HAving throughout the whole Work us'd the Common and accustom'd Libertyof an Historian, we have both prais'd the Good, and condemn'd the Bad as they have fallen in our way, to the end that those whose Genius and Inclination prompts them to Virtue, may be the more encourag'd to Noble Actions, in hopes of having the Glory of their Names continu'd to all succeeding Generations; and on the other hand, that they that are bent to Wickedness may be curb'd and restrain'd from the Heat, at least, of their Impiety, by those marks of Dishonour and Disgrace fix'd upon them.
Since therefore we have brought down our History to the times wherein the Lacedaemonians fell by the sudden and unexpected Slaughter at Leuctra, and the like again not long after at Mantinea, whereby they lost the Sovereignty of Greece; We judge it part of our Province to keep close to the former Course and Method of Writing, (and therefore by the way in the first place to blame and reprehend the Lacedaemonians who justly deserve it: For who cannot but judge them worthy of Censure, and that justly, who having a well-settled Empire and Government descended to them from their Ancestors, and by their Valour supported and defended for the space of above Five hundred Years, should now in a Moment ruine it by their own Folly and Imprudence? For they that were before them, preserv'd the Grandeur and Glory of their Conquests, by their Lenity and Tenderness towards their Subjects, but these their Posterity by their Cruelty to their Confederates, and Pride and Ambition in making War upon the Grecians, most deservedly lost all by their Rashness and Inconsideratness. For those that hated them for the Injuries they had before suffer'd, greedily took the advantage now they were low, to revenge themselves on them as their Enemies. And they whose Forefathers were never before Conquer'd, were so much the more despis'd, by how much they deserv'd the greater Contempt, who by their Vices had stain'd the Virtue and Glory of their Ancestors.
The Thebans therefore (who for many Ages before were forc'd to stoop to them as their Superiors; having now (beyond all Mens expectations) conquer'd the Lacedaemonians) were made Chief Commanders of Greece: But the Lacedaemonians, after they had once lost their hold, could never after recover their ancient Glory and Dignity. But enough of this, we shall now return to the Course of our History.
The preceding Book, the Fourteenth in Order, ends with the Ruine of Rhegium by Dionysius, and the Taking of Rome by the Gauls, which happen'd the Year next before the Expedition of the Persians into Cyprus against Evagoras. We shall her begin this Book with that War, and end it with the Year next preceding the Reign of Philip the Son of Amyntas.
Artaxerxes's Expedition against Evagoras in Cyprus. The Actions there at Sea and Land. The Lacedaemonians begin new Quarrels in Greece. As first with Mantinea. Dionysius gives himself to Poetry. Peace concluded with Evagoras by Orontes the Persian General. Terabazus brought to his Tryal. Judgment upon corrupt Judges. Terabazus acquitted.
IN Athens Mystichides was Archon, and at Rome three Tribunes were invested with Consular Authority; Marcus Furius, Caius and Aemilius, when Artaxerxes King of Persia, began his Expedition against Evagoras King of Cyprus The King had spent much time in preparation for the War, and rais'd a great Number of Forces both for Sea and Land from all Parts. For his Land-Army consisted of Three hundred thousand Horse and Foot; and he Equipp'd a Fleet of above Three hundred Gallies Orontes was made General of the Land-Army, and Terabazus a Man highly honour'd among the Persians, Admiral of the Fleet. These headed their Armies at Phocea and Cuma, and descended to Cilicia, and from thence pass'd over to Cyprus, where they very vigorously bestirr'd themselves for the carrying on of the War.
In the mean time, Evagoras entred into a League with Acoris King of Aegypt, who supply'd him with a great Number of Men, being himself then in War with the Persians. He was likewise privately furnish'd with Money by Hecatomnus, the Governor of Caria, to help him to hire Foreigners. And several other Enemies of Persia, some secretly, others openly, confederated with him in the War. He had likewise many Cities of Cyprus under his Command, with whom join'd Tyre in Phenicia and other Places. Moreover, he had a Navy of Ninety Sail, of which Twenty were from Tyre, and the rest of Cyprus. His Land-Army consisted of Six thousand of his own Subjects, but those from his Confederates were many more: Besides, being richly supplied by them with Monies he hir'd abundance of Mercenaries. And the King of Arabia and other Princes, who were jealous of the King of Persia, sent him great Forces. Being thus supported he applied himself to the War with great Courage and Resolution.
And in the first place with his Privateers (of which he had many) he intercepted the Enemies Transport-Ships loaden with Victuals and Provision, and sunk some, disabled others, and took several besides; so that there began to be great Scarcity and Want of Corn in the Persian Camp, in regard the Merchants durst not sail to Cyprus, where that great Army and Body of Men were got together: And this occasion'd a great Mutiny its the Army, for the Mercenaries for want of Bread knock'd some of their Officers on the Head, and fill'd the Camp with Mutiny and Tumult to such a degree, that the Persian Colonels, and Admiral of the Fleet called Gaos could scarcely quell it. The Fleet therefore sent to Cilicia for Provision, which return'd with a great Quantity of Corn from thence, by which the Camp was ever after plentifully supply'd. But as to Evagoras, Acoris sent to him out of Aegypt Money, Corn, and all other things necessary, sufficient for his Occasions.
Evagoras finding that his Navy was far too weak for the Enemy, furnish'd out Threescore Ships more, and sent for Fifty besides from Acoris, so that now he had a Fleet of Two hundred Sail. And having his Navy thus bravely Furnish'd and Equipp'd ready for a Battel (after he had some time Train'd and Exercis'd his Men not without terror to his Enemies) he prepar'd for a Fight at Sea. But it happen'd, that as the King's Fleet passed by towards Citium, falling suddenly upon them in an orderly Line of Battel, he gain'd by far the Advantage, fighting in good order with Ships in Confusion and Separated, (and with Premeditation engaging with Men surpriz'd and taken at unawares) he presently at the first onset routed them: For charging in a Body together, upon Ships dispers'd and in confusion, they sunk and took several of them. But afterwards when the Persian Admiral and other Officers gather'd up their Spirits, they bravely received the Enemies Charge, so that the Engagement grew very sharp, in which Evagoras at the beginning had the better, but Gaos with great Courage bearing in upon him with his whole Fleet, the Evagrians fled with the loss of many of their Gallies.
Page 411 The Persians having gain'd this Victory, muster'd both their Land and Sea-Forces at Citium, where furnishing themselves with all things necessary, they went jointly to besiege Salamis, and block'd it up both by Sea and Land. But Terabazus, after the Sea-Fight put over to Cilicia, and went to the King to bring him the News of the Victory, from whom he brought back Two thousand Talents for the carrying on of the War.
Evagoras before the Fight at Sea had routed part of the Enemy's Army at Land, which much encourag'd him to further Attempts: But after his sad Misfortune at Sea, and that thereupon he was straightly besieg'd, his Spirits grew very low: However, conceiving it necessary to continue the War he put the Supream Power into the hands of his Son Pythagoras, and left him to defend the City, and he himself privately in the Night undiscorn'd by the Enemy, with Ten Gallies loos'd from Salamis, and sail'd into Aegypt; where having Audience of the King, he endeavour'd to persuade him to make War upon the King of Persia with all the Power he had.
While these things were on foot in Asia, the Lacedaemonians (without any regard to the League made) decreed to march with an Army against Mantinea, for the Reasons following. There was now Peace all over Greece; by the Negotiation of Antalcidas, by virtue whereof all the Cities were freed from Garisons, and govern'd according to their own Laws. But the Spartans (naturally Ambitious, and a long time contriving how to begin a War) look'd upon the Peace as a heavy Burden, and (coveting to gain their ancient Dominion) began to endeavour Innovations. To this end by their Tools and Creatures, they stirr'd up Seditions in the Cities, and thence took occasion to disturb the present State of Affairs. For they who were Freed and set at Liberty to govern according to the Laws of their own Country, call'd them to an account who acted as Magistrates under the Lacedaemonians, and being somewhat severe and sharp (through the fresh Resentment of the late Injuries suffer'd) they banish'd many; upon this the Lacedaemonians protected those who were depress'd by the contrary Faction, and restor'd them by force of Arms, and by that means first impos'd upon the weaker Cities, and brought them into Slavery: But afterwards they gave Laws to Cities and Places of great Account, not having kept the League two years together. And now because Mantinea was near to them, and full of Valiant Men, and by the Peace grown very Rich, they were jealous of it, and resolved to bring down the Lordly Spirits of those Inhabitants: In the first Place therefore, they sent Ambassadors to them to require them to demolish their Walls, and to settle themselves again in those Five Villages from whence they anciently remov'd to Mantinea: But their demands being slighted, they forthwith marched thither with their Forces and besieg'd the City.
Upon this, the Mantineans, sent Ambassadors to Athens for Aid, but the Athenians would by no means do any thing that might be constru'd a Breach of the Publick League, so that they valiantly Defended the Place, and oppos'd the Enemy with their own Forces. And thus Greece now began again to be embroil'd in new Wars.
In Sicily Dionysius the Tyrant of Syracuse being steed from the War with the Carthaginians, Reign'd a long time in Peace and Prosperity; and with great intention of Mind employ'd himself in writing of Verses, and sent for Poets far and near, whom he had in high Esteem, and made his Familiars, to whose Judgments and Opinions he referr'd the Censure of his Poems. Being flatter'd by these in Panegyricks of Praise for their own Interest, he grew highly conceited of himself, and was Prouder of his Poems than of his Conquests. Philoxenus, a Composer of Dithyrambicks, and one Familiar with him, a very excellent Poet in his kind, when at a Feast some of the Foolish Verses of the Tyrant were recited, he was ask'd how he approved of them, who answering something too Freely and Plainly, incurr'd the Tyrants displeasure: Who looking upon himself abus'd (through Envy) commanded his Guard to carry him away to work as a Slave in the Quarries. But the next Day, through the Mediation of Friends he was reconciled to him. And afterwards, at a Feast to which he had again Invited the same Persons, when he was in his Cups he highly extoll'd his own Poems, and Singing some of them (which he thought none could Excel) He ask'd what he thought of those? To which he answer'd not a Word, but call'd for Dionysius his Guards and wish'd them to carry him away to the Quarries Dionysius at that time for the Jest sake put it off with a Laughter, thereby (as he thought) taking off the Edge of the Reproof. But not long after, when both Dionysius and the rest of the Poets wish'd him to forbear that unseasonable Freedom of Censuring, Philoxenus made a Promise that seem'd to be a Paradox, That for the future, He would both speak the Truth, and also please Dionysius himself; and he perform'd his Word: For when the Tyrant afterwards recited some Verses which set forth some sad and mournful Passages, He ask'd Page 412 him how he approved of them? He answer'd, Miserable! therein performing what he had promis'd by the ambiguity of the Word. For Dionysius understood it as if he meant the subject Matter of the Verses was very Sad and Miserable; and set forth very pathetically, which sort of Poesie was rarely attain'd unto but by those who were of the higher form of Poets; and therefore he look'd upon himself highly applauded by him; but others interpreted what he said with more truth, that that word Miserable denoted the Badness of his Verse.
Not far unlike to this, was that which happen'd to Plato the Philosopher, whom Dionysius sent for, because he was a Man eminent in Philosophy, and for some time at the first he greatly honour'd him. But taking offence at something he said to him, he hated him to that degree, that he order'd him to be brought into the Common Market-place, and there sold as a Slave for Five Minas: But the Philosophers (who consulted together upon the matter) after redeem'd him, and sent him back to Greece, with this Friendly Advice, That a Philosopher should very rarely Converse with Tyrants; and when he did; he should be of a Gaining Behaviour.
However, Dionysius went on with his Study of Poetry, and sent Stage-players that could sing excellently well, to the Olympick Games, there to sing his Verses, who indeed at the first catch'd the Auditors by the Ears with the sweetness of their Voices; but when they consider'd further of the Matter and Composure of the Poems, they went away, and set up a great Laughter. When he heard how his Verses were Despis'd and Hiss'd off the the Stage, he fell into a great Fit of Melancholly, which growing upon him Day by Day, he rag'd at length like a Madman, and cry'd out, That every one Envy'd him, and were Plotting to take away his Life, till it came to his very intimate Friends and Relations. In this temper he arrived at last to that height of Madness and Melancholy, that he put many of his Friends to Death upon False Accusations, and Banish'd several others amongst whom were Leptines, his Brother, and Philistus, Men of Valour and undaunted Courage, who had done remarkable Service for him in the War. They fled to the Thurians in Italy, and were there in great Esteem among them: But afterwards they were restor'd to the Tyrant's favour by his own seeking, and were not only brought back to Syracuse, but regain'd his former good Opinion, and enjoy'd their Places of Power and Authority as they did before. And Leptines marry'd Dionysius his Daughter. And these were the Transactions of this Year.
When Dexitheus bore the Office of Lord Chancellor of Athens, and Lucius Lucretius, and Servitius Sulpitius, were Roman Consuls, Evagoras, King of Salamis, return'd out of Aegypt into Cyprus, where when he found the City closely besieg'd, and all his Confederates to have Deserted him, he was forc'd to send Ambassadors to seek for terms of Peace. Terabazus, who had the Sovereign Power and Command, return'd him answer, That he would make Peace with him, upon Condition he would quit all the Cities of Cyprus, and be content only with Salamis, and yield a yearly Tribute to the King, and be observant to all his Commands, as a Servant to his Master: To which terms, though they were very hard, he submitted, excepting that one, That he should be obedient in all things as a Servant to his Master. But he said he would agree to be Subject to him as one King to another: Which Terabazus would not consent unto; upon this, the other General, Orontes, who envy'd Terabazus, sent Letters privately to Artaxerxes to accuse him; as first, That whereas it was in his Power to take Salamis by force he wav'd it, and had treated with the Enemy, in order to bring about some Innovations for the common Advantage of them both: That he had entred into a private League with the Lacedemonians: That he had sent Messengers to the Oracle at Delphos, to consult about making War upon the King: And as a matter of the greatest concern that he might gain all the Officers of the Army to be his Creatures; he had Brib'd them with Gifts, Preferments, and many large Promises. When the King had read these Letters (believing all to be true) he writ back to Orontes to seize upon Terabazus, and to send him forthwith to him: Whereupon he executed the Command, and when Terabazus came before the King, he desir'd he might be brought to his Legal Trial; upon which he was committed into Custody: But the Trial was long deserr'd, because the King presently after was engag'd in the War against the Carducians.
In the mean time, Orontes now Chief Commander of the Army in Cyprus, seeing Evagoras courageously defend the Place, and perceiving his own Soldiers discontented with the seizing of Terabazus and to slight his Commands, and fall off from the Siege, fearing some sudden Misfortune, sent to Evagoras, and a Peace was concluded upon the same Terms he would have agreed with Teribazus. And thus Evagoras (beyond his own Expectation) Page 413 freed from absolute Slavery, enter'd into a League, upon Conditions that he should pay a Yearly Tribute to the King, and be Sovereign Lord of Salamis, and Subject to the King no otherwise than as one King to another. And thus ended the Cyprian War which was spun out near Ten years, though most of that time was only spent in Preparation, and not above two Years of it in actual War.
But Gaius, the Vice-Admiral of the Fleet, who had marry'd the Daughter of Terabazus, was in great pain lest he should suffer something or other out of suspicion of his being Familiar and Conversant with Terabazus: Therefore he resolv'd to be before hand with the King, and to that end being well furnish'd with a brave Navy, and having the Love of the Sea-Captains and Officers, he began to advise and consider of a Defection; and forthwith without any further stop enter'd into a League with Acoris, King of Aegypt, against the great King of Persia. He stirr'd up likewise the Lacedaemonians by his Letters, and amongst other large and glorious Promises, he engag'd he would assist them in settling their Affairs in Greece, and maintaining and supporting their Sovereignty. And in truth the Spartans had sometime before been contriving how to recover the Sovereign Power over the Graecians, and at that time had given clear indications (by their disturbances) of their design to Enslave the Cities. And that which further'd the Matter was, they repented of the Peace made with Artaxerxes, because they were Charg'd and Accus'd to have betray'd all the Graecians in Asia by that League with the King, therefore they were very ready to catch at an Opportunity to renew the War; and to that end very chearfully made a League with Gaius.
After Artaxerxes had ended the War with the Cadusians, he brought Terabazus to his Trial, and referr'd the Cognisance of his Cause to Three Honourable Persons. Near this time some Corrupt Judges were flead alive, and their Skins spread round the Judgment-Seats, that those that sate there might always have an Example before their Eyes of the Punishment due to Injustice, to deterr them from the like.
The Accusers therefore of Terabazus produced against him the Letters of Orontes, earnestly pressing them as sufficient Evidence to convict him. On the other hand, Terabazus, that he might make it evidently appear that the Accusation was a meer Scandal, contriv'd between Orontes and Evagoras, produc'd the Agreement between them, whereby Evagoras was to obey the King as a King himself, and no otherwise; and that the Terms upon which Terabazus would have made Peace, were, That Evagoras should be observant to the King as a Servant to his Master. And as to the Oracle, he brought all those Graecians that were at that time present, to testify, That the God return'd not any Answer relating to the Death of any Person. And as to the good Correspondence between him and the Lacedaemonians, he declar'd that he enter'd into a League with them not for any private Advantge of his own, but for the Profit and Advantage of the King. For by this means (he told them) the Graecians in Asia being divided from the Lacedaemonians were made better Subjects and more Obedient; and going on with his Defence, he put the Judges in mind of his former remarkable Services to the Crown.
Amongst those which clearly manifested his Faith and Loyalty to the King, and which deserv'd the greatest Commendation, and chiefly (as was said) wan the King's Heart, was this, That when the King was one day in his Chariot a Hunting, two Lions ran fiercely upon him, and tearing the two Chariot-Horses in pieces, they made at him, at which instant Therabazus came fortunately in, kill'd both the Lions, and so rescu'd the King. It's likewise reported of him, that he was a Person of extraordinary Valour, and of so sound and solid a Judgment in Council, that the King never miscarry'd when he follow'd his Advice.
When Terabazus had ended what he had to say in his own defence, all the Judges with one Voice acquitted him, and pronouc'd him Innocent of all the Crimes and Offences laid to his Charge. But the King afterwards sent for the Judges to him severally, and examined every one by himself, upon what Grounds of Law they pronounc'd the Accus'd, Innocent. To whom the first answer'd, That the Matter of the Accusation was Uncertain and Dubious, but his good Services were Clear, Apparent and Manifest to all. Another said, That thô those things objected against him were true, yet that all his Faults were over-ballanced by his Deserts. The Third justify'd his Vote to discharge him, by declaring, That he had no regard to his Merits, because the King had rewarded them above their Deserts, but upon strict Examining the Nature of every particular Charge, it did not appear to him that the Party accus'd was guilty of any of them. Upon which the King commended the Judges, as Just and Upright Men, and advanc'd Terabazus to the highest Places of Honour. But as to Orontes, he discarded him as a False Accuser, and noted him with all the Marks of Ignominy and Disgrace. And thus stood Affairs in Asia at this time.
Mantinea Besieg'd by the Lacedmonians. Dionysius aims to gain the Islands of the Adriatick Sea. The Parii built Pharos. Dionysius his Expedition into Hetruria Prepares for War against the Carthaginians. The Sicilians routed at Cronion. The quarrel between the Clazomenians and them of Cuma, about Leuce. The War between Amyntas and the Olynthians. The Lacedemonians seize the Citadel Cadmea at Thebes. Eudamidas breaks into the Olynthians Country.
IN Greece the Lacedemonians press'd on the Siege of Mantinea; and the Mantineans bravely defended the place all that Summer. For they were reputed the most valiant Men of all the Arcadians, and therefore the Spartans in former times were us'd to account these their fastest and truest Friends in all Fights and Engagements. But when Winter drew on, and the River running under the Town swell'd high by the Rains, the Lacedemonians dam'd up the River with Earth and Rubbish, and turn'd the Current into the City, so that all the place round about was like to a standing Pool; by reason whereof the Houses fell down, which amaz'd them of Mantinea, that they were forc'd to deliver up the City: Which being thus taken, the Citizens suffer'd no other hardships from the Lacedemonians, save only that they were order'd to return to those Ancient Villages from whence at first they came: they were forc'd therefore to leave their Country, and settle themselves and their Families in the Villages.
About this time Dionysius the Tyrant of Syracuse had a design to gain the Cities lying upon the Adriatick Sea, and that which chiefly mov'd him to it, was because he covered to be Master of the Jonian Sea (as they call it) to the end he might have a free and open passage to Epirus, and to have Towns and places for his Ships ready to touch at. For he was every day making preparation to Transport great number of Forces into Epirus, and to rifle and plunder the rich Temple at Delphos. To this end he made a League with the Illyrians by the help of Alcetas the Molossian, who was then an Exile at Syracuse And the Illyrians being then engag'd in a War, he sent them Two thousand Soldiers, and Five hundred Grecian Arms: the Arms they distributed amongst the strongest and stoutest of their Men, and the Auxiliaries they mixt here and there in several of their own Companies and Regiments. The Illyrians having now rais'd a great Army; made an irruption into Epirus, in order to restore Alcetas to his Kingdom, and wasted and spoil'd the Country without opposition or controul. Afterwards a sharp Battle was fought between them and the Molossians, in which the Illyrians were Victors, and kill'd above Fifteen thousand of the Molossians, which Slaughter of the Epirots being made known to the Lacedemonians, they sent them aid to curb and bridle the fierceness and cruelty of the Barbarians.
During the transaction of these Affairs, the Parii by the encouragement of an old Prophecy, sent forth a Colony to the Adriatick Coast, where they built Pharos by the help of Dionysius, in an Island so call'd. For not many years before he had sent a Colony thither, and built the City Lyssus: by the advantage of which place (when he had little else to do) he rais'd an Arsenal for Two hundred Gallies, and Wall'd the Town in so large a Circuit, that it exceeded in compass all the Cities of Greece. He likewise built stately Schools and Colledges on the on the side of the River Anapus, with Temples and other beautiful Fabricks to advance the Glory and Greatness of the City.
And now ended the Year: when Diotrephes, for the next was Archon of Athens; and Lucius Valerius, and Aulus Manlius were Roman Consuls. At Aelis was solemniz'd the Ninety ninth Olympiad, in which Dicon the Syracusian wan the Prize. At this time the Pharii (who were now seated in the Island Pharos) Wall'd in the City they had built near the Sea side, not in the least injuring the Barbarians, the Ancient Inhabitants of the Island; but allotted them a place very strong, and excellently well fortify'd. But this nestling of the Greeks was a great Eye-sore to the natural Inhabitants; therefore they sent for the Illyrians bordering upon the Continent over against them, who pass'd over to Pharos in many small Vessels, to the number of Ten thousand Men and upwards, and fell upon the Greeks and kill'd many of them. But he who was made Governor of LyssusPage 415 by Dionysius, with a great Fleet, set upon the Shipping of the Illyrians; and took and sunk all of them, kill'd Five thousand of their Men, and took Two thousand prisoners.
Dionysius being now in great want of Money, began an Expedition with Threescore Gallies into Hetruria, under colour to scour the Seas of Pyrats, but in truth to rob a famous Temple in those parts, which was very full of rich Gifts and Donations. It stood in the Suburbs of Agylla, a City of Hetruria, where was the Arsenal which they call the Towers. He landed in the Night, and forcing in at break of day, accomplish'd his Design. For there being but a small Guard in the Castle, he easily over-power'd them, rifled the Temple, and took out above a Thousand Talents.
And tho' they of Agylla sally'd out to repel the Enemy, yet he routed 'em, took many prisoners, and after he had wasted and spoil'd the Country, sailed back to Syracuse, where he rais'd no less than Five hundred Talents by the sale of the Spoils. Having thus fill'd his Coffers he rais'd Soldiers from all parts, and got together a great Army, so that it was evident (to the apprehension of all) that he design'd War against the Carthaginians. And these were the things done this year.
Afterwards the Dignity of Archon was conferr'd upon Phanostratus at Athens. And the Romans made Four Military Tribunes Consuls, Lucius Lucretius, Servius Sulpitius,Lucius Emilius, and Lucius Furius. At this time Dionysius the Tyrant of Syracuse being prepar'd for the War against Carthage, watch'd for a fair occasion to colour and countenance his Design. Discerning therefore that the Cities subject to the Carthaginians were inclin'd to a Revolt, he receiv'd into his Protection as many as would come to him, and enter'd into a League with them, carrying himself with great complacency and winning behaviour. Upon this, the Carthaginians first sent Ambassadors to him, and demanded the restitution of the Cities, which being deny'd, was the occasion of a new War.
The Carthaginians therefore entred into Confederacies with their Neighbours, and all join'd together in the War against the Tyrant. And because they prudently foresaw the greatness of the War, they Listed Soldiers out of the choicest of the Citizens, and laid up great Sums of Money wherewith they hir'd a vast number of Foreigners: And having made Mago their General (who at that time bore the Title of King) they Transported many Thousands of Soldiers both into Italy and Sicily, for they had decreed to make War upon them both at once. Dionysius likewise himself divided his Forces, some against the Italiots and others against the Carthaginians: Whereupon many light skirmishes pass'd between Parties here and there every day, but nothing was as yet done of any moment. But there afterwards hapned Two great Battles that were especially famous and remarkable, in one of which, at a place call'd Cabala, Dionysius made himself noted for his Valour, and routed the Enemy, killing above Ten thousand of them, and taking Five thousand prisoners, forc'd the rest to fly to a Hill that was fortify'd, but altogether without Water. In this Fight Mago their General was kill'd, behaving himself with great Gallantry and Resolution. The Carthaginians terrify'd with the greatness of this Slaughter, sent forthwith Ambassadors to make Peace with Dionysius; but he return'd them Answer, that there was only one way left for them to make peace with him, and that was forthwith to quit all the Cities of Sicily, and to reimburse all the charge of the War. This Answer was lookt upon as harsh and proud. Therefore they betook themselves to their old Arts of Fraud and Deceit. For they seem'd as if they allow'd of his terms, but pretended that it was not in their power to deliver up the Cities to him, therefore they desired a Truce for some few days that they might consult with the Magistrates concerning this Affair, which he agreed unto. He was much transported at the Truce, having now a prospect presently (as he conceiv'd) to be Lord of all Sicily. In the mean time the Carthaginians bury'd Mago their King with great Pomp and State, putting his Son into the same place, who tho' he was very young, yet there were marks and appearances in him of more than ordinary Wisdom and Valour. This new General spent all the time of the Truce in Training and Disciplining of his Soldiers, so that, what with his daily Diligence, exact Directions, and frequent exercise of their Arms, he had an Army both readily subject to Command, and hardy and strong for Service. And now the time of the Cessation expir'd, and the Armies on both sides came hastily into the Field; and at Cronion was a sharp Engagement, where God gave the Carthaginians the Victory to make amends for their former slaughter. For they who were grown proud, and boasting by their Victory a little before, were now as low and poor spirited. On the other hand, they who were altogether dejected, and in despair, by reason of their overthrow, had their Spirits on a sudden rais'd by their great and unexpected success. Page 416 For Leptines who commanded one of the Wings, a valiant Man, signaliz'd himself, and there sell in the Bed of Honour, after he made a great slaughter amongst his Enemies. After whose Fall, the Carthaginians pluckt up their Spirits, and at length put their Enemies to flight. Dionysius with those choice Men he had with him, at the first worsted those that charg'd him; but when the death of Leptines was known, and the other Wing was discern'd to be broken and dispers'd, that part of the Army with Dionysius fled likewise: Upon which, the whole Body betaking themselves to their heels, the Carthaginians made a hot pursuit, and gave Orders that no Quarter should be given, so that all being kill'd that came to hand, every place for a long way together was strow'd and cover'd with dead Bodies. The Carthaginians in revenge of their former loss had made so great a slaughter, that when the slain came to be bury'd, they were found to amount to above Fourteen thousand Sicilians; and it was by the advantage of Night only, that the rest escap'd. The Carthaginians having now gain'd so great and remarkable a Victory, return'd to Panormas: However, (as it became Men) they us'd their Prosperity with great Moderation, and sent Ambassadors to Dionysius to offer him Terms of Peace, which he readily embrac'd; And all was concluded upon these conditions, That both sides should keep what they had before the War, save only that the Carthaginians should have the City and Territory of Selinuntia, and part of the Country of Agrigemum, as far as to the River Alycum, and that Dionysius should pay a Thousand Talents to the Carthaginians. And thus stood Affairs in Sicily at that time.
In Asia, Gaius, Admiral of the Persian Fleet, who had rebell'd against the King, after he had engag'd the Lacedemonians and Aegyptians to his Interest, was Murther'd secretly by some body unknown, and so fall'd of his Designs. After whose Death Tachos pursuing the same Design, got an Army together and built a City upon an high Rock joining to the Sea, call'd Leuca, where he built a Chappel to Apollo: but he dy'd likewise a little after; upon whose death the Clazomenians, and they of Cuma fell at strife and variance for the Town, which at first they went about to decide by force of Arms: But afterwards by the advice of some Person consulting the Oracle of Delphos, to know to which of the Cities Leuca should belong, The Prophetess Answer'd, That it should be theirs who should first sacrifice at Leuca; but that both should set forth from their Cities at the rising of the Sun, upon one and the same day, as they themselves should agree upon. Accordingly the day was set, the Cumeans in the mean time lookt upon themselves to have the advantage, because their City was nearer than the other. But the Clazomenians, tho' they were more remote, yet contriv'd this project to gain their end. They sent some of their Citizens chosen by Lot to a Colony of theirs not far from Leuca, and from thence at Sun rising they began their Journey, and so finish'd their Sacrifices before them of Cuma. Having gain'd Leuca by this trick, in memory thereof they appointed a yearly Festival, which they call'd Prophthasia, from this their coming first to Leuca. These things thus done, all Rebellions in Asia were at an end; and the Lacedemonians now after the death of Gaius and Tachos would have no more to do with Asia; but set their Heads at work how to advance their power in Greece. And having persuaded some of the Cities, and forc'd others to receive their Exiles, they possess'd themselves of the Sovereighty of the whole, manifestly against the League amongst all the Grecians made by Antalcydas, by the help of the King of Persia.
In Macedonia King Amyntas (after he was overcome by the Illyrians, in despair of being able to help himself) bestow'd a large Tract of Land upon the Olynthians, which lay near to them, as never thinking to be restor'd again to his Kingdom. The Olynthians enjoy'd this Peace for some time, but when the King recover'd strength, and was re-instated into his former Dignity, he demanded restitution of the Land, which the Olynthians deny'd. Upon which, Amyntas rais'd both an Army of his own, and enter'd into a League with the Lacedemonians, and prevail'd with them to send a General with a great Army against the Olynthians. The Lacedemonians resolving to fix in those parts of Thrace, rais'd an Army out of their own Citizens and Confederates, to the number of Ten thousand Men, over which they made Phoebidas, that Spartan, General, and commanded him to join with Amyntas and make War upon the Olynthians. They sent out another Body against the Phaeuntians, whom they subdu'd, and forc'd to submit to their Government.
About this time the Two Lacedemonian Kings having different Sentiments disagreed one with another. For Agesipolis was a lover of Peace, and a Just and Wise Man, and therefore Declar'd against oppressing the Greeks. For he said that Sparta would become infamous amongst all the People, if after they had been instrumental in making the Grecians in Asia Slaves to the Persians, they should now enslave all the Cities of Greece to Page 417 themselves, whose Liberties they had sworn in the common League to preserve inviolable. On the other hand Agesilaus being naturally Turbulent and inclin'd to War, thirsted after Dominion over the Grecians.
Afterwards when Menander was Lord Chancellor of Athens, and six Military Tribunes, Quintus Sulpitius, Caius Fabius,Cornelius Servilius, Quintus Servilius, Sextus Annius, and Caius Marcius bore the Consular Dignity at Rome, the Lacedemonians seiz'd upon Cadmea, the Citadel of Thebes, for the Reasons following. They had for some time before consider'd how Boetia was full of Towns and Cities, and that the Inhabitants were Men both of stout Hearts, and strong Bodies; and especially that Thebes which continu'd to that Day in its ancient State and Grandeur, was even the Guard and Bulwark of all Beotia; therefore they were afraid lest at some fit opportunity or other, they should become Lords of Greece: For this Reason they gave private Instruction to their Commanders, to seize upon Cadmea as soon as they could spy out an opportunity. Phoebidas the Spartan General in his March against the Olynthians (remembring his Instructions) Surpriz'd Cadmea, which so enrag'd the Thebans, that they rose in Arms, but were beaten, and he Banish'd three hundred of the most eminent Citizens, and put all the rest into a great fright; and leaving there a strong Garrison, March'd away in pursuance of the business he had chiefly in hand.
All the Grecians every where complain'd of the Lacedemonians for this unworthy Act. And they indeed themselves Fin'd Phaebidas for it, but could not be brought to withdraw the Garrison. And thus the Thebans were Robb'd of their Liberty, and brought under the pow'r of the Lacedemonians. But the Olynthians resolutely persisting in the War against Amyntas King of Macedon, Phaebidas was order'd to lay down his Commission, and Eudamidas his Brother was made General, and sent away with Three thousand heavy arm'd Men to carry on the War against the Olynthians, who breaking into the Olynthians Coun¦try, joyntly with Amyntas fell upon them; but the Olynthians being good Soldiers, and overpowring the other in Number, beat them both. Upon this the Lacedemonians rais'd a great Army, and made Teleutias, King Agislaus his Brother General, who was a Man of high Esteem among the Citizens for his Valour, who as soon as he entr'd to the Borders of Olynthus, was join'd with the Forces of Eudamidas; and now being strong enough to fight the Enemy, he first Spoil'd and Wasted the Country, and Divided the Prey (which he had got together in abundance) amongst the Soldiers. Afterwards the Olynthians march'd out with their own, and the Forces of their Confederates. Upon which the Armies Engaged and at the beginning, the Battle was doubtful; but afterwards the Fight was renew'd with that extraordinary Courage and Resolution, that Teleutias bravely acquitting himself, and above Twelve hundred Lacedemontans more, were there kill'd upon the Place. The Spartans being nettl'd at this Success of the Olynthians, made greater Preparations in order to repair their Loss: So on the other hand, the Olynthians suspecting that the Lacedemonians would bring down greater Forces upon them, and that the War might continue long, furnish'd themselves with store of Corn and Provision, and Aids from their Confederates.
Demophilus was now Archon at Athens, and Publius Cornelius, Lucius Verginius, LuciusPapurius,Marcus Furius, Valerius Aulius, Manlius * Lucius, and Posthumius Quintus, Military Tribunes, were Consuls at Rome when the Lacedemonians decreed War against the Olynthians, and made their King Agesipolis General over an Army of Force sufficient for the Expedition. As soon as he entr'd the Enemies Country, he join'd with those that were Encamp'd there, and forthwith fell to Action. The Olynthians this Year fought no considerable Battle; but kept the Kings Army in play (whom they were afraid to Encounter) with continual pickeering, and light and frequent skirmishes.
Polypidas sent General by the Lacedemonians against the Olynthians. A great Plague in Carthage. The Beotian War. Cadmea retaken. A Confederacy of the Cities against the Lacedemonians. Cleombrotus attempts to Surprize the Pireum at Athens. The Athenians Seize Actea in Eubea. Agesilaus enters Beotia. The Sea-fight at Naxus.
AFter the end of the Year, Pytheas was Created Chief Magistrate of Athens; and six Military Tribunes bore the consular Authority at Rome, Titus Quintius, Lucius Servilius, Lucius Julius, AquiliusDecius, Lucretius Anchius, and Servius Sulpitius. At that time was Solemnized the Hundred Olympiad at Elis; in which Dionysiodorus the Tarentine bore away the Prize. In the mean time Agestpolis King of Lacedemon died in the fourteenth Year of his Reign; and his Brother Cleombrotus succeeding him, Reign'd Nine Years. But the Lacedemonians Constituted Polybidas General, and sent him forth against the Olynthians. He swore all his Souldiers to be true and faithful to him, and gain'd many Victories, managing the War with the Valour and Conduct that became a good General. At length improving his good Fortune and frequent Sucesses, he drove the Olynthians within their Walls, and pinning them up, so Terrifi'd them, that he forc'd them to Submit to the Lacedemonians as their Sovereign Lords. As soon as the Olynthians were Enroll'd among the Confederates of the Spartans, many other Cities sought to come under the same Protection. And now the Power of the Lacedemonians was in its greatest Strength, as being Lords of all Greece, both by Sea and Land; For the Thebans were overaw'd by a Garrison; the Corinthians and Argives were tyr'd out with Wars one with another; the Athenians for their Covetousness and Cruelty exercis'd among those they had Subdu'd, were despis'd by all the Grecians. On the other hand all were afraid of the Lacedemonians, because they were very Populous, expert Soldiers, and unweari'd in their Attempts: Insomuch that the greatest of the Princes in those times (I mean the King of Persia, and Dyonysius the Tyrant of Sicily) Courted the Spartans and were ambitious of their Alliance.
Afterward when Nico govern'd at Athens, and Six Military Tribunes were Created Consuls at Rome; Lucius Papyrius, Caius Cornelius, Lucius Manlius, Caius Servilius, Valerius Aulius, and Quintius Fabius, the Carthaginians enter'd with an Army into Italy, and Restor'd the Hipponiats to their City, whence they had been Expuls'd, and kindly receiv'd all the Exiles that came in to them from all Parts.
Not long after a great Plague happen'd in Carthage, which Raging more and more, swept away abundance of the Inhabitants; insomuch that they were in great danger to have lost their Sovereignty. For the Africans slighted and deserted them, the Inhabitant; of Sardinia (supposing they had now a fit opportunity) Revolted, and rose up in Arms against them. Moreover, a Remarkable Judgment of God fell upon Carthage at this time, for the City was all on a sudden in an uproar, fill'd with Tumult, Fear, and Horrour; and many running Arm'd out of their Houses (as if an Enemy had entr'd the Place) Fought, Wounded and Killd one another in the Streets. At length the Gods being Appeas'd by Sacrifices; and they deliver'd out of their sad Afflictions, they presently Subdu'd the Africans, and Recover'd Sardinia.
After these things, when Nausinicus chief Governor of Athens, and four Military Tribunes, Marcus Cornelius, Servilius Quinctius, Marcus Furius and Lucius Quinctius were Cloth'd with the Consular dignity at Rome, the Beotian War (so call'd) broke out, between the Beotians and the Lacedemonians upon the Accounts following. The Lacedemonians against all Law and Justice forcibly detain'd the Citadel of Cadmea, and had forc'd many Persons of Quality to fly out of their own Countrey: The Exiles therefore upon a private Consult among themselves (by the help of the Athenians) return'd in the Night into their City, and in the first place kill'd all those they judg'd sided with the Lacedemonians, surprizing them in their Houses, when they were asleep; then they stirr'd up all the Common People to appear for their Liberties, upon which the whole City of Thebes readily came in to their assistance; and getting into a Body, clapt about Cadmea at break of Day. In the mean time the Lacedemonian Garrison that was in the Citadel, which consisted of no fewer than Fifteen hundred Men, sent a Messenger to Sparta to inform them of the Insurrection in Thebes, and to desire Aid with all speed. However Page 419 they from the Bastions in the Citadel beat off the Besiegers, killing and wounding many. Upon this the Thebans concluding that great Forces would be brought out of Greece to the assistance of the Lacedemonians, sent Ambassadors to Athens, to put them in mind how they had been assisted by the Thebans at that time when they rescu'd their Commonwealth from the Slavery they suffer'd under the Thirty Tyrants, and therefore that they should press them that they would hasten with all the force they had to help them to Reduce Cadmea, before any Aid came from Sparta.
The People of Athens, as soon as they heard what was desir'd by the Thebans, decreed that without delay, a Strong and Considerable Army should be sent to help them to regain their Liberty, both to demonstrate their Gratitude for their former Services, and likewise hoping thereby so to oblige the Thebans as that they should ever find them fast and constant Friends to assist them at all times, against the growing and boundless power of the Lacedemonians. For the Thebans were lookt upon not to be Inferior to any in Greece, for number or valour of Men. In conclusion, the Athenians made Demophoon General over Five thousand Foot, and Five hundred Horse, who drew out before Day next Morning, and hasted away with a swift March, that he might be before the Lacedemonians; however the People of Athens were ready and prepar'd to March out with all their Forces into Beotia, if the Thebans had occasion for them. Demophoon with great expedition (beyond expectation) appear'd in view of them of Thebes; and Souldiers came together with the like Zeal and Earnestness from other Cities of Beotia, so that the Thebans had now a numerous Army, consisting of no less than Twelve thousand Foot, and about Two thousand Horse; and all Chearfully and Readily bestirr'd themselves to Besiege the Citadel. The Army divided themselves into parties, and assaulted the Place by turns, persisting without any Cessation Night and Day. In the mean time, they in the Castle (incourag'd by their Officers) bore the Brunt with great Courage; hoping to receive speedy Succours from the Lacedemonians: And indeed they Valiantly stood it out while they had any Victuals left, killing and wounding many of the Assailants, having the advantage of the strength of the Fort. But when their Provision grew low, and the Lacedemonians lingr'd in sending Relief, the Garrison began to Mutiny.
For the Lacedemonians were for the standing of it out to the last Man; but the Auxiliaries from the Confederate Cities (who were the greater number) were for delivering it up; so the Spartans, who were but few, were forc'd to Surrender the Citadel, and being dismiss'd according to Articles, return'd to Peleponnesus. At length the Lacedemonians came with their Army to Thebes, but having lost their opportunity through the slowness of their March, all was to no purpose. But they Try'd three of the Officers of the Garrison by a Council of War, and Condemn'd two of them to Die, and impos'd so great a Mulct and Fine upon the Third, as that he was never able to pay it. Afterwards the Athenians return'd into their own Country, and the Thebans spent much time in vain in the Siege of Thespis. During these affairs the Romans sent a Colony of Five hundred Citizens into Sardinia upon Terms of being free from Tribute.
Afterwards, when Callias was Lord Chancellor of Athens, and four Military Tribunes, Lucius Papyrius, MarcusPublius,TitusCornelius, and Quintus Lucius were honour'd with the Consular Dignity at Rome (after the Lacedemonians had miscarried at Thebes) The Beotians took Courage, and entring into Associations, rais'd a great Army, because they foresaw that the Lacedemonians would presently enter with a strong Body into Beotia.
The Athenians likewise sent Persons of the greatest Quality amongst them to persuade the Cities subject to the Lacedemonians, not to neglect the present Opportunity now offer'd to recover their Liberties. For indeed the Lacedemonians were grown to that height, that they Lorded it with great Pride and Oppression over their Subjects: Therefore many of them were inclin'd to comply with the Athenians. The first that made a defection were they of Chios and Byzantium, after them Rhodes and Mitylene, and some other Islands. And now the Commotions and Disturbances of the Cities of Greece more and more increasing, many of them join'd with Athens: Upon which the People of Athens encourag'd by this Confederacy, Decreed a general Diet or Senate of some chosen out of every City, from among all their Allies, to Consult of the present state of affairs. And it was agreed by common Consent, that the Senate should sit at Athens, and that every City, whether great or small, should send only one Representative, and every one should be govern'd by their own Laws, but under the Conduct and Administration of the Athenians.
Page 420 However the Lacedemonians tho' they saw the Current and Tide so strong as that they were not able to Stem it, yet they endeavour'd all they could by fair Words; and many specious promises, to Court the Deserters to return to their Obedience; not neglecting in the mean time to prepare for the War, in as much as they discern'd, it would be Great and of long Continuance, in regard the Athenians and other Grecicans, (met together in that publick Assembly) all joyn'd with the Thebans.
Whilst these things were acting in Greece, Acoris King of Egypt, for some time before bearing a grudge to the Persian King, rais'd a great Army of Foreigners from all parts. For giving large Pay, and being otherwise very Bountiful, he got together a great number of Grecians in a short time; who listed themselves into his Service. But wanting a skilful General, he sent for Chabrias the Athenians an excellent Commander, and one highly honour'd for his Valour, who undertook the Employment, but without the consent of the People, and so prepar'd himself with all diligence for the War against the Persians. But Pharnabazus declar'd Commander in Chief by the King, having made great preparations of Mony for the War, sent Messengers to Athens to complain against Chabrias, letting them know that by his accepting of the chief Command under the King of Aegypt, he had greatly Alienated the King of Persia from the People of Athens. Then he demanded that they would send to him Iphicrates, to assist him in the Command of the Army. Upon this the Athenians (who made it their great Concern to stand right in the Kings good Opinion and to keep Pharnabazus firm to their Interest) without delay recall'd Chabrias out of Aegypt, and commanded Iphicrates to assist the Persians.
The Lacedemonians and Athenians some years before had struck up a Peace amongst themselves, which continu'd to this very time. But after that Sphodriades was made General by the Spartans, (a Man of a proud and haughty Spirit, rash and headstrong) Cleombrotus the Lacedemonian King egg'd him on to surprize the Pireum at Athens without the assent of the Ephori. To this end being furnish'd with Ten thousand heavy Arm'd Men, he attempts to enter the Pireum in the Night; but the Treachery being detected by the Athenians, his project came to nought, and he return'd as he came: And tho' he was brought before the Senate at Sparta, for this rash and inconsiderate Action, yet being Patroniz'd by the Kings, he was against all Law and Justice discharg'd. The Athenians being incens'd with this apparent abuse, publish'd a Decree, That in as much as the Lacedemonians had openly violated the League, that War should be made upon them for the repair of the Injury. To this end therefore Timotheus, Chabrias, and Calliffratus (Men of great Account in the City, who were made Generals for this Expedition) were Commission'd to raise Twenty thousand Foot of Corsleteers, and five hundred Horse, and to Equip a Fleet of Two hundred Sail.
The Athenians likewise brought the Thebans as Members into the publick Senate, upon the same Terms and Conditions with the rest. It was also Enacted by the suffrage of the Senate, That the Lands which had been divided by Lot, should be restor'd to the ancient Proprietors; and that no Athenian should challenge any Right to any Lands that lay out of Attica. By this fair dealing the Athenians regain'd the love of the Grecians, and again strengthen'd themselves in their Government. And this was the cause which mov'd many other Cities of Greece to side with the Athenians. The chiefest Cities of Eubea (except Actia) with great Heat and Zeal enter'd into an Association with Athens. But in regard they of Actia had receiv'd many kindnesses from the Lacedemonians, and on the other hand, had been grievously oppress'd and harrass'd by the Athenians, they bore an implacable hatred towards the one, and stuck close and firm in their Alliance to the other. In sum, there were seventy Cities that entred into this Confederacy and Association, all which had Voices upon the same Terms and Conditions in the Senate. So that the Forces of the Athenians increasing every Day, and those of Sparta decreasing, these two Cities began now again to lie in equal Ballance.
The Athenians therefore (who saw all things go forward according to their own hearts desire) transport'd Forces into Eubea both to fix their Confederates, and to suppress their Foes. In this Island one Neogenes a little before these times, with the assistance of Jason of Pherus, with a Band of Men had seiz'd upon the Citadel of Actea, and declar'd himself King of those Parts, and of the City Oropus. But governing proudly and Tyrannically, the Lacedemonians sent Therippidas against him, who at the first would have perswaded him by fair means to leave the Castle; but when he could not be so wrought upon, he stirr'd up the Inhabitants near adjoining to recover their Liberty, and took the Castle by storm, and restor'd the Oropians to their former freedom. For this reason the Hestrieans always lov'd the Lacedemonians, and kept a firm League of Friendship Page 421 with them. But Chabrias the General, with the Forces sent from Athens, wasted and spoil'd the Country of the Hestreians, and wall'd Metropolis (as 'tis call'd) situated upon a Hill naturally fortify'd, and left there a Garison; and he himself sail'd to the Cyclade Islands, and reduc'd Peparethus and Sciathus, and others Subject to the Lacedaemonians:
When the Lacedaemonians saw that they could not put a stop to the Defection of their Confederates, they laid aside their Severity, and took other Measures to win the Cities by more gentle Methods: And by this means they gain'd upon those of their Confederates that were yet left. And because they discern'd that the War was coming on apace, and that great care was requir'd for the management of their Affairs, among other Preparations they diligently apply'd themselves to put their Army into a better posture, and more aptly to dispose of their Troops and Regiments, and to have their Forts and Garisons more faithfully kept and secur'd: For they divided their Cities and Soldiers, rais'd there for the present War, into Ten parts: The first were Lacedaemonians; the second and third, Arcadians; the fourth, Eleans; the fifth, Acheans; the sixth, Corinthians and Megareans; the seventh, Sicyons, Phliasians, and Acteans; the eighth, Acarnanians; the ninth, Phocians and Locrians; the last, Olinthians and Confederates of Thrace. The manner and way of their Order and Marshalling was thus: One Corsleteer, or heavy-arm'd Soldier, was accounted equal to two lightly arm'd; and one Horseman to four heavy-arm'd Footmen. The Army thus dispos'd, King Agesilaus was made Generalissimo; for he was famous both for his Valour and Prudence, and never had been worsted in any Encounter to that very time: For as he was highly admir'd in other Wars, so in the War by the Lacedaemonians against the Persians, he routed Armies far greater than his own, and bore down all before him, wasting and spoiling a great part of Asia; and if the Spartans had not call'd him home (through the Urgency of Affairs in his own Country) he had not been far from ruining the whole Kingdom of Persia: For he was a Man very brisk and daring, and yet withal prudent, addicting himself to Great and Noble Actions; and therefore the Spartans (when the greatness of the War requir'd a Skilful Commander) chose him to be General above all others.
Upon which, Agesilaus enter'd Boeotia with above Eighteen thousand Foot, amongst whom were five Regiments of Lacedaemonians, every Regiment consisting of Five hundred. The Lacedaemonian Band call'd the Scirite, join'd not with the rest of the Army; but kept their proper Post round about the King, and always were ready to succour that part that was most prest upon. And because it was made up of the best Soldiers, it was of the greatest Esteem of any part of the Army, and most commonly instrumental to the gaining of every Victory. Besides the Foot before mention'd, Agesilaus had with him Fifteen hundred Horse. As soon as he came to Thespis (a Lacedaemonian Garison) he encamp'd near the City, to refresh his Army after their long March.
When the Athenians heard that the Lacedaemonians had enter'd into Baectia, they forthwith sent Five thousand Foot and Two hundred Horse to the Aid of Thebes. The Thebans having muster'd and rendezvous'd their Forces, possess'd themselves of a Hill which ran out a great length, distant twenty Stages from the City, and posted themselves there for the advantage of the Ground (being difficult of access) and there waited for the Enemy: For the great Reputation of Agesilaus did so terrifie them, that they durst not engage with him upon equal Terms in the open Field. Agesilaus now advances with his Forces against the Boeotians; as soon as he came near the Enemy (to make trial whether they had a mind to fight) he sent out against them some light-arm'd Men, which were soon beaten back by the Thebans from the higher Ground: Upon which (to strike them with the more Terror) he drew out his whole Army in Battalia upon them. Whereupon Chabrias the Athenian, Commander of the Mercenaries, order'd the Soldiers to appear in a posture of Defiance to the Lacedaemonians; and to that end to stand in their Ranks and Orders, with their Shields laid down at their Feet, and with their Spears advanced, so to present themselves to the view of the Enemy, which they obey'd at the first Word of Command. Agesilaus admiring their excellent Order, and their Contempt of their Enemies, thought it not safe to attempt to force up those steep Places. and to try their Valour at such Disadvantages, having experienc'd, that by violent pressing upon them, they would be necessitated to stand it out to the utmost extremity. Therefore he did all he could to provoke them to descend into the Plain; but when he could not get them to stir, he sent out a Phalanx of Foot, and a Party of light Horse, and wasted and spoiled the Country without controul, and got together abundance of Prey and Plunder. But those that were order'd to attend upon Agesilaus as his Council, and the Colonels and Captains of the Regiments wondering that he being ever accounted a valiant Man, and a good Soldier, and now furnish'd with an Army far stronger than the Page 422 Enemy, should notwithstanding wave an Engagement. Agesilaus gave them this Answer, That now the Lacedaemonians were Conquerors without fighting, since the Thebans durst not move out of their place to give a stop to the spoiling of their Country; and if he should force them to fight after they had willingly yielded the Victory, the uncertain Fortune of War might be such as might on a sudden ruin the Lacedaemonians. The Man by this Conception of his seem'd modestly to foretel the Event; for that which follow'd after did clearly evince, That what he said was the Oracle of God, and not the meer Voice of a Man. For the Lacedaemonians within a short time after, when they set upon the Thebans with a numerous Army, and forc'd them to fight for their Liberties, involv'd themselves in unspeakable Calamities: For in the first place, when they were routed at the Battle of Leuctra, a great number of their Citizens were cut off, amongst whom was their King Cleombrtus. And afterwards at the Battel of Mantinea, they were utterly ruin'd, and (beyond all Men's thoughts of any such thing) quite lost the Sove raignty of Greece:
So that Agesilaus acted prudently in being content in his former good Success, and preserving his Army entire without loss or prejudice.
Some time after, Agesilaus march'd back with his Army into Peloponnesus; but the Thebans, now deliver'd from the Danger they were in by the Conduct of Chabrias, highly admir'd his witty Stratagem; who though he had perform'd many Noble Exploits in the Wars yet he glory'd more in this than in all others before, and by the favour of the People procur'd Statues to be erected in memory of the Project, representing the thing as it was done.
The Thebans, after the departure of Agesilaus, set upon Thespiae, and kill'd the Guard, which consisted of Two hundred Men; but making several Assaults upon the City, tho' all in vain, they drew off, in order to their return with their Forces to Thebes. Upon which, Phebidas the Lacedaemonian, the Governour of Thespiae (who kept the Place with a strong Garison) made a Sally upon the Thebans in their retreat, and through his pressing on too rashly (after many Wounds receiv'd, and signalizing his Valour) he lost his own Life, and the Lives of above Five hundred of his Fellows.
Not long after, the Lacedaemonians march'd against Thebes with the same Army: And then again the Thebans possest themselves of some other Places that were of difficult access, by which means they did indeed hinder the wasting and spoiling the Country, but dar'd not at first to engage with the Enemy in the Plain. But upon the appearance of Agesilaus in the Van of the Army, they began to march slowly towards him, and after long time the Armies at length engag'd with great Heat and Fury. At the first Agesilaus had the advantage; but when he discern'd the whole City of Thebes to sally out upon him, he sounded a Retreat: Whereupon the Thebans judging themselves nothing inferior to the Lacedaemonians, erected a Trophy, and never after stuck to engage with the Spartans. And this was the issue of the Fights at Land.
But about the same time there was a great Fight at Sea between Naxus and Paros, upon this occasion: Pollis the Lacedaemonian Admiral, had intelligence of a great quantity of Corn that was passing by Sea to Athens; upon which, he made it his Business to lie in wait to surprize the Transport-Ships. The Athenians (being inform'd of the Design) sent out a Fleet to guard the Ships loaden with the Provision, and brought them all into the Pireum.
After this, Chabrias the Athenian Admiral sail'd with the whole Fleet to Naxus, and besieg'd it, and battering it with his Engines, us'd his utmost endeavour to take it by storm: But while he was earnest in prosecuting his Design, Pollis the Lacedaemonian Admiral, came up with his Fleet to the Assistance of the Naxians; upon which, the Fleets engag'd charging one another in a Line of Battel. Pollis had a Navy of Sixty five Sail, and Chabrias Eighty three. Pollis in the Right Wing valiantly charg'd the Athenians in the Left, Commanded by Cedon the Athenian, whom he kill'd, and sunk his Vessel. He fell likewise upon others, and broke some of them in pieces with the Beaks of his Ships, and put the rest to flight. Which Chabrias discerning, he ordered some Ships near him to the Relief of those that were overpower'd, and so rescu'd them: He himself, with the greatest part of the Fleet under his Command, with great Valour broke in pieces and took many of his Enemy's Gallies. But however, tho' he obtain'd the Victory, and put the Enemy's whole Fleet to flight, yet he would not pursue, remembring the Battel at Arginusa, where tho' the Athenians were Victorious, yet the People instead of a Reward, put the Officers to death, only because they did not bury their Parents who were kill'd in that Fight. Fearing therefore the like Fate, he wav'd the Pursuit, and took up the Citizens swimming and floating here and there, and so preserv'd those that were alive, and order'd Page 423 the Dead to be bury'd. In this Battel the Athenians lost Eighteen Gallies, and the Lacedaemonians Four and twenty; and Eight were taken with all the Men.
Chabrias crown'd with this glorious Victory, return'd with great and rich Spoils to the Pireum, and was receiv'd by the Citizens with great Honour and Acclamation. This was the First Victory at Sea gain'd by the Athenians since the Peloponnesian War; for at Cnidus they prevail'd not by the Strength of their own Forces, but by the Assistance of the King of Persia.
While these things were acted in Greece, Marcus Manlius was put to death at Rome for aspiring to the Monarchy.
The Treballians make Incursions into Thrace. Chabrias the Athenian General Assassinated. The Thebans rout the Spartans at Orchomena. Artaxerxes seeks to make Peace among the Graecians. Peace concluded. The Thebans only disagreed. The Commendation of Epaminondas. Seditions in several Cities of Greece.
WHEN Chariander was Archon at Athens, and Servius Sulpitius, Lucius Papyrius,Cornelius Titus, and Marcus Quintius, Four Military Tribunes, were in Consular Authority at Rome, the Hundred and First Olympiad was celebrated at Elis, and Damon of Thurium bore away the Prize. At that time the Treballians in Thrace (being in great Scarcity of Corn) made an Incursion with Thirty thousand arm'd Men, into their Neighbours Territories to get Provision. To that end they enter'd the Borders of the Abderites in another part of Thrace, and wasted and spoiled the Country without any Opposition; and having loaden themselves with abundance of Plunder, they return'd so carelesly and disorderly, as that the whole City of Abderita falling upon them when they were scatter'd and dispers'd, kill'd above Two thousand of them. To revenge which, the Exasperated Barbarians made a second Inroad into the Abderites Country. But they being encourag'd by the late Victory, and strengthen'd with the assistance of their Neighbour Thracians, drew up in Battalia against the Barbarians. The Armies furiously engag'd, when on a sudden the Thracians drew off and left the Abderites to themselves: Who were presently hemm'd in by the Barbarians, and almost every Man cut off.
As soon as this grievous Slaughter of the Abderites was nois'd abroad, and they were now ready to be besieg'd, in comes Chabrias the Athenian with his Army, and not only delivers the Abderites, but drives the Barbarians out of the Country. And after he had strengthen'd the City with a strong Garison, he was basely assassinated, the Person by whom not known. Upon this, Timotheus was made Admiral of the Athenian Fleet, and sailing to Cephallenia he block'd up the City with his Navy, and wrought upon the Cities of Acarnania to side with the Athenians. Presently after he enter'd into League with Acetas, King of the Molossians; and now having in his power all the Countries subject to the Cities in those Parts, he routed the Lacedaemonians in a Sea Fight at Leucades; and all this he did in a very short time, and with much Ease, partly by fair Words, and partly by force of Arms and his excellent Conduct: so that he not only gain'd Esteem and Reputation amongst his own Fellow Citizens, but likewise amongst all the Graecians. And thus was it with Timotheus at this time.
During these Transactions, the Thebans (with Five hundred the Valiantest Men of their City) march'd against Orchomena, and perform'd an Exploit worthy of Memory. The Spartans kept this City with a strong Garison, and making a Sally upon the Thebans there was a sharp Encounter, in which they routed the Lacedaemonians though they were double in number, which never happen'd to them before in any age; but the thing might have been born well enough if they had been few and had been conquer'd by the far greater number. Henceforth the Courage of the Thebans encreas'd, and they grew every day famous for their Valour: And now it was apparent, that they were likely to gain the Sovereignty of all Greece. As to the Writers of this time. Hermeas of Methymna ends his History of the Affairs of Sicily with this Year, comprehended in Ten, but as others divide them, in Twelve Books.
Page 424 The Year following, when Hippodamus was Chief Magistrate of Athens, and Four Military Tribunes, viz.Lucius Valerius,Crispus Manlius, FabiusServilius, and Sulpitius Lucretius were Roman Consuls. Artaxerxes used his utmost Endeavour to quiet all things in Greece, that he might raise the more Mercenaries for the Carrying on the War against the Aegyptians: For by this means he hop'd the Graecians being freed from Domestick Broils would be in a Condition to assist him abroad. To this end, he sent Ambassadors into Greece to Negotiate in this Affair amongst all the Cities. And this Embassy was very welcome to the Graecians, who were near tyr'd out with continual Wars; so that a General Peace was concluded upon these Conditions: That all the Cities should for the future be govern'd by their own Laws, and all the Garisons be withdrawn. And there were certain Grecians appointed as Commissioners to see the Garisons drawn out; who accordingly went to every City where there was any Soldiers, and order'd them to leave the Place.
In the mean time, the Thebans only through every Town disagreed to these Terms, and exempted all Beotia as Tributary only to themselves: But the Athenians oppos'd this with all earnestness, and this Affair was banded in the Common Assembly of the Greeks, by Callistratus a Tribune of the People, on the behalf of the Athenians, and by Epaminondas on the behalf of the Thebans, after which, all the rest of the Grecians persisted in their resolution to stand to the League, leaving out the Thebans, who (relying upon the Wisdom and Prudence of Epaminondas) boldly oppos'd the Decree made by the General Assembly.
For being that the Lacedaemonians and Athenians had been all along hitherto contesting for the Sovereign Command of Greece, and at length had agreed upon these Terms, That the Lacedaemonians should have the Command at Land, and the Athenians at Sea, they were very uneasie to think that now a Third should carry away the Sovereignty from them both, for which reason they would not allow the Cities of Beotia to be under the Power of the Thebans. But the Thebans (who were Men of strong Bodies and stout Hearts, and had lately beaten the Laredaemonians in several Fights) bore themselves very high, and were in hopes to gain the Sovereign Command at Land. Neither were they frustrated in their design for the Reasons before mentioned, and likewise for that they had at that time many Excellent Officers and Valiant Commanders; amongst whom the most Famous were Pelopidas, Gorgias, and Epaminondas; which last was not only the Best and most Expert Commander of any of his own Country, but even of all the Grecians; and was likewise a Man of great Learning in the Liberal Sciences, and especially in the Pythagorean Philosophy: Being besides of excellent Natural Parts, and Mother-Wit, it was no wonder if he exceeded others in performing those things that were more than ordinarily remarkable. For with a small Body of Men he Engag'd with the whole Power of the Lacedaemonians, and their Confederates, and so routed those (formerly unconquerable) Warriors, that he kill'd their King Cleombrotus, and cut off almost the whole Army of the Spartans. And by the advantage of his singular Wisdom, and Virtuous and Liberal Education, such things were perform'd by him as were admirable beyond all Expectation. Of which we shall speak more fully hereafter when we come to treat particularly of those Things.
But now to return to the Course of our History; It was agreed, That every City should govern according to their own Laws; but presently after, all the Cities were again involv'd in great Tumults and Seditions, especially those in Peloponnesus. Some few of these had been Enslav'd in the late Domineering time, and being now restor'd to their Democratical Government, they made but an all Improvement of it, for they banish'd many Honest Citizens that were falsly Accus'd, and as unjustly Condemn'd; and by the prevailing Power of the Seditious, nothing was more frequent than Banishment and Confiscation of Goods; and those chiefly were the Sufferers that had been Magistrates in the time of the Lacedaemonian Government; for because in those time they carry'd it something imperiously towards the People, not with that regard to Justice as they ought, now that the Commonalty were restor'd to their Liberty they too much resented their former Injuries.
The Exiles therefore of Phialea, were the first that Consulted and Join'd together, and seiz'd upon Herea, a strong and well-fortify'd Castle; and from thence made frequent Incursions into the Territories of Phialea. And at the time when the Feasts of Bacchus were celebrated, (upon the sudden) they rush'd upon the People in the Theatre, and cut many of their Throats, having before persuaded a considerable Number to join with them in this wicked Confederacy, and afterwards they return'd to Sparta. Then the Exiles of Corinth, who were in great numbers at Argos, determin'd to force their own return. In order hereunto some of their Servants and Friends were receiv'd into the City; but the thing being discover'd to the Magistrates, they could not lie long conceal'd, but being just ready to be seiz'd (through fear of Punishment) they kill'd one another. But the Page 425Corinthians, upon suspicion that many of the Citizens were concern'd in the Plot, put several to Death, and Banish'd others.
In the City Megara likewise some were contriving how to overturn the Government, who being convict of the Treason, many were put to Death, and not a few Banish'd So at Sioyon many were Executed upon a full Conviction, for endeavouring to bring in Innovations. At length, many of the Philasian Exiles having seiz'd upon a Castle in that Territory, got together a great Army of Mercenaries, and fought with the Townsmen, and got the Day, having kill'd above Three hundred of the Philasians. But not long after, the Exiles were betray'd by their Guard, and routed by them of Philasia, with the loss of Six hundred Men, and the rest being forced out of the Country, fled to Argos. And such was the miserable Condition of Peloponnesus at that time.
The Persians send an Army into Aegypt to reduce the Revolters. Iphicrates a skilful Commander. Sedition at Zacynthus. Platea raz'd by the Thebans. The Lacedaemonians seize upon the Island Corcyra, reliev'd by the Athenians under Ctesides. Evagoras murther'd in Cyprus by an Eunuch. Dreadful Earthquakes and Innundations in Peloponnesus. A great Comet seen in Greece.
SOcratides the ensuing Year was Archon at Athens, and QuintusCrassus, Servilius Cornelius,Sporius Papyrius, and Fabius Albus, four Military Tribunes, executed the Office of Consuls at Rome. At that time the King of Persia march'd against the Aegyptians (who had revolted some time before) the Army was commanded by Pharnabazus, and Iphicrates the Athenian; the Barbarians by Pharnabazus, and Twenty thousand Mercenaries by Iphicrates, who was in so much favour with the King for his excellent Conduct, that he intrusted him with that Command. Pharnabazus had spent many years in preparation for this War.
Iphicrates therefore, knowing the readiness of his Tongue, and the slowness of his Actions, one Day accosted him in this manner. That he wonder'd that one who was so voluble in his Speech, should be so slow in Execution. To which Pharnabazus answer'd, That he was Master of his Words, but the King of his Actions. When the King's Forces came to Aces in Syria, and were there muster'd, there were found Two hundred thousand Barbarians to be under the Conduct of Pharnabazus, and Twenty thousand Grecians under the Command of Iphicrates. The Number of the Navy was Three hundred Gallies of three Tire of Oars on a Bank, and Two hundred of Thirty Oars a-piece: And a vast number of Transport Ships to carry Provision, and other things necessary for the Army.
About the beginning of the Spring, the Officers with all the Forces both at Sea and Land made for Aegypt: When they came near to the River Nile, they found the Aegyptians ready and prepar'd for Battel; for Pharnabazus had been very tedious in this Expedition, and given the Enemy time enough to prepare for their Defence. For it's the constant practice of the Persian Generals (in regard they have no absolute power) upon every special occasion to send to the King to know his Pleasure, and to stay till they receive his particular direction.
In the mean time, Nectanabis, the King of Aegypt, had perfect knowledge of the Strength of the Persian Forces; but he plac'd his greatest Confidence in the Strength of his Country, the Entrance into Aegypt being very difficult on every side, and the Passage block'd both by Sea and Land by the seven Mouths of Nilus. For at every Mouth where Nile falls into the Sea, was a City built with large Forts or Castles on either side the River, join'd together by a Bridge of Timber, which commanded all Ships that sail'd that way, and of all these he had most strongly fortify'd Pelusium; for being the next Frontier Town towards Syria, they conceiv'd the Enemy would first attempt to enter in to the Country that way: Therefore they drew a Trench round the City, and where there was any place, whereat any Vessels might in any probability enter, there they rais'd Walls to obstruct the Passage. And where there were any Fords by which the way lay open into Aegypt by Land, he brought the Water over them; and where any Ship might pass he fill'd up those Places with Stones and Rubbish. By which means it was very difficult, and scarce possible, either for Ships to sail, or Horse or Foot to march. PharnabazusPage 426 his Officers therefore seeing Pelusium so strongly and wonderfully Fortify'd and well Mann'd, thought it most adviseable to forbear to attempt to enter by Force, and rather to sail to some other Mouth of the River, and endeavour a Passage for the Fleet there. Whereupon they put off to Sea again, and being out of Kenning, that they might not be discern'd by the Enemy they steer'd their Course for Mendesium, another Mouth of Nile, where the Shore runs a great way out from the Main Land. Here they Landed Three thousand Men, and Pharnabazus and Iphicrates assaulted a Fort built upon the very Mouth of the River; but the Aegyptians came down with Three thousand Horse and Foot to the Relief of the Place; Upon which there was a sharp Engagement, in which the Aegyptians being over-power'd with Multitude, (for more came in running to them from their Ships) were hemm'd in, and a great Slaughter made amongst them, but very few being taken Prisoners; the rest were forc'd to fly into a little Town hard by. But the Soldiers of Iphicrates enter'd pell mell with them of the Garison into the Place, and having thus taken it by Force they demolish'd it, and carry'd away the Inhabitants as Captives.
After this, there arose a Difference between the Generals, which brought all to nought. Iphicrates learnt from the Captives, that there was a Garison call'd Memphis, which Place was of the greatest Consequence of any throughout all Aegypt; therefore he advis'd that they should sail with the Fleet thither before the rest of the Aegyptians's Army got together; but Pharnabazus and all his Forces were for staying till all the Persian and Land Forces came up, and so there would be less danger in the Expedition. But Iphicrates then offer'd to undertake the Reduction of the City with those Mercenaries that were then with him, if he might have but Liberty. Upon which, Pharnabazus grew Envious at the Valour and Confidence of the Man, and began to be Jealous lest all Aegypt should be conquer'd only by his Arms, and therefore deny'd his request. hereupon, Iphicrates made a Solemn Protestation against them, declaring that all this Expedition would be Fruitless and Vain, through their Neglect, if they let slip the present Opportunity. But Pharnabazus envy'd him the more, and very undeservedly gave him opprobrious Language.
In the mean while, the Aegyptians (having now gain'd more time) put a strong Garison into Memphis, and march'd with all their Army to the little Town before demolished; and prevailing in sundry skirmishes against the Persians, they never let them rest, but growing still stronger and stronger, made a great Slaughter of them, and grew every day more obstinate. But the Persian Army having now staid a long time about this Castle, the River Nile (by force of the Etesian Winds) beginning to overflow, insomuch as all the Land was cover'd with Water (whereby Aegypt was now more inaccessable, and by that means as it were Fortify'd) the Commanders (for that Nature seem'd to Fight against them) resolv'd forthwith to leave Aegypt.
As soon therefore as they return'd into Asia, Pharnabazus renew'd the Quarrel with Iphicrates: Upon which, Iphicrates (fearing he should be laid by the Heels as Conon formerly had been) consulted how to withdraw himself privately from the Camp. To this end, (having prepar'd a Vessel for his purpose) he went on board in the Night, and so sail'd to Athens: But Pharnabazus sent Ambassadors after him, and accus'd him as being the occasion of the Miscarriage of the Design relating to the Reducing of Aegypt. To whom the Athenians answer'd, That if he were Guilty they would punish him according to his Desert: But in a very short time after they made him Admiral of their whole Fleet.
In this place we think it not much beside our purpose if we say something concerning what is reported of the Valour of Iphicrates. He is said to be a very Skilful Commander, and of a quick and ready Wit in contriving any useful Project and Stratagem: Having therefore gain'd large Experience and Judgment in Martial Discipline, by his long and continual Exercise in the Wars of Persia, he found out many things of great advantage in matters of War, especially he employ'd himself in contriving the making of New sorts of Arms.
It was hitherto a Custom among the Graecians to carry great and heavy Shields: But because these by their Weight much hinder'd the Soldiers in their March, he chang'd the Form of them, and order'd Targets of a moderate Size in their room: In which alteration he had a respect to two things, one that their Bodies should be sufficiently defended, and by the other, that by their Lightness they might be the more easily manag'd. Experience presently approv'd the Invention, and they who from their Heavy Arms were before call'd Hopliti, Heavy arm'd Men, were from these New Targets call'd Peltasti, Targateers. He chang'd likewise the Fashion of their Spears and Swords. The Spears he caus'd to be made half as long again as they were before, and the Swords longer almost by two Parts. This Alteration was likewise presently approv'd by Use and Experience, and the Reputation of the General was highly advanc'd by the Usefulness of his Ingenious Page 427 inventions. Lastly, he altered the very Soldiers Shoes that they might both be easier to march with and sooner, and more readily cast off; and therefore they are call'd at tjos very day Iphicraticks. He invented many other things belonging to Martial Affairs, which would be too tedious here to relate. But thus all that large preparation for an Expedition into Aegypt came to nothing.
During these Affairs the new frame of Government throughout all Greece fill'd the Cities with Tumult and Commotions; and because of the Anarchy in most places, Sedi¦tions abounded. They who were for an Oligarchy, had the Lacedemonians to Patronize them; Those that appear'd for a Democracy were protected by the Athenians. For both the Cities for a while kept the League made between them inviolable. But upon their siding with the Cities (as they were inclin'd to the one or the other) without any regard to the former Articles of the Peace; they presently broke out into War.
At that time the Inhabitants of Zacynthus being enrag'd against their Magistrates (encourag'd thereunto under the protection of the Lacedemonians, and provoked with the memory of their former Injuries) drave them all out of the City; who fled to Timotheus the Athenian Admiral, and were receiv'd into the Fleet, and join'd with him in the War. He patroniz'd their Cause, and transported them into the Island (where they seiz'd upon a strong Castle call'd Arcadia) and by the assistance of Timotheus, very much molested and damnify'd the Townsmen. They of Zacynthus desir'd aid from the Lacedemonians, who first (before they would begin a War) sent to the People of Athens, and by their Ambassadors accus'd Timotheus: But when they discern'd that they inclin'd to favour the Exiles, they bestirr'd themselves to Equip out a Fleet; and having Mann'd Thirty five Gallies, they sent them to the aid of the Zacynthians, under the Command of Aristocrates.
Whilst these things were in doing, some in Corcyra that favour'd the Lacedemonians, appear'd against the People, and sent to Sparta to be assisted with all speed with some Shipping, promising to deliver up Corcyra into their hands. Upon which, they (knowing very well the importance of that Island for the recovery of the Dominion at Sea) hasten'd away to get possession. And to that end commanded Alcydas to pass over to Corcyra with Two and twenty Sail; they giving out, that this Fleet was to go for Sicily, but in truth with a design (under colour of being Friends to the Corcyreans) by the help of the Exiles to seize upon the City. But the Inhabitants coming to understand the Fraud and intended Cheat of the Lacedemonians, strongly fortify'd the place, and kept diligent Watch and Ward, and sent Ambassadors to Athens for assistance. Upon which, the People decreed to send Succours forthwith, both to the Corcyreans and to them of Zacynthus; Upon which, Ctesecles was presently sent to Zacynthus to command the Exiles: but the Fleet to be sent to Corcyra was but then in fitting out. In the mean time they of Platea having enter'd into a League with the Athenians, and decreed to deliver up their City into their protection, sent for a Garison from Athens. At which the Governors of Boeotia being exceedingly offended (to prevent the Athenians) forthwith led out a great Army against the Plateans, and having entred the Confines of Platea (by this sudden and unexpected Irruption) they found many of the Citizens stragling in the Fields, who were presently snapt up by the Horsemen; the rest fled into the City, and having no Confederates to assist them, were forc'd to deliver up themselves, upon such Terms and Conditions as the Enemy was pleas'd to allow 'em: For they were to leave the City, and take away with them only their Houshold Goods, and never more set foot in Baeotia. After this the Thebans raz'd Platea, and took Thespia (that sided against them) by assault. The Plateans fled to Athens with their Wives and Children, and were there kindly receiv'd into the Franchises and Liberties of the City. And in this condition stood the Affairs of Baeotia all that time. The Lacedemonians had now sent Mnasippus with a Fleet of Sixty five Sail, and Fifteen hundred Men under his Command to Corcyra, which after he arriv'd at the Island, and had taken the Exiles on board, he sail'd into the Haven, and presently possess'd himself of Four of their Gallies, and forc'd the rest upon Land, which they of Corcyra burnt, to prevent their falling into the Enemies hands: he routed them likewise in a Land Fight, (tho' they had advantageously possessed themselves of a Hill,) insomuch as all the Corcyrians every where were in fear and amazement. The Athenians had some time before sent Timotheus the Son of Conon, to the aid of the Corcyreans, with a Navy of Sixty Sail; but before he came in to succour them, he sail'd into Thrace, and brought over many of the Cities there to the Athenian Interest, and enlarg'd his Fleet with Thirty Sail: But because he came too late to the assistance of them of Corcyra, the people of Athens were very angry at him, and took away his Commission; yet when he return'd to Athens with a great number of Ambassadors, that Page 428 came along with him to confirm the Leagues with the Athenians, and besides, brought in the Fleet in good Order, being more than they were by Thirty Sail; the People rescinded the former Decree, and restor'd him to his Command. Before this they had likewise prepar'd Forty Gallies more, (so that their whole Fleet was Fourscore;) and had made also plentiful Provision of Corn, Arms and all other things necessary for the War: But for the present they sent Five hundred Men to the aid of them of Corcyra, under the Command of Ctesides, who enter'd privately in the Night into * Corcyra, where he found the Townsmen in bad circumstances by their Sedition, and ill management of Affairs relating to the War: But forthwith quieting all Parties, he made it his business to put all things in a posture of Defence, and by this means put Heart and Courage into the Besieg'd. In the first place he made a Sally and cut off Two hundred of the Enemy. Presently after in a sharp Engagement he kill'd Mnasippus and many of his Army: And now when the War was almost at an end in Corcyra, arriv'd Timotheus and Iphicrates with the Athenian Fleet; who coming too late, did nothing worth remembring, save that they took Nine Gallies, Men and all, sent by Dionysius out of Stcily to the assistance of the Lacedemonians, under the Command of Cassidas and Crinippus; and by the Sale of the Captives rais'd Threescore Talents, with which they paid off the Soldiers.
While these things were acting, Nicocles an Eunuch in Cyprus, treacherously murther'd King Evagoras, and made himself King of Salamis. In Italy the Romans fought with the Prenestines, and routed and kill'd many of them.
Afterwards when Asteius was chief Magistrate at Athens, and Six Military Tribunes, vizMarcus Furius, Lucius Furius, Aulus Posthumus, Lucius Lucretius, Marcus Fabius, and Lucius Posthumus executed the Office of Consuls at Rome, there hapned such dreadful Earthquakes and Inundations in Peloponnesus (throughout all the Cities, and over all the Country.) that are incredible to relate. For never in any former Ages did the like Calamity fall upon the Grecian Cities, which were now swallow'd up together with their Inhabitants; and certainly some Divine Power contriv'd and executed this remarkable ruine and destruction of Mankind: Nay, the time when it was done aggravated the greatness of the calamity. For the Earthquake hapned not in the day (when the distressed might have found out some way or other to have help'd themselves) but in the night; when the Houses by the violence of the shake fell down in confused heaps; so that (by the darkness of the Night, and the suddenness of the ruine) Men were in that perplexity, that they knew not which way to turn themselves for security; insomuch as the greatest part of the Inhabitants, (buried in the rubbish of the Houses) miserably perish'd. But as soon as it was Day some came running out of the Houses, and thinking they had escap'd the danger, fell into a far greater and unexpected mischief; for the Sea rag'd to that degree, and broke in with that violence, that it swallow'd up them and their Houses together.
Two Cities of Achaia, one call'd Helica, and the other Bura, chiefly suffer'd by this sad accident: of which two, Helica was of the greatest account of any of the Cities of Achaia.
There was a very hot dispute concerning the cause of this Evil. Indeed the Natural Philosophers do generally ascribe all such Events to Natural Causes, and necessary Circumstances, and not to any Divine Hand; But they who have more reverend Thoughts and Sentiments of a Deity, give a very probable account of this Matter, that this Destruction was the effect of the Anger of the Gods, for the impious violation of the Rights of Religion, of which we shall give a more particular account. The Three Cities of Jonia were accustom'd to have a general Assembly of all the Jonians at Mycale, and thereabouts, where in a certain solitary place (according to Ancient Rites) they offer'd many costly Sacrifices to Neptune: which Panionion Festivals, the Ionians not being able to solemnize at that place, by reason of the frequent Wars and Disturbances, they remov'd those Assemblies to a more secure place not far from Ephesus. But sending to Delphos to consult there with the Oracle, they were commanded to take Images from the most Ancient Altars of their Forefathers (meaning from Helica, a City of the Country formerly call'd Ionia, but now Achaia.) Upon this they declar'd in the publick Assembly of the Achaians, the occasion of their Embassy, and desir'd them to grant their Request. But they of Helica had an Ancient Prophecie, That then they would he in the greatest danger, when the Ionians sacrific'd upon the Altar of Neptune; remembring therefore this, they would not suffer the Ionians to take the Images, alledging that that Temple was not common to all the Achaians, but peculiar to themselves only. The same Addresses were made to them of Bura, who were of the same Mind with them of Helica. However Page 429 the Ionians by publick Edict of the Achaians, (that the Prophecy might be fulfill'd) offer'd Sacrifices upon the Altar of Neptune. Upon this they of Helica seiz'd upon all the Goods of the Ionians, and committed the Ambassadors to Prison, and so carried it very impiously towards the Deity: Therefore they say that Neptune being angry, to revenge himself upon their Impiety, (by this Earthquake and Inundation of the Sea) brought this grievous calamity upon those Cities. And that it was done by him they use this for an Argument, That it is generally believ'd that this God hath the power of Inundations and Earthquakes in his own hand; and that Peloponnesus had been ever reputed the Habitation of Neptune, and the Country Dedicated to him, and that all the Peloponnesian Cities worship'd this God above all others. Besides this, they give a further reason of this sad Accident. There are (as they say) in Peloponnesus great Cavities under-ground, which by the Sea flowing here and there through the Earth, are turn'd into great Ponds and Lakes of Water. And indeed it is very certain that there are Two Rivers in that Peninsula, which apparently fall into the Caverns of the Earth. For the Rivers which run by Pheneum in former Ages sunk in one place into the Earth, and became invisible, being swallow'd up in these Caverns under ground. Another was lost at a great opening of the Earth at Stymphius, and ran unseen under ground for the space of Two hundred Stages, and rose up again near the City Argos. To what is related is further added, That none suffer'd but only they who were guilty of the Impiety before-mention'd. And this shall suffice to be said of the Earthquakes and Inundations in Peloponnesus. Afterward;
When Alcisthenes was Chief Magistrate of Athens, and Eight Military Tribunes, viz.LuciusValerius, Publius Ancius, Caius Terentius, Lacius Menenius, Caius Sulpitius, Titus Papyrius, Lucius Aemilius, and Fabius Marcus bore the Consular Authority at Rome, the Hundred and second Olympiad was celebrated at Aelis, wherein Damon the Thurian was Victor. At that time God (by some Signs and Prodigies) foretold the Fall of the Lacedemonian Sovereignty over Greece, after they had enjoy'd it near Five hundred Years: For a great Comet (which from its shape was call'd the Fiery Beam) was seen in the Heavens several Nights. And not long after, the Lacedemonians being overcome in a great Battle, suddenly (beyond all Mens imagination) lost their Dominion. Some among the Natural Philosophers ascribe the Original of this Comet to proceed from Natural Causes, and say that these sort of Meteors at some stated times do happen of necessity. And that the Eminent Chaldeans in Babylon, and other Astrologers have certainly and exactly foretold the appearance of these Comets. And that it's not to be admir'd tho' such things do happen accordingly, but that it would be a greater wonder if they should not; being that all things have their proper Courses, and turns, and at length by incessant Motions are brought into Act in fixed and stated Times and Seasons. It's related that this Comet was so very light, that it cast a shadow upon the Earth like the Moon.
Artaxerxes sends again to make Peace among the Grecians. All compli'd but the Thebans. The Spartans raise an Army against the Thebans. Epaminondas made the Theban General. The famous Battle of Leuctra. The terrible Seditions and Cruelties in Argos. Jason of Pherae stirs up the Thessalonians to gain the Sovereignty of Greece. Pollydore Prince of Pherea in Greece poison'd by his Brother Alexander. Plot to depose Alexander. King of Macedonia Treated with, to that purpose.
ABout this time Artaxerxes King of Persia hearing that Greece was fallen into new Broils, sent Ambassadors again to exhort them to live in peace one with another, according to the late Establishment. The Grecians readily compli'd with the Advice, and and all made Peace again among themselves, except the Thebans. For they were not admitted into the League because they challeng'd all Beotia to be under their own Government. And it was Decreed that all the Cities should be bound by Oath to observe the League. Being therefore excluded (as they were before) they kept Beotia under Page 430 the sole Jurisdiction of their own City. Upon which the Lacedemonians being inrag'd, resolv'd to make War upon them as the common Enemies of Greece. For their growing Pow'r began to be suspected, lest (being Masters of all Baeotia) they should some time or other catch an opportunity to deprive Sparta of the Sovereign Command. Especially for that they were a Warlike Nation, Inferior to none in Greece, and by their daily Exercise in the publick Schools, their Bodies became far stronger; and besides had many valiant Commanders, and especially three, Epaminondas, Gorgias,: and Pelopidas. And to this may be added, That the Thebans by reason of the Nobility of their Ancestors (who were famous in the Heroick times) were of Proud and Lordly Spirits, and ever aspiring to great matters. Upon this account the Lacedemonians this Year rais'd an Army, compos'd of their own Cities and of their Confederates, and prepar'd themselves for War. So that
When Phrasichides was Lord Chancellor of Athens, and the Romans appointed Eight Military Tribunes to execute the Office of Consuls, viz. Publius Manlius, Caius Erenucius,Caius Sextius, Tiberius Julius,LuciusLabinius, Publius Fibonius, Caius Manlius, and Lucius Antistius, The Thebans excluded from the common League, were forc'd by their own strength alone, to bear the brunt of the War against the Lacedemonians; for by the Articles of the Peace (Ratifi'd and confirm'd by all) none of the Cities were to send them any Aid or Relief. Therefore the Lacedemonians (now that the Thebans were wholly desert'd) decreed a War against them, and were resolv'd to subject Thebes to the Lacedemonian State. And forasmuch as all observ'd that the Lacedemonians made extraordinary preparations, and that the Thebans on the other hand had none to stand by them, every body was of opinion that they would be easily Conquer'd by the Spartans. And therefore all that wish'd them well were much troubl'd and concern'd for them, to see their inevitable Ruin approaching. But their Enemies on the contrary rejoyc'd, a, if the Thebans were even already subdu'd.
When the Lacedemonians had rais'd their Army, they Created Cléombrotus General. And in the first Place sent Ambassadors to Thebes to demand that all the Cities of Beotia should be allow'd to Govern themselves according to their own Laws, and that Platea and Thespiae should be Rebuilt, and that those Territories should be restor'd to the Ancient Proprietors. To which the Thebans answer'd, That as they did not concern themselves with the matters of Laconia, so the Lacedemonians ought not to meddle with the Affairs of Beotia. Upon receiving of this answer, the Lacedemonians (without any further delay) order'd Cleombrotus to March with the Army against Thebes. And the Lacedemonian Confederates were very ready to join in this War, hoping that the Beotians would be subdu'd with little or no fighting, and without any great Labour or Pains.
Marching on therefore, they Encomp'd at Cheronea, and there waited for their Confederates, who came in but slowly. In the mean time the Thebans hearing of the Enemies March, sent their Wives and Children for security to Athens. Then they made Epaminondas General of the Army, and intrusted him with the management of the whole War, joining with him six Beotians and Governors of Beotia as his Council. He listed whoever was of Age able and fit to bear Arms among the Thebans, and likewise among the other Beotians, and having now an Army not above Six thousand, with these he March'd out of Thebes; at which Instant of time some Prodigies were seen, which boded no good Success. For as they were going out at the Gates, there met them an Herald that (according to ancient Custom) led a blind Man (that had ran away) and cry'd aloud, Bring him not out of Thebes, nor put him to Death, but carry him back again and save his Life. The old Men took this Cry of the Herald for an evil sign: But the young Men held their peace, lest by their Timorousness they should seem to have a desire to diswade Epaminondas from the Expedition, he had undertaken. To those that were pressing upon him first to consider well of these Presages, he answer'd in this Verse,
Such a frank resolution had no sooner dash'd and caus'd those that were Timorous to Blush, but another Prodigy more frightful happen'd. For a Secretary went before carrying a Javelin, to which a Scroll was annex'd, to signify that the Army was to obey the Orders and Commands of their Generals. It fell out that a high Wind blew off this Scroll, and fix'd it upon a Pillar of a Tomb, in which very place some Lacedemonians and Peloponnesians, that formerly follow'd Agesilaus were bury'd, and had been there slain: Page 431 Upon which the ancient Men again with protestations dissuaded him from going any
And tho' Epaminondas who was a great Philosopher manag'd all this Affair with great Prudence and Discretion, yet in the mean time he incurr'd the Censure of many. But not long after when success of the Action evinc'd the Excellency of his Military Conduct, we see him instrumental in performing many things to the great Advantage and Service of his Country. For he March'd away directly, and gain'd the Streights near Coronea, and Encamp'd there. Cleombrotus, when he heard that the Enemy had possess'd themselves of that Pass, not looking upon it Feazible to regain it, turn'd aside another way by Phocis, and March'd along by the Sea-shore, where tho' the way was very rugged and difficult, yet at length he came without any prejudice to the Confines of Beotia: But in his passage he took in some small Towns, and gain'd some Gallies. At last he arriv'd at Leuctra, and there Encamp'd, and refresh'd his Army.
In the mean time the Beotians Marching forward, drew near to the Enemy; and as soon as they recover'd the Hills, and saw the greatness of the Lacedemonian Army, Covering the Plains of Leuctra, they were not a little amaz'd. Hereupon the Booetarchs call'd a Council of War to Consider whether it were advisable to go on, and Fight upon such unequal Terms, or else to March Back, and Engage with the Enemy in some more commodious Place. It happen'd that upon this Consult, the Votes were equal: For there being Six of these Boeotarchs or Governors of Boeotia, Three were for going Back, and the other Three for abiding where they were, and to try their Fortune by a Battle, of which last Number Epaminondas was one. While the matter stood thus doubtful, and nothing could be determin'd, the Seventh Boeotarch at length came in, and Epaminondas persuaded him to give his Vote on his side, and so he carry'd it. And thus it was determin'd to lay all at Stake and try it out by a Battle. Epaminondas then perceiving that the Soldiers were still superstitiously possess'd with the former ominous Signs, and Prodigies, endeavour'd by all the Art and Industry possibly he could to remove these Opinions and Suspicions of his Soldiers. To this end, upon some Persons coming newly into the Camp, from Thebe's, he caus'd a Report to be spread abroad, that all the Arms that hung up in Hercules Temple were on a sudden gone and not to be found, and that it was commonly nois'd in Thebes, That the Ancient Heroes had taken them away, and were gone out to the assistance of the Thebans. He Suborn'd likewise another to say, he lately came up out of Trophonius his Cell, and he affirm'd that the Oracle there Commanded him to tell them that when they had gain'd the Victory at Leuctra, they should institute the Coronet Festivals to Jupiter. From whence arose that Custom of keeping a yearly Solemnity by the Boeotians at Lebadia. And besides this Skill and Prudence of the General, Leandras the Spartan (who was Banish'd from Lacedemon, and then in Arms with the Thebans) was not little serviceable in this Affair. For being call'd into the Assembly, he affirm'd that the Spartans had an ancient Prophecy, That when they were beaten by the Thebans at Leuctra, they should lose their Principality. At length some of the Inhabitants of the Country who undertook to Interpret the Oracles came to Epaminondas, and declar'd that it was decreed by the Gods, That a great slaughter should be made of the Lacedemonians at the Tombs of the Daughters of Leuctrus and Schedasus, for the Reasons herein after related. Leuotrus was he from whom the Field was so call'd. And his Daughters, and the Daughters of one Schedasus, Virgins, in the Flow'r of their Age, were Deflowr'd by the Spartan Ambassadors; the young Women not able to endure that great Dishonour and Disgrace, (with many Imprecations against that Nation who sent such wicked Ambassadors) laid violent hands on themselves. When these and other such like things were alledg'd, Epaminondas call'd the Soldiers together, and in an Oration fitted for the purpose, encourag'd them to the Battle: Upon which the Soldiers (being now freed from their Superstitious conceits) chang'd their minds, and long'd to be Engag'd with the Enemy.
About this time came some Auxiliary Forces to the Thebans from Thessaly, Fifteen hundred Foot, and Five hundred Horse, under the Command of Jason. This Man advis'd both the Thebans and the Lacedemonians (upon consideration of the uncertainty of the Events of War) to agree upon terms of Peace; which took its effect. And now Cleombrotus withdrew his Forces out of Beotia, and in his March a great Army from the Lacedemonians and their Confederates under the Command of Archidamus the Son of Agesilaus met him For the Spartans seeing the Courage and Resolution of the Beotians, and not judging it advisable to slight Men that seem'd to be resolv'd, and to run upon the Pikes at Page 432 all adventures, had sent forth his other Army (by their multitude at least) to give a check to the Insolency of the Enemy. Drawing up therefore in a Body together (and looking upon it a base and mean thing, below the Dignity of the Spartans so much as to think the Valour of the Beotians worthy of any regard,) without any respect had to the late League, they rashly and precipitately return'd to Leuctra: Where they found the Beotians (with great earnestness) expecting and desiring a Battle. Upon this, the Armies on both sides were drawn up in Battalia in this manner, on the part of the Lacedemonians, Cleombrotus and Archidamus the Son of Agesilaus (both descended from Hercules) Commanded the two Wings: On the other side Epaminondas Marshall'd his Army after a new and peculiar manner, by which excellent Stratagem he gain'd that glorious Victory never to be forgotten. For he chose out of the whole Army the best and strongest of the Soldiers, and plac'd them in that Wing where he himself would Command. In the other he plac'd his weaker Men, with a Command not to abide the Enemies Charge, but by a soft and slow retreat to avoid the shock. Having therefore thus order'd an oblique Phalanx, he resolv'd to try the Fortune of the Day with the other Wing under his Command. And now the Trumpets Sounded a Charge on both sides, and on first onset the Armies set up a great shout: The Lacedemonians came on with both their Wings in fashion of an half Moon: On the other hand the Beotians Retreated with one of their Wings, and charg'd fiercely on the Enemy with the other. When they came to the swords point, both Fought very desperately, and at first the Victory was very doubtful, but at length they with Epaminondas by their Valour and close Order, broke in upon the Peleponnesians, and made a great slaughter amongst them; For they were not able any longer to bear the weight of the Shock wherewith they were press'd, but some were slain downright upon the Spot, others mortally Wounded bravely receiving all their wounds upon their Breasts. As long as Cleombrotus the Lacedemonian King was alive, it was uncertain whether side would carry away the Victory, because he had a strong Body of Targateers with him, who fought resolutely in his defence. But as soon as he fell down dead, (after many wounds receiv'd and much Valour shewn on his part, tho' all ineffectual) they throng'd together about his Body where they hewn down in heaps one upon another. And now this Wing being without a leader, the Epaminondians charg'd the Lacedemonians with that fierceness that they forc'd them by degrees into disorder. However the Lacedemonians fought so bravely for the Body of their King, that at length they possess'd themselves of it, tho' they were not able to gain the Day. For those choice Bands with Epaminondas standing to it as unconquerable (encourag'd likewise both by the words and example of their Leader) the Lacedemonians at length (with much ado) began to give ground. And indeed at first they did not (to appearance) break their Order of Battle in their Retreat; but when the slaughter increas'd, and they had now no Commander to give necessary Orders, the whole Army fled outright. The Epaminondians pursu'd them close, and with the slaughter of a multitude of their Enemies gain'd a glorious Victory. For by their engaging with the most famous Warriours of Greece, and becoming Victorious with an Army far short in Number of their Enemies, they highly advanc'd the reputation of their Valour. But Epaminondas the General was judg'd worthy of the greatest Honour and Esteem, because chiefly by his Valour and Prudence he had routed those Commanders of Greece, who were never before Conquer'd. The Lacedemonians lost in this Battle no fewer then four thousand Men: Of the Beotians were kill'd about Three hundred. Afterwards they made a Truce for the burying of the Dead, and the return of the Lacedemonians into Peloponnesus. And this was the Issue of the Battel of Leuctra.
The Year following, when Dysnicetus was Praetor of Athens, and four Military Tribunes, Quintus Servilius, Lucius Furius, Caius Licinnius and Publius Clelius Executed the Consular Dignity at Rome, the Thebans march'd with a great Army against Orchomenum, with a full purpose utterly to ruin that City. But they were advis'd by Epaminondas, in regard they sought to gain the Principality of Greece, that it was their Interest to use their Victory with Moderation. Whereupon they left off their design, and receiv'd the Orchomenians as their Consederates: Afterwards they made a League with the Phoceans and Atolians, and so return'd into Beotia.
At that time Jason Prince of Pherae (whose power grew every Day) invaded Locris with a great Army, and raz'd Heraclea in Trachinia after it was betray'd into his hands, and bestow'd their Territories on the Octeans and Melieans. Thence Marching into Perrhebia, he courted some of the Cities into submission, and gain'd others by force of Arms.
But in the mean time there arose such a Sedition, follow'd with such Butcheries in Argos, that the like had never been before in any of the Cities of Greece: Which new and unheard of Cruelty was call'd by the GreciansScytalism, from the manner of the slaughter Committed. And the Cause of the Tumult was this: Argos was Govern'd by a Democracy; The Orators, and those that affected Popularity, stirr'd up the Mob against the great Men of the City; which caus'd them for their own preservation, (and to free themselves from the false accusations that were prosecuted against them) to Plot and Contrive how to overturn the Democratical Government. And when some who were suspected were call'd in question, others fearing they should be put to the Rack, Murder'd themselves. For One in the height of his Torments Confess'd, and Accus'd Thirty of the greatest Men of the City to be in the Conspiracy; upon which the People (without any further Trial,) Knockt them all on the Head, and Confiscated their Estates. And whereas there were many others seiz'd upon suspition of the Plot (and the false Accusations manag'd against them by the Orators, with all the aggravation▪ imaginable) the People were so enrag'd, that whoever were accus'd (of whom there was a vast number, and all very Rich) were Condemn'd to Death; so that there were Executed above Sixteen hundred of the greatest and most powerful Men of the City: Neither were the Orators themselves spar'd; for when they slack'd in the Prosecution of the Calumnies (because they were afraid left some sudden mischief would overtake them by reason of the extraordinary Cruelties that were Committed) the People concluded that they had deserted their Cause, which put them into such a ferment of Rage and Fury, that they kill'd all the Orators that were then in the City; which seem'd to be Executed upon them by the Hand of some revenging Deity, as a reward of their Villanies. After the Tumult was ceas'd, the People return'd to their former quiet, and paeceable dispositions.
About this time Lycomedes of Tegeata perswaded the Arcadians to join together in one Body of a Commonwealth and to Constitute a General Council, consisting of Ten thousand Men, who should have absolute power to Determine all matters relating both to War and Peace. But a Tumult hapning among the Arcadians, the controversie was decided by the Sword; many being kill'd, and above Fourteen hundred Banish'd, some to Sparta, others to Pallantium. Those that fled to the Pallantines were by them deliver'd up into the hands of their Enemies, who cut all their Throats. The other put on the Lacademonians to make an Inroad into Arcadia: Upon which, Agesilaus King of Sparta with an Army made up of the Citizens and Exiles, broke into the Territories of Tageata, because they were look't upon to be the Fomenters of all the Broils and Banishments amongst the Arcadians, and wasted and spoil'd the Country, which together with a strait Siege laid to the City, greatly terrifi'd the Arcadians.
While these things were acting, Jason who rul'd at Phercae (a Man excellently well vers'd in Military Affairs) who had now many of the Neighbouring Countries for his Confederates, perswaded the Thessalians to end eavour to gain the Sovereignty of Greece to themselves. For he alledg'd that whoever would Fight for it, might now gain it as a reward of their Valour. For that it was evident that the Lacedemonians were miserably Ruin'd at Leuctra; and the Athenians were only Masters at Sea, and the Thebans far unworthy of such a Dignity; and in Conclusion, that the Argives had weaken'd themselves with their own Civil Dissentions, and bloody Broils. Upon this, the Thessalians made Jason General of all their Forces, and Committed to him the whole Management of the War, who having now receiv'd the Supream Command, March'd into some of the neighbouring Countries, and enter'd into a League with Amyntas King of Macedonia.
This Year there happen'd what was very remarkable; For Three great Princes Di'd near one and the same time, Amyntas the Son of Tharrhaleus (after he had Reign'd in Macedon Four and twenty Years) dy'd, leaving behind him three Sons, Alexander, Perdiccas and Philip. Alexander Succeeded, but Reign'd but one Year. Then Agesipolis King of Lacedemon after one Year's Reign dy'd likewise: His Brother Cleomenes succeeded him, and sat at the Helm Four and thirty Years. At last Jason of Pherae, whom the Thessalians had lately made their General (tho' he Govern'd with great Moderation and Kindness towards his Subjects) was Assassinated by Seven young Men, as Ephorus says, who (in hopes of Praise and Commendation) had Conspir'd for that purpose: But others write that he was Murther'd by his Brother Polydore, who Reign'd not above one Year after him. Here Durius the Samian begins his History of the Affairs of Greece. And these were the things done this Year.
Page 434 Afterwards, when Lysistratus Govern'd in Chief at Athens, a great Sedition arose in Rome, for some were for making of Consuls, others were for Creating Military Tribunes in their room: And by reason of this dissention there was an Anarchy for some time. But at length, Six Military Tribunes were chosen, which were Lucius Amilius, CaiusVerginius, Serulius Sulpitius, Lucius Quintius, Caius Cornelius, and Caius Valerius. About the same time, Polydore the Pherean Prince of Thessaly (when he was drunk) was poysoned by a deadly Potion given him by his Brother Alexander, who Succeeded him, and Reign'd eleven Years. And as he got into the Throne by wickedness and injustice, so he rul'd (as he ever design'd) with Tyranny and Oppression: And whereas all those before him by their Moderation and Kindness to their Subjects, gain'd the Love and Good-will of all, he by his severe and tyrannical Government, became the Object of all Mens hatred. Therefore some of Larissa who from their high Birth were sirnam'd Alevadari, (fearing what might be the Effect of his Wickedness) Conspir'd to Dethrone him. To this end they made a Journey into Macedonia, and Treated with Alexander the King, in order to Assist them in Deposing of the Tyrant. While they were Negociating this Affair, Alexander the Pharean (having Intelligence of the preparations making against him) rais'd a considerable Army, designing to Engage with the Enemy in Macedonia; but the King of Macedon being join'd with the Deserters, brought his Forces presently to Larissa, and so prevented him: When he came there, the Citizens open'd the Gates to him, and so he became Master of all but the Castle, which he afterwards took by Force. The The City Cranon likewise surrendr'd to him, and he promis'd to restore all the Cities to the Thessalians. But afterwards (not valuing his Word or Honour) he Garrison'd them, and detain'd them all in his own hands. But Alexander the Pherean in a great Fright Fled to the City Pherea. And this was then the Condition of Thessaly.
The Lacedaemonians send Polytropus into Arcadia; who is Slain, and his Party Routed by Lycomedes. An Invasion by Epaminondas and Pelopidas into Peloponnesus. Sparta Besieg'd. The Antiquity and History of Messina in Greece. Pallane taken by the Arcadians. A Wall drawn between Cenchrea and Lecheum to hinder the Thebans Inroad into Peloponnesus. Epaminondas breaks through into Peloponnesus; Assaults Corinth.
IN Peloponnesus, in the mean time, the Lacedemonians sent a Thousand heavy Arm'd Men of their own Citizens, and Five hundred Deserters from Argos and Beotia, into Arcadia, under the Command of Polytropus, who when he came to Orchomenon in Arcadia, put a Garrison into it, being a City that favour'd the Spartans. But Lycomedes of Mantinea (then Commander in Chief of the Arcadians) with a Body of Men, to the number of Five thousand, March'd against Orchomenon, and upon their arrival the Lacedemonians drew out their Forces, where happen'd a sharp Engagement, in which the Lacedemonian General was slain, and two hundred more with him: The rest by the hot Pursuit of the Enemy were forc'd back into the City. However, tho' the Arcadians then got the Victory, yet they so far fear'd the power of Sparta, that they durst not depend upon their own strength in Contending with the Lacedemonians, and therefore taking into their Confederacy the Argives and the Eleans, they first sent Ambassadours to Athens to desire them to be their Consederates, which being deny'd, they then Address'd themselves to the Thebans for the same purpose. Upon which the Beotians (together with the Phocians and Locrians their Confederates) drew out their Forces, and March'd directly into Peloponnesus, under the Command of Epaminondas and Pelopidas. For all the other Beotarchs had willingly given up the sole and absolute Command of the Army to those two, being Men eminent for Prudence and Valour.
When they entred into the Confines of Arcadia, they were met by all the Arcadians, Eleans, Argives, and the rest of their Confederates. And now they had an Army of above Fifty thousand Men, and after a Council of War had, the Generals resolv'd to March forthwith to Sparta, and to Wast and Spoil all the Country of Laconia. But the Lacedemonians having lost the Flower and strength of their young Men in the Battle at Leuctra, and many in several other Fights here and there, were thereby reduc'd to a very Page 435 small number of Fighting Men of their own Citizens: And whereas some of their Confederates deserted, and others were brought low by the same means as those before, they knew not which way to turn themselves. So that they were forc'd to seek for Aid and Assistance from them, (I mean the Athenians) upon whom they had some time before Impos'd Thirty Tyrants, and whose Walls they had Demolish'd, and whose City they had decreed to Raze even to the Ground, and lay it Open and Common with the rest of the Country, for the grazing of Flocks and Herds. But necessity has no Law, and the Turns of Fortune are invincible, through which the Lacedemonians were brought into that strait, as to become Suppliants to their most Implacable Enemies for Relief. However, they were not deceiv'd in their hopes; for such was the Brave and generous Spirits of the Athenians, that they fear'd not the Power of the Thebans, but decreed to Assist the Lacedemonians to the utmost they were able, tho' they were now ready even to be swallow'd up and made perfect Slaves. To this end they listed in one Day Twelve thousand lusty young Men, and forthwith order'd Iphicrates the General to March away to the assistance of the Spartans. Accordingly, having Men that were very forward, he hasts away with a swift March. Neither were the Lacedemonians less active or forward; but now even when the Enemy were Encamp'd in the Borders of Laconia, they March'd out of Sparta, with all the Strength they could make, which was but small, yet with the same Courage, and Valour as they had formerly done.
In the mean time, Epaminondas his Army conceiving it very difficult to enter into the Enemies Country; and therefore judging it was not convenient to attempt it with the whole Army together, they resolv'd to divide their Forces into four Bodies, and so to make the Attack in several Places at once. The first March'd to the City Sellatia, and and drew off the Inhabitants of that Territory from the Lacedemonians. The Argives, who were in another Body, upon their entrance into the Borders of Tageata, Engag'd with a Guard that kept that pass, and kill'd the Chief Officer, Alexander a Spartan, and Two hundred more of his Men; amongst whom there were some Beotian Exiles. The third Body, in which were the Arcadians, and most in number, broke into the Country call'd Sciritis, where Iscolas, a Man of great Valour and Prudence, kept Guard with a considerable Body of Men. This brave and gallant Commander perform'd an heroick Action, worthy to be Recorded to all Posterity. When he foresaw that both he, and all those with him, were sure every Man to be cut off by their Engaging with so great and unequal a number; in the first place he lookt upon it as a dishonour to the Spartan Name to desert the Post assign'd him, and yet judg'd it to be much for the Service and Advantage of his Country if he could preserve the Soldiers. To the admiration therefore of his Valour he contriv'd a way how to answer the ends of both; wherein he bravely Imitated the gallant Spirit of King Leonidas in former times at Thermopile. For he sent away to Sparta the choicest of his Soldiers that were young and lusty, to the end they might be helpful to their Country in Fighting, now all lay at Stake: And he himself, with those that were Old, kept close together, and in a brave defence, slaughter'd multitudes of their Enemies, but at length being surrounded, and hem'd in by the Arcadians, they were every Man of them cut off.
The fourth body of the Eleans having all places more clear and open before them, arriv'd at length at Sellacia: For it was order'd that all the Forces should meet together at that place, where being all now join'd, they march'd towards Sparta, and wasted the Country all before them with Fire and Sword. And now the Lacedaemonians seeing their ancient Country Liconia (that had never known what Waste and Spoil meant for the space of Five hundred years before) to be thus cruelly harass'd and destroy'd, could no longer forbear, but were ready to run upon their Enemy as it were with open mouth. But being by some Magistrates that came from the City, commanded not to hasten away too far out of the Bounds of their Country (lest some other should make an inroad into it in the mean time) and being likewise advis'd to recollect themselves, and think seriously of defending the City; with much ado they submitted to the Advice.
In the mean time, Epaminondas having pass'd his Army over the Mountain Taygetus, and arriv'd at the River Eu•ota (which was then very high, being Winter-time) he endeavour'd all he could to get over. The Lacedaemonians perceiving how his Troops were disorder'd and dispers'd through the difficulty of the Passage, laid hold upon this fit occasion to fall upon them. Leaving therefore their Wives, Children, and Old Men as a Guard for the City, they made out against the Enemy in good Order with all the Young and Strong Men of the Town, and by a sudden and hot Charge cut off a great number in their passing the River: But the Boeotians and Arcadians valiantly standing their Ground, Page 436 surrounded their Enemies. However, the Spartans, after they had kill'd a great number of the Boeotians, at length broke through, and return'd to the City, leaving behind them remarkable Instances of their Valour.
Presently after, when Epaminondas came up with his whole Army (to the Terror of the Inhabitants) to the City, the Spartans, by the advantage of the Strength of the Places, kill'd great numbers of them. And now all hands were at work, and very earnest to gain the City, insomuch as that they seem'd to be in a fair way to take Sparta by storm. But the Assailants (through their Over-heat and Violence) being many of them kill'd and others wounded, Epaminondas caus'd a Trumpet to sound a Retreat, and so call'd them off. Presently after, the Thebans made their approach to the City, and challeng'd the Spartans to come forth and fight with them, or else to acknowledge themselves Inferior, and not able to contend with them. To whom they answer'd, that when they saw their opportunity they would be sure not to decline Fighting, though they laid all at Stake. The Army therefore now drew off from the Siege, and having wasted and spoil'd all Laconia, and loaden themselves with rich Prey and Plunder, return'd into Arcadia. Afterwards the Athenians (who came too late, and did nothing worth taking notice of) March'd back into Attica.
In the mean while Four thousand Men came in to the Assistance of the Lacedemonians from their Consederates. To these they added a Thousand Helots newly Manumitted and set Free, and Two hundred Beotian Fugitives, and many more from the neighbouring Towns and Villages; so that now they were strong enough to Cope with the Enemy. And these Forces being kept together and daily Exercis'd, grew more and more daring, and fit for publick Service in the Field.
But Epaminondas being Naturally inclin'd to things that were Great, and ambitious to Eternize his own praise and Honour, perswaded the Arcadians and the other Allies to re-edifie and replenish Messina with new Inhabitants (which had been destroy'd by the Lacedaemonians, and lay Wast and Desolate many Years,) for that it was most commodiously Situated for the Invading of Sparta at any time; having procur'd their Consent, he enquir'd after all the ancient Inhabitants that were living in any Place: And enfranchizing many others that were willing to settle themselves there, he Repair'd Messina, and made it very Populous, and divided the Land belonging to the City by Lot amongst the new Inhabitants, and fill'd the Country about with stately Seats and beautiful Buildings, and so rais'd up a noble Grecian City out of its Ruins, to its former State and Grandeur, for which he was highly Honour'd.
I conceive it will not be amiss in this place, in regard Messina has been so often taken and Ruin'd, If I say something in short of this City from its beginning. Anciently the Family of Neleus and Nestor to the time of the Trojan War possess'd it: Afterwards Orestes the Son of Agamemnon and his Posterity enjoy'd it, till the Return of the Heraclidae. Then Cresphontes chose Messina for his share, and his Posterity Reign'd there for some time; but they being Ejected, it came into the power of the Lacedemonians, who became Lords thereof. For after that Teleclytus King of the Lacedemonians was slain in a Battle, the Messinians at length were subdu'd by the Spartans. This War is said to have continu'd Twenty Years; and that the Lacedemonians had taken a solemn Oath that they would never return to Sparta, till they had taken Messina. At that time were Born those call'd the Partheniae, who afterwards enjoy'd the City Tarentum. The Messinians in after-times being oppress'd by the Lacedemonians,Aristomenes stirr'd them up to Revolt, and destroy'd many of the Spartans. At which time Tyrreus the Poet was sent by the Athenians to the Spartans to be their General. But there are others that say, that Aristomenes flourish'd in the time of the Twenty years War. The last War made upon them was after that terrible Earthquake, which almost Ruin'd Sparta, and destroy'd all its Inhabitants. At that time those that remain'd of the Messinians (together with the Helots, who Revolted with them,) Inhabited Ithon, because Messina had lain Wast many Years together before that time. But being unfortunate in every Encounter, they were at length utterly Ruin'd, and driven out of their Country; and settl'd themselves in Naupachus, which was given them to Inhabit, by the Athenians: And from thence some remov'd to Cephalenia, and others into Sicily, where they built the City Messina, so call'd from them. And now the Thebans in the last place by the Advice of Epaminondas (who Invited the Messinians from all Places where they were) Rebuilt Messina, and restor'd to the new Inhabitants all the ancient Territories formerly belonging to the City. And thus Great and Various were the Changes and Turns of Messina.
Page 437 The Thebans having dispatch'd all these things in the space of Eighty five Days, leaving a strong Garrison for the defence of Messina, return'd to their own Country. And the Lacedemonians having now unexpectedly rid themselves of the Enemy, sent some of the greatest men of their City to Athens, and upon a Treaty concerning the Principality, it was agreed that the Athenians should be Masters at Sea, and the Lacedemonians have the chief Command at Land. But afterwards both Cities executed the Sovereignty in Common.
About the same time, the Arcadians Created Lycomedes General, and sent him away with five thousand strong and lusty young Men to Besiege Pallene, in Laconia; who took it by Storm, and put above Three hundred Lacedemonians there in Garrison, to the Sword: And having plunder'd the City, and wasted and spoil'd the Country, return'd home before the Lacedemonians could send them any Relief.
The Beotians (likewise being desir'd by the Thessalians to Free them from the Tyranny of Alexander the Pherean, then but feeble, and almost broken) sent Pelopidas with a strong Army into Thessaly, with Orders to Manage affairs there to the advantage of the Beotians. When he came to Larissa, he possessed himself of the Castle then Garrison'd by Alexander; thence he March'd into Macedonia, and made a League with King Alexander, and receiv'd Philip his Brother as an Hostage, and sent him to Thebes. And having perfected whatever he thought might be for the Service of the Beotians, he return'd into his own Country.
Things standing thus, the Arcadians, Argives, and Eleans unanimously agreed to make War upon the Lacedaemonians, and to that end, to send Ambassadors to the Beotians, to persuade them to join with them in the War. They accordingly Consented, and sent forth an Army of Seven thousand Foot, and Five hundred Horse, under the Command of Epaminondas, and the other Beotarchs. The Athenians hearing of the preparations of the Beotians against Peloponnesus, sent an Army against them, under the Command of Chabrias their General, who when he arriv'd at Corinth, rais'd Men out of Megera, Pellene and Corinth, and made up an Army of Ten thousand Men; who being join'd with the Lacedaemonians and other Confederates at Corinth, their whole Forces were no less than Twenty thousand. They made it first their Business to guard all the Passages, and to do all they could to prevent the Beotians from breaking into Peloponnesus: To this end they drew a Wall with a deep Trench from * Cenchrea to * Lechaeum, to block up the entrance that Way. The thing was done with that quickness and expedition, (through multitude of Hands and diligence of those Employ'd) that the Place was Fortifi'd before the Beotians could reach thither.
As soon as Epaminondas came up to the Place, upon diligent view of the Fortification, he discern'd that that part kept by the Lacedaemonians was the Weakest, and therefore did all he could to draw them out to a fair Field Battle, tho' they were almost three times his Number. But when he saw they would not stir, but kept themselves within their Fortifications and Trenches, he made a fierce Assault upon them, Storming them in every Part: But the Action was Hottest and Sharpest on both sides, where the Lacedemonians were Posted, for there the place was of easiest Entrance, and most difficult to be kept. But Epaminondas having with him the flower of Thebes, with much ado beat off the Lacedaemonians, and so clearing the Way, broke in with his Forces, and laid the passage plainly open into Peloponnesus, which was an Action nothing Inferior to any he had done before. Hereupon, he forthwith March'd to Trezene and Epidaurus, and Wasted and Harrass'd the Country round about, but could not take the Cities, being very strongly Garrison'd; but Sicyon,Pheunte, and some others submitted to him. Then he March'd with his Army against Corinth: And having routed the Townsmen in an Encounter, he pursu'd them to the very Walls: Where some of the Beotians puffed up with their good Success, Rashly broke through the Gates into the City; upon which the Corinthians in a great Fright shut themselves up in their Houses. But Chabrias the Athenian General, both Cordially and Faithfully, made Head against the Beotians, and Drove some of them out of the City, making a great slaughter of the rest. In the heat of this Action the Beotians approach'd to Corinth with their whole Army in Battalia, to the great Terror of the Inhabitants: Upon which, Chabrias with his Athenians, forthwith made a Sally out of the City, and having possessed himself of the Hills Adjoyning, there bore the brunt of the Enemies Charge. On the other side the Beotians encourag'd, being strong of Body, and of long experience in Feats of Arms, doubted not, but to Rout the Athenians. But the Chabrians (by the advantage of the higer Ground, and continual Succours coming in to them out of the City (so defended themselves, that Page 438 they Kill'd, and grievously Gall'd their Assailants, and beat them off: So that the Beotians after the Loss of a great Number of their Men, not being able to do any thing, drew off their Forces. But Chabrias having thus Baffl'd the Enemy, for his Valour, Faithfulness, and Military Conduct, was Cry'd up, and greatly Admir'd.
Dionysius sends Gauls and Spaniards to the assistance of the Lacedemonians. Pelopidas and Istmenias clapt up by Alexander, Tyrant of Pherea, The Boeotians pursu'd by the Phereans: brought off by Epaminondas then a private Soldier. The Fight between the Arcadians and Lacedemonians. Dionysius falls upon the Carthaginian Territories in Sicily. Dionysius dyes. The cause of his death. The cruelty of Alexander the Pherean at Scotusa. Epaminondas breaks again into Peloponnesus. Coos Peopled and Wall'd. The end of the Laconick and Beotick War by the Mediation of the Persian King.
ABout this time arriv'd at Corinth Two thousand Gauls and Spaniards, sent by Dionysius the Tyrant to the Lacedemonians from Sicily, who had Five Months Pay advance. The Grecians to try their Valour drew them out against the Enemy; who so far approv'd themselves stout and valiant Men, as that they routed and kill'd many of the Beotians and their Confederates. And after they had been very useful in the War, and purchas'd to themselves Praise and Esteem both for their Courage and Service, and had been rewarded according to their Merits by the Lacedemonians, they were sent back into Sicily at the end of the Summer.
After these things Philiscus Ambassador from Artaxerxes King of Persia came into Greece to persuade the Grecians to be at Peace among themselves; to which all willingly comply'd except the Thebans, who were so obstinate that they refus'd the Conditions, having before brought all Beotia in subjection to their own Government. There being therefore no hopes of Peace, Philiscus return'd into Asia, leaving behind him Two thousand-Mercenaries, who receiv'd their Pay for the Service of the Lacedemonians.
Whilst these things were doing, Euphron of Sicyon (a bold and rash Fellow, not inferior to any in that kind) with the assistance of the Argives, plotted to gain the Sovereignty; and to that end, Fortune favour'd him so far, that forthwith he banish'd Forty of the Citizens, and confiscated their Goods and Estates, by which he rais'd a vast sum of Money, wherewith he hir'd a Guard of Foreigners, and so possess'd himself of the Command of the City.
Nausigenes being Lord Chancellor of Athens, and Four Military Tribunes, viz. Lucius Papyrius, Lucius Menenius, Servius Cornelius, and Servius Sulpitius, executing the Consular Authority at Rome, the Hundred and Third Olympiad was celebrated at Elis, in which, Pythostratus the Athenian carry'd away the Prize, This Year Ptolemy Alorites, the Son of Amyntas, treacherously Murther'd his Brother Alexander, and Govern'd the Kingdom of Macedonia for the space of Three Years. At the same time Pelopidas in Beotia emulating the Glory of Epaminondas, and perceiving what great Service he had done in Peloponnesus for the Common-wealth of Beotia, made it his business to advance his own Reputation, by enlarging the Power and Sovereignty of the Thebans in other parts out of Peloponnesus. To that end, and joining with Ismenia (his special Friend, and a Man of great Esteem for his Valour) he took a journey into Thessaly, where, upon Discourse with Alexander, Tyrant of Pherea (when he never expected any such thing) he and Istmenias were both seizd, and clapt up in prison. This Fact highly incens'd the Thebans, upon which they sent Eight thousand heavy Arm'd Men, and Six hundred Horse into Thessaly. At whose coming Alexander was in a great fright, and sent Ambassadors to Athens to Treat with them for their assistance. Upon this, the People of Athens forthwith dispatch'd away Thirty Sail, and a Thousand Men under the Command of Autocles: But while he sail'd round Eubea, the Thebans entred Thessaly. And tho' Alexander was well furnish'd with Foot, and exceeded the Beotians in Horse, yet the Beotians at the first concluded they should put an end to the War by one Fight, especially being enforc'd Page 439 by the Thessalians: But being deserted by them, and Alexander assisted by the Athenians and other Confederates, and Meat and Drink and all other Provision being scarce, the Baeotarchs were resolv'd to return home, and accordingly drew off; and in their march through the Plain they were fallen upon in the Rear by Alexander's Horse, who kill'd and wounded many of the Beotians. At length, not being able either to keep their Ground or go forward, they knew not which way to turn themselves, or what to do; and to aggravate the perplexity they were in, they were in want of Food. In this desperate condition Epaminondas (who was then but a private Soldier) was chosen General by the Army; who presently plac'd the best and choicest of the Light Arm'd Men, and the Horse in the Rear; with these he repuls'd the Enemy that press'd upon the backs of the Beotians, and by frequent skirmishes, (making head as occasion serv'd,) and keeping his Troops in good Order, he brought off the Army safe. Thenceforth more and more advancing his own Reputation by his Noble Actions, he wan Praise and Renown both amongst his Citizens, and all their Confederates. But
The Magistrates of Beotia set great Fines upon the Officers and Leaders in this late Expedition, and so rais'd a great deal of Money; But in regard the Question may be very well ask'd, How it came to pass that so great a Man was plac'd in so low a Post as a Common Soldier in that Expedition into Thessaly? It's fit a Reason should be given in justification of Epaminondas. When he had in the Fight at Corinth beaten off the Lacedemonians, who guarded the Fortification, he might have kill'd a great number of them; but resting satisfy'd that he had gain'd the Pass, he forbore all further pursuit. Being therefore suspected that he spar'd the Lacedemonians out of a design to ingratiate himself into their Favour; those that envy'd his Glory, watch'd an opportunity to accuse him of Treason. Upon which, the People were so exasperated, that they depriv'd him of his Command, and order'd him to serve as a Common Soldier. But having by his Noble Actions wip'd off those stains of Dishonour cast upon him, he was restor'd by the People to his former Dignity.
Not long after, a sharp Battel was fought between the Lacedemonians and the Arcadians, in which the former obtain'd a famous Victory; and was the first Fight since that at Leuctra, wherein they had any considerable success. There were above Ten thousand of the Arcadians slain, and not one Man lost of the Lacedemonians. The Priests at Dodona had before foretold, That this War should end without any Mourning on the Lacedemonians part. After this Battle the Arcadians were in that fear of the Lacedemonians, that they built the City call'd Megalopolis, in a place commodiously situated for their security, and brought into it the Menalians, and Parrhasians, out of Twenty Villages in Arcadia. And this was the state of Greece at that time.
In Sicily Dionysius the Tyrant having rais'd a great Army, resolved to take advantage of the present Opportunity, and to fall upon the Carthaginians, who were then but in a very ill Condition, by reason of the Plague that rag'd amongst them, and their being deserted by many of the Africans. And because he had not the least colour and ground for the War, he pretended that the Carthaginians Incroach'd and made Incursions into his Country. Having therefore an Army of Thirty thousand Foot, and Three thousand Horse, besides a Navy of Three hundred Sail, with these he Invades the Carthaginian Territory, and presently wan Salinunte and Entella, and wastes and harrasses all the Country round about: Then taking Aeryx, he at length besieg'd Lilybeum: But the strength of the Garison presently forc'd him to raise his Siege Afterwards, being inform'd that the Arsenals belonging to the Carthaginians were burnt down, and therefore conceiving their whole Fleet was destroy'd he grew secure and despis'd the Enemy; so that he laid up Thirty of his best Gallies in the Haven at Eryx, and sent all the rest back to Syracuse. But the Carthaginians forthwith Mann'd out Two hundred Sail, and entring the Port at Eryx, unexpectedly on a sudden came up to the Ships there, and carry'd away most of them out of the Harbour: But Winter drawing on, both sides made a Truce, and return'd with their Armies to Winter Quarters. And not long after, Dionysius fell Sick, and Died, having reign'd Thirty Eight years; whose Son Dionysius succeeded him, and govern'd Twelve years.
Here it will not be a matter foreign to the design of our History, if we relate the Cause of his Death, and what hapned to this Prince a little before that time.
When he had caus'd a Tragedy of his, call'd the Leneians, to be acted at Athens, and was proclaim'd Victor: one of the Singers or Musitians in the Chorus, hop'd to gain an Honourable Reward by bringing him the first News of his Victory: To that end he Sail'd to Corinth, and thence took Shipping for Sicily, and with a fair Wind arriv'd at Syracuse, and presently gives the Tyrant an account of his Victory: Upon which Page 440 he was so Transported with Joy, that he bountifully Rewarded the Man, and that he might give thanks to the Gods by costly Sacrifices, for such an happy piece of News, he made splendid Entertainments, in Feasting and Drinking. But in this sumptuous Reception of his Friends, drinking to Excess, and overcharging Nature, he fell into a most violent Distemper, which kill'd him. He had been formerly forewarn'd by an Oracle, That he should then die, when he should overcome those who were better than himself. This doubtful Prophecy he appli'd to the Carthaginians, looking upon them to be more powerful than he himself. And upon that account (tho' he was often Fighting with them) it was his Custom to wave the Victory, and own himself to be overcome. However he was not able to avoid his Desteny. For tho' he was but an ill Poet, yet by the Judgment of the Athenians, he carry'd away the Victory against those that far excell'd him in that Art: So that his Victory over them, and the time of his death, very well agreed to the sense of the Oracle. Dionysius the younger, as soon as he came to the Crown, call'd a Senate, and there courted the People, and desir'd them to continue the same good will and respect to him, that they had born to his Father. Afterwards having first Solemniz'd his Fathers Funeral with great Pomp and State at the King's Gates in the Castle, he order'd the Affairs of his Kingdom so as to set himself fast in the Throne.
At this time Polyzelus was Archon at Athens: and at Rome (through intestine Broils and Seditions) was nothing but an Anarchy. In Greece, Alexander Tyrant of Pherea bearing a grudge to them of Scotusa in Thessaly, call'd them to a Common Assembly, and when they appear'd, he encompass'd them with his Guard, and put 'em every one to the Sword, and threw their Carkasses into the Ditches over the Walls, and plundred the City.
At the same time Epaminondas the Theban with all his Forces, broke into Peloponnesus, with whom join'd the Achaians, and several other Confederates, and restor'd Dymon,Naupachus and Calydon to their ancient Liberties, and then made another Expedition into Thessaly; in which they freed Pelopidas out of the hands of Alexander the Tyrant of Pherea. The Phliasians were about the same time besieg'd by the Argives: But Chares sent from Athens in Aid of the Phliasians, rais'd the Siege, having Routed the Argives in two Battles, and so return'd to Athens.
At the end of this Year Cephisodorus was Created chief Governour of Athens, and Four Military Tribunes clothed with Consular Dignity, govern'd at Rome, viz. Lucius Furius, Paulus Manlius, Servitius Sulpitius, and Servius Cornelius. At that time Themesio the Prince of Eretria took Oropus, belonging to the Athenians; but lost it again on a sudden. For the Athenians coming upon him with far greater Forces than he was able to Cope with, he appli'd himself to the Thebans for Assistance, and deliver'd the City into their hands (as a pledge) which they never after would Restore.
While these things were Acting, they of Coos seated themselves in the City they now enjoy, and put it into that State and Grandeur it now has. For it was made very Populous, and a large Wall drawn round about it, with great Costs and Expence, and furnish'd with an excellent Harbour. From this time forward, it grew more and more both in its publick Revenues, and private Wealth and Riches of its Inhabitants, in so much as it vy'd with the chiefest and most famous Cities.
During these Transactions, the King of Persia sent Ambassadours to perswade the Graecians to agree and lay aside their Animosities one against another. Upon which the Laconick and Baeotick War (as they call it) which from the time of the Battle at Leuctra had continu'd above Five Years, was now at length ended. About these times Flourish'd several famous Men, worthy for their Learning to be for ever remembred. As Isocrates the Orator, and his Schollars, Aristotle the Philosopher, and Anaximenes of Lampsacus, and especially Plato the Athenian, and the last of the Pythagorean Philosophers. Besides these, Xenophon the Historian, (now very old) for he makes mention of the Death of Epaminondas, which hapned shortly after this time. Aristippus, and Antisthenes, and Echines of Sphetus (one of the Schollars of Socrates) were living at this time.
New stirs in Greece. The Battle between the Eleans and Arcadians near Lassion. The Quarrel between the Pisate and them of Elis about the Olympick Games. A Fight at the Time and Place of the Games. The Thebans prepare a Fleet in Order to gain the Dominion at Sea. Rhodes, Chios, and Byzantium brought into the Thebans by Epaminondas. The Thebans make War upon Orchomenon: The Reason. Orchomenon raz'd. The Thessalians War with Alexander the Pheraeen. Pelopidas Kill'd; his Praises.
THIS Year Chion was chief Governour at Athens, and these Military Tribunes Executed the Consular Authority at Rome, viz. QuintusServius, Caius Veturius, Aulus Cornelius, Marcus Cornelius, and Marcus Fabius. In their time, while all Greece was at Peace, on a sudden new Stirs and Preparations for War began to break out, between some of the Cities. For the Exiles of Arcadia made an Excursion out of Elis, and Seiz'd upon the strong Castle of Triphilia, call'd Lassion. The Archadians and Eleans, had been quarrelling a long time about Triphilia: And upon several Turns of Fortune, first one, and then the other got the Possession; which being at this time in the hands of the Arcadians, the Eleans under the Shelter and Colour of the Arcadian Fugitives dispossessed the Arcadians. They, (Enrag'd at this Affront and Injury,) by their Ambassadors, first demanded the Redelivery of the Place, but their demand was slighted, thereupon they procur'd the Athenians to joyn with them in the War, and Besieg'd Lassion. But the Eleans came presently into the Assistance of the Exiles. Upon which a Battle was Fought near Lassion: In which the Eleans were Routed, being overpowr'd by number, and lost above two hundred Men. The Seeds of War being now Sown, the Controversie between the Eleans and the Arcadians grew hotter every Day: For the Arcadians pufft up with the late Victory, presently March'd their Army into the Country of Elis, and took the Cities Marganus, Cronion, Cyparissia, and Coryphasion.
In the mean time Ptolomaeus Alorites, in Macedonia was treacherously Murther'd by his Brother Perdiccas after he had Reign'd three Years; Perdiccas succeeded him, and enjoy'd the Kingdom five Years.
At this time Timocrates was Archon at Athens, and three Military Tribunes invested with Consular Authority rul'd at Rome, viz. Titus Quintius, Servilius Cornelius, and Servius Sulpitius. The Hundred and fourth Olympiad was now Celebrated by the Pisate and the Arcadians, where Phocides the Athenian was Victor.
About this time it happn'd that the Pisaeans (upon the account of some old Fables and Stories they had amongst them) to regain the ancient Honour and Dignity of their Country, challeng'd it as their Right to Convene and Manage the Olympick Games. Judging it therefore now a fit time to dispute this matter, they took in the Arcadians (the Enemies of the Eleans) as their Confederates in the War: With whose Aid and Assistance they March'd against the Eleans, who had then appointed the Games. Whereupon the Eleans with all their Forces made out against them, upon which there was a very sharp Encounter. The Grecians who were then come together to this Solemnity, stood as Spectators with Crowns upon their Heads (out of reach of all danger) and at every brave Action of either Party gave up great shouts. The Pisaeans at length being Conquerors manag'd the Sports; but the Eleans never accounted this Olympiad in their Annals, because they lookt upon it to be acted by Force, and against Law.
During these Transactions of Affairs, Epaminondas the Theban (who was in great Esteem among the People) made a Speech to the Citizens, in which he stirr'd them up to gain the Dominion of the Sea. In this Oration (which he had premeditated long before) he shew'd them that the thing was easily done, as it was advantageous and profitable for the Commonwealth, and amongst other things he likewise told them, that being Sovereigns at Land, they might be easily Masters at Sea. For altho' the Athenions in the War against Xerxes had a Navy of Two hundred Sail well Equipp'd and Furnish'd; yet they were under the Command of the Lacedemonians, who had but Ten. When he had spoken what he had to say sutable to the occasion, he brought the Thebans to a Compliance.
It was therefore forthwith Decreed by the People that a Hundred Gallies, and as many Docks should be built, and that application should be made to the Rhodians, Chians,Page 442 and Bizantians for their Assistance to forward the Work. Epaminondas himself being sent away with some Forces to the aforemention'd Cities, so terrifi'd Lachetes the Athenian General (who was sent with a Strong and well Furnish'd Fleet to obstruct the Designs of the Thebans) that he forc'd him to Sail back, and reduc'd those Cities to the Obedience of Thebes: And no doubt but if this Man had liv'd some time longer, he had gain'd for the Thebans the Sovereign Command both at Sea and Land. But not long after being kill'd at the Battle at Mantenea (where he obtain'd a famous Victory for his Country by his own fall) all the prosperity of the Thebans presently dy'd (as it were) with him. But we shall Treat of these things more particularly and distinctly shortly hereafter.
About the same time likewise, the Thebans resolv'd to Invade Orchomenon, for the Reasons following. Some of the Theban Fugitives had a purpose to change the Government of Thebes into an Aristocracy, and to that purpose, join'd in Confederacy with Three hundred Horsemen of Orchomenon. These Horses were us'd to Rendezvouz at a certain Day appointed and ordered by the Thebans, and therefore they contriv'd that at that very Day (when ever it should be) they would fall upon the City. And being there were many others that were engag'd to be assisting in effecting this Design, they took a fit opportunity at length to meet together. Then some of the chief Conspirators (who began to repent of the Treason) discovered all to the Beotians, and by betraying their fellows, sav'd their own Lives: Upon this all the Horsemen by Command of the Magistrates were seiz'd, and being afterwards brought before the Senate, they were all Judg'd to be put to Death, and that the Inhabitants of Orchomenon should be sold for Slaves, and their City raz'd to the Ground. The Thebans had born an old grudge towards them of Orchomenon for many Generations, because that in the times of the Heroes, they forc'd them to pay Tribute, till Hercules set them free. Having therefore now got an opportunity, and a good colour (as they conceiv'd) to revenge themselves, they Marcht with their Forces against Orchomenon. And presently making themselves Masters of the City, they put all the Men to the Sword, and sold the Women and Children for Slaves.
At this same time, the Thessalians made War upon Alexander the Prince of Pherea, but being often beaten, and having lost many Men, they solicited the Thebans to send Aid to them, under the Command of Pelopidas. For they knew he was a brave spirited Man, and an excellent Commander, and an inveterate Enemy of Alexander, upon the account of his late Imprisonment. The Beotians hereupon call'd a general Council, and gave Audience to the Ambassadors; and having heard their Message, they readily comply'd in all things to their request, and forthwith order'd Pelopidas to their assistance, with Seven thousand Men, who presently Obey'd, and just as he was Marching out with the Army, the Sun was Ecclips'd; which prodigie perplex'd many: for there were some of the Soothsayers who declar'd, that by this Marching out of the Army, the Sun of the City should be Ecclips'd, meaning nothing else but the death of Pelopidas. However Pelopidas (nothing mov'd with what was said, but led on by his inevitable destiny) March'd forward. When he came into Thessaly, he found that Alexander with above Twenty thousand Men had possess'd himself of the higer Grounds: Upon this he Encamp'd in the Face of the Enemy, and being afterwards join'd with the Thessalians, he Fought the Phereans. But Alexander prevailing by the advantage of the Ground, Pelopidas (desiring to put an end to the dispute by his own personal Valour) Charges up to Alexander himself, who with those select Bands that were about him, valiantly stood his Ground; upon which the Battle grew very hot, in which Pelopidas acting the part both of a good Soldier and skilful Commander, cover'd the Place with the Bodies of his Enemies. At length he put the Enemy to flight, and gain'd the Victory, but he himself (through many Wounds he had receiv'd) fell down Dead, and so Heroically ended his Days. And now Alexander being Conquer'd in another Battle, and thereby having all his Forces broken in pieces, he was forc'd upon Terms of Peace to restore to the Thessalians all the Towns he had before taken: And to deliver Magnetes and Phithiodis Cities of Achaia, to the Beotians and be their Confederates, and for the future, to be content only with Pherea. However, tho' the Thebans gain'd a glorious Victory, yet they declar'd every where, that they were Conquer'd, because of the death of Pelopidas. For they lookt upon the Victory not to Compensate the loss of so brave a Man. For he had often done many great and worthy Services for the advantage of his Country, and much enlarg'd the Bounds and Territories of the Theban Commonwealth: As in freeing the City by the Exiles when they recover'd the Citadel of Cadmea, all generally ascrib'd that noble Action to Pelopidas; which was the chief cause of all the advantages, and happy success Page 443 that hapned to the Thebans afterwards. Then at the Fight of Tegea, Pelopidas was the only Man of the Boeotarchs that overcame the Lacedemonians, the most potent People of all the Grecians. Which was the first time the Thebans erected a Trophy (for the greatness of the Victory) over the Lacedemonians. Afterwards at the Battle at Leuctra, he was Colonel of the sacred Band, and was the first that broke in upon the Lacedemonians, and so became the immediate Author and Instrument of the Victory. Besides in the Expeditions against the Lacedemonians (being General of Seventy thousand Men) he erected a Trophy for his Victory over them in the very Face of Sparta, who never knew before what it meant to be Besieg'd. Being sent Ambassador to the King of Persia to Negotiate the affair of the common Pacification he gain'd in that Treaty, Messena for his own Country: Which the Thebans rebuilt after it had lain desolate Three hundred Years. And now at last (in the Battle against Alexander) notwithstanding he far exceeded him in the number of his Forces) he not only obtain'd a glorious Victory, but became famous for his extraordinary Valour, tho' with the loss of his Life. And during these Wars he was in that reputation among the People, that from the return of the Exiles, to the time of his Death he was always one of the Boeotarchs: Never none before being ever thought worthy of so great an honour. In as much therefore as Pelopidas was thus highly Esteem'd, and gain'd the reputation of all, for his Courage and Conduct, its fit he should have his due Commendation from us likewise, in this our History.
About the same time Clearchus of the City of Heraclea aspir'd to the Sovereignty of Pontus: and prevailing in his Enterprize, made it his whole business to imitate Dionysius the Tyrant, and govern'd the Heracleans in great Splendor, for the space of Twelve Years.
During these Affairs, Timotheus the Athenian General, having with him both Sea and Land Forces, Besieg'd Torone, and Potidea, and took them by Storm, and Rais'd the Siege of Cyzicum.
The War between the Tegeans and Mantineans. The Beotians side with the Tegeans. Epaminondas made General. The Battle of Mantinea, where Epaminondas was kill'd; but the Lacedemonians routed. The commendation of Epaminondas.
AT the end of the Yea Chariclides was created Lord Chancelor of Athens; and Lucius Aemilius Mamercus, and Lucius Sextius Lateranus, Roman Consuls. At which time the Arcadians and Piseans (by compact joining together) celebrated the Olympian Games at Olympia, and possess'd themselves both of the Temple, and all the Riches that were there. And because the Mantineans carry'd away and converted to prophane uses many of the Dedicated things, these Sacrilegious Persons made it their business to promote and carry on the War against the Eleans, lest if Peace were made they should be call'd to account for their ill gotten Goods. And therefore when the rest of the Arcadians would have compromiz'd Matters, they stirr'd up Sedition against their own Countrymen. Being therefore divided into Two Factions, one headed by the Tegeans, the other by the Mantineans, the Feud grew to that height, that at last they came to decide the Controversie by force of Arms; and they of Tegea sent an Ambassador to the Beotians to desire their assistance: Whereupon the Beotians, without delay, made Epaminondas General, and sent him with a strong Army to the aid of the Tegeans. But the Mantineans (being terrify'd with the Beotian Army, and the Great Name of Epaminondas) sent their Ambassadors to the Capital Enemies of the Beotians, (the Athenians and Lacedemonians) to sollicite them to join with the Mantineans in the War. Great Forces therefore being rais'd on both sides, many great Battles were fought in Peloponnesus; And the Lacedemonians (as soon as they could) broke into Arcadia, lying next to them. About the same time Epaminondas was marching forward with his Army, and being come near to Mantinea, he heard that the Lacedemonians with all their Forces were wasting and spoiling the Territories of Tegea; Conceiving therefore that Sparta was left naked, he undertook a weighty Affair, but Fortune favour'd not his Enterprize. For he march'd with his Army in the night against Sparta: But Agis King of Lacedemon (suspecting the Craft Page 444 and Subtilty of Epaminondas) prudently conjectur'd what possibly might be design'd therefore to prevent Epaminondas, he dispatch'd away some Cretian Couriers to Sparta, to acquaint them that the Boectians were just then upon their march in order to surprize the City; and that he himself would make all the hast possibly he could to relieve them: and therefore charg'd them to look to the Place, and not in the least to be afraid, for he would be presently with 'em. The Cretians observ'd their Orders with all Expedition by which the Lacedemonians (strangely, and on a suddain) prevented the ruine of their Country. For if the stratagem had not been discover'd, Epaminondas had certainly surprizd Sparta. So that the Policy and contrivance of both the Generals justly challenge their due praise; yet the prudent Care of a skilful Commander must here especially be attributed to the Lacedemonian. Epaminondas having now march'd all the Night long, at break of day came up to Sparta But Agesilaus who was left to guard the City, (having had intelligence but a little before,) did what he could to put the City into a posture of Defence. To this end he commanded the Boys that were of any considerable bigness, and the Old Men to the roofs of the Houses, that they might be in a capacity to drive back the Enemy from thence: Then placing all the strong and lusty Men in the several difficult Passes that led into the City, and blocking up all other places, where possibly an entrance might be made, he waited for the coming of the Enemy.
Epaminondas having divided his Army into Three parts, made an Assault round the Town at one and the same time, but when he discern'd in what order the Spartans were plac'd to oppose him, he presently understood that his Design was discover'd: However, tho' he was much obstructed by the strait and narrow Passages, and forc'd to fight in small Parties with great Bodies of Men at once, and many were kill'd on both sides, yet he would not draw off till the Lacedemonian Army came up near unto Sparta. The Spartans therefore being now enforc'd with so great a strength, and Night coming on, he left off the Assault.
Then he was inform'd by some Prisoners, that the Mantineans with all the Power of the City were hastning towards him to the assistance of the Lacedemonians: Upon which he march'd away and encamp'd not far from the City. But presently commanding his Soldiers to eat their Suppers, and leaving there a Body of Horse, whom he commanded to kindle Fires all the Night, he march'd away with the rest of the Army, with a design on a sudden to cut off all them that were left in Mantinea. The next day (having march'd a long way) he unexpectedly Assaulted them of Mattinea, but fail'd in his Design; and tho' he had (as a diligent Commander) provided all things that were necessary yet Fortune now oppos'd him, and so he lost the Prize. For as soon as he came near the City, that was then naked, and without any Defence, Six thousand Athenian Auxiliaries entred into Mantinea at the other end of the Town under the Command of Hegelocus, a person of good Esteem among the Citizens; who having put a sufficient Garison into the City, with the rest stood in Battalia ready to engage. And presently appear'd the Armies, both of the Lacedemonians and the Mantineans. And now every one prepar'd to put all to the hazard of a Battle, and therefore sent for their Allies out of all parts; The Aeleans, Lacedemonians, Athenians, and some others sided with the Mantineans: their Forces amounted to above Twenty thousand Foot, and Two thousand Horse. The most considerable persons of Arcadia for Riches and Valour, together with the Acheans, Boeotians, Argives, and some of the Peloponnesians, and other Confederates join'd with the Tegeans, in the whole, to the number of above Thirty thousand Foot, and Three thousand Horse.
And now the Armies on both sides took the Field in order to decide the Matter; and drew up in Battalia: and the Sooth-sayers from the view of the Sacrifices (offer'd here and there) Declar'd Victory to their several Parties. The Mantineans and the rest of the Arcadians (because the War was in their own Country) were in the Right Wing, supported by the Lacedemonians, drawn up next to them. Next to the Lacedemonians were plac'd the Aeleans and Achoeans, and some others of the weaker part of the Army compleated that Wing. The Left Wing consisted of the Athenians: On the other side the Thebans plac'd themselves in the Left Wing, opposite to the Arcadians: And the Argives held the Right. The rest of the Army Aeubeans, Locrians, Sicyons, Messineans, Maleans and Aeneans, and the other Confederates made up the main Battle. The Horse on each side were plac'd on both Flanks. The Armies being thus drawn up, while they stood facing one another for some time, the Trumpets at length sounded a Charge, and the Armies set up so great a shout, as if both sides were assur'd of the Victory. The Horse from the Wings first Charg'd one another, with the greatest Fury imaginable: The Athenian Horse Charged the Thebans, but were worsted, not so much by the Valour and Page 245 Hardiness of the Thebans, or their skill in Martial Affairs, (for in these the Athenians were inferior to none) as by their number, and being better Arm'd and appointed, and far exceeding the other in Order and manner of Battle. For the Athenians had very few Darters amongst them, whereas the Thebans had thrice as many, besides Slingers and Archers from the Thessalians, who were us'd to be exercis'd in that way of Fighting from their Childhood, and by that means were always very serviceable in all Encounters.
The Athenians therefore, what with being Gaul'd by the Light Arm'd Men, and over-power'd by the Horse, were forc'd to fly. Yet because they fled out from the Wings, they easily repair'd the Damage they sustain'd, for they broke not into their own Foot in their flight, but falling in with some Eubeans, and some other Mercenaries, that were sent out before to take in some Hills near the place, (with whom they had a sharp Engagement) they put every Man of them to the Sword. For the Theban Horse did not pursue them that fled, but Charg'd in upon the Enemies Foot with a design to break through 'em: upon which, the Dispute was very hot and sharp; but at length the Athenians fled outright: But the Colonel of the Aelean Horse who was in the Rear-guard of the Army) succour'd them; and cuting off many of the Boetians, renew'd the Fight. And thus was the Rout in the Athenians Left Wing in a great measure repair'd by the Aelean Horsemen. In the Engagement by the Horse in the other Wing, the success was doubtful a little while. But within a short time the Mantineans were put to the Rout by the multitude and strength of the Boeotian and Thessalian Horsemen, and with great Loss were forc'd to fly for shelter to their own Battalion of Foot. And this was the issue of the Engagement between the Horse. The Foot as soon as they Engag'd fought with wonderful heat and resolution. Never was there greater Armies in the Field in any Battle between Grecians and Grecians; nor more brave and excellent Commanders, or that ever approv'd themselves with more Valour and Courage. For the Boeotians and Lacedemonians who were in that Age counted the best Land Soldiers in the World, fronted one another, and began the Onset with that Fury as if they valu'd not their Lives in the least. They first began with their Lances, which being for the most part broken in pieces by the violence and heat of the Charge, they fell to their Swords. Then setting Foot to Foot all sorts of Wounds, curable and Mortal, slight and deadly, were given and receiv'd without remitting any thing of their first Heat or Resolution; And they continu'd in this sharp Engagement with that Valour, and so long a time (neither side giving the least ground) that Victory seem'd to hover over both (uncertain where it would fall) For every one slighted and contemn'd Danger, and (desiring nothing more than to make himself remarkable by some Glorious piece of Service for his Country) with a brave Gallantry of Mind coveted to exchange Life for Honour. After the Battle had continu'd long, and none were able to judge who would be the Conquerors; Epaminondas (conceiving the present state of the Parties engag'd requir'd his assistance) resolv'd to decide the Matter with the hazard of his own Life. To that end taking a choice Band of the most able Men he had with him, and drawing them up in close Order, he forthwith Charg'd at the head of them, and was the first that cast his Javelin and kill'd the Lacedemonian General, and then broke into the midst of his Enemies; then others presently following (beating down all before him) he clave asunder the Enemies Battle. For the Fame of Epaminondas, and the strength of that Body he then had with him, struck such a Terror into the Lacedemonians, that they turn'd their backs, and began to make away: Upon which the Boeotians pursu'd close, and kill'd all that were in the Rear, so that heaps of Carkasses cover'd the Ground. At length when the Lacedemonians perceiv'd that the fierceness and heat of Epaminondas had precipitated him too far, they all in a Body made up upon him, throwing infinite number of Darts at him, of which he put by some, and receiv'd others upon his Target, and pluckt others out of his Body with his own hands, and threw them back into the face of the Enemy. At last whilst he was most Heroically bestirring himself to gain the Victory for his Country, he receiv'd a Mortal wound in his Breast by a Dart thrown with such a force, as that the Wood broke, and the Iron with the Trunchion remain'd in his Body, so that by the greatness of the wound he suddenly fell to the ground. And now the Contest grew very sharp and hot for the recovery of his Body, and after a great slaughter made, the Thebans being of much stronger Bodies than the Lacedemonians, at length put their Enemies to flight. The Boeotians pursu'd them a little way, but presently return'd, as looking upon it absolutely necessary to have the power of the Bodies. The Trumpets therefore sounding a Retreat, both Armies drew off; and each party erected a Trophy, both pretending to the Victory. For the Athenians possess'd the Bodies of all those Eubeans and Mercenaries that were slain at the Hill: On the other side the BoeotiansPage 246 that had routed the Lacedemonians, and were Masters of the dead, challeng'd the Victory. And for some time neither side sent any Trumpets to Treat for burying the Dead, lest they that were first should be thought to yield the day. Yet at last the Lacedemonians first sent a Trumpet to procure Liberty to bury their Men: Whereupon all were buried that were slain on both sides.
But Epaminondas (yet living) was brought back into the Camp; and when the Physitians that were sent for, told him that he would certainly Die as soon as the Dart was drawn out of his Body, he was not at all daunted: But first call'd for his Armour-bearer, and ask'd whether his Shield was safe? When he answer'd it was, and shew'd it to him; then he enquir'd whether side had got the day. The Youth making return that the Boeotians were Victors: Why then, saith he, Now is the time to die: And forthwith order'd the Dart to be drawn out. And when all his Friends round about him cry'd out, and one with great Lamentation express'd himself thus; And what, O Epaminondas, Dost thou die Childless? No, by Jupiter (said he,) But I leave behind me Two Daughters, whereof the one is Victory at Leuctra, and the other at Mantinea. And so upon drawing out the head of the Dart, he quietly breath'd out his last, without any shew of Trouble, or Disorder of Mind.
And because it was our usual Method to give an Honourable Testimony of Worthy and Deserving Men after their Deaths, we think we might be justly blam'd if we should omit so brave a Man, without a peculiar remark. For he seems to me to be not only the most skilful General, and of the most Just and Generous Disposition of any of his own time, (among whom the most famous were Pelopidas the Theban, Timotheus, Conon, Chabrias, Iphicrates, Athenians, and Agesilaus the Spartan (who was a little before him) but likewise of any that liv'd before him in the time of the Medes and Persians, as Solon, Themistocles, Miltiades, Cimon, Mironides, Pericles, and some other Athenians; and Gelo the Son of Dinomenes in Sicily, and some others, whose several Excellencies if any will compare with the Military Art, and the Glory of the Arms of Epaminondas, he shall soon find him to exceed them in many degrees. For among them some one peculiar Excellency was only remarkable in each particular Person; but in him a Constellation of Virtues were Hous'd together. For in Strength and Comliness of Body, Volubility of Tongue, Gallantness of Spirit, Contempt of Wealth, and impartial Justice (and that which was far before all the rest) in Valour and Skill in Martial Affairs (absolutely necessary for a General) he far excell'd 'em all. When alive, he gain'd the Sovereign Power for his Country; but by his Death they lost it again, and their Affairs declin'd to the worse ever afterwards; and at length by the Sloth and Ignorance of their Commanders they were utterly ruin'd, and reduc'd to perfect Slavery. And this was the end of Epaminondas, a Man honoured, and esteemed of all.
After this Battle, the Grecians being tir'd out with continual Wars, and contented now to draw stakes, put an end to the War, and entred into a general League Offensive and Defensive, in which the Messineans were included. But the Lacedemonians (by reason of the implacable Hatred they bore the Messineans) would not subscribe the Articles of Peace: And therefore they of all the Grecians were the only Men that swore not to the League. As to the Writers in this year; Xenophon the Athenian concludes his History of the Wars of Greece with the death of Epaminondas. Anaximenes likewise of Lampsacus writ the First Part of his History of the Grecian Affairs from the Origin of the Gods, and the First Being of Mankind to the Battle of Mantinea, and the death of Epaminondas, containing almost all the Affairs both of the Grecians and Barbarians in Twelve Volumes. Lastly Philistus, who writ the History of Dionysius the younger in Two Books, ends them here.
A Defection from the Persians in Asia. Tachos King of Aegypt declares War against the Persians. The War between Tachos and his Son Nectabanus. The Death of Artaxerxes Mnemon. Agesilaus Routs the Aegyptians that pursu'd him; and restores Tachos to his Kingdom: Stirs again in Greece after the Battle of Mantinea, between the Megalopolitans and the Neighbouring Towns. Peparethos Besieg'd by Alexander of Pherea. He Routs Leosthenes at Sea. Charietes the Athenian Admiral, his Villanies.
THIS Year, Molon was Lord Chancellor of Athens, and Lucius Genucius, and QuintusServilius Roman Consuls. In their times the Inhabitants of the Sea Coasts of Asia, made a defection from the Persians; and some of the Governors of the Provinces, and Chief Commanders, began new Broils, and rose up in Arms against Artaxerxes. Tachos likewise King of Aegypt declar'd War against the Persians, and imploy'd himself in Building of Ships, and raising of Land Forces: he brought over also the Lacedemonians to join with him, and hir'd many Soldiers out of the Cities of Greece. For the Spartans bore a grudge against Artaxerxes, because he had order'd the Messinians to be comprehended in the publick League among the Grecians. This great Conspiracy caus'd the Persian King likewise to bestir himself to raise Forces. For he was to ingage in a War with the King of Aegypt, the Grecian Cities in Asia, the Lacedemonians and their Confederates, and the Lord Lieutenants and Chief Commanders of the Sea Coasts, all at one and the same time. Among these, Ariobarzanes Lord Lieutenant of Phrygia was Chiefest; who had possess'd himself of the Kingdom of Mithridates after his Death: With him join'd Mausolus Prince of Caria, who had many considerable Towns and Castles under his Command, the Metropolis of which was Halicarnassus, wherein was a most stately Citadel, the Royal Seat or Palace of Caria; and with these were Confederated Orontes Governor of Mysia, and Autophrodates of Lydia, and of the Ionian Nation, the Lycians, Pisidians, Pamphylians and Cilicians; and besides them, the Syrians, and Phenicians, and almost all that border'd upon the Asiatick Sea: by this great defection, the King lost one half of his Revenues, and what remain'd was not sufficient to defray the necessary charges of the War.
They who fell off from the King, made Orontes General of the Army, who after he had receiv'd the Command, and Moneys enough to pay Twenty thousand hir'd Soldiers for one whole Year, betray'd the Confederates that had so intrusted him. For being corrupted with large Bribes, and promis'd to be the only Governour of all the Provinces bordering upon the Sea, if he would deliver up the Rebels into the power of the King, he was wrought upon, and in the execution of his Treachery, he first Seiz'd upon them that brought him the Money, and sent them Prisoners to the King; and then betray'd several Cities and Companies of hir'd Soldiers, to such Lieutenants as the King had sent into those parts. The like Treachery happen'd in Capadocia; which was accompany'd with something more than ordinary remarkable. Artabazus the King of Persia's General, had invaded Capadocia with a great Army, whom Datamis the Governour of that Province oppos'd with a strong Body of Horse, and Twenty thousand Foot of Mercenaries. The Father in Law of Datamis, and General of his Horse (to ingratiate himself with the King and provide for his own safety) stole away in the Night with the Horse to Artabazus, having so agreed with him the Day before. Datamis (encouraging his Mercenaries to be faithful to him, by promises to Reward them liberally) with all speed March'd after these Treacherous Rascals, and overtook them just as they were joyning the Enemy: Upon which the Soldiers of Artabazus, likewise fell upon these Runnagate Horse, and kill'd all before them. For Artabazus (at the first being Ignorant, not knowing the meaning of the thing) thought that he who had betray'd Datamis, was now acting a new piece of Treason; therefore he Commanded his Soldiers to fall upon the Horse, that were advancing towards them, and not spare a Man. So that Mithrobarzanes (for that was the Traytor's Name) being got between them that took him for a Traytor, and those that pursu'd him, as one that they knew was really such; was in an inextricable Labyrinth: Being therefore in this strait (and having no time Page 474 now further to Consider) he made it his business to defend himself with all the Resolution imaginable, and so ply'd both parties, that he made a great slaughter amongst 'em. At length Ten thousand Men and upwards being kill'd, Datamis put the rest to Flight, and Cut off in the pursuit great numbers of them, and at length caus'd the Trumpet to sound a Retreat, and call'd off his Men. Some of the Horsemen that surviv'd return'd to Datamis and begg'd for pardon; the rest wander'd about, and knew not whither to turn themselves. But Datamis caus'd his Army to surround Five hundred of those Traytors and to dart them to Death. And tho' he had formerly gain'd the reputation of an excellent Soldier; yet now by this instance of his Valour and prudent Conduct, his Name grew much more famous than before. Artaxerxes the King being inform'd of this Stratagem, made all the haste he could to be rid of Datamis, and within a short time after, cut him off by an Ambuscade▪
Whilst these things were in acting, Rheomithres was sent by the Rebels into Aegypt, to Tacho the King, and having receiv'd Five hundred Talents, and Fifty Sail of Men of War, he return'd to Leucas in Asia; and sending for many of the revolting Lords, and Officers to come to him thither, he laid hold of them, and sent them all away Prisoners to the King; and by this piece of Treachery regain'd the King's favour, who was formerly much displeas'd with him.
Now Tacho King of Aegypt had prepar'd all things necessary for the War: But he had a Fleet of Two hundred Sail, Ten thousand Grecian Mercenaries, and Fourscore thousand Aegyptian Foot. He gave the Command of the Ten thousand Mercenaries to Agesilaus, who was sent from the Lacedemonians with a Thousand Men to the Aid of the Aegyptians; because he was counted the best Soldier of any among them, and had the repute of a most expert Commander. Chabrias was made Admiral of the Fleet, who was not sent there by publick Authority, but (upon the persuasion of Tachos,) serv'd him as a private Man, The King reserv'd to himself the Generalship of all the Army. But Agesilaus would have persuaded him to continue in Aegypt, and to manage the War by his Lieutenants; but he would not hearken to it, tho he advis'd him to the best. For when the Army was far distant from Aegypt, and now encamp'd in Phenicia, the Governour of Aegypt whom he had deputed in his absence, revolted, and sent to Nectanabus the King's Son to take upon him the Kingdom of Aegypt, which kindled the Sparks which afterward broke forth into a most cruel and bloody War. For Nectanabus being made General of the Aegyptian Forces, and before sent out of Phenicia to take in some Cities in Syria, being privy and consenting to the Treason against his Father, drew the Commanders of the Army▪ by large Gifts, and the Soldiers by as large promises, to join with him in the War. Aegypt therefore being now possessed by the Rebels, Tachos was so terrifi'd at the thing, that he fled through Arabia to the King of Persia, and beg'd his pardon for what he had done; whom, Artaxerxes not only forgave, but made him General of the Army he had rais'd against the Egyptians.
Not long after the King of Persia dy'd, having Reign'd Three and fourty Years. Ochus succeeded him, and govern'd. Three and twenty Years, and took upon him the sirname of Artaxerxes. For Artaxerxes ruling the Kingdom with great Justice and Integrity, and being an earnest promoter and lover of Peace, and prosperous in all his Affairs, the Persians decreed, that all the succeeding Kings should be call'd by his Name. And now Tacho the King of Egypt return'd to Agesilaus, and presently Nectanabus led above an Hundred thousand Men against his Father, and dar'd him to try his Title to the Kingdom by the Sword. When Agesilaus discern'd that the King was fearful, not daring to Engage, he heartned him up all he could, and bid him be of good Courage; for it was not Number; but Valour that carry'd away the Victory. But not being able to prevail, he was forc'd to go back with him, into a certain large City, there to shelter himself; where they were presently Besieg'd by the Egyptians, who after the loss of a great number of their Men in assaulting the Town; drew a Trench and a Wall round the City; which was suddenly finish'd by having many hands at Work. At length when Provision fail'd, Tacho gave up all for gone: But Agesilaus (encouraging the Soldiers telling 'em all would be well) in the Night broke through the Enemies Guards, and to admiration got off safe with all his Men: But the Egyptians (pursuing close at their Heels, and being in an open Champion Country) purpos'd by their great Numbers to inclose them round, and so to Cut them off every Man.
But Agesilaus in the mean time having possess'd himself of a place secur'd on both sides by Water, from the River (convey'd through Sluces and Trenches made by Art) waited there for the Enemy. And having drawn up his Men in such Order as best suted with the Ground, (and being defended by the Arms of the River, so as he could not be Page 475 hem'd in) he there fought with the Egyptians: Whose numbers were of so little advantage to them in that Place, and the Grecians Valour so far before them, that Agesilaus made a great slaughter amongst 'em, and put the rest to flight. After which Tacho was easily, and with little ado restor'd to his Kingdom: And he rewarded Agesilaus, (the only Instrument of his Restauration) by many honourable Gifts, and so dismiss'd him, who in his return Homewards fell Sick in Cyrene, and there Dy'd. His Body was made up with Honey, and brought back to Sparta, where he was royally Interr'd.
Hitherto things proceeded this Year in Asia. But in Peloponnesus tho' after the Battle at Mantinea a general Peace was made among the Arcadians, yet they scarce observ'd the League for one Year, but fell into new Broyls, and Wars one with another. It was one of the Articles of the League, that every one should return from the Battle into their several Countries. Therefore those neighbouring Cities, that had been Translated, and forc'd to Seat themselves in Megalopolis, (which then they bore very grievously) now of their own accord, return'd to their old Habitations: But the other Megalopolitans endeavour'd to force them to leave their ancient Seats again. Hence arose a great Contest; they of the old Towns crav'd the Assistance of the Mantineans, and the rest of the Arcadians, and likewise of the Eleans and other Confederates of Mantinea. On the other Hand, they of Megalopolis address'd themselves to the Athenians for their Aid and Assistance; who (without delay) order'd Three thousand heavy Arm'd Men, and Three hundred Horse, under the Command of Pammenes. Whereupon he March'd to Megalopolis, and afterwards (by Storming some of the Towns, and Terrifying others,) he forc'd them all at length to return to Megalopolis. And thus were these Towns reduc'd into one City, and the Tumult which came to this height, appeas'd and compos'd.
Among the Historians of this time, Athenas of Syracuse, began his History of Dion with this Year, compriz'd in Twenty three Books: He continu'd likewise the History of Philistus, seven Years further in one Book; and handling matters summarily, made it one intire and perfect History.
Afterwards when Nicophemus was chief Magistrate of Athens, and Caius Sulpitius and Caius Licinius Executed the Consular Authority at Rome, Alexander Tyrant of Pherea, Mann'd forth several Privateers to the Cyclade Islands, and having taken some of them by force, carry'd away a great number of Captives. Then he landed his Soldiers in Peparethos, and Besieg'd the City. But the Peparethians being reliev'd by the Athenians Garison, under the Command of Leosthenes (who had been before left there) Alexander set upon the Athenians themselves. It so hapned, that as they were watching, and had set a Guard upon Alexander's Fleet, which then lay at Panormus, he fell upon them on a sudden, and obtain'd an unexpected Victory: For he not only rescu'd his Men out of the Imminent dangers, wherewith they were surrounded at Panormus, but likewise took five Athenian Gallies, and one of Peparethus, and Six hundred Prisoners. The Athenians being enrag'd at this misfortune, Condemn'd Leosthenes to Death, and Confiscated all his Goods, and made Charetes Commander in his stead, and sent him with a considerable Fleet into those parts; who spent his time only in scaring the Enemies, and oppressing the Confederates. For Sailing to Corcyra (a Confederate City) he stirr'd up such Seditions, and Tumults there, as ended in many Slaughters, Rapines, and plundering of Mens Goods and Estates, which caus'd the Athenians to be ill spoken of by all the Confederates, committing many other villanies, and to summ up all in a few Words; he did nothing but what tended to the disgrace and dishonour of his Country.
Dionysiodorus and Anaxis, Boeotian Writers, who Compos'd an History of the Grecian Affairs, end their Relations with this Year. And now having given an Account of those Affairs, and things done before the Reign of Philip (according to our first design) we shall put an end to this Book. In the next following, shall be Comprehended what ever was done by that King, from the beginning of his Reign, to the time of his Death, with other things that happen'd in the known parts of the World.
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