BOOK XVII - The Library of History

Bibliotheca historica
The first five books

Page 522 resolv'd to take him out of the way, For Cleopatra was brought to bed of a Son a few Days before the Death of Philip, and Attalus was sent a little before as General with Parmenio his Colleague, with an Army into Asia, where by his Bribes and fair Tongue he so gain'd the Hearts of the Soldiers, that the Army was wholly at his Devotion: Therefore the King conceiv'd he had just cause to be jealous of him, lest if he should side with the Grecians (who he knew were his Enemies) he should by that means gain the Kingdom to himself. Therefore he made choice of Heccateus, one of his Friends, and sent him with a considerable Army into Asia, with Command to bring over Attalus alive if he could; and if he could not effect that, to take the first Opportunity to kill him. When he came into Asia, he join'd his Forces with Attalus and Parmenio, and watch'd a fit Opportunity to execute what he was commanded.

In the mean time, Alexander being inform'd that many of the Greciani were hatching some Mischief, in order to new Commotions, his Thoughts were greatly perplex'd and disturb'd. For the Athenians (Demosthenes stirring them up against the Macedonians) rejoyc'd at the News of Philip's Death, and resolv'd that the Macedonians should no longer domineer over Greece. To this end they sent over Ambassadors to Attalus, and privately consulted with him concerning the Management of the whole Affair, and stirr'd up many of the Cities to assert their Liberties. The Etolians made a Decree to recall the Exiles of Acarnania, whom Philip had driven out of their Country. The Ambrociots, by the Persuasion of Aristarchus, drave outthe Garison that was there, and restor'd the Democracy. The Thebans likewise decreed to cast out the Garison that was in the Citadel of Cadmea, and that Alexander should never with their Consent have Command in Greece. The Arcadians also, as they were the only People that refus'd to give their Consent that Philip should be General of Greece, so they now rejected Alexander. The rest of the Peloponnesians, as the Argives, Eleans, Lacedaemonians, and some others were with all their might for their own Government. To conclude, many of the Nations beyond Macedonia waited for an Opportunity to rebell, and great Commotions there were among the Barbarians in those Parts.

Notwithstanding all which, and the Fears that were every where in the Kingdom, and though he was but a Youth, yet in a short time (beyond all expectation) he overcame all those Difficulties, and made all plain and clear before him, reducing some to their Duty by fair and smooth Words, and others through fear and dread of Punishments; and the rest he compell'd by force to stoop to his Sovereignty.

In the first place, he so far gain'd upon the Thessalians, both by Promises of large Rewards, and by his smooth and courteous Language (telling them how near of kin he was to them by his Descent from Hercules) that they by a Publick Decree declar'd him General of Greece, as that which descended to him from his Father. Having gain'd this Point, he brought over the bordering Nations to the same Good Opinion of him; Then he went to Pyle; and in the Senate of the Amphictyons he so manag'd his Matters, that by the General Consent of all, he was created Generalissimo of all Greece. He assur'd the Ambrociots, in a kind and smooth Oration made to them, That he had that Kindness for them, that he would presently restore them to that Liberty which they so lately sought to recover. But to strike the greater Terror into those that regarded not his Words, he came with a swift March with an Army of Macedonians in an hostile manner into Baeotia, and encamping near Cadmea, struck a Terror into the City of the Thebans.

About the same time the Athenians hearing of the King's coming into Boeotia, slighted him no longer: For the Quickness of the Youth, and his diligent dispatch of Business, greatly terrify'd the Revolters. Hereupon the Athenians order'd every thing they had in the Country to be brought into the City, and the Walls to be repair'd and guarded as well as they could; and sent Ambassadors to Alexander to beg pardon that they had no sooner own'd his Sovereignty; and order'd Demosthenes to accompany the Ambassadors: But he came not with the other to Alexander, but return'd from Citherone to Athens; either because he was afraid upon the account of the Speeches he had publickly made against the Macedonians, or that he was not willing to displease the Persian King. For it is reported that he had receiv'd great Sums of Money from the Persians, to beat down the Interest of the Macedonians by his Orations. Which was hinted (they say) by Eschines; in one of his Speeches; wherein he upbraids Demosthenes for taking of Bribes in these Words: Now the King's Gold plentifully bears all his Charges: But this will not serve his turn long; forCovetousness is never satisfy'd with Abundance.

But to proceed; Alexander return'd a very courteous Answer to the Ambassadors, which freed the Athenians from their Fears, and he order'd all the Ambassadors and Members of the Council to meet him at Corinth; where when those who were usually Members

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