'd out of the City into the Pireum, and all the Exiles from every place (hearing of the Success of Thrasybulus) hasted thither to him, so that at length the number of the Exiles exceeded the other; upon which Encouragement they began to besiege the City. But they within, to the end a Peace might be concluded upon fair terms, cast off the Thirty, and sent them out of the City, and Established a Decemvirate with Sovereign Power. But as soon as these Ten were setled in the Magistracy (instead of minding any thing relating to the Peace) they turn'd absolute Tyrants, and sent to Lacedaemon for Forty Ships and a Thousand Soldiers, Page 374 under the Command of Lysander. Pausanias then King of Lacedaemon, both out of Envy to Lysander, and for that he understood the rest of the Greeks had an evil Eye against Sparta, march'd with a great Army to Athens, and reconcil'd the Exiles and the Citizens. Thus at length the Athenians were restor'd to their Country, and now began to govern according to their own ancient Laws. Those that were afraid lest they should suffer due Punishment for their former Wickedness, had Liberty to remove themselves to Elusina.
About this time they of Elis fearing the Power of the Lacedaemonians, made Peace with them upon these Terms, That they should deliver their Ships to the Lacedaemonians, and suffer the neighbouring Cities to govern according to their own Laws. And now Lacedaemon being at leisure and at Peace with all her Neighbours, prepares for War against them of Messina. Some of them then held a Castle in Cephalenia, others inhabited in Naupachus (within the Country of the Locrians (call'd Hesperians) formerly given to them by the Athenians. But they cast them out of both, and restored the Castle to the Cephalenians, and the other to the Locrians. The miserable Messinians (through the ancient hatred of the Lacedaemonians) were expell'd every where, and were forced to leave Greece marching away with their Arms; some sail'd to Sicily, and Listed themselves Soldiers under Dionysius; others to the number of Three thousand made to Cyrene, and join'd with other Exiles there: For at that time a great Sedition was among the Cyrenians after Aristo with some others had possess'd themselves of the City, by whom Five hundred of the principal Men of the City on a sudden were slain; upon which, all the Persons of Quality fled out of the Town. Hereupon, the Exiles of Cyrene join'd with the Messinians, and march'd in a Body against them who kept the City: The Parties engag'd, and in the Fight a great slaughter was made of the Cyrenians, and almost all the Messinians were cut off. After the Fight, Messengers were sent to and fro, and the matter at length was compos'd by the Cyrenians among themselves, who engag'd by solemn Oath one to another, That all Injuries should be afterwards for ever forgotten; so that they liv'd together from that time peaceably in the Government of their Common wealth. About this time the Romans sent Colonies to them call'd Ventras.
The Year ended, Laches was made Lord-Chancellor of Athens. At Rome the Consular Dignity was given again to Military Tribunes, Manlius Claudius,Marcus Quintius, Lucius Julius, Marcus Furius, and Lucius Valerius. Then was celebrated the Ninety Fifth Olympiad, in which Minos the Athenian was Victor. At the same time Artaxerxes King of Asia, after the Defeat of Cyrus, sent Tissaphernes to take into his Care and Charge all the Governments on the Sea Coasts; upon which the Provinces and Cities which had sided with Cyrus were greatly terrify'd, lest they should be punish'd for what they had done against the King: And therefore sought to qualify Tissaphernes by their Messengers; and every one to the utmost of his Power endeavour'd to procure his Favour. But Tamos, the Chiefest of them, (Lord-Lieutenant of Ionia) put his Wealth and all his Children on board, (except one call'd Gaus, who was afterwards the King of Persia's General) out of fear of Tissaphernes, and sail'd into Aegypt for Protection, to Psmammiticus the King, (Descended from the ancient Psammiticus) whom he had formerly oblig'd by several good Offices, and therefore hop'd he should find there shelter and safe Harbour, to secure him from the impending Storm of the King's Wrath. But Psammiticus neither valuing former Benefits, nor regarding the Law of Nations to them in distress, (out of Covetousness to gain the Money and the Ships) cut the Throat of his Friend and Suppliant, and of all his Children.
In the mean time, the Graecian Cities throughout Asia, hearing of the Descent of Tissaphernes, sent Ambassadors to the Lacedaemonians, and earnestly intreated them, that they would not suffer them to be utterly destroy'd by the Barharians. Upon this they promis'd forthwith to send them Aid, and by their Ambassadors sollicited Tissaphernos, that he would not invade the Graecian Cities with his Army. However, regardless of their Ambassadors, he set upon the Cumeans in the first place, and wasted and spoil'd the Country round about, and took a vast Number of Prisoners: And afterwards besieged the City; but by reason of Winter coming on, he could not take it, and therefore (after he had receiv'd a great Sum of Money for the Redemption of the Captives) he rais'd his Siege.
The Lacedaemonians in defence of the Greek Cities, made Thimbro General in the War against the King, and gave him the Command of a Thousand Spartans, with Orders to raise as many Men more from among their Confederates, as he thought fit for the present Service. Page 375 Upon which, Thimbro goes to Corinth, and mustering the Aid he had got together from several places, he passes over to Ephesus, with no more than Five thousand Men: After he had raised Two thousand more from the Confederate Cities and other places (having with him not above Seven thousand Men) he march'd an Hundred and twenty Stages, and took Magnesia at the first Assault, a City within the Government of Tissaphernes. Then he came to Trallis, a Town in Ionia, and determin'd to Besiege it; but not being able to effect any thing to purpose there, by reason of the strength of the place, he return'd to Magnesia. This place was then unwall'd, therefore (fearing lest. Tissaphernes should retake it after he was gone;) he remov'd it higher to the next Hill, call'd Thorax. From whence he made several incursions upon the Enemy, and loaded his Soldiers with variety of Plunder.
But hearing that Tissaphernes was near at hand with a great Body of Horse, he forthwith retir'd to Ephesus.
About this time part of those Soldiers that went along with Cyrus against his Brother, return'd into Greece, every one to their own Country. Others, (the greater part of them that were always accustomed to Military Employment) to the number almost of Five thousand, chose Xenophon for their General, who with those Forces made an Expedition against the Thracians. who inhabited Salmidessus. This is a long Creek lying shooting out along the Left side of Pontus, well known for the many Ship-wracks that have been there: by reason whereof the Thracians near those parts use to seize upon the Merchants that have escap'd to Shore, and carry them away as Captives. Xenophon therefore with his Forces breaks into their Country, overcomes them in Battle, and burns many of their Towns and Villages. From hence they are sent for by Thimbro, with promise of being well paid, upon which they march'd to him, being very eager to assist the Lacedemonians against the Persians.
During these Actions, Dionysius in Sicily, builds a Town at the foot of Aetna, and from a certain famous Temple, calls it Adranus. In Macedonia, King Archilaus when he was Hunting was kill'd by Craterus (whom he dearly lov'd) after he had Reign'd Seven years; and his Son Orestes (yet a Child) succeeded him. After the death of Archelaus Aetropus, the Tutor and Guardian of Orestes Govern'd the Kingdom for the space of Six years. At the same time in Athens, Socrates the Philosopher accus'd by Anytus and Melitus of Atheism, and corrupting the Youth, was condemn' to dye, and after executed by drinking of a Cup of Poison. Of which wicked Action the People in a short time after repented, when in vain they could have wish'd that Excellent and worthy Man alive again: therefore they turn'd all their Fury upon his Accusers, and kill'd them, without staying for any Formalities of Law.
When the Year was ended, Aristocrates bore the Office of Archon at Athens for the Year ensuing: And at Rome, Six Military Tribunes were invested with Consular Dignity, Caius Servilius, Lucius Virginius, Quintus Sulpitius, AulusManlius, † Capitus,Clodius, and Marcus Ancus. During their Magistracy, the Lacedaemonians understanding that the Affairs of the War were ill managed by Thimbro, sent Dercyllidas General into Asia. Upon his arrival, he forthwith march'd with the Forces against the Cities of Troas, and in a trice took Arisba, Hamaxitus, and Colone, afterwards Ilium, Cebrene, and all the rest of the Cities in the Territory of Troas, some by Tricks and Surprize, and others by Storm.
After this, he and Pharnabazus agreed upon a Truce for eight Months; and in the mean time he fell upon the Thracians in Bythinia, and wasted their Country, and then drew his Army into Winter-Quarters.
At that time a great Sedition broke out in Heraclea in Thrachinia, and thereupon the Lacedaemonians sent Eripidas to compose the Differences, who when he came there, procur'd a Council to be call'd, and having beset the Senate round with arm'd Men, seiz'd the Authors, and put all to death, to the number of Five hundred Men. He likewise march'd with an Army against the Inhabitants of Oetas, who had made a Defection; and after many Hardships he had reduc'd them unto, he forc'd them out of those Places, and the greatest part of them, with their Wives and Children, fled into Thessaly, and five Years after were transplanted into Boeotia.
During these Affairs the Thracians in great Bodies made an Irruption into the Chersonese of Thrace, wasting and ravaging the Country every where, where they possess'd themselves of all the fenced Cities. Upon this, they of the Chersonese sent for Dercyllidas the Lacedaemonian out of Asia, who transported his Army thither, and drave the Thracians out of the Country; and drawing a Wall cross from one Sea to the other, fortify'd the Chersonese so as that by this means he prevented the Incursions of the Thracians for the Page 376 time to come, and so he return'd with his Forces into Asia, after he had been bountifully rewarded for his Services. During the time of the Truce, Pharnabozus went up to the King, and he and others persuaded him to equip a Navy, and make Conon the Athenian Admiral, for he was a very skilful and expert Soldier, the best that was then in Cyprus, with King Evagorus. Pharnabazus having wrought upon the King, and receiv'd Five hundred Talents for that purpose, forthwith made it his business to set forth a Fleet, and after he had sounded Conon, concerning his acceptance of Chief Command at Sea, he created him Admiral, making him many great and fair Promises in the King's Name. Hereupon Conon accepts the Place, in hopes not only to recover the Sovereignty of the Seas for his Country, by subduing the Lacedemonians, but to advance his own Reputation by the success of his Arms. But in regard the whole Fleet was not as yet ready, he sailed away only with Forty Sail into Cilicia, and there prepared himself for the War.
Pharnabazus likewise, and Tissaphernes having rais'd Men out of their several Provinces,. march'd forth, and made their way towards Ephesus, because the Enemies Forces lay there. There were with them under their Command Twenty thousand Foot, and Ten thousand Horse. Dereyllidas the Lacedemonian hearing of the Enemies march, drew forth his Army, having no more than Seven thousand Men; but when the Armies drew near one to another, a Truce was agreed upon, and a certain time prefixt, within which, Pharnabazus might send the Articles to the King to know his pleasure, whether he would have Peace or War, and that Dereyllidas might inform the Spartans how Affairs stood in the mean time. And upon these terms the Armies drew off into their several Quarters.
The War between the Rhegians and Dionysius: He prepares to make War upon the Carthaginians. Most of the Cities submit to Dionysius. He returns to the Siege of Motya. It's taken. Forces sent from Carthage against Dionysius. A Sea-fight between the Carthaginians and the Sicilians. Syracuse Besieg'd. The Speech of Theodorus against Dionysius. A grievous Plague in the Carthaginian Army. A great destruction of the Carthaginian Fleet in the Harbour of Syracuse. The miserable condition of Imilco in his own Country. The Troubles of the Carthaginians.
THE Rhegians, formerly a Colony of the Chalcideans, were now uneasie under the growing Power of Dionysius, for he had enslav'd the Naxians and Gataneans, who were of their own Blood and Nation; and the Rhegians seeing that they themselves were in the same common danger with those already express'd, were in a great Consternation, lest they should all be brought under the same Calamity. Therefore they judg'd it most advisable, and highly to concern them, to make War upon him, while they had an opportunity, before the Tyrant grew too strong. Those that were banish'd from Syracuse by Dionysius join'd in this War, being furnish'd with all things necessary for that purpose by the Rhegians: for there was a great multitude of them at that time at Rhegium, who (being press'd by the Rhegians, with the necessity and advantage they were likely to reap by the War) resolv'd to make use of the first opportunity. To that end Officers were at length chosen, and with them they sent Six thousand Foot, and Six hundred Horse, with Fifty Crabyes, when they were landed they sollicited the Messenian Commanders to join with them, telling them it would be a most dishonourable thing if they should suffer a Grecian City, and next to them, to be utterly destroy'd by a Tyrant. The Officers being thus persuaded, led forth the Soldiers without the order of the State. The number was Four thousand Foot, and Four hundred Horse, and with them Thirty Gallies. Before they had march'd to the utmost borders of Messina, there was rais'd a great Mutiny among the Soldiers, by a Speech made to them by Laomedon a Messinian; For he advis'd 'em not to be the Agressors upon Dionysius, who had not hitherto offer'd them any injury. Upon which the Soldiers of Messina (because the People had not by their Suffrage order'd this War (presently follow'd his Advice, and forsaking their Captains return'd home. Whereupon the Rhegians considering themselves not able to carry on the Page 377 War alone, now the forces of Messina were fallen off, return'd likewise to their own City. As for Dionysius, he had (upon the first notice of the Design upon him) drawn out his Forces to the utmost Confines of Syracuse, expecting the Enemy; but hearing by his Spies that they were march'd back, he likewise return'd with his to Syracuse.
After this, when they of Rhegium and Messina sent Ambassadors to him to treat upon Terms of Peace (he conceiving it much to the advantage of his Affairs to prevent all other Hostilities and Disturbances from these Cities) made Peace with them. He likewise observ'd, that many of the Grecians ran into the Carthaginian Garisons, not only bringing along with them their Goods and Estates, but the Laws and Customs of their several Cities; and therefore concluded, that as long as the Peace continu'd with the Carthaginians, those that were yet his Subjects would from time to time be sheltring themselves under their Protection; to remedy which, he conceiv'd that if he renew'd the War against Carthage, all those that were fled to them being oppress'd by the Carthaginians would return to him. And he was the more encourag'd, for that he heard that in Africa a Plague then rag'd, and swept away many of the Carthaginians. Having now therefore a fit opportunity to declare War against them, as he conceiv'd, he determin'd to make it his chief Care to prepare Necessaries for so great an Expedition, being to engage with the most Potent Nation that then had any footing in Europe; and judging (as he very well might) that it was likely to be a great War, and of long continuance. To this end he forthwith gets together all sorts of Artificers, some out of the Towns and Cities of his own Dominions, and others hir'd with more than ordinary Wages out of Italy and Greece. For he resolv'd to make a vast number of all sorts of Arms and Weapons; likewise Gallies, both of three Oars on a Bank, and of Five, which last were never us'd before. For this purpose a great multitude of all sorts of Workmen were brought together, to every one of whom he order'd their proper Work according to their several Trades, and appointed some of the best and most substantial of the Citizens to be Overseers, promising great Rewards for the encouragement of the diligent. He himself directed the Form and Fashion of every sort of Weapon, because Mercenary Soldiers came flocking in to him out of many different Countries: for he purpos'd that every one should use such Arms (both Offensive and Defensive) as they were accustom'd unto in their own Nations; for he concluded, that as it would strike a greater Terror into his Enemies, so his Soldiers would Fight much the better with those Arms that they had most commonly us'd.
The Syracusians did all they could to forward him in his design; so that every one strove who could most advance the Work. For not only the Porches and back parts of the Temples, but the publick Schools and Walks, and Galleries about the Forum, and every place up and down were full of Workmen; and besides these publick places, Arms were made in great number in every large House belonging to any Citizen. The Art of making Engines to hurl great Stones was now first known at Syracuse, for that at this time the most excellent Artificers were met together from all parts. For the great Wages and large Promises of Rewards to the perfecting of the Work, made the Tradesmen and Artificers very intent and industrious. And besides all this, Dionysius himself came every day to oversee the Workmen, speaking kindly and courteously to them, and when he saw any more than ordinarily diligent, and quick of dispatch, that Man would be sure to receive some Reward or Honour as a mark of his Favour, and sometimes for further encouragement he would invite such to Dine or Sup with him. The Artificers thus encourag'd, wrought with all diligence (striving to out-vie one another) so that there were made a vast number of strange Weapons, and Warlike Engines for Battery. He built likewise Gallies with their Boats, both of Three and Five Oars on a Bank, of which last he was the first Inventer. For when he understood the first Galley of Three Oars was made at Corinth, he was desirous a Colony from thence (as the Syracusians were) should be the first that should enlarge the number. Having therefore provided plenty of Materials to be brought over from Italy, he sent away one half of the Workmen to Mount Aetna (where in those days were abundance of Firr and Pitch Trees) the rest he commanded to sail to Italy, and order'd them Carts to convey the Timber to the Sea side, and Ships and Seamen there to receive them, and thence without delay to transport them to Syracuse.
When Dionysius had got together Materials sufficient for his purpose, he forthwith set about building above Two hundred Gallies, and to resit an Hundred and Ten. Besides, he built several Holds round the Harbor for the receiving of the Ships, to the number of an Hundred and sixty; of which, many would receive two Ships apiece. He likewise repair'd and cover'd over with new Planks, and Hundred and fifty old and useless Vessels: This Page 378 great preparation struck the Beholders with admiration, to see so vast a number of Ships and all belonging to them, built together in one place. For indeed the preparation was such, that if a Man did cast his Eies upon the Ships, and consider the great Costs and Expences in fitting them out, he would presently conclude, that all the Power and Riches, of Sicily were there imploy'd. And then to turn and look upon the Army and Engines, he would judge that there was no Art or Trade, but what there had shew'd the height of their skill, to the utmost of what could possibly be done in that kind. And tho' he had perform'd all these with so much Cost and Care, that nothing seem'd to be wanting, or could be added to make them Magnificent and Glorious; yet for further State and Grace to the preparation he made, an hundred and forty thousand Bucklers, or Targets, as many Swords and Helmets, and caus'd to be forg'd Fourteen thousand Corssets, of all sorts of excellent Workmanship: These he appointed and order'd to the Horse, and to the Colonels and Captains of the Foot, and to the Mercenaries who were of his Life-Guard. He prepar'd likewise Engines of Battery of all fashions, and a vast number of Darts. The City of Syracuse provided one half of the long Ships, with Masters, Pilots, and Rowers of their own Citizens. For the rest Dionysius hir'd Foreigners. After all the Ships and Arms were ready and compleat, he then began to call his Army together: for he thought it not advisable to do it before, to the end to avoid Charge and Expence. About this time Astydamus the Writer of Tragedies began to open his School; he liv'd Sixty years: And this year the Romans as they were besieging the Veians, by a Sally out of the City were totally routed, and shamefully put to flight.
After the former Year expir'd, Ithycles was made Lord Chancelor of Athens, and at Rome Six Military Tribunes bore the Consular Dignity; Lucius Julius, Marcus Furius,Emilius MarcusCaius Cornelius, Cesus Fabius, and Paulus Sextus. This Year Dionysius the Tyrant of Syracuse when he had finish'd his preparation of Ships and Arms (as is before Declar'd) began to muster his Forces. To this end he chose out of the City Companies, such as he thought fittest for his purpose, and sent for such as he thought most serviceable from those Towns that favour'd his Interest: He hir'd likewise Soldiers out of Greece, and especially from the Lacedemonians: For from them (to whom he ow'd the growth and increase of his Power) he receiv'd as many Soldiers as he would for the compleating of his Army: For designing to raise a numerousArmy of Strangers, and to this end offering large Pay, he had multitudes came in to him; and because he had determin'd upon a War which would be very great, he carry'd himself with all the camplacency imaginable to all the Cities through the Island, with a purpose thereby to gain their good Will and Approbation. Knowing likewise that they of Rhegium and Messina who border'd upon the Sea, were able to bring great Forces into the Field, he began to fear lest they should join with the Carthaginians when they return'd into the Island, for he concluded that no small advantage would accrue to that side to which those two Cities inclin'd. Being in this perplexity, he gave to the Messinians a large part of the Country next adjoining to them, thereby the more to oblige them to his Interest. He dispatcht likewise Ambassadors to Rhegium, to desire that they would contract affinity with him, and to that end bestow upon him a Virgin of their own City to be his Wife; in grateful remembrance of which he would give them a large portion of Land next adjoining to their Territories, and that he would endeavour to advance and increase the Wealth and Prosperity of the City, to the utmost of his Power. For after he had lost his former Wife, the Daughter of Hermocrates, who was kill'd in the late defection of the Horsemen, he desir'd Issue by another, supposing he should firmly settle himself in his Sovereignty by the kindness and obliging demeanor of his Children towards the People. But a Council being call'd at Rhegium to consider of the Proposal, after great banding on both sides it was resolv'd not to enter into any such Affinity.
Dionysius being disappointed in this Project, sends Ambassadors to Locris upon the same Embassy: They embrac'd the Motion: Upon which he Marrys Dorides, the Daughter of Xenetus, at that time the most eminent Citizen of that place. A few days before the Marriage he sends to Locris a Gally of Five Oars on a Bank (a piece of new and rare Workmanship) adorn'd with Gold and Silver Flags, and Streamers to convey her over, and receives the Lady upon her Landing at Syracuse, into the Castle. He Marry'd likewise a Noble Lady of Syracuse, call'd Aristomacha, whom he brought to his Palace in a Chariot drawn with four white Horses. Upon his celebrating this double Marriage at one and the same time, he often Feasted both the Soldiers and most of the Citizens. For now he laid aside his Cruelty as a Tyrant, and minding the distribution of Justice, carry'd himself more courteously and favourably towards his Subjects, forbearing his former bloody Slaughters and Proscriptions.
Page 379 Some few days after his Marriage he call'd a Senate, and there stirr'd up the People of Syracuse to a War against the Carthaginians, urging that they were the most implacable Enemies of the Grecians in the World, and especially, were continually plotting and contriving how to ruin the Sicilians. The reason, saith he, that they are now at present quiet, is because the Plague rages so violently amongst them, and hath swept away great numbers of the Africans; but you'll presently see that as soon as they are free, and have recover'd their strength they'l invade Si•ily with all their Power, which Island they have for a long time most greedily gap'd after. Therefore, said he, it is much safer and better to fall upon them now they are weak, than to stay till they have recover'd themselves. He added moreover, that it would be a most unjust and dishonourable thing to suffer Barbarians to enslave the Cities, who the more they coveted their Freedom, and the fonder they were of their Liberties, would be certainly more ready to engage in the common Cause with their Country-men.
Having debated this Matter in a long Discourse, he easily gain'd upon the Syracusians for their consent, for they were as desirous of the War as Dionysius himself: and especially they hated the Carthaginians, because by their means they had been brought under the power of the Tyrant: and then they hop'd that out of fear of the Enemy abroad, and Plots by them that had been oppress'd at home, Dionysius would be more moderate than he had been in former times. And that which weigh'd more than all was, that they hop'd if they were Conquerors in this War (and Fortune favour'd them) they should recover their ancient Liberties.
When the Assembly was dissolv'd, he granted License to the People of Syracuse, to seize upon all the Goods and Estates of the Carthaginians; for there were many of them in Syracuse that were very rich; and many Merchants had Ships then lay loaden with rich Goods and Merchandize in the Harbor. The Syracusians therefore on a suddain flew upon the Prey. Other Cities likewise in Sicily drave out the Carthaginians that inhabited amongst them, and took and carry'd away all their Estates. For tho' they all hated the Tyranny of Dionysius, yet it was a delight to them to join in the War against the Carthaginians, by reason of the barbarous and beastly cruelty of the Men. And therefore those Grecians that inhabited the Cities within the power and jurisdiction of the Carthaginians, when they saw that now open War was Declar'd against them by Dionysius, gave instances likewise of their hatred against the Africans: for they not only seiz'd upon all their Estates, but likewise their Persons, and executed all manner of Cruelty and Disgraces upon the Bodies of these miserable wretches in memory and retribution of those that they themselves before suffer'd when their Cities were destroy'd by them, And they went on and continu'd this sharp Revenge upon them, to the end they might learn for the future by this example of Retaliation, not to execute such barbarous Cruelties upon them, they should afterwards subdue. For hereby they would be taught (having learnt by experience) that in the events of War, and common Turns of Fortune, the Party subdu'd, must expect to suffer that which they themselves before executed, upon those they had conquered,
Dionysius having now prepar'd all things necessary for the War, determin'd to send Messengers to Carthage to denounce War against them, in the name of the People of Syracuse, unless they restor'd all the Greek Cities they had subdu'd to their Ancient Laws and Liberties. Thus were the Thoughts of Dionysius at this time employ'd. With this year Ctesias ends his History of the Persians brought down from Ninus and Semiramis. At this time flourish'd the famous Poets for Dithyrambick Verse, Philoxenus, Cythereus, Timotheus, Philesius, Telestes of Selinunte, and Bolyeidus an excellent Limner and Musician.
Upon the expiration of the former Year Lisiades entred upon the Chief Magistracy at Athens. And six Military Tribunes were invested with the Consular Dignity at Rome, viz. Publius Mellius, Marnius Spurius, Furius Lucius, and three others. At that time the Syracusian Tyrant (being furnish'd with all things necessary for the War, according to his Hearts desire) sends an Herald with a Letter to the Senate at Carthage, in which was written, That the People of Syracuse had Decreed to make War upon the Carthaginians, unless they quitted all the Grecian Cities in Sicily. The Herald, according to Order, Sails over into Africa, and delivers the Letter to the Senate, which being read first in the House, and then to the People, it occasion'd no small disturbance and perplexity to the Carthaginians, through fear of the War coming so suddainly upon them, for the Plague had destroy'd an infinite number of People, and they were altogether unprovided of every thing necessary. Therefore they had now nothing to do but to observe how far the Designs of the Syracusians would proceed, and whither they would tend, and in the mean time, to send some of the Senate, with a considerable Sum of Money to raise Soldiers out of Europe.
Page 380Dionysius now marches out of Syracuse towards Aeryx with Syracusians, Mercenaries and Confederate Auxiliaries. Not far from this Hill stood the City Motia, a Colony of Carthage, which was a strong Castle and in-let into Sicily: By reducing of this they hop'd they should gain no small advantage, and prevent the Enemy. To this end he stirr'd up the People every where to Arms, and Auxiliaries from all the Greek Cities came in to him all along in his March. For they were eager and hot for the War, both because they hated the Slavery they suffer'd under the Carthaginians, and were likewise prick'd forward with the ardent Desire and Hopes they had at length to recover their Liberties. First the Camerineans join'd him: then the Geloans and Acragentines. Then he sent to them of Himera, who inhabited further off in another part of Sicily: With these and the Selinuntines who join'd with him in his March, he came to Motya; His Army consisted of Fourscore thousand Foot, and above three thousand Horse. In his Fleet he had little less than Two hundred long Gallies, or Men of War, and to attend these, there were at least Five hundred Ships of burden, full of Warlike Engines, and all manner of Provision.
When they of Eryx saw the wonderful Preparation that was made, and being terrify'd with the greatness of the Army, and withal hating the Carthaginians, they sided with Dionysius. But they of Motya, in expectation of Aid and Relief from Carthage, were not affrighted at the Greatness of Dionysius's Army, but were resolv'd to abide a Siege. For they knew very well that the Syracusians would besiege them in the first place, because they were so wholly devoted to the Interest of Carthage. This City is situated in an Island about half a League from the Shore of Sicily, large and beautifully Built, and the Inhabitants very Rich. A straight and narrow Way had been made by Art from the Island to the Shore; which they of Motya at that time ruin'd, to prevent so ready an access for the Enemy. Dionysius after he had taken a View of the Situation of the City with his Architects, began to fill up the Place between the Island and the Shore with Rubbish, and brought his Gallies into the Mouth of the Harbour, and lay at Anchor with his Ships of Burden near to the Shore. This done, he leaves Leptinus the Admiral of his Fleet to carry on the Siege, and he himself with the Land Army sets upon the Cities that were Confederated with the Carthaginians.
All the Cities of Sicily terrify'd with the greatness of his Army, presently submit to him, except only Five, viz. Ancyra, Solas, Egista, Panormus, and Entella: Upon which he Spoils and Wastes the Territories of the Solantines, Panormitans, and Ancyreans, and cuts down all their Trees: But besieges the City of the Egistines and Entellans, and by fierce and continual Assaults, uses his utmost Endeavour to take them by Storm. And thus now stood the Affairs of Dionysius.
In the mean time, Imilco, the Carthaginian General, was busie in Raising of Men from all Parts; and making other Preparations, but forthwith sends away the Admiral with ten Gallies, with a Command secretly to weigh Anchor and make straight for Syracuse, and in the Night to destroy the Ships that he should then find in the Harbour. His Project was by this means to divide the Enemies Forces, constraining Dionysius to send away part of his Fleet to defend Syracuse. The Admiral without delay observes his Orders, and entring the Harbour of Syracuse in the Night privately (not discern'd of any) breaks in pieces, sinks and destroys almost all the Ships that were then in the Port, and sails back towards Carthage.
Dionysius having wasted and spoil'd the Fields and Territories of all them that were under the Protection of the Carthaginians, and driven the Enemy every where within their Walls, returns with his whole Army to Motya; supposing that when he had reduc'd this the rest would all presently surrender. And now setting more hands at work he speedily fills up the Channel with heaps of Stone and Rubbish, and by that means makes his approaches with his Batteries nearer to the Town. But,
About this very time, Imilco the Carthaginian General, hearing that Dionysius had brought his Ships into the Harbour, forthwith Mann'd an Hundred of his best Gallies, supposing that by a sudden and unexpected Attack, he should easily possess himself of the Fleet as they lay in the Harbour, (none being out at Sea to obstruct his Design) which if it succeeded he should raise the Siege at Motya, and carry the War to Syracuse.
To this End, he looses from Carthage with an Hundred Sail, and arrived in the Night upon the Coasts of Selinunte, and so sailing round the Promontory of Lilybeum, about break of Day reaches Motya; where surprizing the Enemy he breaks some of their Ships to pieces, and burns others, Dionysius not being able then to afford any assistance. Then he enters into the Port, and so orders and places his Ships, as if he design'd to set upon the Fleet as they lay. Upon this, Dionysius commands his Army to march down to the Mouth of the Harbour: But seeing that the Enemy had possessed themselves of the Passage, he Page 381 durst not bring his Ships out of the Port; for he knew that the Mouth being very narrow and straight, a few Ships were able to Fight with many above their Number, and to Advantage. And therefore, having many Soldiers, he easily drew the Ships over the Land into the Sea, at a further distance from the Harbour, and so preserv'd them.
In the mean time, Imilco pressing upon those Gallies that lay foremost and next to him, was by multitude of Darts repuls'd; for many Darters and Slingers were plac'd upon the Decks. The Syracusians likewise from Land kill'd great numbers of the Enemy, by their sharp Arrows shot out of their Engines of Battery. And in truth these sort of Darts struck great terror into the Enemy, being the first time that they were us'd and found out. When the Carthaginian saw he could not accomplish his design, he drew off and sail'd back for Africk, judging it in nowise prudent to Engage in a Sea-fight with an Enemy double his number.
When Dionysius, by the help of many Workmen had perfected the Bank or Rampier, he applied all sorts of Engines of Battery to the Walls, battering the Towers with the Rams, and driving the Defendants from the Bulwarks with the shot from the Engines. He approach'd likewise to the Walls with six floor'd Towers which mov'd upon Wheels, and were as high as any House.
However, the Citizens of Motya, although they were now in imminent Danger, and destitute of all aid from their Consederates, yet fear'd not all the Force and Power of Dionysius, but bravely opposing the Assailants, they first plac'd Soldiers cloath'd in Coats of Mail upon the Masts of their Ships, who hoisting up their Main-yards threw burning Firebrands and Sticks dipp'd in Pitch, down upon the Engines, which set them presently on Fire; upon which the Sicilians ran in, and having quench'd the Flame, so ply'd their work, that with the frequent and Repeated Batteries by the Rams, a great part of the Wall fell down. Upon which both sides rushing into the Breach with great Fury, there was a sharp Engagement: For the Sicilians thinking the Town now had been their own, endur'd any thing out of the insatiable desire they had to revenge themselves upon the Carthaginians, for the many Injuries they had suffer'd by them. On the other hand, the Besieg'd to avoid the misery of Bondage and Slavery, and seeing no hopes to escape either by Sea or Land, resolved valiantly to Die. At length despairing to defend the Walls any longer, they stopt up all the Sally Ports and betook themselves to the Hold and Buildings at the Foot of the Walls, which were perfectly built as another strong Wall. From hence the Soldiers of Dionysius were put harder to it than they were before; for when they had got within the Walls (thronging in one upon another) and thought they had now gain'd the Town, they were presently most miserably gall'd by them that were on the Tops and Roofs of these Buildings. However, with all the speed they could by the help of their wooden Towers, they advanc'd their Scaling-Ladders to the Houses that were next to them; and now they sought hand to hand from the Towers and the Tops of the Houses which equall'd one another in height: And here the Motyans stood to it, and fought with undaunted Resolution, having their Wives and Children in their Eyes, and possess'd with the sense of the imminent danger of the Ruine and Destruction both of them and theirs: For some mov'd with the earnest Prayers of their poor Parents then present, intreating them not to suffer them to be made a scoff and scorn to their Enemies, renew'd their Courage, and without any regard to their Lives rush'd into the midst of the Assailants: Others hearing the Cries and Complaints of their Wives and Children, made the more haste rather to die valiantly, than to see the Captivity and Slavery of their dearest Relations. There was no way left to escape or fly out of the City, for they were hemm'd in by the Sea, which was commanded by their Enemies. The Cruelty of the Graecians which they had already executed upon their Prisoners, and in all likelihood would execute upon them, was that which chiefly terrify'd the Carthaginians and made them desperate. And therefore nothing remain'd but either to Conquer or Die.
This Obstinacy of the Besieged, occasion'd great Toil and Hardship to the Sicilians: For they were lamentably hurl'd off the Scaffolds which they had made; and besides, the straitness of the Place (by which they were greatly prejudiced) they fought with Men that were Desperate and prodigal of their Lives.
Thus therefore being Engag'd, some giving and receiving Wounds fell on the one hand, others repuls'd by the Motyans, were thrown down Headlong from the Scaffolds and House Tops, and so miserably perish'd on the other. At length the Assault having continu'd on this manner several whole days together, and every Evening Dionysius by a Trumpet sounding a Retreat to his Men, the Motyans were inur'd now to this way of Fighting: After therefore both sides were drawn off, Dionysius sent forth Archylus the Thurian, with some of the best Regiments, who on a sudden in the dead of Night by Scaling-Ladders go•Page 382 over the shatter'd Houses, and having possessed himself of a convenient Pass, presently the rest (which were sent to his assistance by Dionysius) came in to him. But when the Motyans perceiv'd it, with great Courage and Resolution they set upon them to beat them back, and though they had not tim'd it right, yet their Valour was not in the least impair'd: So that there was now begun a fierce Encounter: Upon which (many more likewise mounting over) the Sicilians with much ado (over-powering them by their multitude) at length drave them from the Post; and presently by the Mould and Bank that was rais'd Dionysius his whole Army broke into the City, and now every place was strew'd with dead Bodies. For the Sicilians resolving to revenge themselves upon the Carthaginians for their former Cruelties, without any regard either to Age or Sex, slew all before them, putting Man, Woman, and Child to the Sword. But Dionysius having a mind to sell all the Citizens for Slaves, thereby to raise Money, commanded the Soldiers to forbear killing the Prisoners: But when he saw that none regarded him, but that the Sicilians rag'd like wild Beasts, he order'd a Cryer by publick Proclamation to declare, That he would have the Motyans to fly for refuge to the Graecian Temples. Upon which the Common Soldiers stopp'd their hands, but forthwith sell a plundering and spoiling all through the City, and carried away abundance of Silver and Gold, rich Garments, and all sorts of other Wealth and Treasure. For Dionysius for the Encouragement of his Soldiers for the time to come, had given them the Plunder of the City.
After all was over, he rewarded Archylus who first mounted the Wall, with an Hundred Minas, and all the rest every one according to his Merit. As many of the Motyans as were left alive he sold for Slaves: But Daimenes and some other Greeks who join'd with the Carthaginians and were taken Prisoners, he commanded to be Crucify'd. After this he put a Garison into Motya, and made Bito the Syracusian Governor; the greater part of the Garison were Sicilians. Then he order'd Leptinus the Admiral with an Hundred and Twenty sail, to watch the Carthaginians at Sea; and likewise to make Incursions (as he had before design'd) upon Egista and Entella. He himself return'd with the Army to Syracuse, Summer now drawing near to an End. At this time Sophocles the Son of Sophocles, began to make Tragedies at Athens, and came off Twelve times a Conqueror.
When this Year was ended, Phormio entred upon the chief Magistracy at Athens; and at Rome six Military Tribunes executed the Consular Authority; Cncius Genusius, LuciusAtilius, Marcus Pomponius, Gains Duilius, Marcus Veturius, and Valerius Publius. At this time was celebrated the Ninety Sixth Olympiad, in which Eupolis of Elis was Victor.
In the time of their Governments, Dionysius, Lord of Syracuse, marched from thence with his Army, and invaded the Territories of the Carthaginians. When he was wasting and spoiling the Country, the Halicyans out of Fear of him sent. Ambassadors to his Camp, and became Confederates. But they of Egesta made a sudden and unexpected Sally upon the Guards of the Besiegers and burnt their Tents, which caus'd a great Consternation and Tumult through the Camp, For the Flame catching and running along at a great distance was not easily quench'd, so that some of the Soldiers in quenching of the Fire were destroy'd, and many Horses were burnt and the Tents together: But Dionysius went on spoiling and wasting the Country without any Opposition.
In the mean time, Leptinas the Admiral, who lay then with the Fleet at Motya, was very intent in observing the Enemy at Sea. And the Carthaginians having certain Intelligence of the strength of Dionysius, resolv'd to exceed him in all warlike Provision and Preparation whatsoever. To which end (according to their Laws) they made Imilco their King, and rais'd Forces out of all parts of Africa and Spain, of which some were their own Confederates, and others Mercenaries: At length they got together an Army of above Three hundred thousand Foot, and Four thousand Horse, besides Chariots to the number of Four hundred. They had likewise a Fleet to the number of Three hundred long Gallies, for Men of War, and Six hundred Ships of Burden (as Ephorus relates) to Tran•port all manner of Provision, Engines of Battery, and all other Necessaries for the War. But Timeus affirms, that not above a Hundred thousand were transported from Africa into Sicily, with which Three thousand of the Sicilians join'd when they came over. Imilco deliver'd Commissions seal'd up to every one of the Officers, with a Command they should not open them till they were out at Sea, and then to Execute their Orders. He did this, that the Spies which might be amongst them, might not be able to inform Dionysius of the Design of the Fleet. The Orders were, That they should make straight to Panormus; Upon this they all set sail with a fair Wind: The Transport Ships made directly in to the open Sea, but the Gallies sail'd along the Coast of Africa.
Page 383 When the Transport Ships and Ships of Burden with a fresh Gale came within sight of Sicily, Dionysius sent out Leptines with Thirty Sail against them, with Order to Sink and Destory as many as he could, who forthwith made up to them, and fought those he first met with, and sunk several with all the Men in them. The rest (though they were heavy loaden) by the help of the Wind fortunately veering about, easily escap'd; but about Fifty were sunk down right, in which were lost Five thousand Soldiers, and Two hundred Chariots.
In the mean time, Imilco arriv'd at Panormus, and landing his Men march'd directly against the Enemy, Comanding the Fleet to sail along upon the Coast near to him. In his march he entred Eryx by Treachery; and thence hasten'd with all speed to Motya: And because Dionysius was then busie in besieging of Egista, Imilco had the Opportunity to take Motya by Storm.
Although the Sicilians were very earnest and desirous to fight the Enemy, yet Dionysius judg'd it more advisable for him to draw off to some other Place, because he was both far off from his Confederates, and his Provisions too began to grow very low. Determining therefore to be gone, he advis'd the Sicilians for the present to quit their Cities, and join themselves to the Army, promising to plant them in a richer, and in no less a Country than their own, and telling them that when the War was ended, as many as would, might return to their former Habitations: upon this, some few of them embrac'd the Offer, lest if they refus'd they should have been plunder'd by the Soldiers: The rest deserted, together with the Haliceans, who sent Ambassadors to the Carthaginians, and renew'd their League with them. Dionysius therefore made with all speed to Syracuse, spoiling and wasting the Country all along as he march'd. But Imilco seeing all things succeed according to his Hearts desire, march'd with his Army against Messina, earnest to possess himself of that City, by reason of its fit and convenient situation; for the Haven there was very commodious, capable to receive his whole Fleet, which consisted of about Six hundred Sail; and by that means having the Command of the Sea in those parts, he judg'd he should be able to intercept all the Shipping that should be sent both from Italy and Peloponnesus; to aid them of Syracuse, While he was musing and considering of these things, he made Peace with them of Hymera, and the Inhabitants of Cephalaedium. And taking in the City of Lipara, he impos'd a Mulct of Thirty Talents upon the Islanders. Then he march'd straight away with his Forces for Messina (his Fleet sailing near at hand over against him) and in a short time encamp'd at Pelorides, not above a Hundred Stages from thence. When they of the City-heard of the approach of the Enemy, they began to disagree about the concerns of the War. For some of them understanding the great strength of the Carthaginian Army, and seeing how they deserted by their Confederates, and that they wanted their Horse which were then at Syracuse, were of Opinion that the City could not be defended. Besides, to their further discouragement, their Walls were down in many places, and they had now no time to make necessary Preparations for their Defence. Therefore they sent away their Wives and Children, and all their choicest Goods, and the richest of their Treasures to the neighbouring Cities. Others there were who remembred an old Prophesie, whereby it was foretold by the Oracle, That the Carthaginians should be carriers of Water in that City: which was commonly interpreted in that Sense, as might portend most advantage to themselves, as if the Carthaginians should be Slaves in Messina. From hence they were very confident, and by this means greatly encourag'd others, so that they resolv'd to undergo the utmost extremity in defence of their common Liberty.
They sent out therefore presently a select number of their briskest young Men to Pelorides to prevent the Enemies Inroads into the Country; who did according to Order: Upon which, Imilco seeing the Messinians dispers'd and scatter'd, in order to oppose his Descent, he commanded Two hundred Ships to make towards the City; For he hop'd (as he might easily conjecture) that the whole Garrison of Messina would be so earnest in opposing his breaking into their Borders, that the City would be left unguarded, so that it would be easie for his Fleet to enter; and at that time the North Wind blew fresh, by which means the Ships were carry'd with a full Gale straight into the Harbor; and though the Guard sent to Pilorides hasten'd back with all speed, yet the Enemies Fleet was in before they return'd. And now the Carthaginian Army coming in on every side, speedily batter'd down the Walls, entred and took the City Messina. As many of the Messinions as engag'd with the Enemy died valiantly upon the spot; the rest fled to the next Cities: many of the common People fled to the Mountains near at hand, and were dispers'd and scatter'd into several Garrisons in the Country: Some were taken by the Enemy, others that were got into narrow Creeks about the Harbour, flung themselves Page 384 into the Sea, thinking they should be able to swim over to Land on the other side; but of Two hundred scarce Fifty recover'd the Shoar of Italy. Afterwards Imilco entred Messina with his whole Army; and the first thing he set upon, was the Besieging the Castles and Forts near to the City, but being very strong and bravely defended by them that had fled thither, when he saw he could not win them by force, he return'd to the City; And having refresh'd and recruited his Army, resolv'd to march against Syracuse.
The Sicilians bearing an inveterate hatred to Dionysius, having now a fair opportunity all of them (except the Assarines) fell to the Carthaginians. Dionysius therefore, to the end he might be supply'd with Men, sets free all the Slaves and Servants of the Syracusians, and with them sufficiently Mann'd Threescore Gallies: he was furnish'd likewise with a Thousand Mercenaries from the Lacedemonians: Passing likewise from place to place through the Country, he fortify'd all the Castles and strong Holds, and furnish'd them with Provision. But his greatest care was to fortifie the Castles of the Leontines, and to that end laid up Stores and Magazines there, brought in from all parts. He likewise persuaded the Campanians, who at that time inhabited in Catana, to remove and reside at the City Aetna, because it was a place of great strength.
After things thus setled Dionysius led forth his Army an hundred and sixty Stages from Syracuse, and encamp'd near to a place call'd Taurus. He then had with him Thirty thousand Foot, and something above Three thousand Horse: His Navy consisted of a Hundred and fourscore Ships, of which there were but few that had Three Oars on a Bank. In the mean time Imilco demolish'd Messina, and commanded his Soldiers to pull down the Houses to the ground, so as not one stick should be left standing, or one Stone upon another; which was effectually executed by burning some and pulling down others. For by so many hands the business was done in a trice: and such was the ruine and desolation of the City, that that place which was so lately full of Inhabitants, could now scarce be known where it stood. For Imilco considering how remote it was from the Confederate Cities, and yet the best Port and Situation in all Sioily, judg'd it absolutely necessary either to ruine it as he had done, or at least so far to destroy it, as that it could not be repair'd in a long time, And thus Imilco, having sufficiently discover'd his implacable hatred to the Grecians, commanded Mago the Admiral to sail with the whole Fleet to the Promontory of Taurus. Here the Sicilians inhabited in great numbers, but without any Head or certain Commander. Dionysius had heretofore given the Country of the Naxians to these Sicilians; but they induc'd by the Promises of Imilco then dwelt upon this Hill (which was naturally fortisy'd) and there at that time they were, and so continu'd after the War, in a City strongly Wall'd, call'd Tauromenium, from its situation upon Taurus.
Imilco himself by swift marches came with his Army to the before mention'd place of Naxia, Mago sailing all along near to the Coast: But because Mount Aeina had a little before vomited out Fire as far as to the Shoar; the Army at land could not march so as to have the Fleet near at hand to attend them. For the passages by the Sea-Shoar were so spoil'd and choak'd up by Rivers and Streams of Fire from Aetna, that the Army was forc'd to take a Compass and march round the Mountain. Therefore Imilco commanded Mago to sail towards Catana, and he himself with the Army hasten'd thro the heart of the Country to join again with the Fleet at that City.
For he was afraid lest when the Forces were divided and far asunder, the Sicilians should set upon Mago by Sea; which happen'd accordingly. For Dionysius having intelligence that Mugo sail'd very slowly, and that the Land Army was engag'd in along and difficult March, hasten'd with all speed to Catana, that he might fight Mago by Sea before Imilco's Army came up. For he hop'd that being upon the Shoar near at hand with his Land Forces, it would much encourage his own, and discourage the Enemy: And that which was the most considerable was, That if his Fleet were worsted, both Ships and Men had a place ready to retreat unto for their safety
Things thus order'd, he sent forth Leptines with the whole Fleet against the Enemy, commanding him to engage in close Order, and not to break his Line upon any account, unless he were over press'd with multitude. There were in Mago's Fleet Ships of burden and Gallies with brazen Beaks, to the number of Five hundred. The Carthaginian's, as soon as they saw the Coasts full of Ships, and the Grecian Navy making out straight upon them, were greatly amaz'd, and began to tack about and make into the Shoar But presently recollecting themselves, they consider'd the insuperable hazard they should run themselves into, if they should fight, both with the Soldiers at Land and them in the Ships at one time, therefore they resolv'd to try it out at Sea, and so putting themselves Page 385 into a Line of Battel, waited to receive the Enemy, Leptines eagerly forcing on with Thirty of the best Gallies in the Van (with more Valour than Prudence) began the Fight, and presently falling in upon the first Squadron, sunk several of their Ships: But when Mago with his Fleet all join'd together, they surrounded the Thirty Sail, the first exceeding in Number, and the other in Valour.
And now was begun a sharp Engagement, which look't like a Fight upon Land, the Ships grapling close one to another, for there was no distance left for them to strike with their Beaks, but they fought hand to hand with their Forecastles close in front together: Some, while they were attempting to board their Adversary, were hurl'd over-board; others effecting what they design'd, fought valiantly aboard in the midst of their Enemies Ships. At length Leptines over-power'd with number, was forc'd to hoise up Sail, and fly; the rest of the Fleet coming on upon the Enemy, who were in disorder, were easily routed by the Carthaginians; for the Flight of the Admiral encourag'd them, and greatly discourag'd and distracted the Sicilians.
The Fight thus ended, the Carthaginians made a very hot pursuit, and sunk and destroy'd, above a Hundred Vessels; and they that were in the Transport-Ships that lay along the shoar, kill'd the Seamen as they saw them swimming to get to the Forces that were upon the Land; so that many being kill'd near the Land, the Shoar was full of Carcasses and Wrecks: the Dionisians being not able in the least to help them. Many were kill'd on the Carthaginians side; but there were above a Hundred Gallies of the Sicilians sunk and taken, and more than Twenty thousand Men kill'd.
After the Fight, the Carthaginian Navy anchor'd at Catana, whither they brought along with them the Ships they had taken, and drawing them up to the shoar, refitted them, that the Eves as well as the Ears of the Carthaginians might be entertain'd with the Greatness of their Victory.
Upon this Misfortune, the Sicslians judging that by returning to Syracuse they should suffer much, and be brought into great Straits by being suddenly besieg'd, persuaded Dionysius rather to fight Imilco; alledging, That by an unexpected Onset, the Barbarians would be terrify'd, and by that means they might in great probability repair their late Overthrow. Dionysius inclining to this Advice, and preparing to march against the Ene¦my, some of his Friends told him he ran a great hazard, and had reason to fear lest Imilco would invade Syracuse with his whole Fleet, and so he should lose the City. Upon this he alter'd his Resolution, knowing that Messina was lately lost by such an Oversight; hereupon he hastned to Syracuse, not thinking it safe for that Place to be without a strong Garison. Many of the Sicilians upon this were much displeas'd, and therefore some return'd to their own Habitations, and others dispers'd themselves into several Castles and Forts near at hand.
Imilco in two days march came to Catana, and caus'd the Ships that were there to be drawn up into the Harbour, by reason of the present Wind and Storm: Here he staid some days and refresh'd his Army, and from thence sent Ambassadors to the Campanians at Aetna to court them to a Defection from Dionysius, promising to bestow on them large Possessions, and that they should be equal Sharers in the Spoils of the War. He likewise acquainted them, that the Campanians of Entella had sided with the Carthaginians, and had supply'd them with Aids against the Sicilians. In sum, he told them that the Greoians bore an inveterate Hatred to all other Nations whatsoever. But the Campanians having given Hostages to Dionysius, and sent the best of their Soldiers to Syracuse, were forc'd to stick to the League they had made with him, tho' they had a desire rather to fall to the other side.
After these Misfortunes, Dionysius being now afraid of the Power of the Carthaginians, sends Polyxenus, his Father-in-Law, Ambassador to the Greoians in Italy, Lacedaemon; and Corinth, to desire their Assistance, and that they would not stand by, and see the Greek Cities in Sicily to be utterly destroy'd. He sent likewise several Paymasters into Reloponnesus, with great Sums of Money to raise what Men they could, not sparing any Cost.
But Imilco now enters with his Navy, richly adorn'd with his Enemies Spoils, into the great Haven of Syracuse; this fill'd the Citizens with Terror and Amazement; for a Navy of Two hundred and eighty Sail of Men of War, in excellent order, enter'd the Port; and after them came in above a Thousand Transport-Ships, wherein were above Five hundred Soldiers: So that the Ships were near Two thousand Sail; insomuch as the whole Haven (tho' it were large) was so fill'd with Shipping, that it was almost covered over. When the Navy had cast Anchor in the Harbour, presently appear'd the Land▪ Army on the other side, consisting (as some report) of Three hundred thousand Page 386 Foot, and Three thousand Horse, besides Two hundred Long-Ships. Imilco the General pitch'd his Tent in the Temple of Jupiter; the rest of the Army encamp'd round him, about 12 Stages distant from the City.
A while after, Imilco draws out his whole Army in Battalia under the Walls of Syracuse, daring the Syracusians to Battel; and at the same time ordered a Hundred of his best Ships to enter into all the rest of the Harbors, the more to terrifie the Syracusians, and to convince them that the Carthaginians were Masters at Sea; but when he saw none durst come out against him, he march'd back to the Camp.
After this, he most shamefully, for the space of Thirty days, wasted and spoil'd all the Country round about, to the end to gratifie his Soldiers on the one hand, and to discourage his Enemies on the other. He wan also the Suburbs of Achradina, and plunder'd the Temples of Ceres and Proserpina. But he paid for his Sacrilege within a short time after; for his Fortune began to change, and things to go worse and worse with him every day. And whenever Dionysius took Courage and skirmish'd with the Enemy, the Syracusians came off Conquerors. Such Terror sometimes seiz'd the Carthaginians in the Camp, that in the Night they would run with great Terror and Confusion to their Arms, as if an Enemy had broken in upon them. Besides, a Disease at length seiz'd upon them, which was the cause of all the Mischiefs which afterwards overtook them, of which we shall speak hereafter, that we may observe due course and order of Time in the Relation.
Imilco now eager to block up the City, demolishes almost all the Sepulchres, amongst which were the Monuments of Gelo and his Wife Demareta, of rich and excellent Workmanship. He rais'd likewise three Forts near the Sea, one at Plenmynium, another about the middle of the Port, and the third near the Temple of Jupiter.
In these he laid up Stores of Meat and Drink, and all other Necessaries, believing the Siege would continue long. He sent away likewise the Transport-Ships to Sardinia and Africa, to bring from thence Corn and all other Provisions.
About this time Polyxenus, Dionysius's Father-in-Law (being return'd from Italy and Peloponnesus) brought with him Thirty Galleys (Men of War) from the Confederates, under the Command of Pharacidas the Lacedaemonian. After this, Dionysius and Leptines made out to Sea with some Galleys to endeavour to get some Provision into the Town; and while they were cruising about, the Syracusians from the City espy'd a Ship loaden with Provision coming up to Imilco's Army; upon which, they made out with Five Sail upon it, and took it and brought it into the Town. As they were sailing away with their Prize, Forty Sail of the Carthaginians pursu'd them; upon which, the whole Syracusian Fleet presently hoisted up Sail, and engag'd, took the Admiral, and sunk and destroy'd Twenty Ships more: The rest they put to flight, and pursu'd the Carthaginians to their main Fleet, and dar'd them to Battel; but they amus'd with this sudden Disaster, stirr'd not. Then the Syracusians fastned the Gallies they had taken to the Poops of their own Ships, and brought them into the City.
Being now puff'd up with this good Success, they proudly vaunted, That Dionysius was often overcome by the Carthaginians, but that now when they had not him with them, they triumph'd, and were return'd Conquerors. And in their Cabals here and there they would frequently discourse, and ask one another, why they should suffer themselves to be made Slaves by Dionysius, especially when they had now so fair an Opportunity to depose him? For till of late they said they were disarm'd, but now by occasion of the present War, they had again got Arms into their Hands.
While these things were thus whisper'd up and down, Dionysius lands at the Port, and presently after calls an Assembly, and in an Harangue highly praises the Syracusians, wishing them; That as they had done, so they would still continue to shew their Valour and Courage for the time to come, promising them, that in a short time he would put an end to the War. When the Assembly was ready to break up, Theodorus a Syracusian, a Man of great Authority among the Nobility, and one that had done remarkable Service for his Conntry, stood up, and boldly made this Speech concerning their Liberties.
When Theodorus had thus spoken, the Syracusians (much perplex'd in their Minds) and doubtful what to do) look'd back upon their Confederates, Upon which, Pharacides the Lacedemonian Admiral of the Fleet (lately sent to their assistance) ascended the Tribunal; and every Man now hop'd he would be very earnest in persuading of them to Page 389 stand up for their Liberties. But he being Dionysius his Guest, and then one of his Family, told them that he was sent by the Lacedemonians to assist the Syracusians and Dionysius against the Carthaginians, and not to deprive him of his Kingdom: and while he was (contrary to all Mens expectations) opposing what had been said, the Mercenary Soldiers all flock'd about Dionysius, but the Syracusians, no little amaz'd, sate still; but rag'd in their Minds against the Spartans: For not long before, Aretas the Lacedemonian had betraid 'em under the Covert and Pretence of being sent to free them from their Slavery; and now Pharacides obstructed the Syracusians in their endeavours to free themselves. However, Dionysius was now in a great fright, and forthwith Dissolv'd the Assembly; and afterwards courted the People with very fair and smooth words, presenting some with large Gifts, and inviting others to his Feasts and Banquets. But as to the Carthaginians, after they had ruin'd the Suburbs, and rifled and plunder'd the Temples of Ceres and Proserpina, a Plague seiz'd upon their Army, and the more to increase and sharpen the Vengeance of the Gods upon them, both the time of the year and the multitudes of Men thronging together, greatly contributed to the inhancement and aggravation of their Misery: For the Summer was hotter than ordinary, and the place it self was the great occasion that the distemper rag'd above all bounds. For the Athenians in the very same place, not long before, were in multitudes swept away by the Plague, for that because it was a marshy and spungy Ground. In the beginning of the Distemper, before the Sun arose, through the coldness of the Air that came off from the Water, their Bodies would fall a shaking and trembling; but about Noon, being so close pent up together, they were choak'd with the heat. The Infection was brought in among them by the South Wind, which swept them away in heaps, and for a while they bury'd them: but the number of the Dead increasing to that degree, that those that attended the Sick were likewise cut off, none durst come near to the infected, and (besides the want of attendance) the Distemper seem'd to be incurable. For first, Catarrhs and Swellings of the Throat were caused by the stench of the Bodies that lay unbury'd, and the putrifaction of the Soil. Then follow'd Feavers, Pains in the Back, Heaviness of the Loins, Dysenteries, Botches and Biles over the whole Body. Thus were many tormented by this Plague; others were struck Mad, and ran about the Camp like Wild Beasts, and beat every one they met. All the help of Physicians was in vain, both by reason of the violence of the Distemper, and the suddain dispatch it made of many: For in the midst of great Pains and horrible Torments, they died commonly the Fifth or at the most the Sixth Day; so that they who died by the War, were accounted happy by all. And it was further observable, That all that attended upon the Sick, dy'd of the same Distemper: And that which aggravated the Misery was, that none were willing to come near to the Distress'd and Languishing Persons in order to administer to them any sort of help. For not only Strangers, but even Brothers, and dear and familiar Friends and Acquaintance, were forc'd out of fear of the Infection, to avoid and forsake one another. Dionysius therefore hearing of the miserable condition of the Carthaginians, mann'd Fourscore Sail, and order'd Pharacides and Leptines the Admirals at spring of Day to fall upon the Enemies Fleet. And he himself before the Moon was up in the Night, got his Army together, and marching to the Temple of Cyanes, came up without being discover'd to the Enemies Camp about break of day: He had sent the Horse, and a Thousand Foot of the Mercenaries before him, to fall upon that part of the Enemies Camp that lay up further into the Land. These Mercenaries hated Dionysius more than any other that were about him, and were often making disturbance, and mutining upon all occasions; Therefore Dionysius order'd the Horse, as soon as they were engag'd with the Enemy, to fly and leave the Mercenaries to be cut off, which was accordingly observ'd, and they were all kill'd upon the spot. Dionysius himself determin'd to assault the Camp and the Castles both at once. The Barbarians upon this suddain and unexpected incursion of the Enemy, running in great consusion and disorder to their Arms, gave him an opportunity to take the Castle, call'd Polictma by Storm. On the other side, in the mean time, the Horse, with some Gallies made to the Fort near Dascon, and took it; And forthwith came up the whole Fleet, and the Army Assaulted the rest of the Forts with a mighty Shout, which struck the Barbarians with great terror and amazement; For at the first they all ran to defend their Camp, but now seeing the Enemies whole Fleet come up, they bestirr'd themselves as much to preserve their Navy that then lay at Anchor: But all their Care was to little purpose, for they were prevented by the suddainness of the surrprize. For while they were ascending the Decks, and hasting on board, the Enemies Ships came up with that fierceness upon them, and so pierc'd their Broad sides, that some were sunk down right at the first shock; others by repeated and frequent Assaults were broken in pieces, so that the Page 390Carthaginians were fill'd with dread and horror. And while the best and greatest of their Ships were up and down pierc'd through and through, the Air resounded with a terrible noise by the crashing of the Vessels, broken by the Beaks of the Gallies, and the Shoar over against them was presently fill'd with dead Bodies. The Syracusians still more and more encourag'd by their Success, while each strove who should first leap into their Enemies Ships, in every place killed and dispersed and scattered Barbarians, astonish'd and amaz'd with the fear of the present destruction. Neither was the Land Army wanting in their Assistance, in which Dionysius then was (by chance) having rid to Dascon some time before. For finding there Forty Ships of Fifty Oars apiece, besides Ships of Burden that lay near to them, and some Gallies, they threw Fire amongst them; upon which the Flame mounting up, and spreading it self far and wide, set all the Ships on fire, and neither Merchants nor Mariners were able to stop the violence of the Flame, which (the Wind being then high) ran along from the Ships at Anchor and catcht upon the Transport Ships which lay near to them; And the Men to avoid the Fire, leaping out of the Ships into the Sea, and the Cables snapping asunder, the Ships fell foul one upon another, by reason whereof some broke in pieces, many were burnt, and others by the violence of the Winds scatter'd and dispers'd here and there, so that all one way or other were destroy'd. And here a Show, as upon a Theatre was represented to the Citizens while the Fire ran through the Transport Ships from one to another, and the Flame mounted the Masts, and consum'd the Main Yards, and the ruine of the Barbarians seem'd like the overthrow of such as were destroy'd for some notorious Impiety by Thunder and Lightning from Heaven. Upon these Successes both young and old that were able took Boats and pass'd over to the Harbour, to rifle those Ships that were almost consum'd by the Fire, and to save such as might be refitted, and those that were yet sound and untouch'd, to tow them by their Boats to the City. Yea, such was the exceeding Joy and Emulation of all to share in the Honour of the Victory, that those whom Age might well have excus'd from intermedling with matters of War, yet now beyond their Age and natural Strength made themselves remarkable, And now the Victory spread swiftly through the City, upon which the Women and Children and whole Families left their Houses and ran to the Walls and fill'd them with Spectators, of whom some lift up their Hands to Heaven, and gave thanks to the Gods, others cry'd out that the Barbarians were justly punish'd for their prophaneness in rissing and plundering of the Temples. For indeed it seem'd as if the Gods themselves were engag'd in the Fight, where so many Ships were on fire with the Flame mounting into the Air, above the Masts, and the Grecians only standing by (with joyful Acclamations) as Eye-witnesses of every happy Event. And on the contrary, the Barbarians amaz'd and astonish'd with the dreadful misfortune (in great Confusion, and with mournful Cries) bewailing themselves. But Night put an end to the Battle, and Dionysius encamp'd near to the Barbarians at the Temple of Jupiter.
The Carthaginians being thus routed both by Sea and Land, sent Ambassadors privately to Dionysius to offer him Three hundred Talents, which they had then ready in their Camp, if he would permit the remainder of their Army to transport themselves into Africa. To this Dionysius answer'd, that he could not suffer all to be gone, but he was content that those who were Citizens of Carthage might depart privately in the Night, but no other. For he knew well enough that neither the Syracusians nor his Confederates would ever suffer him to grant to them any such liberty. But he did this because he was unwilling utterly to destroy the Carthaginians, that the Syracusians (through fear of them) might find no opportunity or leisure by disturbing of him, to seek after the regaining of their Liberty. Having therefore agreed with the Carthaginians that they should be gone the fourth Night next after, he draws his whole Army into the City. Upon which, Imilco deliver'd the Three hundred Talents to some appointed for that purpose, who convey'd them secretly in the night into the Castle; When the time appointed was come, Imilco fill'd Forty Gallies with Citizens of Carthage, with an intent to be gone, leaving the rest of the Army behind him. And he was no sooner entred into the Port, but some Corinthians discerning that Dionysius trifled away the time in getting the Soldiers and Officers together, were impatient, and forthwith made after them. And by rowing hard, at length got up to the Carthaginian Ships that were in the Rear, which they sunk, by piercing them through with the Beaks of their Ships. Afterwards Dionysius drew out his Army; but the Sicilians, who sided with the Carthaginians, were almost all fled through the heart of the Country, and escap'd to their several Cities, before the Syracusians could reach up to them. In the mean time when Dionysius had plac'd Guards at several Passes to intercept them that fled, he march'd with his Army in the Night to the Page 391 Enemies Camp: Upon which, all the Barbarians now betraid both by their General and the Carthaginians, and likewise by the Sicilians, fled away in great fear and amazement, of whom part were taken falling in among their Enemies Guards, that way-laid them; others, and the greatest part, threw away their Arms, and cry'd for Quarter. But the Spaniards with their Arms got into a Body, and sent a Trumpet to Dionysius to offer themselves to him as Confederates: Upon which, he made a League with them, and join'd them to the Regiments of his Mercenaries. The rest of the common Soldiers he took, and whatever was left of the Bag and Baggage he gave for Plunder to the Soldiers. And thus was the suddain change and turn of the Carthaginian Affairs; From whence all Men may learn, That whoever they be that above measure exalt themselves, may come in short time to be convinc'd how weak and inconsiderable creatures they are, They, who a little before were possest of all the Cities of Sicily but Syracuse (which they accounted themselves likewise sure of) were presently brought into such a strait, as to be afraid lest they should lose their own Country: And they who lately destroy'd the Sepulchres of the Syracusians, were now Eye-witnesses of a Hundred and fifty thousand Carcasses of their own Men that perish'd by the Plague, lying rotting upon the ground without the Honour of Burial. They who had before burnt up all before them belonging to the Syracusians, by a sudden change of Fortune now, saw their whole Fleet wrapt up, and consum'd in Flames. They who not long ago in great Pride and Ostentation entred into the Port of Syracuse, boasting of their Successes, little thought that within a while after they should be forc'd to fly away in the night, and treacherously leave their Confederates to the Mercy of their Enemies. The General himself, who had pitch'd his Tent in the Temple of Jupiter, and had robb'd the Temples of the Riches laid up in them, shamefully fled away with a few to Carthage, and tho' he escap'd with Life, yet he could not fly from the Vengeance of the Gods for his Impiety; but liv'd all his Days in disgrace in his own Country, reproach'd and scorn'd by all. Nay, he was reduc'd to that extremity of Misery, that he wander'd about round all the Temples of the City in Rags, convinc'd of his own Impiety, and doing Penance for his notorious Wickedness; and and at length Murther'd himself, and Dy'd in extream Want and Poverty; by his example leaving behind him an awe of the Gods among the Citizens. For presently after, many other calamities of War overtook them: For this overthrow being spread all over Africk, their Consederates who hated them before, now for their treacherous deserting of the Soldiers at Syracuse, abhorr'd the Carthaginians much more than they did before. And therefore stirr'd up by Rage on the one hand, and encourag'd to contemn the Carthaginians by reason of their late misfortune on the other, they resolv'd to stand up for their Liberty. And having sent Ambassadors into all parts, they rais'd an Army, and at length encamp'd themselves in the Field. Upon which, there presently came in to them, not only Free Men but Slaves, so that in a small time they made up a Body of Two hundred thousand Men.
In the first place they took Tunis, not far from Carthage from thence they march'd in a body, fought and beat the Carthaginians, and drove them within their Walls. At length the Carthaginians (against whom the Gods thus apparently fought) with faint and trembling Hearts, assembled themselves together to supplicate the Deity to be appeas'd and to put an end to his Wrath and Indignation against them. And presently a Spirit of Devotion (join'd with Fear) possess'd the whole City, whilst every one expected to become miserable Slaves. Therefore all were of Opinion that the Gods who were offended, should by all means in the first place be atton'd. And altho' they never before Sacrific'd to Proserpina or Ceres, yet now the chiefest of the Citizens were consecrated to be Priests for this Service. And having set forth the Statues of the Gods with all Pomp and Solemnity, they order'd the Sacrifices for the future to be made according to the Grecian Rites and Ceremonies. And they carefully made use of those Grecians that were with them, and who were best acquainted with the Rites of their Religion, to officiate in the Sacrifices. But after this they prepar'd another Navy, and all other things necessary for the carrying on of the War.
In the mean time the Rebels, tho' they were a vast number of Men, yet they wanted good and expert Officers; and that which was worst of all, they wanted sufficient Provision for such a multitude, which the Carthaginians were supply'd with, having enough brought to them by Sea from Sardinia. And besides all this, the Revolters fell a quarrelling among themselves about the Supream Command of the Army; and some, bribed with Money by the Carthaginians, fell off and deserted the common Cause. And hence it came to pass, that (through want of Provision, and Treachery of some of their Associates) this great Rabble broke in pieces, and were dispers'd here and there, every one Page 392 to their own Country, and Places of Habitation, and so freed Carthage from the great Fright they were lately in. And this was the State of Affairs in Africa at this time.
As for Dionysius, he discerning that the Mercenaries bore him no Good Will, and therefore, lest they should depose him, seiz'd upon Aristotle their General, upon which the common Soldiers ran to their Arms, and in great Rage demanded their Pay. But he, to appease them, told them, That he would send Aristotle to Lacedemon to be try'd there by the Democracy, and gave them (who were about Ten thousand) the City and Country of Leontum for their Pay, which they readily accepted for the sweetness and pleasantness of the Place, and divided the Land amongst themselves by Lot. Then he rais'd other Mercenaries, to whom, and to those that were Freemen of his own Family, he committed the Care and Protection of his Government.
After the Overthrow of the Carthaginians, all those that remain'd of them that belong'd to the Cities that were taken by the Carthaginians throughout Sicily, got together, and being restor'd to their several Countries, began to get Strength again. And Dionysius repeopled Messina with a Thousand Lecrians, Four thousand Medimneans, and Six hundred Melesians of Peloponnesus, who were Exiles from Zacynthus and Naupactus. But when he discern'd that he had offended the Lacedemonians, by planting the Messinians (whom they had driven out) in so eminent and considerable a City, he remov'd them into another Place in the Province of Abacena, near the Sea, limiting them within certain Bounds. The Messinians call'd this City Tyndarides, and living peaceably among themselves, and receiving many into the Freedom of their City, they increas'd in a short time to above the Number of Five thousand. After many Expeditions and Incursions into the Territories of the Sicilians, they took Smenteum and Morgantium, and enter'd into League with Agyris the King of the Agyroneans, and Damon the Petty Prince of the Centorrippineans, likewise with the Erbiteans and Astorines. Cephaledium, Selunta, and Enua, were also brought under their Power and Government by Treachery. And they made Peace with them of Erbissa, and so stood the Affairs of Sicily at that time.
Agesilaus made General against the Persians by the Lacedemonians; goes to Ephesus. They send to the King of Egypt for Assistance. The Persians routed at Sipylus by Agesilaus. Tissaphernes's Head cut off in a Bath at Larissa. The War between the Phoceans and Baeotians.
IN Greece, when the Lacedemonians foresaw the great War they were likely to have with the Persians, they made Agesilaus, one of their two Kings, their General, who raising Six thousand Men, and chusing Thirty of the most eminent Citizens to be Members of the Senate, pass'd over out of Europe to Ephesus. There he rais'd Four thousand more, and so march'd into the Field with an Army of Ten thousand Foot, and Four Hundred Horse.
After the Camp follow'd a Rabble, (for the sake of Pillage and Plunder,) not inferior in Number to the Army it self. He ran through the Plains of the Caystrions, and wasted and spoil'd all that belong to the Persians as far as to Cumae. Moving from thence, he spent the greatest part of the Summer in spoiling and wasting Phrygia, the Country next adjoyning; and having loaded his Army with Pillage and Spoil, about the latter end of Autumn return'd with his Army to Ephesus.
While these Things were acting, the Lacedemonians sent Ambassadors to Nephreus King of Egypt, in order to procure his Assistance in the War; who sent to the Spartans Tackle and Furniture for a Hundred Gallies, and Five hundred thousand Bushels of Wheat instead of Soldiers. Pharax therefore, the Lacedemonian Admiral, loosing from Rhodes with a Hundred and twenty Sail, arriv'd at Cassandra a Castle of Caria, distant a Hundred and fifty Stages from Caunus. Setting sail from thence, he besieg'd Caunus and Conon the Persian Admiral, who then lay there with a Fleet of Forty Sail. But Artaphernes and Pharnabazus approaching to the Relief of Caunus with a great Army, Pharax rais'd his Siege, and return'd with his Fleet to Rhodes.
Page 393 After this, Canon got together Fourscore Gallies, and with these sails over the Chersones. In the mean time, the Inhabitants of Rhodes refuse to suffer the Peloponnesian Fleet to enter their Harbour, and Revoit from the Lacedemonians, and receive Conon with his Navy into their Port and City. And presently after, they who brought Corn out of Egypt, (design'd for the Lacedemonians,) not knowing any thing of the Defection of the Rhodians, sail'd boldly to the Island. Upon which, Conon the Persian Admiral, with the help of the Rhodians, brought them and their Loading into the Port, and stor'd the City with Corn. And there came likewise other Ships to Conon, Ten from Silicia, and Fourscore from Phenicia, under the Command of the Lord Lieutenant of the Province of S•don.
But afterwards Agesilaus drawing out his Army into the Plain of Caystrus, and the Places near to Sipylus, plunder'd and spoil'd the Inhabitants. Upon which, Tissaphernes, with an Army of Ten Thousand Horse, and Fifty Thousand Foot, came upon the Backs of the Lacedemonians, and kill'd all the Stragglers as they were forraging and ranging about the Country. But Agesilaus, with a Phalanx (drawn up in a Square) possess'd himself of the rising Grounds at Sipylus, watching his opportunity to set upon the Enemy: and from thence over-ran all the Country as far as to Sardis, and amongst others wasted and destroy'd a Garden belonging to Tissaphernes, set with all sorts of Trees, and other Things for Delight, and Divertisement in time of Peace, beautifi'd with very great Art and Cost. Marching thence, when he came half way between Sardis and Thyberne, he sent Xenocles the Spartan in the Night with Fourteen hundred Men into a Wood to lie in Ambush, in order to intercept the Enemy, he himself (about spring of Day) marching forward with the Army: As soon as he had passd the Ambuscade, the Barbarians in great Fury on the sudden set upon his Rear; upon which he forthwith wheel'd about, and when they were hotly engag'd, he lift up a Sign to them in Ambush, who forthwith with a great Shout came in and fell upon the Enemy, who seeing themselves surrounded, (in great Fear and Terror) betook themselves to their Heels, of whom Six thousand were kill'd in the Pursuit, and a great number of Prisoners taken, and the Lacedemonians seiz'd the Enemies Camp, which was very rich. Tissaphernes himself amaz'd at the Valour of the Spartans, in a great Fright fled out of the Battel to Sardis. Agesilaus was mov'd to march up higher into the other Provinces, but because the Sacrifices did not point out to him any good Success, he return'd with his Army to the Sea-side,
Artaxerxes King of Asia hearing of the routing of his Army, was both Afraid and Angry; Afraid of the Lacedemonians, and Angry at Tissaphernes, who was the occasion of the War. And Parysatis the Queen-Mother had not long before pray'd Artaxerxes, even upon her Knees, to take Revenge upon Tissaphernes; for she bare him a mortal Hatred, because he was instrumental to frustrate the Expedition of her Son against his Brother, Artaxerxes therefore makes Tithraustes General, and commanded him to seize Tissaphernes, giving him likewise Letters directed to all the Cities and Governors of the Provinces, ordering them to observe his Commands. As soon as Tithraustes came to Colosse in Phrygia, by the help of the Governor of Larissa he seiz'd Tissaphernes in a Bath, and cut off his Head and sent it to the King. After which, he made a Truce with Agesilaus for Six Months.
While Affairs went thus in Asia, the Phoceans made War upon the Boeotians, and pray'd Aid and Assistance from the Lacedemonians. Upon which, Lysander was sent thither with a few Soldiers, who rais'd more after he came to Phocis; but not long after, Pausanias King of Sparta was sent to Phocis with Six thousand, whereupon the Boeotians drew out their Forces, and being join'd by the Athenians their Confederates, found Haliartus besieg'd by Lysander and the Phoceans. Whereupon a Battel was fought, in which Lysander, and many of the Lacedemonians with their Confederates, were kill'd. The Boeotians pursu'd not far, but Two hundred Thebans lost their Lives, by falling down some steep Precipices through their own Carelesness. This was afterwards call'd the Boeotian War. But Pausanias hearing of the Defeat of the Lacedemonians, enter'd into a Truce with the Boeotians, and return'd with his Army into Peloponnesus.
In the mean time, Conon the Persian Admiral committed the Care of the Fleet to Hieronymus and Nicodamus, two Athenians, and he himself hasten'd away to the King sailing to Silicia, and from thence passing to Thapsacus in Syria, he put himself in a Barge, and sail'd down the River Euphrates to Babylon. Here being admitted to the King, he promis'd, That if the King would but furnish him with Money and other Necessaries as he should think fit, he would undertake to ruin the Lacedemonian Fleet. The King was much pleas'd, and highly Commended and Rewarded him, and order'd a Paymaster to attend him, and pay him as much Money as he should from time to time require He gave him likewise liberty to chuse what Persian he would to be his Collegue and Assistant in the Page 394 Command; and he thereupon chose Pharnabazus, and after he had taken Order for all Things, (according to the utmost of his Power,) he went down to Sea.
The Confederate War by the Argives and others against the Lacedemonians. The Battel at Aricas. The Fight at Nemea. Pisander the Lacedemonian Admiral routed in a Sea-Fight at Cnidus by the Persian Fleet, commanded by Conon the Athenian. The Corinthian War against the Lacedemonians, and the great Sedition there.
AT the end of the year Diophantus was made Lord Chancellor at Athens, and at Rome Six Military Tribunes were invested with the Consular Authority; that is to say, Lucius Valerius, Marcus Furius, Quintus Servilius, Quintus Sulpitius,ClaudiusOgron, and Marius Appius. In the time of their Governments, the Boeotians and Athenians, the Corinthians and the Argives, Confederated: For they conceiv'd, that if they (being the most considerable and largest Cities of Greece) did but stick close one to another, they might easily overcome the Lordly Power of the Lacedemonians, and the rather for that they were hated of their Confederates for their Tyrannical Government. To this end they first order'd a General Assembly of Members from the several Cities to meet at Corinth, where being met, they order'd all Things necessary concerning the War. Afterwards they sent Messengers from City to City, and by that means took off many from siding with the Lacedemonians. And presently there join'd with them all Eubea generally, the Leucadians, Acarnanians, Ambraciots, and Chalcideans of Thrace. They then endeavour'd to bring into the Confederacy the Inhabitants of Peloponnesus; but none of them would hearken to them: For Sparta lying close to the sides of Peloponnesus, was as a Castle or Bulwark for the Defence of the Country. Medius, the Prince of Larissa in Thessaly, was about that time engag'd in a War with Lycophrone Tyrant of the Phereans, to whom upon his Request this General Assembly sent in Aid Two thousand Men, who being furnish'd with these Aides, takes Pharsalus, (a Lacedemonian Garison,) and sells all the Inhabitants for Slaves. After this, the Boeotians, with them of Argos, separating themselves from Medius, took Heraclea in Trachinia, being let within the Walls in the night, and there they put all the Lacedemonians to the Sword; but suffer'd the Peloponnesians to depart with all that belong'd to them. Then they recall'd the Trachinians to inhabit the City, whom the Lacedemonians had forc'd to till the Land, though they were the ancient Inhabitants of the Country.
And not long after, Istmenias the General of the Boeotians leaving the Argives to guard the City, caus'd the Eneans and Achamaneans to desert the Lacedemonians, and having rais'd among them and other Confederates many Soldiers, he march'd with an Army of no less than Six thousand Men against the Phoceans. Not long after he encamp'd near Aricas, a City of Locris, (the Birth-place of Ajax, as 'tis said,) where the Phoceans, under the Conduct of Lacisthenes a Laconian, came out against him and fought him: The Dispute was very sharp for a long time, but at length the Boeotians got the Day, and pursu'd the Enemy till it grew dark, of whom they kill'd above a Thousand, and lost Five hundred of their own. After this Battel, both Sides disbanded their Armies, and the Phoceans returned to their own Country, and the other to Corinth; where having call'd a Senate, and encourag'd by this good Success, (as they conceiv'd of it,) they muster'd at Corinth (rais'd out of all the Cities far and near) to the Number of about Fifteen thousand Foot, and Five hundred Horse.
The Lacedemonians seeing that the greatest Cities of Greece had confederated against them, determin'd to send for Agesilaus, and the Army he had with him, out of Asia. Yet in the mean time they march'd out against the Enemy with Three and twenty thousand Foot, and Five hundred Horse, which they had rais'd out of their own City, and from among their Confederates. And not long after a Battel was fought at the River Nemea, which continu'd till Night parted them, wherein part of the Army on both sides prevail'd one against the other. There fell of the Lacedemonians and their Confederates, Eleven hundred; but of the Boeotians and their Confederates, were slain Two thousand Eight hundred.
Page 395 As soon as Agesilaus had landed his Army in Europe, he was encountred by a great Body of Thracians, whom he routed, and kill'd the greatest part of them. Thence he march'd through Macedonia, on purpose to pass that way Xerxes had formerly done, when he came with a powerful Army into Greece. Having therefore pass'd through Macedon and Thessaly, he went on forward to the Straits of Thermopylae, and pass'd through that way.
In the mean time Conon and Pharnabazus, the Persian Admirals lay at Doryma in the Chersonese with a Fleet of more than Ninety Men of War; and being inform'd that the Enemies Navy lay at Cnidus, they prepared for a Sea-Fight. Periarchus the Admiral of the Lacedemonian Fleet weighing Anchor from Cnidus, arrived at Physeus in Chersonesus with Eighty five Gallies; and loosing from thence, fell upon the King's Fleet, and had the advantage against those Ships he first attack'd: But upon the Persian Gallies coming up in a full Body to rescue their Fellows, his Confederates fled, and made to the Shoar; but he judging it a base and dishonourable thing for a Spartan to turn his Back, tack'd about to front the Enemy, and fighting with great Gallantry, (after he had destroy'd many of the Persians in the heat of the Fight) was at length kill'd, and so fell with Honour worthy of his Country. Then they with Conon pursuing the Lacedemonians to the Shoar, took Fifty of their Gallies, but the most part of the Men swam to Land and escap'd, only Five hundred were taken Prisoners; and the rest of the Gallies came to Gnidus.
But Agesilaus being strengthen'd with Forces from Peloponnesus, entred with an Army into Boeotia, where the Boeotians and their Confederates forthwith met him at Coronea, and engag'd, in which Battel the Boeotians put that Wing of the Lacedemonians to slight that oppos'd them, and pursu'd them to their Camp; but the rest, after a small Resistance, were routed by Agesilaus and his Party. Whereupon the Lacedemonians looking upon themselves as Conquerors, in token of Victory erected a Trophy, and gave Leave to the Enemy to bury their Dead. For there were kill'd of the Boeotians and their Confederates above Six hundred; and of the Lacedemonians and their Associates above Three hundred and fifty; Agesilaus himself being sorely wounded, and carry'd to Delphos to be cur'd.
After the late Sea-fight, Pharnabazus and Conon invaded the Confederates of the Lacedemonians with their whole Fleet; and first forc'd them of Coos to a Defection, from the Lacedemonians, then those of Nisea, and Tios or Teium. Afterward the Chians (forcing out the Garison there) revolted to Conon.
The Mitylenes, Ephesians, and Erythreans likewise follow'd the Examples of the former. And thus all the Cities on a sudden revolted, some of which (casting out the Lacedemonian Garisons) took the opportunity absolutely to free themselves; others from that time gave themselves up into Conon's Hands, and from that time forward the Lacedemonians lost the Sovereignty of the Sea.
Conon determining to sail for Attica with his whole Fleet, weighs Anchor, and by the way beinging over the Islands of the Cyclades to his side, he makes straight for Cythera, which he gain'd upon the first Approach, and taking Hostages of the Cythereans for their Fidelity, he sent them away to Laconia; and when he had put a strong Garison into the City, he sail'd for Corinth, where he had Audience of the Senate; and then entring into a League, and leaving Money with them for the carrying on of the War, he return'd into Asia. About this time Eropus King of Macedonia dy'd, after he had reign'd Six Years; his Son Pausanias succeeded him, and reign'd only One Year. Theopompus of Chius ends his History with this Year, and with the Sea-fight at Cnidus, containing the Relation of the Grecian Affairs in Twelve Books; begun at the Sea-fight at Cynossema, where Thucydides ends, comprehending Seventeen Years.
After the end of the last Year, Eubulides was made Lord Chancellor of Athens, and Six Military Tribunes executed the Consular Dignity at Rome, (Lucius Sergius, Aulus Posthumius, Publius Cornelius, Sextus Centius, Quintus Manlius, and Anitius Camillus.) At that time Conon the Persian Admiral arrived in the Pireum at Athens with Fourscore Sail, and promis'd the Citizens to rebuild the Walls of the City. For the Walls and long Thighs of the Pyream were demolish'd by the Lacedemonians, according to the Articles of the Peace when the Athenians were brought very low, and their Power broken by the Peloponn•sian War. To this end Conon hir'd many Workmen, and order'd several out of the Fleet to be assisting to the carrying on of the Work, so that the greatest part of the Wall was finish'd in a short time. For the Thebans sent in Five hundred Carpenters and Masons, and several other Cities gave their Assistance. But Teribazus, General of the Land Forces in Asia envying Conon's Successes, contriv'd falsly to charge him, as if he Page 396 only made use of the King's Soldiers to get Towns and Cities for the Athenians; therefore sending for him to Sardis, upon his appearance he seiz'd him and threw him into Prison.
But now at Corinth some that had thirsted after the chief Rule and Command in the Government, entred into a Conspiracy, and at the time of the publick Plays kill'd many in the Play-house, and fill'd the City with Tumult and Sedition. And being assisted by the Argives they cut the Throats of a Hundred and Twenty Citizens, and Banish'd Five hundred more. The Lacedaemonians raised Forces in order to reduce these Murderers by Force of Arms: But the Athenians and Beotians came with an Army to their assistance, but with an Eye to bring the City into their Subjection. But the Exiles with the Lacedaemonians and other Confederates, in the Night came up to the Lecheum and Arsenal, and took it by Storm. The next day the Townsmen drew out their Forces under the Command of Iphicrates, but were routed by the Lacedaemonians, who slew a great number of them. After this, the Beotians and Athenians together with the Argives and Corinthians, march'd down with their Forces to the Lecheum, and at first (after a short Resistance) forced their way into the Castle. But the Lacedaemonians and Exiles (Valiantly renewing the Fight,) drove out the Beotians, and all with them, who were forced to return into the City, with the loss of about a Thousand Men.
And now the time of Celebrating the Isthmian Games approached, and a Contest fell out amongst them concerning the Ordering and Management of the Sports: And after much wrangling, the Lacedaemonians prevail'd, and gave to the Exiles the Authority of ordering that Affair: And because almost all the Skirmishes and Encounters in this War happen'd near to Corinth, it was call'd the Corinthian War, and lasted Eight Years.
The Quarrel between the Rhegians and Dionysius. Mago the Carthaginian settles Affairs in Sicily. Routed at Abacena by Dionysius. Rhegium near surpriz'd by Dionysius. The Acts of Iphicrates at Corinth, Phlias, and Sicyon. Amyntas lost his Kingdom of Macedonia, but was restor'd. The Romans take Veii; Dedicate a Golden Cup to Apollo. Their Ambassadors are taken by the Pirates of the Lipari-Islands, but discharg'd by Timasitheus.
MOreover, about this time they of Rhegium quarrelled with Dionysius in Sicily, because he had fortify'd Messina, as if he intended thereby some Mischief against them. Upon which they receiv'd into their Protection all that were driven out by Dionysius, and all others that hated his Government. Then they gave Mylas to the late Inhabitants of Naxus and Catana to be inhabited by them; and sent Heloris with an Army to besiege Messina; and while he in the first place besieg'd the Castle, the Townsmen with the Mercenaries of Dionysius drew out and fell upon him, routed him, and kill'd above Five hundred of his Followers. Then they presently set upon Mylas and took it, and and discharg'd all the Naxians that were there upon terms of mutual Friendship, who went to the Sicilian and Grecian Cities, some to one place and some to another.
Dionysius now having made a League with the Cities that lay upon the Sea-Coasts, determin'd to pass over with an Army against Rhegium: But for the present his Design was retarded by the Sicilians at Tauromenum, whom therefore he resolv'd in the first place to reduce; to which end he marched thither with all his Forces, and Encamp'd on that side towards Naxos, and continu'd his Siege all Winter, in hopes that the Sicilians would leave the Hill, because they had not been long there. But they having heard their Fathers declare that the ancient Sicilians (the former Inhabitants of that Place) were expuls'd thence by the Grecians when they arriv'd there, and built Naxus, they therefore concluded they had just cause both to defend their own Country, and to revenge the Injury done to their Ancestors by the Greeks, and so they defended the Place with great Resolution.
In the mean time, while the Dispute was hot on both sides, the Winter Solstice drew near at hand, and Winter coming on apace all the Places near the Castle were full of Snow; and Dionysius conceiving that the Sicilians by reason of the strength of the Place and height of the Walls, kept but a slender Guard in the Castle, he ascends those high and steep Places in a dark and tempestuous Night, and with much difficulty (by reason of the steepness Page 397 of the Rock, and depth of the Snow) at length with a scarr'd Face and half blind with Cold and Snow; possess'd himself of one part of the Castle: Then presently forcing into another, he laid open a Passage for his Army into the City: Upon which the whole Power and Strength of the Sicilians ran together, and drove the Dionystans out of the City and Castle; and he himself (by a blow upon his Brigandine) in the pursuit was knock'd down, and was very near falling alive into the hands of his Enemies. And in regard the Sicilians had the advantage of high Ground (from whence they gall'd the other) above Six hundred of Dionysius's his Men were kill'd, and many lost their Arms, Dionysius himself sav'd only his Corslet. After this Misfortune, they of Agrigentum and Messina (those that sided with Dionysius being at a great distance) were altogether intent upon regaining their Liberty, and therefore sent back Dionysius's Ambassador, who was order'd to them to renew and continue the Confederacy and League that then was between them and the Ty•ant.
About this time Pausanias, King of Sparta, fled out of his Country, by reason of some hainous Crimes laid to his charge by the Citizens when he had reign'd Fourteen Years: Agistpolis his Soft succeeded him, and continu'd as many years more? Then likewise dy'd Pausania•; King of Macedon, whom Amyntas treacherously murther'd after he had reign'd only one Year. Amyntas, who thus thus got the Kingdom, held it Four and twenty Years.
At the End of the Year, Demostratus was chosen Archon of Athens, and six Military Tribunes, Lucius Titinius, Publius Licinius, Publius Melius, QuintusMallius, Gneius Genutius, and Lucius Attilius, govern'd as Consuls at Rome. In their time Mago, the Carthaginian General was busie in Sicily, endeavouring to settle the Affairs of Carthage there, which were then but in an ill Condition, since the last slaughter and ruin of their Army. To this end he carry'd himself with all Mildness and Humanity towards all the Cities within his Government, and receiv'd all others into his Protection that were Enemies to Dionysius, and enter'd into Leagues with many of the Sicilians. At length he rais'd an Army, and march'd against Messina, and when he had wasted the Country he return'd with rich Booty, and Encamp'd near Abacena, a City of his Confederates. But Dionysius with his Army march'd up to him, and upon his approach both Armies were drawn out in order of Battel, upon which there was a sharp and hot Engagement, in which the Carthaginians were routed and fled to the City, with the loss of above Eight hundred Men: And Dionysius return'd to Syracuse. But within a few days after he made an Expedition against Rhegium with an hundred Sail well Mann'd; and coming upon them on a sudden in the Night, he set the Gates on Fire, and rear'd Scaling-Ladders to the Walls. A few only of the Rhegians at first ran to repulse the Enemy, and busied themselves in extinguishing the Fire; but by the advice of Heloris the Governor, they left the Fire, and fell with all their force upon the Enemy, and by that means sav'd their City. For if they had continu'd still in quenching the Flames, so small a number could not have kept out the Dionysians till the rest of the Citizens had come in to their assistance. For by throwing of Timber and other combustible matter from the Tops of the Houses next adjoining, they rather increas'd the Fire. Dionysius being thus disappointed in his design, wastes and destroys all the Country round about with Fire and Sword; but afterwards made a Truce with them for one Year, and so return'd to Syracuse.
In the mean time, the Grecians in Italy perceiving that Dionysius his Covetousness and Ambition extended as far as to their Countries, enter'd into a general League, and appointed a publick Place for their Common Assemblies. By this means they hop'd that they should both be able to oppose Dionysius, and likewise have an Army always ready to fight the Lucanians, who were ever and anon making inroads upon them.
While these things were doing, the Exiles that were in the Lecheum at Corinth, being let into the City in the Night, endeavour'd to possess themselves of the Walls, but were driven out again by Iphicratis, and forc'd to fly to the Arsenal, with the loss of Three hundred Men. Within a few days after, part of the Spartan Army march'd through the Territories of Corinth, and were suddenly fallen upon by Iphicrates and some other Confederates, who out off the greatest part of them. And marching from thence with his Light-arm'd Men against Phlias, he engag'd with them that came out of the Town, and kill'd above Three hundred of them. Hence he made against Sicyon, who drew out under the Walls and fought him, but were beaten and forc'd into the City, with the loss of Five hundred Citizens.
Page 398 After these things, the Argives with all their Forces came against Corinth, and took both the Castle and City, and join'd that Territory to their own. Iphicrates the Athenian had had a design to be Master of that Territory, as a Place conducing much to the gaining and keeping the Principality of Greece. But the People opposing it, he Abdicated the Government, and the Athenians ordered Cabrias to Corinth in his room.
In Macedonia Amyntas, the Father of Philip, was ejected out of his City by the Illyrians, who made an inroad into his Country, and despairing to keep his Kingdom, he gave the Olynthians the Territory next adjoining to them. However, though he lost his Kingdom at this time, yet soon after he recover'd it by the help of the Thessalians, and reign'd afterwards Four and twenty Years. Yet there are some that write, that after the Expulsion of Amyntas, Argeus reign'd in Macedonia for the space of Two years, and then Amyntas was restor'd. About the same time Satyrus, the Son of Sparticus, King of Bospherus, dy'd, after he had reign'd Fourteen years, and Leuco his Son succeeded him for the space of Forty years.
In Italy, after Eleven years Siege of the Veians, the Romans created Marcus Furius, Dictator, and Publius Cornelius, General of the Horse. Having rais'd an Army they storm'd Veii by undermining the Castle, raz'd the City and sold the Inhabitants for Slaves; after which the Dictator triumph'd, and the People of Rome dedicated a Golden Cup to the Oracle at Delphos, out of the Tenth of the Spoils. But they that carry'd the Offering were fallen upon by * Thieves or Pirates belonging to the Isles of Lapari, and were carry'd thither. Yet when Timasatheus who was then chief Magistrate of * Lisopara, heard of it, he not only protected the Messengers from all Injuries, but caus'd the Cup to be restor'd, and suffer'd them to pass safely to Delphos: Who, when they had deliver'd the Cup into the Treasury of the Messinians, return'd to Rome. And when the Romans understood how nobly Timasatheus had dealt with the Ambassadors, they presently so far honour'd him, as to enter into a League of Alliance and Friendship with him; and an Hundred thirty and seven years after, when they took Lipara from the Carthaginians, they order'd all the Posterity of Timasatheus to be quit of Tribute, and free in all other respects.
The Acts of Thrasybulus the Athenian General. The Carthaginians under Mago begin a new War in Sicily against Dionysius. A Peace concluded. Rhodes falls off from the Athenians. Evagoras becomes King of Salamis in Cyprus. Makes War against the Persians. The Acts of Thimbro, the Lacedemonian General in Asia.
WHen the Year was ended, Philocles was made Lord-Chancellor of Athens, and six Military Tribunes Publius Sextus, Publius CorneliusCrassus, Ceso Fabius, Lucius Furius, Quintus Servilius, and Marcus Valerius executed the Office of Consuls at Rome. At this time was celebrated the Ninety Seventh Olympiad, in which Terites was Victor. And then the Athenians order'd forth their General Thrasybulus with Forty sail of Men of War, who hasten'd to Ionia, and there being furnish'd with Money from the Confederates, he weigh'd Anchor from thence and arriv'd at Chersonesus, where he staid a while and procur'd Medocus and Seuthes, Princes of Thrace, to become Confederates. Presently after, he pass'd over to Lesbos, and anchor'd with his Fleet near to Eressus: But by a violent Storm Three and Twenty of his Ships were then lost. However, with those that were left he endeavour'd to reduce the Cities of Lesbos to their Obedience, for all had made a Defection, except Mitylene; and first he sets upon Methymna, and fought with the Citizens led by Therimacus, a Spartan, whom he kill'd, with many of the Methymnians his followers, and drove the rest within their Walls; and after he had made great Spoil and Havock in the Country, Eressus and Antissa were surrendered to him: Then (being furnish'd with Shipping from Chius and Mitylene,) he fail'd to Rhodes.
And now the Carthaginians having (after the Slaughter at Syracuse) at length recover'd their Strength, resolv'd to renew their Attempts for the bettering their Affairs in Sicily; and because they determin'd to try their Fortune by a Battel at Land, they pass'd over but with a few long Ships; but raised Soldiers out of Africa, Sardinia, and from among the Barbarians in Italy, and arm'd them all compleatly at their own Charge, and with these Page 399 they Landed in Sicily to the number of Fourscore thousand, under their General Mago; who marching through the Territories of the Sicilians, caused many Cities to desert and fall off from Dionysius, and at length Encamp'd at the River Chrysa in the Country of the Argyrineans, near the Road leading to Morgantinum: But when he could not bring over the Argyrineans to join with him either by fair means or foul, he made an Halt, and especially because he heard an Army was upon their march against him from Syracuse. For Dionysius having intelligence of the Motion of the Carthaginians through the Heart of the Country, without delay, got together what Forces he could, both Syracusians and Mercernaries, and march'd against the Enemy with no fewer than Twenty thousand Men. And when he came near to the Enemy's Camp, he sent Ambassadors to Agyris, Prince of the Agyreans, who at that time was the greatest and most Powerful Prince of Sicily next to Dionysius: For he had almost all the Castles and Strong holds lying round about, under his Power and Government, and the City of the Agyreans, which he commanded, was at that time very Populous, having in it no less than Twenty thousand Citizens. Besides, it was sufficiently provided with all sorts of Victuals, and a vast Treasure was laid up in the Castle, which Agyris had hoarded up from the Confiscations of the Richest of the Citizens whom he had put to Death. Dionysius therefore entring with a few into the City, gain'd Agyris to join with him, promising to bestow on him a large Territory next adjoining to him if he succeeded in the War.
Agyris then Freely and Liberally furnish'd Dionysius's Army with Bread and all other Provision, and afterwards drew out all his Forces, and join'd with him in the War against the Carthaginians.
But Mago being in an Enemies Country (and every day more and more pinch'd with want of every thing that was necessary) was very uneasie. For the Argyreans being well acquainted with all the Ways and Passes, often surpriz'd his Men and intercepted all Provision. The Syracusions were for fighting with all speed; but Dionysius would not yield to that, affirming, That Time and Want would ruin the Carthaginians without Fighting. Upon this delay the Syracusians were so enrag'd that they deserted his Camp: Hereupon he was in a great Fright, and forthwith made free all the Slaves. Yet afterwards the Carthaginians sending Ambassadors to treat upon Terms of Peace, he made Peace with them and forthwith restor'd the Servants and Slaves to their Masters.
The Conditions were like the former, but something fuller in this, That the Sicilians should be Subject to Dionysius, and that he should have Tauromenium.
When the Articles were Sign'd and Confirmed, Mago left Sicily, and Dionysius after his taking possession of Tauromenium, banish'd thence most of the Sicilians; and plac'd in their room the Choicest of his Mercenaries. Thus stood the Affairs of Sicily at this time. And in Italy the Romans took Falerum, a City of the Falisci by storm.
After the End of the Former, this Year Nicoteles executed the Office of chief Magistrate at Athens, and three Military Tribunes, Marcus Furius, Caius Aemilius, and Catlus Berus were vested with the Consular Dignity at Rome. At this time they of Rhodes that sided with the Lacedaemonians, expell'd all the Citizens that favour'd the Athenians; and when they got together in Arms to defend their Interest, the Lacedaemonian Confederates routed them with the slaughter of many, and proscrib'd all the rest that made their Escape. And because they were afraid lest the Citizens should be contriving some Innovations, they sent for Aid from Lacedaemon. Upon this, the Lacedaemonians setting out seven Gallies, sent away Eudocimus, Philodicus, and Diphila, to manage Affairs there; who arriving at Samos, caus'd the City to fall off from the Athenians. Then coming to Rhodes, they busy'd themselves in settling and composing Matters there. And now the Lacedaemonians seeing their Affairs to succeed and prosper, they resolved again to recover the Dominion of the Sea, and to that end prepar'd a Fleet, and by degrees brought in more and more Confederates to join with them. And for the same purpose they fail'd to Samos, Rhodes, and Cnidus, and getting together Shipping from all Parts, they Listed from thence the best Seamen they could get, and at length bravely Equipped a Fleet of Twenty seven Gallies.
At that time Agesilaus, King of Lacedaemon, hearing that the Argives lay Encamp'd at the Siege of Corinth, made an Incursion into the Territories of Argos with all the Forces of Sparta, except one Regiment, and having Plunder'd and Spoil'd the People of their Goods and Cattel, and cutting down the Trees all along through the Country, he returned to Sparta.
Page 400 In Cyprus Evagoras of Salamis, a Man of a Noble Family, (for he was descended from the Founders of that City) who was then sometime before expuls'd the City by a Sedition, (but return'd not long after) with a small number of Men his Consederates drave Abdemon the Tyrrian, Petit-Prince of Salamis (a Friend and Allie of the King of Persia) out of the City, and so at first became King only of Salamis, the Greatest and Richest City of Cyprus, but in a short time after, growing Rich, he raised an Army and purpos'd to bring the whole Island under his Dominion. To which end he gain'd some Cities by Force, and others he wan by fair Promises. But the Amathusians, Solians, and Citians, (resolving to stand it out) sent Ambassadors to Artaxerxes for aid, and charg'd Evagoras with the Killing of Agyris, the Persians Confederate, and promis'd to be assistant to the King in getting the Island into his Hands. The King therefore both to clip the Wings of Evagoras that he might not grow too strong, and for that he consider'd the commodious Situation of the Place for the supply and provision of the Shipping, whereby he might defend Asia, gave order to send Aid to the Islanders.
Dismissing therefore the Ambassadors, he sent Letters to all the Sea-Port-Towns and their Governors, to build with all speed what Ships they could, and to furnish them with Tackle, and all things necessary for the Use of the Navy. He commanded likewise Hecatomnus, Lord-Lieutenant of Caria, to make War upon Evagoras: And he himself (going through the Cities of the Upper Asia) sail'd thence with a great Army to Cyprus. And such were the Affairs of Asia at this time.
In Italy the Romans, after they had made Peace with the Falisci, began the Fourth War against the Equi; and took Sutrium by Storm, but lost the Town of Verrugo.
When this Year ended, Demostratus was chosen Archon, or Lord-Chancellor of Athens; and Lucius Lucretius, and Servilius Cossus, were Roman Consuls. At this time Artaxerxes declar'd Strutha his General, and sent him down with an Army to the Sea-Coasts against the Lacedaemonians; and they hearing of his March sent Thimbro their General into Asia against him, who possess'd himself of the Castle Jonda, and of the high and steep Mountain Corossus, about Forty Stages distant from Ephesus. From thence he wasted and spoiled the King's Provinces with Eight thousand Men that he had rais'd in Asia. But Struthas (who with a great Body of Horse, and Five thousand Heavy-arm'd Men, and with above Twenty thousand Light-arm'd, Encamp'd near to the Lacedaemonians) at length, when Thimbro was out with a Party, and had loaded himself with Plunder, on a sudden and by surprise, fell upon him and kill'd him, and took and kill'd many of his Soldiers, and the rest (being but few) escap'd to the Castle Cnidiniam.
At the same time, Thrasybulus the Athenian General, loosing from Lesbos, arriv'd with his Fleet at Aspendus, and Anchor'd at the River Eurymedon, and thô he receiv'd Contributions from them of Aspendus, yet some of his Soldiers Ravag'd and Plunder'd the Country, which highly provok'd the Aspendians, in so much, that in the Night, they set upon the Athenians, and kill'd many of them, together with Thrasybulus himself; which struck such a Terror into the Captains and Officers of the Fleet, that they forthwith return'd to their Ships, and sail'd to Rhodes, where finding that the City had deserted them, they join'd with the Exiles, that posess'd themselves of a certain Castle, and put themselves in Array against the City. But as soon as the Athenians heard of the Death of Thrasybulus, they dispatch'd away Argyrius to be General in his room. Thus stood the Affairs of Asia at that time.
Dionysius his Expedition against Rhegium. The War between the Lucanians and Thurians in Italy. The Thurians cut off by their own rashness. Leptines generously sav'd those that swam to his Ships, though he was a Friend to their Enemies. Dionysius his second Expedition into Italy, Besieges Caulonia and routs Heloris. Makes Peace with the Rhegians. Razes Caulonia to the Ground, and transplants the Inhabitants to Syracuse. Watches an Occasion to be reveng'd on them of Rhegium. Besieges it. He sends rich Chariots to the Olympick Games. His Poetry ridicul'd.
IN Sicily Dionysius the Tyrant of Syracuse, though he had a Design, and did what he could to bring all Sicily and the Neighbouring Greeks in Italy under his Power, yet deferr'd the Expedition against them to some other time, as we said before. Having therefore in the mean time, consider'd how greatly it would advance his Affairs if he could gain Rhegium (the Key of Italy) he now drew out his Army into the Field. He had then under his Command Twenty thousand Foot, and a Thousand Horse, and a Hundred and Twenty Gallies. With these he pass'd over to the Borders of Locris, and thence marching through the Heart of the Country he wasted and spoiled all the Territories of Rhegium with Fire and Sword: His Fleet attending over against him he at length Encamp'd with all his Forces near the Sea. But the Italians hearing of the Arrival of Dionysius, and his Design upon Rhegium, with all speed put forth sixty Sail from Crotona for the aid of the Rhegians. Whereupon, Dionysius made forth against them with fifty Gallies, and though they made to the Shore to avoid him, yet he pursu'd them so close that he threw Grappling-Irons into them, to draw them off from Land; and all the Sixty Sail had cettainly fallen into his hand, if the whole Body of the Rhegians had not with showers of Darts forc'd him from the Shore, and by the Advantage of a Storm (that then arose) hal'd up the Ships to Land. And thô Dionysius fought very Valiantly, yet he lost seven Gallies, and no less than Fifteen hundred Men on the Rhegian Shore; and both Ships and Men being thrown upon the Shore by the Storm, many of the Seamen were taken Prisoners by the Citizens. The Tyrant himself flying in a Vessel of Five Oars escaped drowning very narrowly, and landed at length with much difficulty, about Midnight at the Port of Messina. And because Winter now drew on, having made a League with the Lucanians, he return'd with his Army to Syracuse.
After this, the Lucanians made an Incursion into the Territories of the Thurians, upon which they sent forthwith to their Confederates for assistance: For the Greek Cities throughout all Italy had agreed together, That if the Lucanians fell upon any one of them, all the rest should come into the help of them that were so oppress'd. And if any City should not have their Forces ready to defend them, the Chief Commanders should be put to Death.
As soon therefore as the Cities had notice by the Posts of the march of the Enemy, the Thurians all unanimously prepar'd for the Encounter, and hastily and unadvisedly in an imprudent Heat, (not waiting for their Confederates) with above Fourteen thousand Foot and a Thousand Horse, march'd against the Enemy.
The Lucanians hearing of their approach, suffer'd them to enter into their Country: Upon which they pierc'd into Lucania with great Violence, and at the first were so successful as that they took a Castle, and carry'd away thence much Plunder, which was in truth but as a Bait laid in their way for their Destruction. For while they were puff'd up and grown high-crested with this Success, they contemned the Enemy, so far as that they daringly ventured through straight and craggy Passages (through the heat of Ambition and Covetousness) eager to possess themselves of a City and Country so bless'd with the Fulness of all things as that was: But as soon as they came into the Plain surrounded with high and steep Hills on every side, the Lucanians coming in with their Forces from all Parts intercepted all the Passages, leaving them no hopes of return any ways. And shewing themselves on every side from the tops of the Hills, the Grecians were struck with great Fear and Terror, both with the Greatness of their Army, and the Difficulty of the Places: For the Lucanians were no fewer than Thirty thousand Foot, and Four thousand Horse. While the Graecians were in this perplexity, unexpectedly surrounded with Page 402 insuperable danger, the Barbarians march'd down into the Plain, and Battle being join'd' the Italians were over-power'd by multitude, and above Ten thousand of them kill'd upon the spot; (for the Lucanians gave no Quarter, as they were before order'd) the rest fled to a Hill near the Sea side, from whence espying some long Ships sailing towards them, hoping that they came from Rhegium (out of eagerness to save themselves) they leap'd into the Sea, and some of 'em by swimming got to the Ships. But this Fleet proy'd to be Ships sent by Dionysius to the assistance of the Lucanians, under the Command of Leptines his Brother, who very generously receiv'd them that swam into his Ships, and set them all on Shoar (being about a Thousand) and prevail'd with the Lucanians to accept a Mina for every Man for their Ransom, and he himself engag'd for the payment, and so order'd Matters among them, that the Lucanians and Italians made peace one with another.
From this time Leptines was in great favour and much esteem with the Italians, having made an end of the War, more to his own, than to the advantage of Dionysius; who was in hopes that by means of the differences between the Lucanians and the Greeks of Italy, he should be able with much ease to accomplish his Designs there: but if he should make Peace, he judg'd his Conquest would be difficult. Therefore he discarded Leptines, and created Thearides his other Brother Admiral of the Fleet. During these Transactions the Romans divided the Country of the Veians; distributing to every one Four Plethra of Land, but as others say Eight and Twenty. At the same time they made War upon the Aequi, and took Liflus by Storm. They sent Forces likewise against the Veliternines who had revolted. Satricum likewise made a Defection; and a Colony was sent forth into * Certium.
At the close of the year Antipater was chosen Chief Governor of Athens, and Lucius Valerius, and Aulus Manlius were Roman Consuls. Now Dionysius King of Syracuse Declar'd openly his Design of a Descent upon Italy, and to that end loos'd from Syracuse with a numerous Army: For he had with him above Twenty thousand Foot and Three thousand Horse, a Navy of Forty long Ships, or Men of War, besides Three hundred Transport Ships for carrying of Corn and Provision. He arriv'd at Messina the Fifth day, and there refresh'd his Army; from thence he sent away Thearides his Brother with Forty Sail to the Lipari Islands, for it was reported that Ten Ships of Rhegium lay there; Thearides therefore hastning thither found out the Ships in a place fit for his purpose, and possessing himself of them, with all their Men on board, he forthwith return'd to Messina to Dionysius, who deliver'd the Prisoners bound in Chains to the custody of the Messinians. Then he Transported his Forces to Caulonia, and laid close Siege to the City on every side, and batter'd it with his Engines.
But the Greeks in Italy as soon as they heard of the Landing of Dionysius's Forces, rais'd Men and got together an Army from all parts. Crotona at that time was very populous, and many that fled and that were forc'd out of Syracuse inhabited there. The Chief Command and management therefore of the War was committed to them, and Heloris the Syracusian was made General of all the Forces. He was a valiant Man, and they concluded he would be faithful, because he hated the Tyrant, who had banish'd him out of his Country. When he had muster'd all the Confederate Army at Crotona, and order'd all things as he thought fit, he hasted away with a swift March towards Caulonia, hoping by coming upon them suddainly and unexpectedly, he should not only raise the Siege, but likewise rout them with ease, being harass'd and tyr'd out with their continual toil and labour in assaulting the Town. His Army consisted of Twenty thousand Foot, and Two thousand Horse. Having marched the greatest part of his way, he encamp'd at the River Heloris; thereupon Dionysius drew off from the City to meet the Italians: Upon which, Heloris at the head of Five hundred of the choicest Men in the Army march'd before the rest. Dionysius encamping about Forty Stages from the Enemy, understood by his Spies that the Italians drew near, upon which he forthwith very early in the Morning, rouz'd his Soldiers from Sleep, and commanded them to march forward, and about break of day fell upon the Helorians, with his Army in good order of Battle, giving the Enemy no time to get into a Body: so that Heloris was in a great strait, and with those he had with him, bore the brunt of the Enemies whole Force; but in the mean time he sent away some Friends to the Camp to bring up the rest of the Army with all speed, who diligently executed their Orders; Upon which, the Italians hearing in what hazard their General was, ran in a great hurry to his assistance. But Dionysius with a well-order'd Body of Men, doing execution in every place, cut off Heloris and almost all his Party, tho' they fought with great Resolution and Gallantry. For the Italians coming in to their help, but scattering, and by parties, 〈◊〉 Sicilians (keeping orderly together) easily Page 403 overcame them. However, the Crecians for some time despis'd danger, and suffer'd much, tho' they saw great numbers of their fellows lie dead upon the spot. But when they heard of the death of their General (in great confusion) they trode down and kill'd one another, and at last, being totally discourag'd and out of heart, they fled out-right: Upon which many were kill'd up and down in the fields, and the rest betook themselves to a Mount sufficiently fortify'd and very defensible, save that it wanted Water. Dionysius block'd up the place with his Army, and closely guarded it all that day, and the following night: The next day they that were in the Hill (being much incommoded by the heat, and by lack of Water) sent a Trumpet to Dionysius, that they might have liberty to ransom themselves:) Who at length (growing moderate in the height of his good Fortune) sent them word that they should lay down their Arms, and surrender themselves upon discretion. Upon return of these harsh and hard Terms, they held out longer for some short time: But being grievously press'd by the necessity of Nature, and almost Starv'd, they surrendred themselves about the Eight Hour. Dionysius hereupon numbred them as they came down, by striking the ground with a Staff, and they amounted to above Ten thousand. They were all afraid he would have been as cruel as a wild Beast; but he then approv'd himself the mildest of all Men living. For he discharg'd all the prisoners without Ransom, and made Peace with them, and suffer'd the Cities to Govern according to their own Laws. For which great Grace and Favour he was highly Honour'd, and his Name was so great that they presented him with Golden Crowns. And this was the most worthy Action that ever he did almost throughout his whole Life.
From hence he march'd with his Forces against Rhegium, with a design to besiege it. to be reveng'd for their slight of him, in denying him a Wise from some of their own City. The Rhegians were greatly terrify'd at his approach, for they had neither Confederates nor Forces of their own sufficient to cope with him; besides, they foresaw that there was no Mercy to be expected, if the City were taken: Therefore they sent an Ambassador to him to intreat him to shew them Favour, and to use them like Men. Upon which he demanded a Tribute of Three hundred Talents, and that they should deliver into his hands all their Fleet (which were Seventy in number) and send out to him an Hundred Hostages, all which terms were agreed unto.
Whereupon he mov'd towards Caulonia, and transported all the Inhabitants of that place to Syracuse, and incorporated them into the City, and granted to them freedom from the publick Taxes for the space of Five Years. As for Caulonia it self, he raz'd it to the Ground, but gave the Territory to the Locrians. About the same time, the Romans (after the taking of the City Lifaeca from the Aequi,) celebrated the stately Plays which the Consuls had vow'd to Jupiter.
After the end of the year, Pyrrhio executed the Office of Lord Chancelor of Athens the next, and Four Military Tribunes, Lucius Lucretius, Servius Sulpitius, Caius Aemilius, and Caius Rufus, were invested with the Consular Dignity at Rome. Then was acted the Ninety eighth Olympiad, wherein Sosippus the Athenian carry'd away the Prize. About the same time Dionysius the Prince of Syracuse entred Hipponium with his Army, and Transported all the Citizens to Syracuse, and when he had raz'd the Town, he gave the Lands to the Locreans; for he was always very desirous to oblige them, because they so readily comply'd with him in the business of his Marriage. On the other hand he studied Revenge upon the Rhegians for their denial. For when he sent an Ambassador to them to Treat with them to send him a Virgin of some of their Citizens to be his Wife: It's said the Rhegians answer'd his Ambassadors, that he should have none from them except it were the Hangman's Daughter. Being highly incens'd at this gross abuse (as he took it to be,) he continually studied how to be reveng'd. For he made not peace with them the year before out of any design of Kindness or Friendship with them, but only out of a desire he had to possess himself of their Fleet of Seventy Sail. For he knew he could easily take the City, when they could have no aid or assistance by Sea. To this end he made several Halts, and delayd as much as he could his drawing his Forces out of Italy, waiting for some colourable pretence or occasion to break his League with the Rhegians, without any refleicton upon his Honour. Drawing therefore his Forces down to the Sea side, he prepares all things necessary for his passage; and then desires that the Rhegians wou'd furnish him with Provision for his Army, and he would send them as much back again from Syracuse. His design in this was, that if they refus'd to supply him, he thought he might have a just ground to raze their City; and if they readily answer'd his Request, then, after their Corn and Provision was spent (upon laying Siege to the Town) he might with more ease (through their scarcity of Food) possess himself of the Page 404 place. The Rhegians, not suspecting any thing, for some few days furnish'd him liberally. But when he delaid and trifled away the time, sometimes pretending himself sick, other times framing other excuses; they at length smelt his design, and therefore forbore sending any further Provision to his Camp. Upon which, Dionysius seeming to be much enrag'd at this affront, return'd to them all the Hostages, and beg〈…〉ing the Town round with his Forces, assaulted it every day; and with a great number of Engines (of an incredible bigness) so batter'd the Walls, as if they had been shaken by a Storm and Tempest, so earnest was he to gain the City. The Rhegians on the other hand, (having made Phile their General) order'd all that were of Age and Strength to take up Arms, and to keep strict Guards; and spying a fit opportunity, they made a vigorous Sally; and burnt the Enemies Engines; and often skirmish'd out of the Walls with that Valour, and Resolution (to the exasperating of the Enemy) that they both lost many of their own, and kill'd no few of the Sicilians: Nay, Dionysius himself was so wounded with a Lance about the Privy Parts, that he was very near losing his Life, it being a long time before he recover'd. Notwithstanding, tho' the Siege was tedious, and the Rhegians resolv'd to defend their Liberty, yet he imploy'd his Soldiers in continual Assaults, not in the least receding from his former design and purpose. The Olympick Games in the mean time drawing on, he sent to that Solemnity many Chariots drawn with Four Horses apiece, and exceeding swift; and likewise Tents glistering with Gold, and adorn'd with rich and various Embroideries of admirable Workmanship; and with these he sent likewise the most skilful Singers to advance his own praise by the reciting of Poems compos'd by himself; For he was (even to madness) given to Poetry, and he committed the care and oversight of all these things to his Brother Thearides, (who when he came to the ground (by the multitude of the Chariots, and richness and splendor of the Tents and Pavilions) attracted the Eyes of all the Beholders. And when the Singers began to recite the Poems of Dionysius, the People at first ran together, and greatly admir'd the sweet and pleasant Airs of the Stage-Players. But as soon as they perceiv'd how bad and Ballad like the the Verses were, they ridicul'd Dionysius, and despis'd him to that degree, that they rist'd the Tents. Lystas likewise the Orator then at Olympid, advis'd the People that they should not admit any of those Procurators sent by so wicked a Tyrant to have any thing to do with those Sacred Sports. At which time he made the Speech styl'd by him The Olympick Oration. And how the Race began, and it so happen'd, that the Chariots of Dionysius were some of 'em driven out of the Line, others were broken in pieces by dashing one upon another. Neither did the Ship prosper better which convey'd the Procurators: For in their return from the Games to Sicily, they were forc'd by violence of a Tempest to Tarentum, a City in Italy. And it is reported that when they came to Syracuse they spread it abroad, That the badness of Dionysius's Verses had not only disgrac'd the Singers, but prejudic'd both the Chariots and the Ship. However, tho' he knew that his Verses were hiss'd at, yet still he addicted himself to Poetry, being told by his Flatterers, that those thrt envy'd every thing that was Noble and Brave, would at length admire what they then despis'd. At that time the Romans slew a great number of the Volsci in the Battel at Gurasum.
The Peace of Antalcidas. The War by the Persians against Evagoras in Cyprus The miserable Condition of Rhegium: It's Surrender'd. The cruel usage of Philo the Governor of Rhegium, and of his Son. The Expedition of the Galls against Italy. The Romans routed by the Galls at the River Allia. Rome taken by the Galls. The Romans Besieg'd in the Capitol. The Volsci Revolt from the Romans. The Galls routed by Marcus Furius in their return. All cut off afterwards in the Plains of Trausium.
WIth these Actions the year ended, and now Theodotus was made Chief Magistrate of Athens, and Six Military Tribunes executed the Consular Authority at Rome: Quintus Caesus, Sulpitius Aenos, Caesus Fabius, Quintus CerviliusPublius Cornelius, and Marcus Claudius. At this time the Lacedemonians tir'd out with the War both against the Greeks and Persians, order'd their Admiral Antalcidas to go to Artaxerxes to strike up a Peace. When he had deliver'd his Ambassage to the King, he answer'd, that he would Page 405 make Peace with the Grecians, upon condition, that all the Greek Cities in Asia should return to their Obedience, and that the rest of the Grecians should all Govern their Cities, according to their own Laws; and that if any should stand out and not submit to these Conditions, it should be lawful for him to make War upon them, by them that did agree. These Terms were allow'd, and so the Lacedemonians rested from War. But the Athenians and Thebans, with some others were much vex'd, and highly concern'd to see the Cities of Asia thus betray'd, but not being able to contend with Persia by their own strength they were forc'd to embrace Peace upon the same Terms.
And now the King being free from the long and tedious War with the Grecians; he prepar'd and made ready an Army for the Cyprian War. For Evagoras had rais'd a vast Army almost throughout all Cyprus, taking advantage of Artaxerxes his being engag'd in a War with the Greeks.
In the mean time Dionysius having continu'd the Siege of Rhegium now for the space of Eleven Months, and obstructed all ways and means of Relief, he brought the Besieg'd to the utmost extremity, through want of all things necessary, For it's reported that at that time a Bushel of Wheat was sold for Five Minas: and the Famine was so great that they first eat up their Horses, and then all other Beasts of Burden, and at length fed upon boild Skins and Leather. And at the last they came out of the Town, and like Cattle began to eat the Grass that grew under the Walls: so that to supply Nature they were forc'd to feed upon those things proper to the Beasts of the Field for want of Man's ordinary Food. When Dionysius heard what the Rhegians did, he was so far from commiserating them who were sunk in Misery, below the common condition of Mankind, that he added to their Affliction, and put in his Carriage Horses, and other Draught Cattle to Graze there where they us'd to feed, and so eat up all that poor Provision which was only left for them. The Citizens being thus overcome by extream Famine (no longer to be born) were forc'd to deliver up themselves and their City to the Tyrant's Mercy. When he entred he found heaps of Carkasses lying in the Streets who perish'd for want of Bread: and those that were alive were like walking Ghosts, lean, and almost pin'd away by Famine: However, he got together above Six thousand Prisoners, and sent them to Syracuse, with Orders, that whoever paid a Mina might be redeem'd: and for those that were not able, he sold them all for Slaves. Phyto the Governour he bound in Chains, and caus'd his Son to be hurl'd into the Sea, and fastned Phyto himself to the top of one of his highest Engines, that the severity of his punishment might be taken notice of by all, and sent one of his Guard to tell him that his Son was drown'd the day before; to whom Phito answer'd, that his Son was by one day more happy than his Father. After this he order'd him to be whip'd through the City, and to be scoff'd and scorn'd, and undergo all sorts of Cruelty; A Cryer the mean time making Proclamation; That the Raseal was so severely dealt with, because he stirr'd up the City to the War. But Phito (who had all along thro the Siege approv'd himself a valiant Commander, and during his whole Life was Esteem'd and Honour'd) was not then the least discourag'd at Death, but with an undaunted Courage cry'd out That he thus suffer'd because he would not betray the City to Dionysius; However, God would revenge him of the Tyrant in a short time. This admirable Courage and brave Spirit of the Man began to work compassion in some of Dionysius's Soldiers; so that they began to murmur: Upon which, Dionysius (being afraid lest Phito should be rescu'd) left off tormenting him, and order'd the miserable Man with all his Kindred to be drown'd in the Sea. Thus suffer'd this worthy Man, who deserv'd much better than to undergo so heavy and dreadful a punishment. And many Grecians there were who griev'd for his sad misfortune, and several Poets in after times made Elegies upon his mournful and lamentable end.
At the same time when Dionysius lay at the Siege of Rhegium, the Gauls who lay beyond the Alps pass'd over those straits with a numerous Army, and possest themselves of all the Country lying between the Apenine Hills and the Alps, driving thence the Tyrrhenians the natural Inhabitants. Some say they were Colonies sent thither from Twelve Cities in Tyrrhenia; Others say they were Pelasgians, who before the Trojan War fled out of Thessaly at the time of Deucalion's Flood, and setled themselves in these parts. As for the Gauls they were a People that were divided into several Tribes, and dwelt in several Countries. Those call'd the Senones inhabited the Mountain furthest from the Sea of all the other Mountains, and because the Heat was excessive and troublesome to them, they resolv'd to seek for themselves some more commodious Habitations. To this end they sent forth the ablest of their young Men well Arm'd, to find out some other Seats, who making an irruption into Tyrrhenia with Thirty thousand Men, wasted and spoil'd the Territories of the Caulonians.
Page 406 About this time the Romans sent Ambassadors into Tyrrhenia to gain intelligence what this Expedition of the Gauls meant: Who when they came to Clusium, and saw the Armies on both sides drawn up in Battalia ready to engage, with more Valour than Prudence, they join'd with them of Clusium, and sought with the Enemy. And one of the Ambassadors by good fortune kill'd one of the Noblest Commanders of the Gauls; who when they heard of it, sent Ambassadors to Rome, to require the Ambassador who had kill'd the Gaul to be deliver'd up to them, as one that had begun an unjust War. Upon which, the Senate would have persuaded the Ambassadors to have accepted Money in satisfaction of the injury; But when they refusd it, it was Decreed that the Person should be deliver'd. Upon this, the Father of him who was to be given up into the Enemies hands (being then of Consular Dignity, and one of the Military Tribunes, and being likewise very rich, and of great Interest and Account with the Commonalty) referr'd the decision of the matter to the People, and so easily procur'd the Judgment and Decree of the Senate to be repeal'd. From this time the People began to rescind the Decrees of the Senate, tho' ever before they always submitted to them.
But the Ambassadors of the Gauls return'd to their Camp, and Declar'd what Answer was given them by the Romans: Upon which they were in a great Rage, and increas'd their Army with new rais'd Forces out of their own Country, and forthwith march'd towards Rome with above Seventy thousand Men.
When the news came to Rome, the Military Tribunes commanded all that were able to bear Arms, to List themselves, who marching out of the City pass'd over Tyber, and came with all their Forces unto a River Fourscore Furlongs from Rome; where when they understood that the Enemy was near at hand, drew up their Army in this manner; Their best Soldiers, to the number of Four and twenty thousand, they posted all along from the River to the Hills adjoining, the rest were plac'd upon the rising Grounds. On the other hand the Enemy out winging the Romans, their strongest and ablest Soldiers (whether on purpose or by chance is uncertain) fronted those weaker and unexperienc'd Soldiers on the Hills. And now the Trumpets on both sides sounded a Charge. Whereupon the Armies ran one upon another with a great shout. And those Gauls that set upon them that were upon the Hills, presently clear'd the place of them, who fled in great confusion to their own Men into the Plain; so that by their flight, and the hot pursuit of the Gauls, they broke and disorder'd their own Army, and put them likewise to the Run. And while the greatest part of them made to the River, and in great precipitation and confusion, trode down one another, the Enemy without intermission kill'd all still that were in the Rear, so that the whole Field was cover'd with dead Bodies. Some of the stoutest of those that fled to the River, swam over with their Arms, prizing them as much as their Lives: But many of them, (through the violence of the Stream, and the weight of their Arms) were drown'd. Some with great difficulty (after they had fled a long way, and in by paths, with much a do) escap'd. However, many (still pursu'd close by the Enemy, who made a great slaughter among them upon the Bank of the River,) threw away their Arms and swam over Tiber. And tho' the Gauls had cut off so many upon the Shoar, yet such was their continu'd Rage, that they cast their Darts and Javelins after them that took the Water. And many Darts being hurl'd amongst shoals of them that were swimming, no small execution was done, so that some were kill'd forthwith, and others so wounded, that through loss of Blood, and strength of the Current, they were spent and carry'd away by the Stream.
The greatest number of those that escap'd from this sad Overthrow of the Romans, took into Ve•• lately ruin'd by them, and fortifying the Place as well as they could, receiv'd the rest that fled thither. Those few who swam the River, and return'd unarm'd into Rome, related how the whole Army was destroy'd, which sad News greatly amaz'd all those that were left in the City: For the Strength and Flower of the Citizens being now cut off, they look'd upon themselves unable in the least to resist. And besides, to aggravate their Misery, it seem'd to them impossible to fly with their Wives and Children, without the greatest Hazard imaginable, the Enemy being so near: Therefore many of the ordinary sort remov'd with their whole Families to the neighbouring Towns and Villages. But the City-Magistrates encouraging the People, order'd that Victuals and all other Necessaries should be brought into the Capitol; by which means, both the Castle and Capitol was fill'd not only with Meat and Provision, but with Silver and Gold, and all sorts of rich Garments and Attire, Goods of all kinds throughout the whole City being heap'd together in this one Place; for they had but three Days time to remove what was moveable, and to fortifie the Place: For the Gauls spent the first Day (according to the Custom of their Country) in cutting off the Heads of those Page 407 that were slain; the other two Days they lay quiet in their Camp, now close to the City. For when they discern'd that the Walls were left bare and undefended, and yet heard a confus'd Noise (occasion'd by the bringing in of Houshold-Goods and other Things useful into the Capitol) they suspected some Stratagem was designing against them. But the fourth Day, when they came to understand the Truth, they broke down the Gates, and laid all the City in rubbish, except a few Houses upon Mount Pallatine: And tho' afterwards they press'd upon them in the Capitol with continual Assaults, yet they within suffer'd little by it, but many of the Gauls perish'd. However, they stuck close to the Siege, hoping tho' they could not gain the Place by force, yet at least in time, when all the Provision and Victuals was spent, they might possess themselves of the Fort.
While the Roman Affairs were thus perplex'd, the Tuscans their Neighbours made an Incursion with a great Army into their Territories, and wasted and destroy'd all before them. But when they had got many Prisoners and much Spoil and Plunder into their hands, the Romans that had fled to Veii set upon them on the sudden, and put them to flight, and not only recover'd all the Spoil, but likewise possess'd themselves of all their Tents: And by this means being furnish'd with a great number of Arms, they arm'd their Fellow-Soldiers, who hitherto were unarm'd since the late Defeat, and got together a Company of Country-Fellows from several Parts, and likewise arm'd them: For they had a design to raise the Siege of the Capitol, but were most perplex'd and concern'd how to give notice of their Purpose to the Besieg'd, in regard the Gauls so straitly block'd it up. Upon this, one Pontius Caminius undertook to get into the Capitol; to which end he pass'd on himself alone, and privately in the night swam over the River, and ascending a steep Rock of the Capitol with great difficulty, drew himself up, and so came to the Besieg'd, and acquainted them that they of Veii were in a Body, and that they intended to fall upon the Gauls upon the first Opportunity; and having deliver'd his Message, he return'd to Veii the same way he came. But when the Gauls perceiv'd, by the Impressions of a Man's Feet, that some Person had lately pass'd that way into the Castle, they determin'd to attempt to make an Entry by climbing the Rock in that part: And to that end, about midnight (the Guards being careless, trusting to the Strength of the Place) some of the Gauls got up to the top, but were not taken notice of by the Watch, but the Geese, dedicated to Juno, that fed there (seeing them appear above the Walls) presently made a great gagling and noise, which so alarm'd the Watch, that they all ran to the Place; upon which, the Gauls now betray'd and afrighted, durst not proceed any further.
In the mean time, that famous Man Marcus Manlius hasting to the Defence of the Place, cut off the Hand of a Gaul, as he was raising himself to recover the Wall, and by a thrust in his Breast with the Boss of his Buckler, cast him down headlong from the top of the Rock; and another being destroy'd after the same manner, the rest in all haste retir'd; and because the Rock was very steep (being in a great terror and amazement) they all miserably perish'd. The Romans hereupon sending Ambassadors to 'em to treat upon Terms of Peace, obtain'd it upon these Conditions: That upon receiving a Thousand pound weight of Gold, they would leave the City, and depart out of the Roman Territories.
After this, because the Houses were destroy'd, and many of the Citizens kill'd, the Romans gave leave to every one that would to build, and roof'd and cover'd all the Houses at the Publick Charge, which were therefore ever after to this day call'd the Publick Houses. And because every Man built according to his own Humour where he pleas'd, the Streets were made very narrow and crooked, which (notwithstanding the Riches of the City) in succeeding Times could never be reform'd. Some have reported, that the Roman Matrons gave all their golden Ornaments for the redeeming of their Country; for which they have this Honour allow'd them, That they may at any time be carry'd in Chariots through the City.
The Romans being thus impoverish'd and brought low by the late Calamity, the Volsci took the advantage, and rais'd Arms against them. Upon which, the Consular Tribunes got their Forces together, and march'd out into the Campus Martius (as 'tis call'd) and encamp'd about Two hundred Stages from the City. The Volsci far exceeded the Romans in number, and set upon their Camp: Upon which, the Senate, much concern'd for them in the Field, made Marcus Furius Dictator, who ordered the young Men in the City to take up Arms, with whom he march'd out in the night, and came upon the backs of the Volsci (when they were very busie and intent in assaulting the Romans) and easily put them to flight: Upon which, they within the Camp sallying out, the Volsci by this means Page 408 were hemm'd in on every side, and almost all cut off. And thus this Nation, who were before a strong and potent People, by this Overthrow were brought extream low and weaker than any of the Nations round about them.
The Dictator afterwards hearing that Bola was besieg'd by the Aequi, march'd thither, and kill'd most of the Besiegers. Thence he mov'd to Sutrinum, a Colony of the Romans, but then possess'd by the Aequi, and falling upon them on the sudden, he made a great Slaughter among them, and restor'd the City to them of Sutrinum.
About this time the Gauls in their march from Rome besieg'd Veascus, a Confederate City of the Romans; upon which, the Dictator march'd against them, fought and routed them, and seiz'd their Bag and Baggage, amongst which was the Gold weigh'd at Rome, and recover'd almost all the Prey and Plunder they had gain'd in taking of the City. And though he had perform'd all this good Service, yet the Tribunes of the People through Envy deny'd him a Triumph. Yet some relate, that he did Triumph in a Chariot drawn with four white Horses for the Victory against the Thuscans, and within two Days after was fin'd by the People in a great Sum of Money, which we shall mention hereafter in its proper place.
Those Gauls that went to Japygium, design'd to return through the Roman Territories; but the Cerii laid an Ambush for them in the Night, and cut them all off in the Plains of Trausium.
Callisthenes the Historian began his Grecian Memoirs from this Year, wherein the Peace was made between the Graecians and Artaxerxes, and ended them with the Year the Temple of Delphos was taken and rifled by Philomelus the Phocian, comprehending an Account of Affairs for the space of Thirty Years in Ten Books. And now being come to the Peace between Artaxerxes and the Greeks, and the Danger threatned to Rome by the Gauls, according to our purpose at the beginning, we shall put an end to this Book.
The Histories of Herodotus written in 440 BC is considered to be the founding work of history in Western literature. His history included stories and fables but he claimed to have traveled extensively and learned about many countries through direct observation.
The thesis of Stolen Legacy is that the Egyptians created what is wrongly called Greek philosophy. Dr. James argues that the African origin of Greek Philosophy is well known but rarely discussed. Ancient Greek historians such as Herodotus and Diodorus the Sicilian wrote in significant detail about the contributions of Egypt. Egyptian technology and libraries were unmatched and Greek philosophers such as Pythagoras and Plato studied there. The contribution of Africa to the intellectual foundation of modern knowledge is tremendous but unacknowledged.
The Library of History by Diodorus the Sicilian is one of the most highly regarded universal histories in antiquities. His work includes the history of Egypt, Asia, Africa, Greece and Europe. His book is a must read for research of ancient history.
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